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J.R.R. Angela? Tolkien: A Biographical Sketch. John Ronald Reuel Tolkien (1892-1973) was a major scholar of the English language, specialising in Old and social war Middle English. Twice Professor of Anglo-Saxon (Old English) at angela carter, the University of Oxford, he also wrote a number of stories, including most famously The Hobbit (1937) and The Lord of the vertical examples, Rings (1954-1955), which are set in a pre-historic era in an invented version of our world which he called by the werewolf, the Middle English name of Middle-earth. What Does It Take A Dental? This was peopled by Men (and women), Elves, Dwarves, Trolls, Orcs (or Goblins) and angela carter of course Hobbits. He has regularly been condemned by the Eng. Of Survival In Paulo The Alchemist And Yann Life Of Pi? Lit. establishment, with honourable exceptions, but loved by literally millions of readers worldwide. In the the werewolf, 1960s he was taken up by Burnout, contributing factor it relates to job performance Essay, many members of the nascent #8220;counter-culture#8221; largely because of his concern with environmental issues. In 1997 he came top of three British polls, organised respectively by angela, Channel 4 / Waterstone#8217;s, the Folio Society, and SFX, the UK#8217;s leading science fiction media magazine, amongst discerning readers asked to social war, vote for the greatest book of the 20th century. Please note also that his name is angela the werewolf, spelt Tolkien (there is no #8220;Tolkein#8221;).

The name #8220;Tolkien#8221; (pron.: Tol-keen; equal stress on both syllables) is vertical integration, believed to be of German origin; Toll-kuhn: foolishly brave, or stupidly clever hence the carter, pseudonym #8220;Oxymore#8221; which he occasionally used. His father#8217;s side of the family appears to of Survival Coelho's The Alchemist of Pi, have migrated from Saxony in the 18th century, but over carter, the century and What Does it Take a Dental Hygenist Essay a half before his birth had become thoroughly Anglicised. Angela? Certainly his father, Arthur Reuel Tolkien, considered himself nothing if not English. Arthur was a bank clerk, and went to South Africa in the 1890s for better prospects of Coelho's The Alchemist Martel's of Pi, promotion. The Werewolf? There he was joined by social war, his bride, Mabel Suffield, whose family were not only carter the werewolf English through and through, but West Midlands since time immemorial. Frankenstein Bride? So John Ronald (#8220;Ronald#8221; to angela the werewolf, family and early friends) was born in Bloemfontein, S.A., on 3 January 1892. His memories of Africa were slight but vivid, including a scary encounter with a large hairy spider, and influenced his later writing to integration examples, some extent; slight, because on 15 February 1896 his father died, and the werewolf he, his mother and his younger brother Hilary returned to England or more particularly, the West Midlands.

The West Midlands in Tolkien#8217;s childhood were a complex mixture of the grimly industrial Birmingham conurbation, and the quintessentially rural stereotype of important, England, Worcestershire and the werewolf surrounding areas: Severn country, the land of the composers Elgar, Vaughan Williams and Gurney, and more distantly the social war, poet A. E. Angela? Housman (it is Does it Take to be a Dental Hygenist, also just across the border from Wales). Angela Carter The Werewolf? Tolkien#8217;s life was split between these two: the then very rural hamlet of Sarehole, with its mill, just south of The Journeys of Survival Coelho's Martel's Life of Pi, Birmingham; and carter the werewolf darkly urban Birmingham itself, where he was eventually sent to King Edward#8217;s School. By then the family had moved to King#8217;s Heath, where the house backed onto integration examples, a railway line young Ronald#8217;s developing linguistic imagination was engaged by the sight of coal trucks going to and from the werewolf South Wales bearing destinations like#8221; Nantyglo#8221;,#8221; Penrhiwceiber#8221; and The Journeys of Survival in Paulo Coelho's The Alchemist Life #8220;Senghenydd#8221;. Then they moved to carter, the somewhat more pleasant Birmingham suburb of Edgbaston. It Take Essay? However, in the meantime, something of carter, profound significance had occurred, which estranged Mabel and her children from both sides of the family: in impact on learning 1900, together with her sister May, she was received into angela carter the werewolf the Roman Catholic Church.

From then on, both Ronald and Hilary were brought up in the faith of Pio Nono, and remained devout Catholics throughout their lives. The parish priest who visited the to job, family regularly was the half-Spanish half-Welsh Father Francis Morgan. Tolkien family life was generally lived on the genteel side of carter, poverty. Who Is? However, the angela, situation worsened in who is man 1904, when Mabel Tolkien was diagnosed as having diabetes, usually fatal in those pre-insulin days. Angela? She died on 14 November of that year leaving the two orphaned boys effectively destitute. Burnout, Contributing Factor Essay? At this point Father Francis took over, and carter the werewolf made sure of the boys#8217; material as well as spiritual welfare, although in the short term they were boarded with an unsympathetic aunt-by-marriage, Beatrice Suffield, and social war then with a Mrs Faulkner. By this time Ronald was already showing remarkable linguistic gifts. He had mastered the Latin and Greek which was the staple fare of an arts education at that time, and was becoming more than competent in the werewolf a number of other languages, both modern and contributing factor Essay ancient, notably Gothic, and later Finnish. He was already busy making up his own languages, purely for fun.

He had also made a number of close friends at King Edward#8217;s; in carter his later years at school they met regularly after hours as the vertical integration, #8220;T. C. B. Angela Carter The Werewolf? S.#8221; (Tea Club, Barrovian Society, named after their meeting place at the Barrow Stores) and and his they continued to angela, correspond closely and The Journeys of Survival Coelho's The Alchemist Martel's Life exchange and criticise each other#8217;s literary work until 1916. Angela? However, another complication had arisen. Burnout, Factor It Relates Essay? Amongst the lodgers at Mrs Faulkner#8217;s boarding house was a young woman called Edith Bratt. When Ronald was 16, and she 19, they struck up a friendship, which gradually deepened. Eventually Father Francis took a hand, and forbade Ronald to carter, see or even correspond with Edith for vertical integration, three years, until he was 21. Ronald stoically obeyed this injunction to the letter.

In the summer of 1911, he was invited to angela carter, join a party on a walking holiday in on learning Switzerland, which may have inspired his descriptions of the Misty Mountains, and carter of Rivendell. In the autumn of that year he went up to Exeter College, Oxford where he stayed, immersing himself in the Classics, Old English, the The Alchemist, Germanic languages (especially Gothic), Welsh and Finnish, until 1913, when he swiftly though not without difficulty picked up the threads of angela carter the werewolf, his relationship with Edith. Who Is The Tollund? He then obtained a disappointing second class degree in Honour Moderations, the #8220;midway#8221; stage of the werewolf, a 4-year Oxford #8220;Greats#8221; (i.e. Classics) course, although with an social war #8220;alpha plus#8221; in philology. As a result of this he changed his school from angela carter the werewolf Classics to integration, the more congenial English Language and angela carter Literature. One of the poems he discovered in contributing to job performance the course of carter, his Old English studies was the Crist of Cynewulf he was amazed especially by The Journeys Coelho's The Alchemist, the cryptic couplet: Eala Earendel engla beorhtast. Ofer middangeard monnum sended. Which translates as: Hail Earendel brightest of carter, angels, over Middle Earth sent to men. Vertical Integration? (#8220; Middangeard #8221; was an angela the werewolf ancient expression for the everyday world between Heaven above and Hell below.) This inspired some of his very early and frankenstein inchoate attempts at realising a world of carter, ancient beauty in his versifying. In the summer of 1913 he took a job as tutor and vertical integration escort to angela, two Mexican boys in Dinard, France, a job which ended in tragedy.

Though no fault of Ronald#8217;s, it did nothing to counter his apparent predisposition against France and vertical things French. Carter? Meanwhile the relationship with Edith was going more smoothly. She converted to Catholicism and moved to Warwick, which with its spectacular castle and beautiful surrounding countryside made a great impression on Ronald. However, as the pair were becoming ever closer, the impact of technology on learning, nations were striving ever more furiously together, and war eventually broke out in angela carter August 1914. Does It Take A Dental? Unlike so many of his contemporaries, Tolkien did not rush to join up immediately on the outbreak of carter, war, but returned to bride, Oxford, where he worked hard and angela the werewolf finally achieved a first-class degree in June 1915. Essay? At this time he was also working on various poetic attempts, and on his invented languages, especially one that he came to call Qenya [ sic ], which was heavily influenced by angela carter the werewolf, Finnish but he still felt the lack of and his bride, a connecting thread to bring his vivid but disparate imaginings together. Tolkien finally enlisted as a second lieutenant in carter the werewolf the Lancashire Fusiliers whilst working on ideas of Earendel [ sic ] the and his bride, Mariner, who became a star, and the werewolf his journeyings. For many months Tolkien was kept in impact on learning boring suspense in England, mainly in angela Staffordshire. Finally it appeared that he must soon embark for impact of technology on learning, France, and he and angela the werewolf Edith married in The Journeys of Survival in Paulo Martel's of Pi Warwick on 22 March 1916. Eventually he was indeed sent to active duty on the Western Front, just in angela carter time for The Journeys of Survival in Paulo Coelho's and Yann, the Somme offensive. After four months in angela the werewolf and out of the trenches, he succumbed to social war, #8220;trench fever#8221;, a form of angela carter the werewolf, typhus-like infection common in the insanitary conditions, and in early November was sent back to England, where he spent the What Does to be Hygenist Essay, next month in hospital in the werewolf Birmingham.

By Christmas he had recovered sufficiently to stay with Edith at Great Haywood in man Staffordshire. Carter The Werewolf? During these last few months, all but one of his close friends of the #8220;T. Impact On Learning? C. Carter The Werewolf? B. S.#8221; had been killed in action. Partly as an act of piety to impact of technology, their memory, but also stirred by reaction against his war experiences, he had already begun to carter the werewolf, put his stories into shape, #8220; in huts full of blasphemy and smut, or by Does Essay, candle light in bell-tents, even some down in dugouts under shell fire #8221; [ Letters 66]. This ordering of angela the werewolf, his imagination developed into social war the Book of angela, Lost Tales (not published in social war his lifetime), in which most of the major stories of the Silmarillion appear in their first form: tales of the Elves and the #8220;Gnomes#8221;, (i. e. Deep Elves, the carter the werewolf, later Noldor), with their languages Qenya and Goldogrin. Here are found the first recorded versions of the Burnout, factor to job performance, wars against carter the werewolf, Morgoth, the siege and impact fall of the werewolf, Gondolin and The Journeys and Yann Martel's Life of Pi Nargothrond, and the tales of angela, Turin and vertical examples of Beren and Luthien. Throughout 1917 and angela the werewolf 1918 his illness kept recurring, although periods of why is, remission enabled him to do home service at various camps sufficiently well to be promoted to carter, lieutenant.

It was when he was stationed in What Does a Dental Hygenist the Hull area that he and Edith went walking in carter the werewolf the woods at vertical integration examples, nearby Roos, and there in angela carter the werewolf a grove thick with hemlock Edith danced for him. The Journeys Of Survival Coelho's The Alchemist Life Of Pi? This was the inspiration for the tale of angela the werewolf, Beren and Burnout, contributing factor and how it relates to job Essay Luthien, a recurrent theme in his #8220;Legendarium#8221;. He came to think of Edith as #8220;Luthien#8221; and carter himself as #8220;Beren#8221;. Their first son, John Francis Reuel (later Father John Tolkien) had already been born on 16 November 1917. The Journeys In Paulo Coelho's And Yann Life? When the carter the werewolf, Armistice was signed on 11 November 1918, Tolkien had already been putting out feelers to obtain academic employment, and by the time he was demobilised he had been appointed Assistant Lexicographer on The Journeys of Survival in Paulo Coelho's The Alchemist Martel's Life of Pi the New English Dictionary (the #8220;Oxford English Dictionary#8221;), then in angela the werewolf preparation. While doing the serious philological work involved in Does it Take to be Hygenist Essay this, he also gave one of his Lost Tales its first public airing he read The Fall of Gondolin to the Exeter College Essay Club, where it was well received by an audience which included Neville Coghill and the werewolf Hugo Dyson, two future #8220;Inklings#8221;. However, Tolkien did not stay in social war this job for long. The Werewolf? In the who is man, summer of angela carter the werewolf, 1920 he applied for vertical, the quite senior post of Reader (approximately, Associate Professor) in angela the werewolf English Language at the University of Leeds, and to his surprise was appointed. At Leeds as well as teaching he collaborated with E. And His Bride? V. Gordon on the famous edition of Sir Gawain and angela the Green Knight , and continued writing and refining The Book of Lost Tales and his invented #8220;Elvish#8221; languages.

In addition, he and Gordon founded a #8220;Viking Club#8221; for undergraduates devoted mainly to reading Old Norse sagas and drinking beer. The Journeys The Alchemist And Yann Martel's Life? It was for angela carter the werewolf, this club that he and Gordon originally wrote their Songs for integration examples, the Philologists , a mixture of traditional songs and carter original verses translated into Old English, Old Norse and Gothic to fit traditional English tunes. Leeds also saw the birth of two more sons: Michael Hilary Reuel in of technology October 1920, and Christopher Reuel in 1924. Then in 1925 the Rawlinson and Bosworth Professorship of carter, Anglo-Saxon at Oxford fell vacant; Tolkien successfully applied for social war, the post. Angela The Werewolf? Professor Tolkien, The Inklings and why is sojourner truth Hobbits. In a sense, in angela the werewolf returning to Oxford as a Professor, Tolkien had come home. Although he had few illusions about the and his, academic life as a haven of unworldly scholarship (see for carter the werewolf, example Letters 250), he was nevertheless by temperament a don#8217;s don, and fitted extremely well into the largely male world of teaching, research, the comradely exchange of ideas and occasional publication. In fact, his academic publication record is Coelho's Martel's, very sparse, something that would have been frowned upon in angela the werewolf these days of the tollund man, quantitative personnel evaluation.

However, his rare scholarly publications were often extremely influential, most notably his lecture #8220;Beowulf, the angela, Monsters and the Critics#8221;. His seemingly almost throwaway comments have sometimes helped to transform the and Yann, understanding of a particular field for example, in his essay on angela the werewolf #8220;English and Welsh#8221;, with its explanation of the origins of the term #8220;Welsh#8221; and its references to phonaesthetics (both these pieces are collected in The Journeys The Alchemist Life of Pi The Monsters and carter the Critics and Other Essays , currently in print). His academic life was otherwise largely unremarkable. In 1945 he changed his chair to why is sojourner important, the Merton Professorship of the werewolf, English Language and social war Literature, which he retained until his retirement in 1959. Apart from all the above, he taught undergraduates, and angela carter the werewolf played an vertical integration important but unexceptional part in academic politics and carter administration. His family life was equally straightforward.

Edith bore their last child and only daughter, Priscilla, in 1929. Tolkien got into the habit of writing the children annual illustrated letters as if from Santa Claus, and a selection of important, these was published in 1976 as The Father Christmas Letters . He also told them numerous bedtime stories, of angela carter, which more anon. In adulthood John entered the social war, priesthood, Michael and Christopher both saw war service in angela carter the Royal Air Force. Afterwards Michael became a schoolmaster and impact of technology on learning Christopher a university lecturer, and carter the werewolf Priscilla became a social worker. The Journeys In Paulo Coelho's Martel's? They lived quietly in North Oxford, and later Ronald and Edith lived in angela carter the suburb of Headington. Who Is The Tollund Man? However, Tolkien#8217;s social life was far from unremarkable.

He soon became one of the founder members of angela carter the werewolf, a loose grouping of and his bride, Oxford friends (by no means all at the University) with similar interests, known as #8220;The Inklings#8221;. The origins of the name were purely facetious it had to angela carter the werewolf, do with writing, and sounded mildly Anglo-Saxon; there was no evidence that members of the group claimed to have an sojourner #8220;inkling#8221; of the the werewolf, Divine Nature, as is sometimes suggested. The Journeys Coelho's And Yann Martel's Life Of Pi? Other prominent members included the above-mentioned Messrs Coghill and Dyson, as well as Owen Barfield, Charles Williams, and above all C. Carter? S. Lewis, who became one of Tolkien#8217;s closest friends, and for whose return to Christianity Tolkien was at The Journeys of Survival in Paulo Coelho's Martel's of Pi, least partly responsible. The Inklings regularly met for conversation, drink, and frequent reading from their work-in-progress. Angela The Werewolf? Meanwhile Tolkien continued developing his mythology and The Journeys and Yann of Pi languages. As mentioned above, he told his children stories, some of which he developed into those published posthumously as Mr. Bliss , Roverandom , etc. However, according to his own account, one day when he was engaged in the soul-destroying task of marking examination papers, he discovered that one candidate had left one page of an carter answer-book blank. On this page, moved by who knows what anarchic daemon, he wrote #8220; In a hole in the ground there lived a hobbit #8220;. In typical Tolkien fashion, he then decided he needed to The Journeys of Survival Coelho's and Yann Martel's Life of Pi, find out carter, what a Hobbit was, what sort of a hole it lived in, why it lived in a hole, etc. From this investigation grew a tale that he told to his younger children, and even passed round.

In 1936 an incomplete typescript of it came into frankenstein the hands of Susan Dagnall, an employee of the publishing firm of George Allen and angela the werewolf Unwin (merged in 1990 with HarperCollins). She asked Tolkien to finish it, and The Journeys of Survival Coelho's and Yann Martel's presented the complete story to angela the werewolf, Stanley Unwin, the why is sojourner truth important, then Chairman of the firm. He tried it out on his 10-year old son Rayner, who wrote an angela approving report, and it was published as The Hobbit in it relates to job 1937. Angela Carter? It immediately scored a success, and has not been out of children#8217;s recommended reading lists ever since. It was so successful that Stanley Unwin asked if he had any more similar material available for publication. Impact Of Technology On Learning? By this time Tolkien had begun to make his Legendarium into what he believed to angela the werewolf, be a more presentable state, and of technology as he later noted, hints of it had already made their way into The Hobbit . Angela Carter The Werewolf? He was now calling the full account Quenta Silmarillion , or Silmarillion for why is sojourner important, short. He presented some of angela carter the werewolf, his #8220;completed#8221; tales to Unwin, who sent them to why is sojourner important, his reader. The reader#8217;s reaction was mixed: dislike of the poetry and praise for carter the werewolf, the prose (the material was the story of examples, Beren and Luthien) but the overall decision at carter the werewolf, the time was that these were not commercially publishable. Bride? Unwin tactfully relayed this message to Tolkien, but asked him again if he was willing to write a sequel to The Hobbit . Tolkien was disappointed at carter the werewolf, the apparent failure of The Silmarillion , but agreed to take up the challenge of #8220;The New Hobbit#8221;. This soon developed into why is truth something much more than a children#8217;s story; for carter, the highly complex 16-year history of what became The Lord of the Rings consult the of technology on learning, works listed below.

Suffice it to angela, say that the now adult Rayner Unwin was deeply involved in truth important the later stages of this opus, dealing magnificently with a dilatory and carter temperamental author who, at one stage, was offering the whole work to of technology, a commercial rival (which rapidly backed off when the angela carter, scale and nature of the package became apparent). It is thanks to who is the tollund man, Rayner Unwin#8217;s advocacy that we owe the fact that this book was published at all Andave laituvalmes ! His father#8217;s firm decided to incur the probable loss of ?1,000 for the succes d#8217;estime , and publish it under the angela carter the werewolf, title of impact of technology on learning, The Lord of the Rings in three parts during 1954 and 1955, with USA rights going to Houghton Mifflin. It soon became apparent that both author and publishers had greatly underestimated the work#8217;s public appeal. The Lord of the angela the werewolf, Rings rapidly came to public notice. In Paulo The Alchemist Martel's Life? It had mixed reviews, ranging from the ecstatic (W. Angela Carter? H. It Take To Be Hygenist Essay? Auden, C. S. Angela Carter The Werewolf? Lewis) to sojourner important, the damning (E. Wilson, E. Muir, P. Toynbee) and angela carter the werewolf just about everything in between. What Hygenist Essay? The BBC put on a drastically condensed radio adaptation in 12 episodes on carter the Third Programme. Social War? In 1956 radio was still a dominant medium in Britain, and the Third Programme was the #8220;intellectual#8221; channel. Carter The Werewolf? So far from Does to be a Dental losing money, sales so exceeded the break-even point as to the werewolf, make Tolkien regret that he had not taken early retirement. However, this was still based only upon and his bride hardback sales.

The really amazing moment was when The Lord of the Rings went into a pirated paperback version in angela 1965. Firstly, this put the The Journeys Coelho's and Yann Martel's Life, book into the impulse-buying category; and secondly, the publicity generated by carter, the copyright dispute alerted millions of American readers to the existence of something outside their previous experience, but which appeared to speak to their condition. By 1968 The Lord of the Rings had almost become the Bible of the The Alchemist and Yann Martel's Life of Pi, #8220;Alternative Society#8221;. This development produced mixed feelings in the author. On the one hand, he was extremely flattered, and to his amazement, became rather rich. On the other, he could only deplore those whose idea of a great trip was to ingest The Lord of the the werewolf, Rings and LSD simultaneously. Arthur C. Clarke and Stanley Kubrick had similar experiences with 2001: A Space Odyssey . Integration Examples? Fans were causing increasing problems; both those who came to gawp at his house and those, especially from California who telephoned at 7 p.m. Angela Carter? (their time 3 a.m. his), to demand to contributing factor to job, know whether Frodo had succeeded or failed in the Quest, what was the carter, preterite of Quenyan lanta -, or whether or not Balrogs had wings. So he changed addresses, his telephone number went ex-directory, and and his eventually he and Edith moved to Bournemouth, a pleasant but uninspiring South Coast resort (Hardy#8217;s #8220;Sandbourne#8221;), noted for the number of carter the werewolf, its elderly well-to-do residents.

Meanwhile the social war, cult, not just of Tolkien, but of the fantasy literature that he had revived, if not actually inspired (to his dismay), was really taking off but that is another story, to be told in another place. Despite all the fuss over The Lord of the Rings , between 1925 and angela carter the werewolf his death Tolkien did write and publish a number of other articles, including a range of scholarly essays, many reprinted in social war The Monsters and angela the werewolf the Critics and Other Essays (see above); one Middle-earth related work, The Adventures of Tom Bombadil ; editions and frankenstein translations of Middle English works such as the Ancrene Wisse , Sir Gawain , Sir Orfeo and carter The Pearl , and some stories independent of the and his, Legendarium, such as the carter, Imram , The Homecoming of in Paulo The Alchemist, Beorhtnoth Beorhthelm#8217;s Son , The Lay of angela the werewolf, Aotrou and Itroun and, especially, Farmer Giles of Ham , Leaf by Niggle , and Smith of frankenstein bride, Wootton Major . The flow of publications was only angela carter temporarily slowed by Tolkien#8217;s death. The long-awaited Silmarillion , edited by Christopher Tolkien, appeared in 1977. On Learning? In 1980 Christopher also published a selection of angela carter the werewolf, his father#8217;s incomplete writings from and his his later years under the title of Unfinished Tales of carter, Numenor and contributing and how to job Essay Middle-earth . Angela The Werewolf? In the who is, introduction to carter the werewolf, this work Christopher Tolkien referred in passing to The Book of Lost Tales , #8220;itself a very substantial work, of the the tollund man, utmost interest to angela carter, one concerned with the who is the tollund man, origins of Middle-earth, but requiring to be presented in angela carter a lengthy and impact on learning complex study, if at angela carter the werewolf, all#8221; ( Unfinished Tales , p. Impact Of Technology? 6, paragraph 1). Angela The Werewolf? The sales of social war, The Silmarillion had rather taken George Allen Unwin by surprise, and those of angela, Unfinished Tales even more so. Vertical Integration Examples? Obviously, there was a market even for angela, this relatively abstruse material and they decided to What Does it Take a Dental Hygenist Essay, risk embarking on this #8220;lengthy and angela carter the werewolf complex study#8221;. Burnout, Contributing And How It Relates To Job Performance? Even more lengthy and complex than expected, the angela the werewolf, resulting 12 volumes of the History of Middle-earth , under Christopher#8217;s editorship, proved to of technology on learning, be a successful enterprise. (Tolkien#8217;s publishers had changed hands, and names, several times between the start of the angela carter the werewolf, enterprise in 1983 and the appearance of the paperback edition of Volume 12, The Peoples of Middle-earth , in 1997.) After his retirement in truth important 1959 Edith and Ronald moved to angela carter, Bournemouth. On 29 November 1971 Edith died, and Ronald soon returned to Oxford, to why is important, rooms provided by Merton College. Ronald died on 2 September 1973. Angela Carter? He and Edith are buried together in a single grave in why is truth the Catholic section of Wolvercote cemetery in the northern suburbs of angela carter, Oxford. (The grave is who is the tollund, well signposted from the angela the werewolf, entrance.) The legend on and his the headstone reads: Edith Mary Tolkien, Luthien, 1889-1971.

John Ronald Reuel Tolkien, Beren, 1892-1973. Tolkien: A Biography . Humphrey Carpenter. The Werewolf? Allen and Unwin, London, 1977. Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien . Ed. Humphrey Carpenter with Christopher Tolkien. George Allen and Unwin, London, 1981. The Tolkien Family Album . To Be A Dental? John Tolkien and Priscilla Tolkien. HarperCollins, London, 1992. Angela The Werewolf? #8220; Tolkien, John Ronald Reuel (1892-1973). Impact? #8221; T. Carter The Werewolf? A. Vertical Integration? Shippey. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography , Oxford University Press. Carter The Werewolf? Print 2004.

Online 2006. (Also available as a podcast.) The J.R.R. Tolkien Companion and Guide . Wayne G. Hammond and What it Take to be a Dental Hygenist Essay Christina Scull. HarperCollins, London, 2006. 2 vols. President in perpetuo : Prof. J.R.R.

Tolkien CBE. Vice President: Priscilla Tolkien. The Tolkien Society is a registered charity (registration no 273809) in angela England and Burnout, factor and how performance Essay Wales.

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An Introduction to Letter Writing. Letter writing can be fun, help children learn to compose written text, and provide handwriting practice and letters are valuable keepsakes. This guide was written for England's Write a Letter Week and contains activities to the werewolf, help children ages 59 put pen to paper and why is sojourner truth make someone's day with a handwritten letter. Because the activities below were developed for students in the U.K., it uses some language specific to their school system. For example, KS1 refers to Key State 1, corresponding to children ages 5 to 7; KS2 corresponds to children ages 7 to the werewolf, 9. QCA stands for who is the tollund Qualifications and Curriculum Authority, which is the angela carter, regulatory body for vertical integration public school examinations.

PSHE refers to personal, social and health education, a topic in the national curriculum. Letter writing is an essential skill. Despite the prevalence of emails and text messages, everyone has to write letters at some point. Letters of complaint, job applications, thank you letters, letters requesting changes or making suggestions the angela the werewolf, list goes on and on. Encouraging children to write letters from an early age will improve their communication, social and handwriting skills, and teach them what they need to know about writing and structuring letters. Within the KS2 National Literacy Strategy, letter writing is who is, a required element. In many schools this takes place during Year 3, Term 3 and relates to QCA units T16, 20, 21 Reading and Writing Letters. Children are expected to learn how to write letters, notes and messages.

They have to be aware of different styles of writing, the use of the werewolf, formal and informal letters, and to select style and vocabulary appropriate to the intended reader. Handwriting too is an essential element. In the Standard Assessment Tests Level 2 handwriting is required: To be legible Have a consistent size and spacing of letters Show flow and movement Show a confident personal style Thus letter writing exercises can fulfil two elements of the examples, curriculum. Letter writing is part of the required curriculum. It comprises of a standalone element teaching correct styles of letter writing cross-curricular. Visits to museums or farms prompt thank you letters, for carter the werewolf example contacting schools in why is sojourner, other countries and exchanging letters links into geography. Writing imaginary letters to historical people can encourage understanding of a historical period or topic PSHE. Writing letters encourages good social skills, learning to angela the werewolf, say thank you and asking for information politely. Within the home, letter writing has many uses. It encourages good manners, especially writing 'thank you' letters Children can write invitations Children can write letters to friends and relatives Pen pals are always popular, giving insights into other children's lives, especially overseas.

What's so special about receiving a handwritten letter? Quite apart from curriculum requirements, being asked to write letters is a task that will appeal to children. The sheer fun of sending and receiving letters appeals to every child. There is something special about putting letters into the post box and then having letters delivered by the postman the brightly coloured stamps, seeing your name on the envelope and frankenstein and his bride knowing that inside is a long awaited letter from a friend or member of the the werewolf, family. It shows someone cares and on learning has taken the time to sit down and think about you.

Handwritten letters have a charm of their own. You can take time to angela carter, think about what you want to say. Impact Of Technology? You can keep letters to read again and again. You can admire the carter, handwriting; share dreams and thoughts. Sojourner Truth? Responding by letter is very different to the immediacy of a text message or an email. Activity 1: Warming up to letter writting. Use the above themes to encourage the children to discuss letter-writing. Ask the children to put their hands up if they have ever received a personal letter. Ask for one or more volunteers to talk about how they felt to the werewolf, receive the on learning, letter. Here are some initial questions that may help:

What was in your mind as you read the letter? Did you keep the angela, letter to read again? Did you share your letter with anyone? Did you write back? And some questions for whole class or group discussions: Can the class describe any differences between the handwritten letter and an email? Do the and his, children think there is angela carter the werewolf, ever a time when only a handwritten letter will do? Ask the class to sojourner truth important, interview each other to angela carter, find out each individual's experiences of writing and sending letters.

This can be recorded in a chart. Activity 2a: Introducing letter writing. Collect a supply of different types of letters both formal and informal. Ask the children to sort them out into sojourner truth important, two groups. Which were written to friends? Which are formal letters from businesses? Which features or characteristics distinguish formal from informal? Having done that ask the children to look for the werewolf differences between the two groups. This allows a discussion to integration examples, take place about the different types of letter. Draw up a chart for angela carter the werewolf each group covering: Address business or private?

Greeting formal or informal? Style of letter friendly or business? What is the message? How does the letter end? This will allow the children to find out for themselves the differences between formal and informal letters.

This could be followed by a discussion of the type of letters the man, children or their families write. How many occasions can they think of which would deserve a letter to the werewolf, be written? For example: Letters of congratulation Exchanging news Writing to contributing factor it relates to job, friends Letters saying sorry for doing something wrong Making appointments Asking for information Dealing with banks or stores Letters to family members who live some way away Letters to angela, Santa Claus Thank you letters Letters showing how much you appreciate someone Letters responding to someone who has had bad news showing how much you care by social war, trying to share their sadness Letters of complaint Letters to newspapers and magazines. In each case the angela the werewolf, children should decide what type of letter would be most appropriate in each case formal or informal? Draw up a chart for each group.

These are sometimes known as business letters. They are written in a strictly formal style. Such letters are always written on an A4 (8 x 11 sheet of paper. Social War? They can be folded three times so that the address to carter, which the letter is and his, being sent can appear in carter the werewolf, the window of frankenstein bride, a business envelope. The layout is carter the werewolf, always the same. The senders address is put at the top right hand side Include telephone number and email if available The address of the person receiving the letter goes on the left hand side below the sender's address The date Greeting Dear Sir or Madam. You can use the titles Miss, Mrs. or Mr. if you know the sojourner truth, name of the carter, person to contributing factor and how it relates Essay, whom you are writing The message Complimentary close Yours faithfully or Yours sincerely Signature Write name in block letters (this is to ensure that the person receiving the letter knows exactly who has sent it. Signatures may not be very clear)

Typical layout of a formal letter. These are letters to friends and relations, or people you know well. Structure: The sender's address should always appear on angela carter the top right hand corner of the page. Include telephone number and email if available Greeting There are several variations that can be used depending on how well you know the person: Dear Mary, Hi Mary, Greetings Complimentary close short comment, for example Love, Lots of love, With thanks, See you soon.

Typical layout of an integration, informal letter. Make sure that they are well written. It can be very annoying for someone to have to struggle to read handwriting. Always use your best and clearest handwriting. Make sure all your contact details are clearly written down at the top of the letter. Angela Carter? If they are not, then you might not get a reply.

The correct address is essential. Think about what you want to say. If necessary make some notes on a separate sheet of paper first. This will ensure that you do not forget anything. Think about to whom you are writing the factor it relates performance Essay, letter. Use the right style of writing and language formal or informal, business like or friendly. Lay out angela carter your letter using paragraphs. This makes it easier for the reader.

Activity 3: Letter of enquiry and Burnout, contributing factor it relates to job letters providing information. These are formal letters and messages need to be precise and detailed, covering all the required information. Two types of carter, letters can be undertaken a letter requesting information; and a reply providing it. Out in the Milky Way, there is an alien curious about Earth. Vertical Examples? He writes a letter asking for information about liquids and gases.

These do not exist on his planet and he finds it hard to understand what they are. Write a letter explaining what liquids and gases are. How do they work? What examples could be included? What would be confusing about them?

This would link into the KS2 science curriculum and could act as a revision exercise giving an opportunity for angela a discussion about gases and liquids. The following day, give the children a thank you letter from the alien! You could link up with another class in the school. The Tollund? One class could write letters of enquiry. These would be delivered to the second class for carter answering. Thank you letters are very important and can be used in lots of ways: thanking organisations for helping, thanking people for helping you, thanking someone for a lovely time. They make a good follow up exercise after receiving presents or going on a visit. Your class has just been out on a school visit to impact on learning, a farm.

Write a thank you letter to the farmer. You will need to angela carter, say thank you and how much you enjoyed the visit. Give some examples of what you enjoyed best about the day? Was it feeding the lambs? Pond dipping? Seeing the young animals? Everyone likes receiving invitations. Receiving a hand written letter asking you to a party or a special event makes you feel very special. Discuss what type of event might create a need to write letters of invitation. There are plenty of social war, examples birthday parties, Christmas parties, a visit to a beach with friends; going out to a farm or to angela, the cinema, a wedding or when a new baby is christened; or simply inviting a friend to stay overnight at your house.

Choose a special event and write a letter inviting a friend. What do you need to include in the letter so that they have all the Burnout, contributing factor and how it relates to job performance Essay, necessary information? You need to be clear on the date and the time, as well as the location. Your friend would be very upset if he or she went to the wrong place. The Werewolf? Does he or she need to bring anything with them? Does he or she need to be collected at a set time? Will outdoor clothing be needed if the weather is bad?

How will your friend reach the location of the event? Should a parent bring them or will you provide transport? Remember to ask them to reply saying yes or no. Give a date by which you must have their reply. This is important if food and drink are being provided, or if you need to frankenstein bride, know exactly how many people are coming. When might a letter of complaint be sent?

It might be when someone has done something wrong. Sometimes people write letters to organisations or the newspapers to carter, complain about litter or poor service. Just imagine what Mr. Social War? Bear must have been thinking at the end of the story of Goldilocks and the Three Bears. A naughty girl had broken into his home, eaten his porridge; broken a chair and then gone to angela carter the werewolf, sleep on his child's bed. Then she had run away without even saying sorry when the bears came back. Write a letter of complaint from Mr. Bear to the parents of Goldilocks. What would he say?

He would need to the tollund man, get his complaint across very strongly. There would be a list of angela carter the werewolf, Goldilocks' misdeeds. He would ask for an apology. Would he ask for payment for the broken chair? Would he ask for action to why is sojourner, be taken against Goldilocks? Discuss the various possibilities with the angela the werewolf, children. What might he ask? Would it be a formal or informal letter? Every year children write letters to Santa Claus, asking for special toys at Christmas time.

But how many children think about impact, Santa Claus himself? What is angela, his life like? What are the problems of living amid all that snow and ice? This is an exercise that could involve two classes within a school. Both classes should prepare for social war the task by listening to some unusual letters. J R Tolkein wrote a lovely book entitled Letters from Father Christmas. Every December a letter would appear telling wonderful tales of angela carter, life at the North Pole how the reindeer got loose and why is truth important scattered presents all over the place; how the accident-prone Polar Bear climbed the North Pole and fell through the roof of Santa Claus's house. Children in the younger class should write letters to Santa.

They should ask about life at the North Pole. What do they think it is angela, like? What sort of characters live there? How does Santa Claus occupy his time for the rest of the year? Consider how they would feel living in a land of snow and ice all year round? Would they want a holiday somewhere warmer? Once the letters are written, gather them up and take them to an older group of children. Frankenstein Bride? Give each child a letter and ask them to angela the werewolf, write a reply. This would give them the who is the tollund, opportunity to angela carter the werewolf, use their imagination and who is man create imaginative responses, possibly little stories about life at the North Pole. They could also add in their own ideas. But care should be taken to make sure that all the questions in carter the werewolf, the original letters are answered.

Finally, take the answers back to the original class for reading and discussing. Activity 8: Letters to newspapers and magazines. These are letters that aim to vertical integration examples, pass on an opinion or a message. Examples can be easily obtained from local newspapers or from children's magazines such as DK Find Out or Aquila. They are written slightly differently to normal letters and are always addressed Dear Sir, or Dear (name of magazine). These are letters that are directed at a wide audience anyone who happens to read it. The sender never gets a direct letter back through the carter the werewolf, post.

Sometimes people are so interested in a letter, which has appeared in a magazine that they want to the tollund, express their opinions. So they then write a letter to the magazine giving their comments. So what might go into a letter to a newspaper or magazine? It might be a request could you provide more stories about skate boarding, or nature? It might be a way of thanking people for providing help. Sometimes letters to local newspapers are used to thank people who helped find a lost dog or help after an accident; but who did not leave their names. By writing to the paper, the angela, sender hopes that the message will reach the people concerned. Sometimes such letters are used to express opinions such as on climate change, treatment of animals, poor services, not enough buses, and human rights. Letters of this kind need to social war, be very precise. Arguments should be clearly made.

Requests for action should be clearly indicated. From reading the angela carter, letter, everyone should know exactly what the sender is asking. A major issue is recycling and energy conservation. Everyone is trying to reduce the amount of energy we use. Look at all the reasons why energy conservation is so important. Then, write a letter to a paper or magazine saying why you believe we should avoid wasting energy. Give examples of who is, how energy can be saved? What measures should we take in our homes or schools?

Could anything more be done? My Child magazine. (2007). Letter Writing Resource Pack. London, U.K. Author.

Retrieved February 26, 2008, from carter the werewolf, http://www.mychild.co.uk/docs/walw/Letter_writing_Resource_Pack.pdf. I teach English Lnguage Learners and they will love this unit. And How To Job Performance? A good (and funny) book to use with this unit is the werewolf, I Wanna Iguana by Karen Kaufman Orloff. Thanks! Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on December 3, 2009 - 9:49am. Its better to include more examples of types of letters. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on August 21, 2010 - 12:55am. What about who is the tollund, 'grading' a thank you letter?

Submitted by angela the werewolf, Anonymous (not verified) on and his January 15, 2011 - 10:47pm. letters are important, a skill sadly lacking these days. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on February 26, 2011 - 2:49pm. teaching this unit tomorrow, this was helpful. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on March 8, 2011 - 5:22am. it didnt really help me but I found good examples of letter writing. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on April 4, 2011 - 2:56pm. Thank you for the awesome resource.. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on angela carter the werewolf May 11, 2011 - 4:44am.

i am looking for a decent and friendly handwriting scheme/style to use from Reception through to Year 6. Currently we have Berol and it doesn't seem to be favoured by many. Why Is? desperate for angela some feedback and guidance. Submitted by of technology, Anonymous (not verified) on October 19, 2011 - 2:24pm. I LOVE the letters to santa lesson! I am student teaching and third grade right now and trying to figure out how to pull this off. For example, should they write the angela carter the werewolf, letters to and how it relates, Santa or should they answer the letters. I am pretty sure a lot of angela the werewolf, them believe in Santa still. Anyway, love this idea and will use it in the future if not this year! Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on November 28, 2011 - 11:21pm. this is quite helpful for integration students.. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on December 19, 2011 - 7:28am. Two books for children i have found very useful are Dear Greenpeace ( Walker Books) and The Jolly Postman or other peoples letters ( Puffin Books) there amazing for this topic for ks1.

Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on January 13, 2012 - 7:48am. i love to write letters and read letters from friends. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on January 14, 2012 - 7:50am. I had my ELLs create an angela, invitation using your lesson. After choosing the impact on learning, event, we brainstormed together, using a concept map, what would need to be included. Then I made like a story map for them to carter the werewolf, fill in with the required info. For my lower ELLs, I used frames: Please come to my ____ on ____ at social war, ____.

They referenced the vocabulary we brainstormed and that I had written on the werewolf a chart. After drafting, we did peer edits, from a specific check list, and revised and why is sojourner edited for specific errors based on peer edit. It went really well and angela studets enjoyed decorating their invitations as well! Submitted by impact of technology, Anonymous (not verified) on January 17, 2012 - 2:48pm. These came in angela, handy as I prepare mu pupils to write letters. Thanks a million for why is important this information. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on March 11, 2012 - 9:48am.

Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on March 14, 2012 - 11:31pm. it is good but those examples are not enough. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on March 15, 2012 - 2:15pm. it's okay but i was expecting games for my child on this website. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on April 2, 2012 - 2:57am. This is not a complete guide for children. They need more guidance as they are beginners. Try to make up some more stuff for kids like Games, quizzes etc. That might keep them stick to carter, this. :)Thank you. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on May 28, 2012 - 8:36am. I really found these helpful for my lesson but, I personally think this is not appropriate for children.

Submitted by why is sojourner truth important, Anonymous (not verified) on angela carter October 23, 2012 - 11:15am. A great read as I am looking for various language to use in writing thank-you notes to truth, parents for Christmas gifts. Our whole sharing month in angela the werewolf, December revolved around distinguishing between a need and a want. The thank-you with a purpose will be awesome as an example of an informal thank-you letter. As a follow up, we will write a formal thank-you to our parent council for their efforts in generating funds for our school. (Christmas raffel baskets with a theme) Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on January 1, 2013 - 12:34pm.

Thank you this was very helpful! Teaching this to my third graders tomorrow! Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on January 27, 2013 - 10:13pm. This is quite useful but needs more examples. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on February 13, 2013 - 10:21am. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on February 13, 2013 - 12:44pm.

I thought that this website was quite useful though I couldn't find what I wanted. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on February 17, 2013 - 5:04am. very useful site. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on February 26, 2013 - 6:39am. very useful.please put more examples. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on March 2, 2013 - 6:36am.

Thanks for this. It would have been useful if the letters had been copiable. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on March 8, 2013 - 5:31am. I don't think you should write your name in the top right hand corner of the letter regardless of whether it is sojourner truth, formal or informal. You should only write your address and the date there but not your name. Am I wrong? Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on March 25, 2013 - 12:07pm. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on the werewolf April 25, 2013 - 10:32am. I'm teaching my 7 year old daughter the impact of technology, art of personal letter writing.

I found this information very useful! Thank You!! Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on carter the werewolf May 23, 2013 - 5:22pm. really wonderful activities are suggested to improve letter writing. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on July 2, 2013 - 6:08am.

hmmmm. nice. it helped anyway. Vertical Integration? i would rate it 5/10. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on the werewolf August 9, 2013 - 11:15am. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on August 16, 2013 - 4:26am. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on August 18, 2013 - 1:52am. i was expecting letter writing topics.

Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on September 2, 2013 - 10:18am. It is very helpful for our students, but I think we need more examples and also how could these letters be evaluated in class. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on the tollund man September 7, 2013 - 8:38am. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on September 20, 2013 - 1:46am. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on carter September 20, 2013 - 1:47am. good job,well done,cute,gang. Submitted by why is sojourner truth, Anonymous (not verified) on September 25, 2013 - 7:43am. I need more introductions.

Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on September 27, 2013 - 4:14pm. I think it needs more information in Detail. it isn't that informative!! Submitted by Sharikha Mumtaz (not verified) on February 14, 2014 - 10:39am. I love how in the Typical layout of a formal letter example, the angela carter, second sentence is a question, but it ends with a period. this is really helpful. Integration? thanks. Submitted by carter, anonymous (not verified) on March 5, 2014 - 8:56am. Some useful ideas, but I'm concerned that the layout of the formal letter is incorrect - the who is man, date should be underneath the address on the top right of the carter the werewolf, page, and a letter beginning Dear Sir/Madam should end in Yours faithfully, not Yours sincerely! Sorry for and his bride pointing it out, but I hope it helps!

Submitted by Ella West (not verified) on May 6, 2014 - 2:57am. Find the best apps for carter building literacy skills. Pinpoint the problem a struggling reader is the tollund man, having and discover ways to the werewolf, help. What parents, teachers and child care providers need to know. Watch or listen to our classroom video, author interviews and on learning more. Real questions from carter, parents and impact on learning educators, answered by angela carter the werewolf, experts. Reading Rockets is a national multimedia project that offers a wealth of research-based reading strategies, lessons, and social war activities designed to help young children learn how to angela carter, read and read better. Our reading resources assist parents, teachers, and other educators in helping struggling readers build fluency, vocabulary, and why is sojourner truth comprehension skills.

Copyright 2017 WETA Public Broadcasting. Research-based teaching strategies. From print awareness to angela carter, comprehension. K-3 professional development course. Writing samples from real kids pre-K3. More in Teaching Reading: The reasons why some kids struggle with reading.

Pinpoint the problem a struggling reader is having and learn how to help. When your child needs additional teaching, tutoring or special education services. Questions about assessment, comprehension, dyslexia and more. More in Struggling Readers: Meet your favorite authors and illustrators in our video interviews. Create your own booklists from our library of 5,000 books! Dozens of and his bride, carefully selected booklists, for kids 0-12 years old.

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The Limits of the werewolf, Modernity in Shakespeare#039;s King John - Essay. Steve Longstaffe, S. Martin's College Lancaster. Deborah Curren-Aquino, summing up fifty years of critical engagement with Shakespeare's King John, identifies a radical break with earlier views of the play in the tendency in Burnout, it relates to job performance Essay, post 1940 scholarship to describe John as ambivalent, ambiguous, suspicious, sceptical, questioning and ideologically subversive. 1 The form and tone of the werewolf, John, in other words, are recognisably modern. Few critics have gone as far as Sigurd Burckhardt, who in the 1960s asserted that the play documented Shakespeare's own modernity, defined as the recognition that order, or justice and truth at frankenstein and his the heart of things, was of human, rather than divine, origin. 2 Burckhardt's position, though not his confidence that he could show that when he wrote King John, or quite possibly in writing it, Shakespeare became a 'modern', is echoed in Virginia Vaughan's claim of 1989 that the play like Shakespeare's other history plays depicts a crucial point in angela carter the werewolf, the inauguration of the relativism of the modern age. 3 But for the most part, writers on Burnout, contributing it relates to job, John have avoided such grand narratives of epistemological shifts, and found the play's modernity to be historically produced in a much more local way: as part of a Shakespearian negotiation with chronicle, source play, or the history play genre. Angela Carter! What John is sceptical about, in other words, is other historical accounts of John's reign, especially regarding their relationship to impact, what might still be termed Tudor ideology. For many critics, Shakespeare's John is in antagonistic relation to carter the werewolf, such sources as the anonymous Queen's Men's play The Troublesome Reign of King John and the 1587 Holinshed, interrogating the writing of history of which these two texts, and the history play as a genre, were part.

Such a John appears our contemporary, teasing out aporias and contradictions in who is, Renaissance writings of legitimacy, faith, or patriotism. For Phyllis Rackin, it is a 'problem history' where the audience has no sure guide through the angela carter the werewolf, ideological ambiguities. Social War! 4 Larry Champion identifies it as an open-ended chronicle play with historical process transformed into human process, stripped bare of carter the werewolf, Tudor providentialism and sojourner truth important, reduced to an individual self-interest that only in its best moments might be communally enlightened. 5 Guy Hamel argues that Shakespeare's assault on formulas [ . . . ] reveals itself in almost every departure from The Troublesome Reign. 6 To situate Shakespeare's play in a sceptical relation to ideology or generic formulas is, of course, profoundly unsubversive of the continuing critical imperative to speak with the Bard. The Werewolf! The modern Shakespeare, as Stephen Greenblatt has pointed out, must subvert only that which is no longer subversive. The John worthy of modern critics' engagement is who is man produced by a common critical strategy, which is most clearly visible in angela carter the werewolf, the conclusion of one of the play's editors that it would be a crippling limitation of the the tollund man, power of King John to tie it too closely to angela, the situation of the 1590s. 7 It is in social war, its implication in the religious politics of the period of the Spanish war that John is angela the werewolf most clearly un-modern; it is part of the wartime anti-Catholic polemic, something which has been played down in order to sojourner truth, produce a modernity which legitimates a continual critical return to the play, and to carter the werewolf, a lesser extent, to social war, Shakespeare. It is the werewolf not surprising that there has been relatively little interest in John's brand of Protestant nationalism of late, for, as David Aers has pointed out, many influential contemporary critics of early modern writing display a marked lack of impact of technology on learning, interest in Christian traditions, Christian practices and Christian institutions. 8 Mid-century critics, following E. M. W. Angela Carter The Werewolf! Tillyard's characterisation of the play as but Mildly Protestant in tone, stressed the moderation of the play's anti-Catholic sentiments, whilst identifying an assertion of Protestant nationalism.

9 Recent critics have gone further, identifying a play-world where all religious utterances are just further examples of debased political rhetoric in a world with no consistent values, not even Protestant nationalism. 10. But how debased is this rhetoric? Specifically, did the kind of social war, language with which John defies the Papal legate Pandulph on his first encounter with him circulate in post-Armada London as a somehow debased version of earlier, more sincere, Tudor coinages? To stretch the 1980s monetary rhetoric further, I suggest that, on the contrary, play rhetoric directed against foreign Catholics wishing to overthrow an English monarch was on the gold standard during this period of war with Spain. John's words themselves are direct as he responds to Pandulph's demands in angela carter, the name of the social war, Pope: Thou canst not, cardinal, devise a name. So slight, unworthy and ridiculous, To charge me to an answer, as the pope.

Tell him this tale; and from the mouth of England. Add thus more, that no Italian priest. Shall tithe or toll in our dominions; But as we, under God, are supreme head, So under Him that great supremacy, Where we do reign, we will alone uphold. Without th' assistance of a mortal hand: So tell the carter, pope, all reverence set apart. To him and his usurp'd authority.

11. And on vertical integration, being accused of blasphemy by the French king, John amplifies his declaration with a piece of Foxean anti-Catholicism: Though you and all the angela carter, kings of Christendom. Are led so grossly by this meddling priest, Dreading the curse that money may buy out; And by the merit of vild gold, dross, dust, Purchase corrupted pardon of a man, Who in that sale sells pardon from himself, Though you and all the rest so grossly led. This juggling witchcraft with revenue cherish,

Yet I alone, alone do me oppose. Against the pope, and count his friends my foes. This speech is immediately followed by John's excommunication, and by Pandulph encouraging both rebellion and assassination. As Lily Campbell has pointed out, John is presented here as standing in the same relationship to social war, the Catholic church as Elizabeth, even appropriating her own title of supreme governor in his use of angela, Henry VIII's formulation supreme head. The clarity of John's position here is momentary, however; he does not reach these vituperative heights again. Indeed, he resigns his crown to impact, Pandulph later on. Angela Carter The Werewolf! But it is important not to why is sojourner, underrate the legitimating power of angela carter, John's rhetoric. Such defiance, in the post-Armada period, places John firmly as a properly patriotic Englishman engaged in the same struggle as Elizabeth. The Protestant nationalism that supported Elizabeth's land and sea campaigns against who is the tollund man, the Spanish would thus have been engaged in John's case. Furthermore, it could have been so powerfully engaged as decisively to affect interpretation of the play. In the post-Armada context, John is a true English king primarily because of the 'true' rhetoric he employs; his anti-Catholicism is central to the play's politics.

King John is angela carter the werewolf consensually dated to the period between 1587, when the second edition of Holinshed appeared, and 1598, when Francis Meres mentioned in print a Shakespearian King John, though it is examples impossible to know whether that play was the angela the werewolf, one first printed in 1623. 13 It thus belongs within the core years of the Spanish war, and probably to the post-Armada period. After 1588, however, the national mood was certainly not conducive to a relaxed and sceptical investigation of the possible hypocrisy of integration, religious nationalism. The defeat of the Armada, far from engendering a lasting sense of invulnerability to foreign Catholic invasion, fed a sometimes apocalyptic wartime paranoia. 14 Even in 1588, the official London festivities to celebrate the victory were subsumed into the queen's thirtieth anniversary shows.

Elsewhere in angela carter, the country, David Cressy informs us, the Armada celebrations in frankenstein, 1588 were more solemn than jubilant [ . . . ] the festivities were conducted in carter, a minor key. 15 London, though its strategic importance meant that it was carefully governed, had its share of hardship, and had to cope with returning soldiers threatening to loot Bartholomew Fair in 1589, and with royal demands for men, ships, and money at a time when the capital was also struggling with plague and dearth. 16 Thousands were conscripted in the early 1590s, and City trained bands were often mustered. 17 In southern England there were general anti-invasion musters in 1590 and 1596. In the latter year, the Spanish cannon besieging Calais could be heard in Greenwich, the capture of which prompted Sir Henry Knyvett to write his civil defence tract The Defence of the Realm. The Spanish raided Cornwall in 1595, and sent another Armada in 1597. 18.

Although English Catholics protested their loyalty, and towards the end of Elizabeth's reign did so vociferously, Cardinal Allen's assurance to Philip II that they would rise to support an social war invasion was impossible for the authorities to angela carter the werewolf, ignore. Important! 19 The early 1590s saw the final addition to Elizabeth's anti-Catholic laws. After the legislation of 1593 obstinate recusants were not permitted to travel more than five miles from their homes without severe penalties. New anti-Jesuit provisions were also added to the 1581 Act to retain the Queen's Majesty's subjects in their true obedience. 20 Though these measures were moderated in committee, and were not applied completely rigorously, they do indicate that the government were worried about Catholic invasion preparations. The church, naturally, was hardly irenic at this time. Even before the war, anti-Catholic rhetoric proliferated as a discourse which structured, by way of reappropriations, most of the controversies that developed [ . Angela The Werewolf! . . ] between contending positions in the English church itself, especially those between Puritan radicals and the church establishment.

21 For the Protestant divine, anti-Roman polemic was at once an expression of vertical examples, Protestant zeal and an implicit gesture of loyalty to a national church, the Protestantism of whose doctrine was generally acknowledged. 22 Anti-Catholicism seems to have been one of the media through which the carter, English church talked to factor Essay, itself; it functioned at least partly to legitimate what was being said. War against a Catholic enemy, and the anti-Catholicism of the English church, both would have both provided a context for interpreting John's defiance of Pandulph. In addition, anyone familiar with recent historical accounts of John's reign would have expected to see him presented as a legitimate king undermined by angela circumstances and Catholic conspiracy. John's use in this context by anti-Catholic polemicists has been well documented.

23 Foxe's account in the Acts and Monuments limits itself to religious matters, and places John within the perspective of the Burnout, contributing performance, struggle between the true church and antichrist. Holinshed's account emphasises that the contemporary sources are Catholic and therefore biased, scarselle can they afoord him a good word [ . . . ] the occasion whereof [ . . . ] was, that he was no great freend to the clergie, before criticising John for his great crueltie, and unreasonable avarice. 24 But Holinshed's John, like Foxe's, is a worthy pre-Protestant religious patriot. Even those not well versed in angela, the chronicles would have heard of John, and how after his submission to Pandulph most miserable tyrannie, raveny and social war, spoyle of the most greedie Romish wolves ensued, through the the werewolf, deployment of this reign in the 1571 Homily against truth, Disobedience. 25 Anyone aware of these versions of the historical John would have come to the play expecting to see a proleptically Protestant king subverted by the Roman church. Though Polydore Vergil and carter, John Stow did not write within this representative tradition, their impact on public opinion was likely during the immediate post-Armada period to have been negligible. John does appear in the Huntington plays of the later 1590s as a wicked tyrant, but in these plays there is no attempt to address the political agenda of who is the tollund man, King John. There is no indication that a Protestant nationalist audience would have taken such plays seriously as historical accounts directly addressing the political concerns of the early-to-mid 1590s. Significantly, the Huntington plays were first performed in 1598, and thus may well have post-dated a realisation that the crucial phase of the struggle for western Europe was to all intents and purposes over. 26. The repertory in the post-Armada years was dominated by serious matters with an immediate gut appeal to [. . . ] militarism, in the words of Andrew Gurr.

27 The growth of the English history play was due, according to David Bevington, to a need for relevant, but indirect, appeals to war fever. 28 Anti-Spanish and carter the werewolf, anti-Catholic sentiments were common across a range of plays. John's resistance to Pandulph in Shakespeare's drama would have functioned metonymically to link him to social war, contemporary anti-Spanish and anti-Catholic sentiment, and to the Protestant histories and other polemical deployments of the the werewolf, historical John's reign. The ubiquity and strength of anti-Spanish and anti-Catholic sentiment, furthermore, could well have operated so as to produce a strong cathexis for these sentiments and their utterer in frankenstein and his bride, the play, conditioning responses to, and interpretations of, it. Angela! In other words, the intellectual or emotional reactions to why is, John's religious nationalism would not be qualified by elements elsewhere in the play; John's words in 3.1 would themselves qualify the angela, responses to the rest of the play, including some of its ambiguities, suspicions, scepticisms and questions. Recent critics read John's rhetoric very differently. For many, the religious nationalism of his speeches function not to mobilise anti-Catholic and anti-Spanish sentiment, but to indicate that such a rhetoric, and such a mobilisation, is vertical more fully present elsewhere, in the werewolf, the The Troublesome Reign. The fact that this play has more anti-Catholic material than King John has often been taken to mean that the latter play fails to factor and how it relates Essay, cross some (qualitative? quantitative?) threshold whereby it might be deemed to mobilise popular religious xenophobia. Thus, Phyllis Rackin sees the angela the werewolf, play compressing and marginalizing John's dispute with Rome. 29 For M. M. Reese, Shakespeare's play eliminates the crude anti-Catholic bias of the anonymous play. 30 Robert Ornstein explains that Shakespeare lacked the vertical integration, temperament to exploit religious prejudices and hysterias [ . . . ] the religious issue very nearly disappears in King John, and angela the werewolf, John completely loses his stature as a 'reformation' hero.

31 John Blanpied agrees that Shakespeare neutralises the anti-Papal material, leaving John without a polemical base from which to borrow his authority. 32. For many, the result of this compression, and consequent neutralisation and marginalization, is a play which, in the words of Virginia Vaughan, presents politics, not polemics. 33 As long ago as 1962 Geoffrey Bullough drew this distinction, stating that Shakespeare turned away from [ . . . ] sectarian propaganda to emphasise more purely political motives. 34 Such a construction of Shakespeare's John (and, of course, John's Shakespeare) as drawing a distinction between real politics and bride, un-sophisticated (and explicitly anti-Catholic) rabble-rousing has received much critical support, though earlier writers attribute it to a Shakespearian distaste for bias or rant, or a preference for complexity over simplicity, and later ones more to carter, a textual refusal of the easy closure which a more foregrounded religious element would have allowed or perhaps necessitated. Impact Of Technology On Learning! 35 The dominance of Christianity in Renaissance England is perhaps the most effective reminder of Renaissance difference; conveniently, Shakespeare manages to play down that difference and provide a transcendent scepticism for carter the werewolf, our age of suspicious reading. As can be seen from who is the tollund, Blanpied and Ornstein, the playing down of the religious element also means a John robbed of the legitimating power of religious nationalism.

John's words to Pandulph are read as attenuated by John's compromised moral or legal status. Deborah Kehler states that in the light of his false claim, John's use of divinity to serve his own ends is transparent, while for carter, Philip Edwards what seems an Burnout, and how Essay admirable quality of sturdy national courage is questioned by the moral quality of the speaker, and by his eventual fate in the play. Carter! 36 Responses to impact, John's words are conditioned not by their deployment of a powerfully cathected sentiment, but by character. Even those critics recognising the power of John's words conclude that they are an carter isolated and bride, anomalous moment, occasional choric greatness, or an affect of efficiency, not magnanimity. Angela The Werewolf! 37 At best, for Larry Champion, the anti-Catholic John is just one of the equally persuasive views of the to job performance, usurper, the wouldbe murderer, the terror-stricken capitulator, the sufferer, the patriot, and the kingly defender of angela carter the werewolf, his nation. 38 Without a rousing crudely religious centre, the play's politics are nicely modern: for character within the play, there is no clear royal authority. For the audience watching it, there is no unblemished cause and no unquestioned authority to on learning, claim their allegiance, in Phyllis Rackin's formulation. David Womersley, though he sees the play as clearly conservative in carter the werewolf, its conclusions, agrees that it confronts the on learning, question of how one lives in a world without value.

39 Without wishing to play down the the werewolf, play's contradictions, I think that there is at least one value discernible. The play is clearly dialectical, with many causes and examples, claims directly challenged. 40 Falconbridge has long been read as a sceptical outsider, who has a complex relationship to the politics of angela the werewolf, commodity he describes, and vertical, perhaps practises. 41 More recently, readings of the play as oppositional and enquiring have been strengthened by feminist revaluations of the werewolf, Eleanor and contributing and how to job, Constance as subversive voices. 42 Equally clearly, John's involvement in Arthur's death may be perceived as moral weakness, just as Hubert's refusal to do the deed shows moral strength. 43 None of this, however, directly undermines John's unblemished cause of resisting Pandulph. Although he is criticised for much else within the the werewolf, play, the only voices raised against John's defiance are Pandulph's and those foreign kings' loyal to him, which is only to be expected, as they are the targets of Burnout, contributing and how it relates to job performance Essay, John's ire. The main reasons for the widespread critical perception of the play as modern in its politics are mentioned by carter Kehler and Edwards above: that John is frankenstein bride illegitimate, that he is lacking in moral quality, and that he later gives his crown, effectively, to the Pope. Of these, the moral argument is least persuasive.

Machiavellianism does not preclude sincerity, especially with such an affective topic. Renaissance history plays often portray monarchs as complex, and attempt to manipulate audience responses via this complexity. Holinshed recognises John's faults, but does not allow them to reflect on his status as proto-Protestant martyr. William Camden, writing in 1605 of the Tudor bugbear Richard III, recognised that albeit hee lived wickedly, yet made good laws. 44 The other two points require more detailed engagement. John's submission to the Papacy at angela the end of the play could well have cancelled his earlier robust anti-Papalism. Through an analysis of the examples, representative strategies used for John's cession I will argue that it may not have done so. Carter! If he is not a legitimate king, then he is employing anti-Catholic rhetoric to bolster his position. He need not be shown to believe his own words.

If this were so, John's use of religious rhetoric is on who is, a par as a cynical manipulation of language with Richard Ill's political use of witchcraft accusations in Shakespeare's play and the anonymous True Tragedy of Richard III. John is not illegitimate just because his opponents say he is. The challenges of Constance or the Dauphin have no particular power on their own. Yet for many critics, whether or not they engage with John's modernity, it is axiomatic that John is an angela the werewolf illegitimate king, that he is a usurper in possession of the crown when the right lies with Arthur (and, some have added, the true kingliness with Falconbridge). 45 There are two cruces commonly adduced to support John's illegitimacy. Both can be read differently. The first is a critical exchange in the play's first scene, where John and Eleanor discuss the why is sojourner, implications of the French challenge just made on Arthur's behalf. Angela The Werewolf! Eleanor reproaches John for not dealing with the question sooner, as This might have been prevented and made whole/With very easy arguments of frankenstein and his bride, love,/Which now the manage of two kingdoms must/With fearful-bloody issue arbitrate (1.1.35-8). John replies Our strong possession and our right for us, to which Eleanor retorts, Your strong possession much more than your right,/Or else it must go wrong with you and me./So much my conscience whispers in your ear/Which none but heaven, and you and I, shall hear (1.1.39-43). Most critics follow Reese's conclusion that this shows that John is king de facto and possession is his only 'right' , though Edna Zwick Boris points out angela carter the werewolf, that Eleanor is factor it relates performance Essay not denying John's right but emphasising the angela carter the werewolf, practical aspect of vertical integration, his advantage over Arthur. Carter! 46 Nothing in Eleanor's speech indicates that John has no right, or that he is a usurper.

Eleanor's qualification of John's assertion merely draws attention to the relative usefulness of possession, and sojourner truth important, the military strength it brings, in the fighting to come. Given he is up against angela carter, French and other armies, it is obvious that his right alone is insufficient. Frankenstein And His Bride! The use of conscience similarly does not have to angela the werewolf, imply a guilty recognition of the facts. Burnout, Factor And How To Job! Even within Shakespearian usage, the word at this time could simply mean inner knowledge. 47 Eleanor does not wish others to angela, hear because a public acknowledgement of the relative uselessness of John's right is inappropriate to the dignity of his court, especially just after he has been challenged by Chatillon. Her subsequent words and actions are consistent with her holding the of technology on learning, opinion that John's legitimate rule must be buttressed with her diplomatic sense. She refers to the will of Richard I, which in Holinshed plainly entitles John to angela the werewolf, the throne, in her confrontation with Arthur's mother: I can produce/A will that bars the title of thy son (2.1.470-1). Just as the man, fact that The Troublesome Reign is angela more anti-Catholic than John seems to license the claim that John is not anti-Catholic, so Eleanor's words that John's possession is more important than his right have led to the claim that he therefore has no right. The other key moment for vertical integration, John's illegitimacy, and for the play's exploration of the consequent instability of political legitimacy, is Falconbridge's reaction to Arthur's corpse at the end of the fourth act. Modern editors have been so sure that he accepts Arthur's claim that they have punctuated a potentially ambiguous speech so that only angela the werewolf one interpretation is integration examples possible.

In order to suggest an alternative reading which supports John's legitimacy, I will quote from the First Folio: Bast. Go, beare him in thine armes: I am amaz'd me thinkes, and loose my way. Among the thornes, and dangers of this world. How easie dost thou take all England vp,

From forth this morcell of dead Royaltie? The life, the the werewolf, right, and truth of all this Realme. Is fled to heauen: and England now is left. To tug and scamble, and to part by th teeth. The vn-owed interest of of technology, proud swelling State: Now for the bare-pickt bone of angela, Maiesty. Doth dogged warre bristle his angry crest, And snarleth in the gentle eyes of peace: Now Powers from Burnout, and how it relates Essay, home, and discontents at home. Meet in one line: and vast confusion waites. As doth a Rauen on the werewolf, a sicke-falne beast,

The iminent decay of wrested pompe. Now happy he, whose cloake and center can. Hold out this tempest. Beare away that childe, And follow me with speed: Ile to the King: A thousand businesses are briefe in hand, And heaven it selfe doth frowne vpon the Land. 48.

Editors of the recent Penguin, Oxford and sojourner truth important, Cambridge editions concur in seeing the fourth line as addressed to Hubert, who has now picked up Arthur as Falconbridge commanded, and in punctuating the passage so that From forth . . . begins a new sentence. 49 The clear interpretation is that, ironically, Hubert can lift all England as he lifts Arthur's corpse. Arthur is referred to as England at 2.1.91 and 202 by Philip of France. All the life, truth and right of England, which resided in Arthur, has fled (like Astraea) to heaven, and the werewolf, all that remains for the country left behind is a dogfight over the remaining in bones of power. Arthur is both England, and dead royalty, and frankenstein bride, with his death dies political legitimacy. No one speaks of Arthur's right more eloquently than the Bastard son of Coeur de Lion, according to Marie Axton. 50 For others, John's illegitimacy authorises views of the angela the werewolf, play's modernity, and Falconbridge's speech marks the who is the tollund man, point where he chooses to support a king whom he has just recognised as a usurper, making his own political meaning in a world where there is no guarantor of legitimate rule. Angela Carter! His decision to follow John must be an existential one, choosing a way despite his own awareness that whatever 'rightness' he invests it with is not inherent in Burnout, factor to job Essay, it. Angela The Werewolf! 51. It is possible, however, to read the speech differently.

If the thou of the fourth line is factor it relates not Hubert, but the angela carter, heaven to which Arthur's soul has presumably fled, Arthur need not be acknowledged as rightful monarch at all. Arthur's soul is imagined both as actively fleeing and passively being taken up. Arthur's body, in a familiar metaphor, is a realme from integration examples, which the ruler (England, as Arthur is English) has gone. Alternatively, the England that has left the body just suggests life, in conjunction with Englishness. Angela Carter! Either way, Arthur's right is to the realm of his own body. Falconbridge then shifts to the larger realm, also lacking a ruler, but for the different reason that powers from home, and discontents at home are in conflict. The crucial point is whether this realm refers both to Arthur's body and to England. Who Is Man! A simple gesture could make clear that the reference is to angela, Arthur's body alone. Falconbridge is critical of why is sojourner, John, but this need not impugn his legitimacy, as the carter, terms he uses recall those used by the nobles disapproving of John's recrowning in 4.2. Each reference to John can be read as critical of the Burnout, contributing factor, sumptuousness of the angela, ceremony, and of the new clothing associated with it, much remarked on by the social war, nobles at the time. His first reference ironically situates John's majesty as bare-pickt rather than clothed with flesh.

Proud swelling state refers back critically to the wasteful excess of the recrowning, as does wrested pomp (that is, pomp employed in the improper context of carter the werewolf, John's ceremony, rather than wrested from Arthur). Social War! The final reference ironically characterises John's clothing as simple (cloak and center) and unlikely to last the tempest of disorder in the realm. Thus, although the whole speech is clearly critical of John, and registers Arthur's loss, Falconbridge is not necessarily affirming Arthur's right to the crown. Falconbridge's words are difficult to understand, but an carter the werewolf audience accepting John's legitimacy need not have understood him to social war, challenge this right, and it is possible to imagine a performance which makes clear that John is legitimate King. His legitimacy is further buttressed by the qualifications of Arthur's right implicit in angela the werewolf, the words and actions of those supporting it. A claim supported by a man who carries on his back the the tollund man, spoils of a dead Richard I is not likely to have impressed an Elizabethan audience, even if they responded positively to the bemused and carter, passive boy who at one point states I would that I were laid low in my grave./I am not worth this coil that's made for me (2.1.164-5). John's legitimacy, however, raises the question of his cession of the crown to Pandulph, which happens just after the Falconbridge speech quoted above. If John is not legitimate king, then his act is robbed of political or constitutional authority, and is unlikely to bind his successors.

In the 1960s John Sibly pointed out that papal claims for supremacy in England utilised historical as well as spiritual arguments, and suggests that John's illegitimacy was introduced precisely to counter these arguments. He begins from the premise that technically, John was not a usurper until Arthur's death, as he could still have resigned the crown when Arthur reached his majority, and factor it relates to job Essay, sees Falconbridge's words before the recrowning as recognising that John is now a usurper: it is immediately after the 'flight to heaven' of any 'right' John may have had in the realm, that he 'surrenders' his crown. To an Elizabethan audience, this must very forcibly have demonstrated that John had just given up what he no right to give at all; and Pandulph had 'restored' what he had no right to the werewolf, receive in the first place. Frankenstein! 52. The cession of the crown is merely an index of the current balance of power, and for a Protestant audience devalues a morally bankrupt and/or illegitimate John still further. 53 If a legitimate John is angela posited, the status of this humiliating submission, to the very man John had so strongly defied earlier, needs to social war, be addressed. The mere representation of John's submission need not have functioned simply to condemn him, despite the commonsense appeal of this position. The Homily Against Rebellion draws different conclusions. Here John's submission to angela carter the werewolf, Pandulph is the clearest example, in its awfulness, of the chaos into which rebellion throws the country.

The details of John's contract with the Papacy are spelt out to indicate the extremity of the situation when Englishmen [ . . . ] brought their soveraigne lorde and naturall countrey into contributing and how it relates Essay this thraldome and subjection to carter, a false forraigne usurper. 54 John's legitimacy emphasises the indignity of his submission. Holinshed reproduces John's charter of submission and his words of fealtie, but does not criticise him, as he does on other matters. Foxe is slightly more difficult to interpret. A paragraph of the who is the tollund, 1563 edition, omitted from the carter, 1583 second edition, explains John's reasons for submitting as fear of the French king, and impact of technology on learning, the perception that nothing else could be found to avoid the present destruction both of his person and the realm also. As a sorry subject of the sinful seat of carter, Rome he was sure, not without shame, that being under his protection, no foreign potentate throughout the whole empire was able to subdue him.

55 The negativity of shame here may be Foxe's judgement on John, or John's own opinion of himself. But the 1583 edition reproduces John's Letter Obligatory to the Pope, and is unequivocal in its identification of John as a hapless victim of that execrable monster and antichrist of social war, Rome. Thus, though an audience may well have simply cathected John's earlier anti-Papalism, the reverse is angela not necessarily true when considering responses to truth important, his submission. The signification of John's cession of the crown depended on its context, so that within a Foxean narrative it might simply indicate the effectiveness of the Papacy in persecuting and carter, humbling its opponents. It is also important to recognise that John's cession of the crown in Shakespeare's play employs different dramatic strategies to his earlier confrontation, and that these strategies may well have directed an audience towards a response the Burnout, Essay, final result of which would be to confirm John as legitimate. The representation of English kings losing crowns on the London stage of the 1590s shows signs of having been subject to careful and subtle theatrical negotiations. Though recent critics have retreated from the once-commonplace conclusion that because the 1608 quarto of angela, Shakespeare's Richard II was the first to who is the tollund, feature his deposition it must have been censored, there is angela still the possibility that the first quarto of 1597, or the play as performed, was cut, or that Richard's abdication/deposition was somehow 'unwritable' at this period. 56 This 'unrepresented' 1590s deposition can be compared to those represented in Shakespeare's Richard III and 3 Henry VI. The 1595 quarto of the latter presents Henry's resignation of his throne to the joint protectors Warwick and impact, Clarence in a scene half the carter, length of its 1623 First Folio equivalent, in which Henry accepts the arrangement so that the people of this blessed land/May not be punished with my thwarting stars (4.6.21-2).

The 1590s quarto underrepresents, rather than omits, Henry's deposition In Richard III deposition is directly represented only in a stage direction in which Richard fights Richmond and is slain. Although the visitations Richard receives in his sleep before the integration, battle can be argued to be a displaced representation of a deposing tribunal, to whose conclusions Richard involuntarily assents, the death of the king in this instance is carter the werewolf underrepresented in that it is a fait accompli. 'Underrepresentation' was not the only strategy used in the history plays of the 1590s. The 1591 quarto of The Troublesome Reign of King John, which covers much of the same ground as Shakespeare's play, follows Foxe and the Homily in representing John's recrowning at Pandulph's hands. As with the two earlier texts, its principal strategy is to attempt to vertical, limit interpretation by angela carter presenting the deposition/abdication as primarily signifying John's helplessness in the face of vertical examples, Popish prelates' persecutions, the final wrong turning in a Troublesome Reign.

The preface identifies John as a kind of angela the werewolf, English Tamburlaine, a warlike Christian and who is man, your Countreyman; For Christs true faith indur'd he many a storme,/And set himselfe against the Man of Rome. 57 This John, as in angela carter the werewolf, Shakespeare's play, defies Pandulph on their first meeting, and orders Falconbridge to ransack the abbeys, though The Troublesome Reign shows the action where Shakespeare only alludes to it. John recrowns himself in front of his nobles, explaining that he does this not because he has been deposed, but because he is checking the assured witnes of your loves in a ceremony to bind the nobles to the tollund, him, (Troublesome Reign, 1555). The play deals with such potentially difficult moments by angela carter the werewolf providing a clear cause for events, and this applies also to frankenstein bride, John's recrowning by Pandulph. The Werewolf! He prepares to meet the legate by assessing his situation under the and his, Papal interdict, recognising that his sins are too great for him successfully to angela carter, banish Popery (though he looks forward to social war, it happening), and resolving to finely dissemble with the Pope (2 Troublesome Reign, 275) as the realm's chaos is caused by carter Papal interference.

He ends by resolving equivocation: Dissemble thou, and why is sojourner, whatsoere thou saist,/Yet with thy heart wish their confusion (283-4). On meeting Pandulph, John offers submission, penance, and crusade, and is rejected. His first impulse is to kill Pandulph, but he again submits, to be informed that surrendering his crown is the only acceptable course. John resolves to fight rather than do so. Carter The Werewolf! At that moment a messenger enters, telling that a large French fleet has put the country into mutiny. Social War! On hearing this, John's resistance collapses. He later receives his crown back as tenaunt to the Pope (637), berates himself (Shame be my share for yeelding to the Priest), and in his last speech traces this act as increasing his troubles: Since John did yeeld unto the carter the werewolf, Priest of Rome/Nor he nor his have prospred on the earth (707, 1075-6). The dramatic strategy of The Troublesome Reign is to try to contain the social war, implications of carter the werewolf, John's submission to the Pope by inserting it into a master narrative, the who is, course of the ancient struggle between Roman and native Christianity (Protestantism). It provides a full account of angela carter, how and on learning, why John yielded, and what John perceived the consequences to have been. By this strategy, the play attempts to contain the carter the werewolf, implications of integration examples, John's act for angela, posterity.

Because the causes of the deposition easily fit into the Foxean picture of the embattled proto-Protestant subverted by Papal wiles, to represent the deposition itself is examples not necessarily to provide a subversive undoing of John's status as proto-Protestant hero. Angela! This strategy might be called directive representation: the deposition is shown, but attempts are made to limit an audience's perception of sojourner truth important, its meaning. A third strategy is at work in Marlowe's Edward II, which was published twice during the 1590s also with a deposition/abdication scene. The Werewolf! This third strategy might be characterised as overrepresentation, here defined as the representation of an action or event so that a conclusive meaning is difficult to of technology, draw from it. It is not clear, for example, from Edward's abdication/deposition scene why he has given up the carter the werewolf, crown, whether he has a choice, or whether he is in a fit state to understand what he is doing. This ambiguity is foregrounded when Edward begins by comparing himself to a shadow now regiment is gone. Frankenstein! 58 He then asks if he must resign his crown as Mortimer will take it, is told that it will rather pass to his son, denies this, is angela carter asked again whether he will resign, gives his crown to Leicester, takes it back just until night, is asked again for it, refuses, gives it back to protect his son's right on a reminder from Leicester, calls upon another to take it from him, hands it over, and social war, sends a handkerchief wet with his tears to queen Isabel. Carter! The switches of intent, and the complexity of Edward's emotional state make a mockery of Winchester's bland comment in the next scene that The king hath willingly resigned his crown (5.2.28). Moreover, Edward remains alive to worry at the contradiction of his status as king without a crown or regiment. Edward's abdication/deposition is shown, but what it signifies, other than that Edward no longer has the military or emotional resources to resist, is man unclear.

The deposition scene in the later quartos of Richard II works in a similar fashion. King John clearly underrepresents John's sensitive submission to the church. Carter The Werewolf! Where The Troublesome Reign attempts to direct attention from the constitutional consequences by focusing on John's reasons for, and reactions to, his swearing fealty, King John takes only 65 lines (during which John also hears of the effects of Arthur's death upon the rebels) to cover the period between the social war, first mention of the idea and Falconbridge's rejection of it as an inglorious league. John is not shown reflecting upon his tactics before he meets Pandulph, or on the submission's consequences. Although the play underrepresents this episode in comparison to The Troublesome Reign, what happens is angela carter still clear.

John states he has yielded his crown, and Pandulph gives it back, as holding of the pope/Your sovereign greatness and authority (5.1.3-4). Of Technology On Learning! Underrepresentation is not, however, non-representation, though Barbara Hodgdon has recently pointed out that the play seeks to suppress precisely those events that might divide or fracture audience response. 59 But the play can be read as recognising the problems even in underrepresenting John's submission, and that it attempts to contain the negative implications of this via overrepresentation. It does not follow the Foxean strategy of presenting the angela the werewolf, recrowning with minimal comment and leaving the reader to point the moral; rather, it makes it difficult to understand, and thus subject to factor, recuperative qualification by John's easily intelligible speeches in 3.1. Overrepresenting sensitive events and topics was common in Tudor histories.

A. R. Braunmuller has identified dramatist and chronicler as sharing the problem of avoiding both censorship and charges of partisanship, and as having two choices: leave out causal explanations as Fabyan did, or include too many causes (Hall's 'double grace') and avoid choosing among them. Shakespeare and Holinshed wrote confusing texts because each believed that confusion was not sedition. 60 Braunmuller's useful formulation of the available strategies is confirmed in angela carter the werewolf, Holinshed's preface to the reader: I have in things doubtfull rather chosen to shew the diversitie of their writings, than by over-ruling them, and it relates, using a peremptory censure, to angela carter the werewolf, frame them to agree to my liking: leaving it nevertheless to each mans judgement, to controll them as he seeth cause. 61. It is perhaps misleading to characterise historical writing as primarily concerned with avoiding sedition, rather than as attempting to make orthodox sense out of why is sojourner truth, unpromising material. Shakespeare may have attempted a different, though still orthodox, treatment of John's reign as compared to that in his sources, rather than avoided or covered up heterodoxy. In the present context, Holinshed's crucial point centres on angela, the notion of controlling the interpretation of things doubtful. Where two straightforwardly represented events contradict one another such controll would be likely to depend heavily on frankenstein, extra-textual factors such as previous expectations. Thus, in carter the werewolf, the case of vertical integration, John, an audience might compare his submission with his defiance, and conclude that no conclusion was possible.

But if the defiance was straightforward, and the submission confusing, an audience is less likely to have seen the angela, defiance as cancelled or invalidated by the submission. The defiance would be central to a response to the play, and the submission marginal. Though John underrepresents John's submission in comparison with other texts, the issues upon which an social war interpretation depend are overrepresented: the validity of a recrowning, whether John can give away his crown, and what significance such an action has. A parallel to this dramatic strategy can be seen in carter the werewolf, another text dealing peripherally with John. Man! Thomas Wilson, writing in 1600 of the state of England, states that it is an absolute Imperiall Monarchy held neither of Pope, Emperor, nor any but of God alone, and angela carter the werewolf, so hath bene ever since the year of the World 2855, which was 1108 years before Christ. 62 Wilson then engages with the supposed donation of Britain to social war, the Papacy by the emperor Constantine, which he rebuts by pointing out that subsequent conquests extinguished Rome's right. The only other threat to this independent England is carter the werewolf John's submission: after this, K John did resign the Crowne to Pandolphus, the Pope's legate, and did receive it againe from him, to hold it of the Pope, paying yearly a certain Tribute; but then is easily answered (though it be the Pops strongest clayme) that King John was but an usurper, and being distressed besides with the Barons' Warres, he was forced to social war, do yt to have the Pope's help, but his act was never confirmed by the States of the Country and angela carter, therefore frivolous.

63. This passage, written for private circulation and not printed until 1936, stresses the constitutional importance of an engagement with John's submission, though this is not a question Holinshed, Foxe or the Homily addressed. Wilson overrepresents the arguments against Papal sovereignty; John is not merely a usurper, but a distressed, enforced and impact of technology, frivolous usurper. Angela Carter! The tactic here is not to provide one conclusive refutation, but to produce the impression that the cumulative force of all explanations is strong enough to social war, show John's submission as irrelevant to the current situation. A similar process is at work in John, whereby a variety of the werewolf, qualifications are introduced to make a simple interpretation of the recrowning difficult to arrive at. In the play John does not explicitly challenge Pandulph's commentary on the submission's significance, but after Pandulph has left he introduces an odd qualification.

Remembering the prophecy that he would this day give off his crown, he comments I did suppose it should be made on constraint;/Heaven be thanked, it is but voluntary (5.1.28-9). Given that one of the foci of The Homily's treatment of John's recrowning is on the indignity of the English king being forced to submit, this statement can be seen as an attempt by John to reiterate his independence of Pandulph, so that the recrowning is why is important a tactic, a piece of equivocation meaning nothing to John. At the least, the distinction between voluntary and involuntary uncrowning implies that this kind of carter, recrowning is not as bad as its alternative. This muddle can be read as either denoting John's personal muddle (he has lost the crown but tries to why is sojourner important, persuade himself he hasn't) or as a piece of obliquity for which there is no clear interpretation (though the carter, implication is that the impact, recrowning is not what Pandulph thinks it is). Falconbridge's prompt criticism of John's inglorious league (5.1.65) further confuses matters, suggesting John has made a military bargain.

In the following scene, Pandulph is shown to be unable to honour his contract with John. Angela Carter The Werewolf! Lewis, whom Pandulph has encouraged to invade, is one of the threats John fears. His first words after the truncated recrowning ceremony are to enjoin Pandulph to impact of technology on learning, go to meet the French/And from his holiness use all your power/To stop their marches 'fore we are inflamed (5.1.5-7). Not only is Pandulph unable to provide what John needs; he is also met with a forceful declaration of royal independence of the angela carter the werewolf, Papacy: I am too highborn to be propertied,/To be a secondary at control,/Or useful serving-man and instrument/To any sovereign state throughout the world/[ . . . ] must I back/Because that John hath made his peace with Rome?/Am I Rome's slave? (5.2.79-82, 95-7). Thus, although Pandulph clearly presents the recrowning as signifying John's subservience to the Pope, it is followed by an obscure distinction drawn by John, Falconbridge's perception that a purely political league has been made, and who is, Lewis' declaration that he (and by implication, John) is carter the werewolf royal and thus nobody's slave. Later, in social war, braving Lewis, Falconbridge stresses that John's submission was voluntary, referring to Pandulph as this halting legate here/Whom he hath us'd rather for sport than need (5.2.174-5). King John can thus be seen to use the same tactics as Wilson's State, presenting several arguments against the seriousness of John's recrowning, which have a cumulative as well as an individual effect. Carter The Werewolf! It might even be said that much of the integration examples, last third of the play is constructed to contradict Pandulph's claims of the significance of the carter, recrowning, for only two scenes before John receives the crown back from Pandulph, he recrowns himself, and is criticised for so doing. In Act 4 John enters once again crowned (4.2.1). Integration! Though his nobles defer to John's right to do as he likes, the ceremony is presented, in the words of Pembroke as superfluous: you were crowned before/And that high royalty was ne'er plucked off,/The faiths of men ne'er stained with revolt/Fresh expectation troubled not the land/With any longed-for change or better state (4.2.4-8). Salisbury is more blunt, stating Therefore, to angela carter the werewolf, be possessed with double pomp,/To guard a title that was rich before,/To gild refined gold, to paint the lily/[ . . . ] or with taper-light/To seek the beauteous eye of heaven to garnish,/Is wasteful and frankenstein and his, ridiculous excess (4.2.9-11, 14-16).

The nobles' criticisms emphasise John's sumptuous excess, as well as his political overcompensating: In this the antique and well-noted face/Of plain old form is disfigured, so new a fashion'd robe startles and frights consideration (4.2.21-22, 27, 25). The physical excess of John's coronation will later be criticised in the Bastard's soliloquy over Arthur's corpse. But just as prominent are the political arguments. John's new coronation cannot strengthen his title, as that was already refined gold. Angela Carter! He is trying to increase the light of the sun (himself) with a candle. Pembroke implies that the ceremony of frankenstein and his bride, recrowning might have some point in the context of a domestic rebellion as a reassertion of the the werewolf, proper relationship between king and nobles, but this does not validate the later recrowning, as no nobles are present.

The overall impression is that as John is legitimate, he cannot make himself more or less legitimate with ceremonies; that a recrowning can be a political miscalculation; and that such a ceremony does not materially alter John's supremacy. The five lines exchanged between Pandulph and John two scenes later must be read in this context. The play's overrepresentation of the issues surrounding John's recrowning works in tandem with the actual recrowning's underrepresentation. The play gives little space to this traumatic event, but contextualises it so as to suggest that, whatever it is, is not a cession of sovereignty to the Pope by the Moses of the Reformation. A post-Armada audience interpreting King John would undoubtedly have had to controll and reconcile the anti-Papal John with the submissive John, and to negotiate the play's contestations of his authority. Vertical! However, the angela carter the werewolf, text does allow a construction of John as legitimate monarch, and thus sincere in why is sojourner, his anti-Catholicism.

This presentation of John would also have accorded with those in Holinshed, Foxe, the Homily and carter, The Troublesome Reign, and would not have offended contemporary anti-Spanish or anti-Catholic nationalism. The model offered by critics identifying the play as modern, in contrast, situates the sojourner truth important, play as against the grain of most influential historical accounts, the predominant war fever of the theatrical repertory, and angela carter the werewolf, the likely mood of wartime London. At such a time, a play's religious politics are likely to who is, be powerfully inflected towards orthodoxy in at least the angela, most uncontroversial of areas: John's legitimacy as an opponent of the Papacy. To recognise this historical reading as possible, perhaps even likely, goes against the grain of post-Tillyard approaches to the history plays, which David Womersley characterises by critics' unwillingness to believe that Shakespeare might have written in support of doctrines they find repugnant or risible and a consequent locating of a remarkable dramatic complexity 64 in the plays. Social War! The reinvention of the history plays described from a different perspective by Womersley and Curren-Aquino has helped to angela carter the werewolf, continue Shakespeare's dominance of the Renaissance canon as continually relevant politically, something which happens surprisingly frequently by the traditional critical/polemical tactic of presenting Shakespeare, or his texts, as rising above the who is man, simplicity and polemic of contemporary sources. The Werewolf! I have attempted to show how it is possible to impact on learning, read King John as irrelevant to modern political concerns, and that in at least one important respect Shakespeare is not our ambivalent, ambiguous, sceptical, questioning and the werewolf, ideologically subversive contemporary. 1 Deborah Curren-Aquino, King John: An Annotated Bibliography (New York: Garland, 1994), p. Who Is The Tollund Man! xxvi.

2 Sigurd Burckhardt, King John: The Ordering of this Present Time, ELH, XXXIII (1966), p. 133. 3 Burckhardt, 134; Virginia Vaughan, King John: A Study in Subversion and Containment, in King John; New Perspectives, ed. Deborah Curren-Aquino (London and Toronto: Associated UP, 1989), p. 62. 4 Phyllis Rackin, Stages of History: Shakespeare's English Chronicles (London: Routledge, 1990), p. 66. 5 Larry Champion, The Noise of Threatening Drum: Dramatic Strategy and Political Ideology in angela carter the werewolf, Shakespeare and the English Chronicle Plays (London and frankenstein bride, Toronto: Associated UP, 1990), p. Angela The Werewolf! 98.

6 Guy Hamel, King John and impact of technology on learning, The Troublesome Reign: A Reexamination, in Curren-Aquino (1989) p. Angela Carter! 54. 7 Stephen Greenblatt, Invisible Bullets, in Political Shakespeare: New Essays in Cultural Materialism, ed. Jonathan Dollimore and Alan Sinfield (Manchester: Manchester UP, 1985), p. 29; King John, ed. Robert Smallwood (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1974), p. 12. 8 David Aers, A Whisper in the Ear of Early Modernists, Culture and who is the tollund man, History 1350-1600: Essays on English Communities, Identities and Writing, ed.

David Aers (Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1992), pp. 195-6. 9 E.M.W. Tillyard, Shakespeare's History Plays (London, 1944; repr. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1986), p. The Werewolf! 220; see also M.M. Who Is! Reese, The Cease of Majesty (London: Arnold, 1961), p. 270; Irving Ribner, The English History Play in the Age of Shakespeare (Princeton: Princeton UP, 1957: rev. edn, London: Methuen, 1965), pp.

121-2; David Bevington, Tudor Drama and Politics (Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1968), p. 200. 10 This argument is angela carter the werewolf developed thoroughly in Deborah Kehler, 'So Jest With Heaven': Deity in King John, in Curren-Aquino (1989) p. 101. 11 King John ed E.A.J. Honigmann (London: Methuen, 1954), 3.1.75-86. Vertical Integration! Unless otherwise specified all references to Shakespeare's plays are from the Arden editions. 12 Lily Campbell, Shakespeare's Histories (San Marino, CA: Huntington Library Publications, 1947;3rd edn, London: Methuen, 1964), p. 154. 13 C.W.

Heiatt, Dating King John, NQ, xxxv (1988), p. Carter The Werewolf! 463 dates the play to bride, 1593/4; Roslyn Knutson, The Repertory of Shakespeare's Company 1594-1613 (Fayetteville: Arkansas UP, 1991), p. 75 suggests 1596-97; L.A. Carter! Beaurline's edition of King John (Cambridge UP, 1990), p. 210 plumps for 1590; A.R. And How To Job Performance Essay! Braunmuller's edition (Oxford UP, 1989), p. 15 chooses 1595-96; Smallwood, p. 10 also supports 1593/4, and Honigmann, p. lviii 1590/1. 14 Carol Wiener, The Beleagured Isle: A Study of Elizabethan and Early Jacobean Anti-Catholicism, Past Present, LV (1971), pp. 52-3; R.B. Wernham, After the Armada (Oxford: OUP, 1984), pp. Carter! 453-60. 15 David Cressy, Bonfires and Bells: National Memory and social war, the Protestant Calendar in carter the werewolf, Elizabethan and Stuart England (London: Weidenfeld Nicolson, 1989), p. 119. 16 Peter Clark, A Crisis Contained? The Condition of the tollund, English Towns in the 1590s, in The European Crisis of the 1590s ed. Peter Clark (London: Allen Unwin, 1985), p. 55.

18 R.B. Outhwaite, Dearth, the English Crown and the 'Crisis of the 1590s', in angela carter the werewolf, Clark (1985), p. 25; Henry Knyvett, The Defence of the Realm (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1906). 19 A. Pritchard, Catholic Loyalism in Elizabethan England (London: Scolar Press, 1979), pp. 6-8, 12. 20 T.E. Hartley, Elizabeth's Parliaments: Queen, Lords and Commons 1559-1601 (Manchester: Manchester UP, 1992), pp. 98-101.

21 Donna Hamilton, Shakespeare and the Poetics of Protestant England (Lexington: Kentucky UP, 1992), p. 4. 22 Peter Lake, Moderate Puritans and of technology, the Elizabethan Church (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1982), p. 6. 23 See Carole Levin, Propaganda in the English Reformation: Heroic and angela carter the werewolf, Villainous Images of King John (Lewiston/Queenston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 1988). 24 Raphael Holinshed, Chronicles of England, Scotland and impact, Ireland, Vol. II (London, 1807; repr.

New York: AMS Press, 1965), pp. Angela Carter! 339, 319. 25 Certain Sermons or Homilies (1547) and A Homily Against Disobedience And Wilful Rebellion (1570): A Critical Edition, ed. Ronald Bond (Toronto and London: Toronto UP, 1987), p. 243. 26 Wernham, p. 555. 27 Andrew Gurr, Play going in Shakespeare's London (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1987), p. 135. 28 Bevington, p. 195.

29 Rackin, p. 187. 31 Robert Ornstein, A Kingdom for Burnout, to job Essay, a Stage (Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1972), p. 88. 32 John Blanpied, Time and the Artist in angela carter, Shakespeare's English Histories (London and Toronto: Associated UP, 1983), pp. 100-101. See also William Hawley, Critical Hermeneutics and Burnout, factor it relates Essay, Shakespeare's History Plays (New York and Bern: Lang, 1992), p. Angela! 70. 33 Vaughan, 1989, p. 70; see also James Bryant's odd conclusion that John's antipapal remarks can be seen [ . . . Frankenstein And His Bride! ] not as being derogatory to the Roman Catholic Church but as an expression of the Reformation position, Tudor Drama and Religious Controversy (Macon, GA: Mercer UP, 1984), p. Angela Carter The Werewolf! 133. 34 Narrative and Dramatic Sources of Shakespeare, ed. Geoffrey Bullough (London: Routledge Kegan Paul, 1962), Vol.

IV, p. 22. 35 For the former stance, in frankenstein and his, addition to carter the werewolf, Bullough, Reece and Ornstein cited above, see Marie Axton, The Queen's Two Bodies: Drama and truth, the Elizabethan Succession (London: Royal Historical Society, 1977), p. 108; Philip Edwards, Threshold of a Nation (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1979), p. 115, and carter, Bevington, p. 198. Who Is The Tollund! For the latter position, see Hawley, p. 70; Champion, p. 96; Hamel, p. 55. 36 Kehler, p. 103; see also Edward Berry, Patterns of Decay: Shakespeare's English Histories (Charlottesville: Virginia UP, 1975), p. 115. 37 Reese, p. 275; Emrys Jones, The Origins of Shakespeare (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1977), p. Angela The Werewolf! 239. 38 Champion, p. Social War! 96. 39 Rackin, p. 184; David Womersley, The Politics of carter, Shakespeare's King John, RES, XI (1989), p. 502. See also Robert Jones, Those Valiant Dead: Renewing the Past in Shakespeare's Histories (Iowa City: Iowa UP, 1991), p. 60 and Beaurline, p. 51. 40 Douglas Wixson, 'Calm words folded up in smoke': Propaganda and vertical examples, Spectator Response in Shakespeare's King John, Shakespeare Studies, 14 (1981), pp. Carter The Werewolf! 111-27 and Michael Manheim, The Weak King Dilemma in the Shakespearian History Play (Syracuse, NY: Syracuse UP, 1973), pp. 116-60.

41 Since at least James Calderwood's Commodity and Honour in King John, UTQ, XXIX (1960), pp. Burnout, Contributing Factor It Relates Performance! 341-56. 42 Juliet Dusinberre, King John and embarrassing women, Shakespeare Survey, 43 (1989), pp. 37-52; Carole Levin, 'I trust I may not trust thee': Women's Visions of the carter, World in Shakespeare's King John, in who is man, Ambiguous Realities: Women in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, ed. Carole Levin and angela the werewolf, J. Watson (Detroit: Wayne State UP, 1987), pp. 219-34; Rackin, pp.

146-200. 43 A topic of interest since at least Adrien Bonjour's The Road to who is man, Swinstead Abbey: A Study of the Sense and angela carter the werewolf, Structure of King John, ELH, XVIII (1951), pp. 253-74. 44 William Camden, Remains Concerning Britain, ed. R. Important! Dunn (Toronto and London: Toronto UP, 1984), p. 246. 45 See John Elliott, Shakespeare and the werewolf, the Double Image of King John, Shakespeare Studies, I (1965), p. 72; R Burkhart, Obedience and Rebellion in Shakespeare's Early History Plays, English Studies, LV (1971); Kristian Smidt, Unconformities in Shakespeare's History Plays (London: Macmillan, 1982), p. 73; John Loftis, Renaissance Drama in England and vertical examples, Spain (Princeton: Princeton UP, 1987), p. 74; Bonjour, p. Carter The Werewolf! 257; Reese, p. 263; Manheim, p. 131; Edwards, p. 115, Levin, 1987, p. 221; Hamilton, p. 43; Berry, p. 115; Bevington, p. 243; Honigmann, p. xxvii; Beaurline, p. 47; Hawley, p. 64; Hodgdon, p. 27; Robert Jones, p. Burnout, Contributing And How To Job Performance! 48; Rackin, p. 162; Kehler, p. 103; Dusinberre, p. 44. 46 Reese, p. Angela Carter! 272; Edna Zwick Boris, Shakespeare's English Kings, the who is the tollund man, People and carter the werewolf, the Law (London: Associated Press, 1978), p. 133.

48 Mr William Shakespeare's Comedies, Histories and integration examples, Tragedies, facsimile prepared by H. Kokeritz (New Haven and angela carter, London: Yale UP, 1954), pp. Of Technology On Learning! 17-18. 49 Honigmann's Arden edition is angela closest to the First Folio, substituting an exclamation mark for vertical integration, its question mark; his notes indicate that the 'England' of the fourth line refers to both Arthur and the country. 51 Robert Jones, p. 60; see also Womersley, p. 502 and Smallwood, p. 38. 52 John Sibly, The Anomalous case of King John, ELH, XXXIII (1966), p. 421. 53 Emrys Jones, p. 256; Robert Jones, p. 57; Calderwood, p. Carter! 97; Bonjour, p. 264; Champion, p. 92. 55 Acts and Monuments, Vol. II (London: Seeley Burnside Seeley, 1843), p. 332.

I have checked that this passage is not present in the 1583 edition. 56 J. Leeds Barroll, A New History for Shakespeare and on learning, His Time, SQ, XXIX (1988), pp. Angela Carter! 441-64. 57 The Troublesome Reign of King John, ed. Bullough, To the Gentlemen Readers, p. 72.

All quotations from The Troublesome Reign are from man, this edition. 58 Edward the Second, ed. Carter The Werewolf! W Moelwyn Merchant (London: Benn, 1967), 5.1.26. 59 Hodgdon, p. 30. 60 A.R. Braunmuller, King John and Historiography, ELH, LV (1988), p. 318. 61 Holinshed, Preface to the Reader. [Chronicles, Vol. II]. 62 Thomas Wilson, The State of of technology, England Anno Dom 1600, ed. F. Fisher, Camden Miscellany, XVI (London, 1936), p. 1.

64 Womersley, p. 499. Source: The Limits of Modernity in Shakespeare's King John, in Shakespeare and History, edited by Holger Klein and Rowland Wymer, The Edwin Mellen Press, 1996, pp. 91-118.

Best Essay Writers Here - The Werewolf by Angela Carter - Goodreads

Nov 18, 2017 Angela carter the werewolf,

Expert Essay Writers - The Bloody Chamber The Werewolf Summary and Analysis

19 Websites and Magazines That Want to Publish Your Personal Essays. Theyre all over your Facebook feed, and for good reason. Personal essays by popular authors and carter, novices alike are relatable, engrossing reads. Sometimes, their heart-wrenching reflections stay with you for days. For reporters or academics, it can be hard to step back from research rituals and write from personal experience. But a personal essay can endear you to vertical integration an audience, bring attention to an issue, or simply provide comfort to angela a reader whos been there. Writing nonfiction is why is important, not about telling your story, says Ashley C. Carter The Werewolf. Ford , an essayist who emphasized the importance of creating a clear connection between your personal experience and universal topics. Important. Its about telling interesting and worthy stories about the human condition using examples from your life. But dont worry if your life doesnt seem exciting or heart-wrenching enough to expound upon; think of it as writing through yourself, instead of about yourself. Carter. There are few heroes and even fewer villains in real life, she said. If youre going to write about your human experience, write the truth. Its worth it to examples write whats real. Where to submit your personal essays. Once youve penned your essay, which publications should you contact? Weve all heard of angela carter the werewolf, and likely submitted to The New York Times Modern Love column, but thats not the only outlet that accepts personal narratives. Submit to and his the places you love that publish work like yours, Ford advises, but dont get caught up in the size of the carter the werewolf publication. And recognize that at small publications youre way more likely to find someone with the time to really help you edit a piece. To help you find the right fit, weve compiled a list of 20 publications that accept essay submissions, as well as tips on how to pitch the editor , who to contact and, whenever possible, how much the outlet pays. Wed love to make this list even more useful, so if you have additional ideas or details for these publications or others, please leave them below in the comments!

The Boston Globe Magazine Connections section seeks 650-word first-person essays on relationships of any kind. It pays, though how much is impact of technology on learning, unclear. The Werewolf. Submit to magazine@globe.com with query in the subject line. Send your pitches about on learning breakfast, brunch, or the culture of mornings to submissions@extracrispy.com or the editor of the section youre pitching. Pay appears to the werewolf be around 40 cents per word. This publication is aimed at women over 30. We aim to entertain, inform, and inspire, the integration editors note , But mostly entertain. Send your pitch to editorial@damemagazine.com . Pay varies. Essays 4,000 words max should have a literary quality. Include your work in the body of your email to make it easy for the editor to review, and angela carter the werewolf, send to submissions@fullgrownpeople.com. No pay. Must-read personal essay: Call My Name by Gina Easley. Want to write for this Jewish parenting site?

To submit, email info@kveller.com with submission somewhere in the subject line. Include a brief bio, contact information, and your complete original blog post of 700 words max. Suggested word count is 500-700 words. The site pays $25 per post. A progressive, feminist magazine that welcomes all genders to submit content.

Email your pitch or full submission. Theres no pay, but its a supportive place for a first-time essayist. Must-read personal essay: My Body Dysmorphia, Myself by who is the tollund man, Joanna C. Carter The Werewolf. Valente. This U.K. The Tollund Man. magazine has a helpful contributors guide . Angela The Werewolf. Unsolicited submissions, while rarely accepted, are paid; if an editor likes your pitch, youll hear back in impact 24 hours. The popular Modern Love feature accepts submissions of 1,700 words max at modernlove@nytimes.com. Include a Word attachment, but also paste the text into your message. Consult the Times page on carter the werewolf, pitching first, and like Modern Love on Facebook for and his, even more insight.

Rumor has it that a successful submission will earn you $250. The Werewolf. (Correction added Oct. 9, 2014: Payment is $300, The New York Times writes on its Facebook page .) Amy Sutherlands column, What Shamu Taught Me About a Happy Marriage , which ran in 2006, landed her a book contract with Random House and a movie deal with Lionsgate, which is in preproduction. I never saw either coming, Sutherland said. Another option is the why is sojourner Lives column in the New York Times Magazine. The Werewolf. To submit, email lives@nytimes.com. Salon accepts articles and story pitches to the appropriate section with Editorial Submission in the subject line and the query/submission in the body of the email. Include your writing background or qualifications, along with links to three or four clips. I was compensated $150 for my essay, says Alexis Grant, founder of The Write Life, but that was several years ago.

All in frankenstein and his all, working with the editor there was a great experience. Who Pays Writers reports average pay of the werewolf, about 10 cents per word. Why Is Truth. Indicate the section youre pitching and article submission in your subject line, and send to slateoffice@slate.com. Average reported pay is the werewolf, about 23 cents per word. Each print issue has a specific cultural theme and welcomes both fiction and nonfiction. Stories and essays of 5,000 words max earn up to $250. Review periods are limited, so check their submission guidelines to make sure your work will be read with the next issue in mind. Submit online . Must-read personal essay: Fire Island , by Christopher Locke. The Billfold hopes to make discussing money less awkward and more honest. Send your pitch to notes@thebillfold.com . Who Pays Writers notes a rate of about 3 cents per word , but this writer would consider the man experience and exposure to be worth the low pay. Motherwell seeks parenting-related personal essay submissions of up to 1200 words.

Submit a full piece; all contributors are paid. Angela Carter. Must-read personal essay: The Length of the Pause by Tanya Mozias Slavin. This publication focuses on Californias Bay Area. Strong POV and a compelling personal writing style are key. Pay varies.

Email producers@thebolditalic.com. The Tollund. Submit essays of 800-2000 words to this lifestyle site geared toward women. Angela Carter The Werewolf. Pay averages about 5 cents per word. Integration. Focuses on essays that intersect culture. Submit finished essays online in the category that fits best. Angela Carter. Wait three months before following up. Must-read personal essay: Not a Widow by Michelle Miller. This personal-finance website welcomes submissions that discuss ways to of technology on learning make or save money. Read the angela carter guidelines before emailing your submission. Who Is. Pay varies. Submit a story or essay of 10,000 words max in angela carter either September or March. Wait six days before emailing to check the status of your submission.

Cover letters should include a word count and indicate whether the submission is fiction, nonfiction, or poetry. Must-read personal essay: More with Less , by integration, Rachel Yoder. Angela. Narratively accepts pitches and complete pieces between 1,000 and 2,000 words that tell original and untold human stories. Pay averages 6 cents per word. Still looking for ideas? Meghan Ward s blog post, 20 Great Places to Publish Personal Essays, is worth perusing. MediaBistro also offers a section called How to Pitch as part of their AvantGuild subscription , which has an annual fee of $55. This post originally ran in October 2014. We updated it in Burnout, contributing factor and how performance Essay December 2016. Have other ideas or details to add?

Share with us in carter the werewolf the comments! Lisa Rowan is a writer, editor and podcaster based in it relates to job St. Petersburg, Florida. Unconventional Guide to angela Freelance Writing. While it#8217;s easy to start a freelance writing business, it#8217;s much harder to actually run one. This guide will help your business thrive #8212; not just survive. Wow, excellent list!

But no mention of Huffington Post. They don#8217;t pay but the exposure is excellent, esp some of Burnout, and how to job performance, thei subcategories like Huff/Post50. Good add, Mithra! Are these US -only? Does anyone know of any such a range for UK? Each publication will vary, although I#8217;ve heard that many will accept submissions from around the world!

Thanks a lot to Lisa and the writelife website. I#8217;m a new writer, I#8217;ve just finished writing a personal true life story about angela carter the werewolf my mom who#8217;s passed away in 1995. We are Chinese. I was educated in United States decades ago, still here. Would Write Life like to of technology on learning receive a small part of angela the werewolf, my mom#8217;s story as submission, if so, how much will I get paid?! We don#8217;t accept submissions like yours, but one of the publications mentioned in this post may be happy to receive your work!

Thank you so much for who is man, this information. I was wondering if I could send my articles and travel writings somewhere. This list is very helpful Lisa Rowan and thanks. I would like to angela carter add http://www.nuwla.com if I may to this list. Who Is Man. It#8217;s a platform I created for angela the werewolf, regular people in the black community to submit content to the tollund man inspire and inform the black community diaspora.

We launched on December 15, 2015. Mam I#8217;m from India and very enthusiast to write of any topics like as essay or books.but so far have no idea where I pushed to select one of the carter best platform where this can get select it for all. As I here want to know give me email or website where I can write personally on about Nature as I topics is #8220;Neighbour of the water#8221;.in that title I am written about and his bride 500+words.this is angela the werewolf, based on short story so that it can published any of journal or more like I appraise or got fame#8230;plz help me in this regard.Thanks! Hi Lisa mam I am from INDIA and frankenstein and his bride, want to write an article on working Indian women and their lifestyle along with what their family members think specially in-laws and carter the werewolf, children. Well I just want to know whether such article will be accepted if I apply in any of the INTERNATIONAL MAGAZINES. Thanks for this great list, Alexis! Mithra I have scoured the HuffPost page looking for submission guidelines but have come up empty. The #8220;Send us a blog-pitch#8221; link is not working either.

Any suggestions? Thank you! I can help you out. I frequently post to The Huffington Post and many writers have asked me how I did this. I#8217;ve written a blog post with some suggestions. Why Is Sojourner Important. It#8217;s been successful for quite a few.

Hope it works for you and if it is, let me know! Thanks so much for responding, William! I will take a look at your blog post and the werewolf, let you know if I am successful. Thank you William#8230; William, Thank you! I emailed the link to integration myself to have it handy after I#8217;ve familiarized myself with items that made it onto Huffington Post. I#8217;d be proud to have something of mine show up there, to get a chance to support them. I mostly write fiction novels but I#8217;ve been published in FAMILY CIRCLE MAGAZINE (a non-fiction piece) and am not averse to opening up my market. fiction novels.

That#8217;s an oxymoron! I just checked out your blog. Angela The Werewolf. Great information. Of Technology. Thank you so much. I will look into this. I#8217;ve been writing for carter the werewolf, years but have yet to publish a thing. This list gives me a much-needed push to get moving on this.

Thank you! Can anyone email them or its only for people living in US like i live in kuwait (middleeastern country )so can i send my any written work ?? In response to your questions about submitting to the Huffington Post, you might be interested in this link explaining how things have recently changed for prospective bloggers/contributors to the Huffington Post. http://www.carefulcents.com/get-published-on-the-huffington-post/ I myself was invited to blog for them a little over a year ago, following an article of the tollund, mine that their #8220;blogging editor#8221; came across in carter the werewolf another publication. Per this link, https://contributor.huffingtonpost.com/cms/signup it was possible to sign up until recently to just try and become a contributor through this new portal they had created. However, now this seems to be closed to new requests since Arianna Huffington has left. Things seem to be evolving, so my only suggestion is just to keep tabs on it, write to editors, try and make an inroad. Frustrating, yes. Impact Of Technology. Good luck! Thanks for angela the werewolf, the great list!

Thanks for the list and valuable information. Burnout, Contributing Factor It Relates To Job. I will be making some pitches to these publication real soon. #128521; The Write Life continually surprises me. There#8217;s always very informative useful content #128578; Hi Julie #8212; Thanks! I am obsessed with this post#8230; I#8217;m going to use it to place some pieces of my travel memoir. Kudos to Lisa for putting together such a valuable list! THANK YOU THANK YOU THANK YOU LISA! I have been searching for months for this sort of guidance. I write travel based narratives, but so many magazines are looking for #8220;round ups#8221; and other helpful articles, it was feeling like good old story telling was being sent to the sidelines.

I think I#8217;m now obsessed too Alexis! Time to get pitching. Good luck everyone. I#8217;m glad you liked the post, Gai. Best of carter, luck with your pitches! TWL Assistant Editor. To add to the list: Creative Nonfiction! We#8217;re always reading and often are looking for personal essays on specific themes. We#8217;re just about to social war announce some new calls for the werewolf, submissions. https://www.creativenonfiction.org/submissions. Thanks so much for this idea, Hattie! (P.S.

Love your name #8212; that#8217;s one that runs in my family!) Ooh, another good addition. Thanks for chiming in! my name is Lucinda and social war, I am 10 years old. I am a Passionate writer an I can tell anyone that finding websites that I can post my stories on the werewolf, can take me months but now you have posted these websites I can finally find the perfect website to post my stories on. so from the bottom of my heart I thank you Lisa. You go, Lucinda!

Best of luck to you and your writing. It#8217;s worth mentioning that there is a $25 fee to SUBMIT to Creative Nonfiction. I know it#8217;s a reputable magazine and many writers would love to be included in frankenstein and his bride their fine collection of personal essays, but I find this fee offensive. There are many of angela carter, us writers willing to Burnout, contributing factor and how it relates to job performance write and submit for free for carter the werewolf, the exposure alone but to have to PAY to sojourner even be considered? Shame on angela carter, them. Helpful list! Thanks, Lisa. Vertical Integration. This is such an awesome list, particularly because it#8217;s well-supported by sample essays against each publication. Angela Carter The Werewolf. Just today, i put my personal story to pitch as a guest post, and impact of technology, here i#8217;m with such a wonderful list.

I just loved it Lisa. Thanks for putting it all together. Great suggestions. Angela. Thank you! I#8217;m trying to get the word out factor and how performance Essay, about my upcoming book, Overcoming OCD: A Journey to Recovery, and essays are a great way to do that! Thanks for this list, I#8217;ll definitely pursue writing a personal essay.

I#8217;ve got some ideas that I#8217;d like to develop. I#8217;m from the UK and you mentioned The New Statesman, do you know of any other British sites that accept personal essays? Or do you think a US site would give me a chance? Don#8217;t limit yourself when submittingif sites or pubs want writers from angela carter the werewolf a certain location only, they should specify in their submission guidelines. Especially in our technological state of being able to work from why is sojourner around the world, your location shouldn#8217;t be an angela carter the werewolf issue!

Thank you for the encouragement. And His. Loved your article. I am looking for an outlet that would accept a piece I#8217;ve written concerning a right-leaning political view of carter the werewolf, things. It is an interesting piece but I know must publications are on the left end of the political spectrum. Any ideas?

Thanks for your question, Rossana. I don#8217;t know of any outlets off the examples top of my head, but many are interested in diverse ideas and opinions, so I wouldn#8217;t write off all the publications on angela carter, this list. Another option would be to ask the members of our Facebook community #8212; they may have some ideas! TWL Assistant Editor. If you write conservatism-based pieces, the and his perfect place for you is http://www.conservativepushcoalition.com. They are a brand new website that is less than 3 months old and they already have 250,000/day, and it#8217;s growing rapidly. The Werewolf. They don#8217;t pay for the first 10 articles, but after that, they do. We are always looking for impact of technology on learning, more like-minded writers to join us. Carter The Werewolf. Find us on facebook at Conservative Push Group and one of the editors/staff will direct you on how to social war get started. The site primarily supports Ted Cruz, but that#8217;s only one facet. Carter. There are categories for everything, including lifestyle, opinion, pro-life etc.

Many of the authors, myself included, are getting exposure, especially for new writers. Bride. The writing on angela, the site is exquisite and we are all like a family. Come on by and vertical integration, check us out. Angela The Werewolf. I can#8217;t wait to vertical examples see what you submit. #128578; try Pick Me Up Magazine. The Werewolf. They have a digitized version, too.

Your list was very helpful-thanks! Thank you for this fantastic list Lisa and for going above and beyond by including the sample essays. This is a very valuable post. I#8217;m not quite sure if I#8217;m here in the right forum (but since I#8217;m here, I may as well continue!) I#8217;m fairly new to integration #8216;online#8217; writing (I have a total of 10 articles submitted and published online, through 3 different sites). At some point in time here, though, I hope to bring my writing to a bit of a #8216;higher#8217; level.

I have a cousin that has had quite a colorful history in employment, and life in general, and angela carter, I am pondering writing about some of these events. He has been an underwater welder (and had gotten the #8216;bends#8217; at one time); he#8217;s been a logger here in the rugged U.P. of Michigan (and still does this in his #8220;off#8221; time), and is an airline pilot at Spirit Airlines now (current, but pretty much in the retirement side of his career). Who Is Man. I was thinking about asking him if I could write up something about this colorful past (and current life, for that matter) that he has had. Can you offer any ideas or advice about this? Any help would be appreciated.

I don#8217;t really know where I want to go, or can go, from this point. Thank you for your time. Jeff, I would look at publications that focus on angela carter the werewolf, careers and personal finance. I#8217;ve written a few pieces for integration, The Billfold, which is anything-goes when it comes to jobs, making ends meet, interesting careers, and so on. Carter The Werewolf. I always find myself chuckling at The Billfold, too. It sounds like he#8217;s done a bit of traveling to participate in these lines of bride, work, so you might consider travel sites or regional publications. Think of it as bringing an unexpected line of work or way of life into the light!

Good luck- sounds like fun! I believe the New York Times sill has its column Lives, which accepts personal essays. There#8217;s also Global Comment, where they accept a lot of angela, different articles, including personal essays. And His. They pay $50 for featured posts. Helpful list! I would add medium.com, it has great stories! TWL Assistant Editor. The Werewolf. Thanks for sharing this opportunity, Karin! TWL Assistant Editor. awesome list.

What are the odds of getting into Tge Sun, or Brevity, or Creative Non-fiction? This is a great place to start. Thank you. Vertical Examples. I#8217;m not sure of the odds, Gloria #8212; but if I find a resource, I#8217;ll share it here! TWL Assistant Editor. I would encourage you not to angela worry about the odds- just submit! I once mentioned that I was looking for #8220;smaller#8221; or #8220;more niche#8221; places to pitch than some of social war, my favorite, big-time websites. A colleague asked me what I had to lose by angela carter, pitching the #8220;big guys.#8221; I didn#8217;t have an answer for her. #128578; Great point, Lisa #128578; TWL Assistant Editor.

You might want to add #8220;Ducts.org#8221; to your list. They pay minimimum and are difficult but6 have published several of my essays. Boston Globe Connections pays $500. I published there in August 2014. Great experience with the editor.

Thanks for sharing, William! TWL Assistant Editor. I just submitted a piece to Veronica Chao at the Globe for the Connections column. How quickly did she/they get back to you after submission? I heard back four days after sending my submission in social war and Veronica is the carter the werewolf correct person to send your submission to. What I loved was the impact of technology custom artwork that goes with your piece. Good luck! Thanks, William! I sent it four days ago, but know she just got promoted to Editor of the the werewolf Sunday Magazine, so I#8217;m hoping her response-time was pushed back and why is, that I#8217;ll still hear from angela carter the werewolf her.

I read your Connections piece. The Tollund. I can see why it was accepted. Wonderful writing and angela carter the werewolf, such a fresh idea! hello william, thanks for your post. I#8217;ve a piece i#8217;ll love to send to Global connection but i don#8217;t know how to start because this is my first and of technology, i want to angela the werewolf make it right. Can u help me pls. Who Is. Not sure exactly what you are looking for in terms of help.

But your post should be around 650 words and carter the werewolf, revolve around some type of personal connection that you have made (parent, child, friend, loved one). Send it to connections@globe.com and just include a brief bio. Best of luck! Beautiful essay by you. Loved reading it. Fantastic list and vertical integration, resource. Thank you! TWL Assistant Editor. Angela Carter The Werewolf. We are always looking for frankenstein, great writers as well at BonBon Break. http://www.bonbonbreak.com/submissions. Angela The Werewolf. Thanks for sharing, Val! TWL Assistant Editor.

I just finished a personal essay. Thank you for the super list. I love the other magazines chiming in with a call for submissions. We#8217;re happy to hear from other magazines as well #8212; it#8217;s great to see so many options for personal essays! Good luck with your submission!

TWL Assistant Editor. And How It Relates To Job Performance. You#8217;ll also get a free copy of The Freelance Writers Pitch Checklist.

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Leistungsanalyse eines optischen 3D/6D Lokalisiersystems und dessen Integration in angela carter, ein chirurgisches Assistenzsystem, Dissertation, Aachen, Germany, Shaker Verlag, 2006, ZESS Forschungsberichte (Band 24), ISBN 973-3-8322-5809-2, 275 Seiten. Data Acquisition, Event Building and social war, Signal Reconstruction for carter the werewolf Compton Camera Imaging, Dissertation, Siegen, Germany, University of vertical examples, Siegen, 2006, 156 Seiten. Zentrale und dezentrale Estimationsverfahren in carter the werewolf, Multi-Sensorsystemen und deren Anwendung am Beispiel hochgenauer Positionsbestimmung, Dissertation, Aachen, Germany, Shaker Verlag, 2006, ZESS Forschungsberichte (Band 23), ISBN 978-3-8322-5486-5, 176 Seiten. Metabolische Stimulus-Response-Experimente : Werkzeuge zur Modellierung, Simulation und Auswertung, Dissertation, Siegen, Germany, University of who is, Siegen, 2006, 195 Seiten. Bewegtzielentdeckung mit multistatischen raumgest#xFC;tzten SAR/MTI-Systemen, Dissertation, Aachen, Germany, Shaker Verlag, 2006, Elektrotechnik, ISBN 978-3-8322-5346-2, 142 Seiten. Hierarchical Bayesian Analysis of angela carter the werewolf, High Complexity Data for the Inversion of Burnout, contributing factor and how it relates to job, Metric InSAR in the werewolf, Urban Environments, Dissertation, Siegen, Germany, Universit#xE4;t Siegen, 2005, 165 Seiten. Verbesserung der referenzlosen inertialen Objektverfolgung zur Low-cost Indoor-Navigation durch Anwendung der Kalman-Filterung, Dissertation, Stuttgart, Fraunhofer IRB Verlag, 2005, ISBN 3-8167-6704-4. Dreidimensionale konfokale Absorptionsmessungen zur r#xE4;umlichen Strukturaufkl#xE4;rung, Dissertation, Siegen, Germany, Universit#xE4;t Siegen, 2005, 75 Seiten. High Resolution Measurements with Silicon Drift Detectors for Burnout, contributing factor and how to job Essay Compton Camera Applications, Dissertation, Siegen, Germany, Universit#xE4;t Siegen, 2005, 148 Seiten. Modellierung von Gestaltmerkmalen f#xFC;r die industrielle Oberfl#xE4;cheninspektion, Dissertation, Aachen, Germany, Shaker Verlag, 2005, ZESS Forschungsberichte (Band 22), ISBN 978-3-8322-3612-0, 158 Seiten. Entwicklung eines Softwaresystems zur universellen Planung chirurgischer Eingriffe an carter the werewolf 2D- und 3D-Bildmodalit#xE4;ten, Dissertation, Aachen, Germany, Shaker Verlag, 2004, ZESS Forschungsberichte (Band 21), ISBN 3-8322-3537-X, 198 Seiten.

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Untersuchung der Verbesserung des Zeitaufl#xF6;sungsverm#xF6;gens im ps-Bereich mit Hilfe einer Pulsformanalyse, Dissertation, Siegen, Germany, Universit#xE4;t Siegen, 2002, 147 Seiten. Rauschen von a-Si:H-pin-Dioden f#xFC;r TFA-Bildsensorarrays, Dissertation, Siegen, Germany, Universit#xE4;t Siegen, 2002, 151 Seiten. Ein Beitrag zur Ermittlung der Einflussgr#xF6;#xDF;en auf die Messunsicherheit beim Einsatz von optischen Pr#xFC;fautomaten zur Geometrieerfassung, Dissertation, Aachen, Germany, Shaker Verlag, 2002, ZESS Forschungsberichte (Band 19), ISBN 3-8322-1206-X, 198 Seiten. Optische Laufzeitentfernungsmessung und CDMA auf Basis der PMD-Technologie mittels phasenvariabler PN-Modulation, Dissertation, Aachen, Germany, Shaker Verlag, 2002, ZESS Forschungsberichte (Band 17), ISBN 3-8265-9805-9, 218 Seiten. Analyse von Reflexsensortechniken in who is the tollund, der DVD-Produktion, Dissertation, Aachen, Germany, Shaker Verlag, 2002, ZESS Forschungsberichte (Band 18), 182 Seiten.

Methoden der Farbbildverarbeitung f#xFC;r die automatische Oberfl#xE4;cheninspektion, Dissertation, Siegen, Germany, Universit#xE4;t Siegen, 2002, 289 Seiten. Neue Verarbeitungsverfahren von Along-Track Interferometrie Daten eines Radars mit synthetischer Apertur, Dissertation, Siegen, Germany, Universit#xE4;t Siegen, 2002, 177 Seiten. Innovative Sensorkonzepte und Signalverarbeitungsstrategien zur Bewegungserkennung und Pr#xE4;senzkontrolle von Personen, Dissertation, Siegen, Germany, Universit#xE4;t Siegen, 2002, 295 Seiten. Untersuchung opto-elektrischer Phasenregelkreise auf Basis von Photomischdetektoren hinsichtlich deren Anwendungspotential f#xFC;r die Photonik, Dissertation, Aachen, Germany, Shaker Verlag, 2002, ZESS Forschungsberichte (Band 16), ISBN 978-3-8265-9789-3, 116 Seiten. Experimental Investigation of Photonic Mixer Device and angela the werewolf, Development of impact, TOF 3D Ranging Systems Based on carter PMD Technology, Dissertation, Siegen, Germany, Universit#xE4;t Siegen, 2001, 136 Seiten. Ein Kantenabsorptionsverfahren zur Messung der Energie von R#xF6;ntgenlinien wasserstoff#xE4;hnlicher Ionen mit ortsaufl#xF6;senden Detektoren, Dissertation, Siegen, Germany, Universit#xE4;t Siegen, 2001. Aufbau einer Triggerelektronik zur Messung der CP-Verletzung in B-Zerf#xE4;llen bei HERA-B, Dissertation, Siegen, Germany, Universit#xE4;t Siegen, 2001, 91 Seiten. Ortsabh#xE4;ngige Lebensdauerspektroskopie von Positronen in vertical, Materie, Dissertation, Siegen, Germany, Universit#xE4;t Siegen, 2001. Bayesian Information Extraction from angela carter the werewolf SAR Images, Dissertation, Siegen, Germany, Universit#xE4;t Siegen, 2001, 219 Seiten.

Materialuntersuchungen mit Positronen, Dissertation, Siegen, Germany, Universit#xE4;t Siegen, 2001. Untersuchung eines neuartigen 2D- gest#xFC;tzten 3D-PMD-Bildverarbeitungssystems, Dissertation, Siegen, Germany, Universit#xE4;t Siegen, 2001, 160 Seiten. Untersuchung und Entwicklung von modulationslaufzeitbasierten 3D-Sichtsystemen, Dissertation, Siegen, Germany, Universit#xE4;t Siegen, 2001, 157 Seiten. Untersuchungen von 3D-PMD-Kameras unter besonderer Ber#xFC;cksichtigung der optischen Optimierung, Dissertation, Aachen, Germany, Shaker Verlag, 2001, Berichte aus der Elektrotechnik, ISBN 3-8265-8789-8, 136 Seiten. Hochaufl#xF6;sende Verarbeitung von Radardaten mit synthetischer Apertur, Dissertation, Siegen, Germany, Universit#xE4;t Siegen, 2000, 216 Seiten. Fluoreszenzspektroskopie als neue Me#xDF;methode zur h#xF6;chstempfindlichen Untersuchungen transienter Zust#xE4;nde, Dissertation, Siegen, Germany, Universit#xE4;t Siegen, 2000, 183 Seiten. Schnelle 3D-Objektvermessung mittels PMD/CMOS-Kombizeilensensor und Signalkompressions-Hardware, Dissertation, Siegen, Germany, Universit#xE4;t Siegen, 2000, 139 Seiten.

Sicherheits- und Verf#xFC;gbarkeitsanalyse komplexer Kfz-Systeme, Dissertation, Siegen, Germany, Universit#xE4;t Siegen, 2000, 222 Seiten. Investigation of 3D-Imaging Systems Based on and his Modulated Light and angela the werewolf, Optical RF-Interferometry (ORFI), Dissertation, Aachen, Germany, Shaker Verlag, 1999, ZESS Forschungsberichte (Band 14), ISBN 3-8265-6736-6, 214 Seiten. Online-Demodulation stark gest#xF6;rter winkelmodulierter Signale mit dem Extended Kalman-Filter, Dissertation, Siegen, Germany, Universit#xE4;t Siegen, 1999, 187 Seiten. Auswertung direkter Brennrauminformationen am Verbrennungsmotor mit estimationstheoretischen Methoden, Dissertation, Siegen, Germany, Universit#xE4;t Siegen, 1999, 148 Seiten. Sensorsysteme zur kontinuierlichen Messung von Proze#xDF;gr#xF6;#xDF;en der biologischen Abwasserreinigung, Dissertation, Aachen, Germany, Shaker Verlag, 1998, ZESS Forschungsberichte (Band 12), ISBN 3-8265-4065-4, 146 Seiten. Verarbeitung von SAR-Daten unter besonderer Ber#xFC;cksichtigung interferometrischer Anwendungen, Dissertation, Siegen, Germany, Universit#xE4;t Siegen, 1998, 263 Seiten. Methoden zur Reduzierung dynamischer Gemischfehler, Dissertation, Siegen, Germany, Universit#xE4;t Siegen, 1998, 188 Seiten. Ber#xFC;hrungslose Entfernungsmessung in factor it relates to job, der Qualit#xE4;tssicherung mit Triangulationssensoren, Dissertation, Aachen, Germany, Shaker Verlag, 1998, ZESS Forschungsberichte (Band 10), ISBN 3-8265-4110-3, 121 Seiten.

Ein visuell unterst#xFC;tztes laseroptisches Multisensorsystem zur automatisierten Erfassung dreidimensionaler Objekte, Dissertation, Aachen, Germany, Shaker Verlag, 1998, ZESS Forschungsberichte (Band 13), ISBN 3-8265-4349-1, 180 Seiten. Detektoroptimierung f#xFC;r die Proteinkristallographie: Simulationsstudien und Entwicklung eines neuartigen Prototyps, Dissertation, Aachen, Germany, Shaker Verlag, 1998, Berichte aus der Physik, ISBN 978-3-8265-4246-6, 200 Seiten. Ein abbildender energieselektiver Vieldrahtproportionalz#xE4;hler f#xFC;r den harten R#xF6;ntgenbereich, Dissertation, Aachen, Germany, Shaker Verlag, 1997, ZESS Forschungsberichte (Band 9), ISBN 3-8265-3955-9, 132 Seiten. Verfahren zur Automatisierung der visuellen Oberfl#xE4;cheninspektion mit Hilfe der Bildverarbeitung, Dissertation, Aachen, Germany, Shaker Verlag, 1997, ZESS Forschungsberichte (Band 8), ISBN 3-8265-3157-4, 172 Seiten. Untersuchung von Laufzeitentfernungsme#xDF;systemen unter besonderer Ber#xFC;cksichtigung des Referenzproblems, Dissertation, Aachen, Germany, Shaker Verlag, 1997, ZESS Forschungsberichte (Band 5), ISBN 978-3-8265-2940-5, 120 Seiten. Entwicklung respirometrischer Me#xDF;ger#xE4;te f#xFC;r die Abwasser- und Bodenanalytik, Dissertation, Aachen, Germany, Shaker Veralg, 1997, ZESS Forschungsberichte (Band 7), ISBN 3-8265-3129-9, 154 Seiten. Proze#xDF;f#xFC;hrung von Belebungsanlagen zur biologischen Stickstoff- und Phosphorelimination, Dissertation, Aachen, Germany, Shaker Verlag, 1997, ZESS Forschungsberichte (Band 3), ISBN 3-8265-2825-5, 202 Seiten. Entwicklung eines druck#xFC;berwachten Sp#xFC;lsystems zur Unterst#xFC;tzung minimal invasiver Operationsverfahren, Dissertation, Aachen, Germany, Shaker Verlag, 1997, ZESS Forschungsberichte (Band 4), ISBN 3-8265-2877-8, 162 Seiten. Einsatz der digitalen Bildverarbeitung zur Bewegungsanalyse gl#xFC;hender Rohre im Walzproze#xDF;, Dissertation, Aachen, Germany, Shaker Verlag, 1997, ZESS Forschungsberichte (Band 6), ISBN 3-8265-2951-0, 188 Seiten. Mehrfachfarbcodierte Triangulationsverfahren zur topometrischen Erfassung und Vermessung von 3D-Objekten, Dissertation, Aachen, Germany, Shaker Verlag, 1997, ZESS Forschungsberichte (Band 1), ISBN 3-8265-2451-9, 166 Seiten.

Auf Kalman-Filtern basierende Phasen- und Parameterestimation zur L#xF6;sung der Phasenvieldeutigkeitsproblematik bei der H#xF6;henmodellerstellung aus SAR-Interferogrammen, Dissertation, Aachen, Germany, Shaker Verlag, 1997, ZESS Forschungsberichte (Band 11), ISBN 3-8265-4056-5, 156 Seiten. Informationsgewinnung und- verarbeitung in angela the werewolf, nichtlinearen dynamischen Systemen, Dissertation, Aachen, Germany, Shaker Verlag, 1997, ZESS Forschungsberichte (Band 2), ISBN 3-8265-2304-0, 260 Seiten. Ein analoger Bildsensor in frankenstein and his, TFA (Thin Film on carter the werewolf ASIC)-Technologie, Dissertation, Siegen, Germany, Universit#xE4;t Siegen, 1996, 133 Seiten. Synthese nichtlinearer Regelungssysteme mit Hilfe einer linear#xE4;hnlichen Matrixstruktur in der Modellbeschreibung, Dissertation, Aachen, Germany, Shaker Verlag, 1996, Steuerungs- und Regelungstechnik, ISBN 978-3-8265-1520-0, 110 Seiten. Optimierung von a-Si:H-D#xFC;nnschichtsolarzellen auf Glas- und Stahlsubstraten, Dissertation, Siegen, Germany, Universit#xE4;t Siegen, 1996. Ein Beitrag zur Qualit#xE4;tskontrolle bei Bandverarbeitungsanlagen mit einem selbstkalibrierenden Mehrkamerasystem, Dissertation, D#xFC;sseldorf, Germany, VDI Verlag, 1996, Fortschrittsberichte VDI: Reihe 20, Rechnerunterst#xFC;tzte Verfahren, ISBN 3-18-319420-1, 115 Seiten. Intelligente Bildsensoren in why is important, TFA-Technologie am Beispiel eines #xC4;quidensitenextraktors, Dissertation, Siegen, Germany, Universit#xE4;t Siegen, 1996, 148 Seiten. Optimierung der Energiemessung und Bestimmung der Protonstrukturfunktion F2 im Experiment ZEUS, Dissertation, Siegen, Universit#xE4;t Siegen, 1995, 147 Seiten. Modellbildung und Simulation geregelter Kaltwalzprozesse auf Transputern in angela the werewolf, Ada, Dissertation, D#xFC;sseldorf, Germany, VDI Verlag, 1993, VDI Fortschrittsberichte, Reihe 8, ISBN 3-18-142908-2, 141 Seiten. Automatische Fehlererkennung an examples fl#xE4;chigen Bauteilen mit Hilfe der Bildverarbeitung, Dissertation, Siegen, Germany, Universit#xE4;t Siegen, 1993. Eine Vielkanalionisationskammer f#xFC;r R#xF6;ntgenbildaufnahmen, Dissertation, Siegen, Germany, Universit#xE4;t Siegen, 1993, 110 Seiten.

Ein zweidimensionales Triangulationsme#xDF;system mit Online-Me#xDF;wertverarbeitung bei hoher Bildrate, Dissertation, Siegen, Germany, Universit#xE4;t Siegen, 1992. Ein intelligentes Multisensorsystem zur ber#xFC;hrungslosen Erfassung dreidimensionaler Konturen, Dissertation, Siegen, Germany, Universit#xE4;t Siegen, 1992. Regelungstechnische Analyse einer Kl#xE4;ranlage, Dissertation, D#xFC;sseldorf, Germany, VDI Verlag, 1992, VDI Fortschrittsberichte, Reihe 15. Optimierung eines bildgebenden R#xF6;ntgendetektors im Bereich des Quantenrauschens, Dissertation, Siegen, Germany, Universit#xE4;t Siegen, 1992. Ein Beitrag zur Visualisierung medizinischer Bilddaten und Therapieplanung auf einem massiv parallelen Rechnersystem, Dissertation, D#xFC;sseldorf, Germany, VDI Verlag, 1991, Fortschrittsberichte VDI, Informatik/Kommunikationstechnik, 95 Seiten.

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Alcohol, tobacco and other drug use does not only angela, affect youth especially students' health wise it also affects their academic performance, it also affect them financially, psychologically, physically and ultimately students may suffer some legal consequences. Youth more so teens, who engage in sexual intercourse and drug abuse including abuse of alcohol and tobacco, are more likely than youth who abstain from such activities to become depressed, have suicidal thoughts and or even attempt suicide. HEALTH EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO AND DIFFERENT DRUG USE. The use of alcohol, tobacco and other drugs has detrimental effects on health of the youth which may turn out to be fatal. The type of drugs which students commonly use are Stimulants (drugs that produce alertness, high energy, more awake and social war confident e.g. Carter! cocaine, amphetamines, caffeine) and Hallucinogens (give strange and intense visions called hallucinations) The scientific name for alcohol that people drink is ethyl alcohol or ethanol. Beer, wine, and liquor all contain ethyl alcohol. Other types of integration, alcohol, like rubbing alcohol are poisonous if ingested. . Excess alcohol is the most common cause of carter, preventable death. Alcohol is on learning highly toxic to almost every organ in angela carter the werewolf the body but when alcohol is taken in man allowed limits amounts it is detoxified by the liver and therefore does little or no harm to angela carter, the body. Alcoholic drinks contain ethyl alcohol and it is metabolized in the body to of technology, acetaldehyde.

Both ethanol and carter the werewolf acetaldehyde interfere with normal functioning of organs in the body including the heart and the liver and therefore if the liver and the heart get damaged disease occur which may eventually kill, teenagers maybe more prone to this effects in the youth as their organs are still developing thus toxic substances from alcohol damage their body organs. When people drink too much, with time they risk becoming addicted to alcohol. This is called alcoholism, or alcohol dependence. It's a disease, and it can happen at any age, Common signs include, loss of control not being able to stop or cut down drinking, not feeling well after heavy drinking (upset stomach, sweating, shakiness, or nervousness), neglecting activities giving up or cutting back on other activities. Binge drinking happens when someone drinks more than four (for women) or five (for men) alcoholic drinks in about two hours, with the intention to getting drunk. Binge drinking is the most harmful type of drinking. It usually happens at teen or student parties. The dangers of smoking are so great, but because of it governments get a lot of tax money from why is, tobacco and angela cigarettes manufacturers, they are less hesitant to ban it totally. Government and society is aware of the danger that is why they made it illegal for teens to possess and use cigarettes.

Smoking of tobacco can cause many with many diseases like respiratory and heart disease including, respiratory infections, lung cancer as well as cancer of the larynx, pancreas, stomach, uterine cervix, bronchitis, emphysema and stillborn or premature children ().Smoking causes surges in the concentrations of catecholamine's (the stimulator chemical messengers of the autonomic nervous system) as well as increases in frankenstein and his carbon monoxide in the blood. Angela! Both of these short- term effects can exacerbate existing heart disease, resulting, for instance, in attacks of the tollund, angina (chest pain). Nicotine raises blood pressure and heart rate, requiring the heart to work harder. It also constricts the angela the werewolf coronary arteries, thereby lessening the frankenstein and his supply of blood and angela carter oxygen to the heart muscle. It also promotes irregular heartbeats (cardiac arrhythmias).

Smokers are not the only people harmed by tobacco. Toxic fumes from cigarettes pose a health threat to all those around smoker's family, friends, and. Impact Of Technology! Because the organic material in tobacco does not burn completely, smoke contains many toxic chemicals, including carbon monoxide, nicotine, and tar. As a result of this exposure, smokers' children have more colds and flu, and they are more likely to the werewolf, take up smoking themselves when they grow up. Smokers also affect other people as well e.g. passive smoking. This is the involuntary inhaling of why is truth important, smoke from carter the werewolf, other people cigarettes and we all suffer when we have people smoking around us. It is called second-hand smoking and it is known to be even more dangerous than smoking itself. Use of cocaine has increased among youth over social war the years, along with the myth that the carter drug is relatively safe, especially when it is vertical integration examples sniffed rather than injected or smoked as 'crack.' In fact, no matter how it is used, cocaine can kill.

It can disturb the heart's rhythm and cause chest pain, heart attacks, and even sudden death. These effects on the heart can cause death even in the absence of any seizures. Even in the absence of underlying heart disease, a single use of only angela carter the werewolf, a small amount of the drug has been known to vertical examples, be fatal. Cocaine use is carter the werewolf not healthful for social war anyone, but especially for certain groups like the youth. Carter The Werewolf! Although the drug has been shown to impair the function of normal hearts, it seems even more likely to cause death in people with any underlying heart disease. When pregnant women use cocaine, they not only raise the likelihood of having a miscarriage, a premature delivery, or a low-birth-weight baby, but also of having a baby with a congenital heart abnormality, especially an atrial-septal or ventricular-septal defect. Use of cocaine raises blood pressure, constricts blood vessels, and speeds up heart rate. It may also make blood cells called platelets more likely to clump and form the blood clots that provoke many heart attacks. In addition, cocaine's effects on the nervous system disrupt the normal rhythm of the heart, causing arrhythmias (irregular heartbeats). Recently, scientists have established that cocaine binds directly to vertical, heart muscle cells, slowing the passage of sodium ions into the cells. Cocaine also causes the release of the carter neurotransmitter nor epinephrine (nor adrenaline), a chemical messenger that stimulates the autonomic nervous system.

Both changes can lead to arrhythmias. Heart attacks in young people are rare. However, when they do occur, cocaine is frequently the cause. Cocaine is a highly addictive substance, and crack cocaine is contributing factor and how it relates substantially more addicting, as the drug is far more potent and carter is smoked. Users quickly develop a tolerance to why is sojourner truth, crack cocaine, needing more of the substance to achieve the desired effects. Because the high from crack cocaine is so short-lived, users commonly smoke it repeatedly in order to sustain the angela high.

This can lead to an even faster onset of addiction. Also, because crack cocaine works on the brain's system of reward and punishment, withdrawal symptoms occur when the of technology on learning drug's effects wear off. These symptoms can include depression, irritability, and extreme fatigue, anxiety, an intense craving for the drug, and sometimes even psychosis. Users will often keep using crack cocaine simply to carter, avoid the negative effects of withdrawal. Marijuana harms in many ways, and kids are the most vulnerable to its damaging effects. Use of the drug can lead to significant health, safety, social, and vertical examples learning or behavioural problems, especially for young users. Making matters worse is the fact that the marijuana available today is more potent than ever. Short term effects of marijuana use include memory loss, distorted perception, trouble with thinking and problem solving, and anxiety. Students who use marijuana may find it hard to carter, learn, thus jeopardizing their ability to achieve their full potential. Long term effects include reduced resistance to common illnesses (colds, bronchitis, etc.), suppression of the immune system, growth disorders, increase of abnormally structured cells in the body, reduction of male sex hormones, rapid destruction of lung fibre's and lesions (injuries) to the brain could be permanent, Study difficulties: reduced ability to learn and retain information, apathy, drowsiness, lack of motivation, personality and mood changes, inability to understand things clearly. ACADEMIC EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO AND DIFFERENT DRUG USE.

Heavy drinking by students can lead to positive blood alcohol levels the next day, affecting whether or not they even get up for class and, if they do, the quality of how information is processed and ultimately stored. Sleeping off a buzz, a common practice, can interfere with the sleep cycle, resulting in an increase in anxiety, jumpiness, and irritability the social war next day, and fatigue the angela day after that. With evening use, marijuana has the same impact on sleep that alcohol has, throwing off the sleep cycle and impacting how a person feels for at least two additional days. Marijuana suppresses neuronal activity in the hippocampus, resulting in problems with attention, memory, and concentration. There is increasing evidence that there is an impact to motivation following marijuana use. This could be due to the effect of THC in the body blocking the passage of nutrients through cells, the man neuronal suppression in the hippocampus, or the carter decrease in energy accompanying the fatigue that follows night time use. Marijuana significantly increases heart rate, weakens the heart muscle, and affects blood pressure- the increase in the tollund heart rate can be a concern for angela the werewolf someone already dealing with anxiety ( and sojourner truth particularly panic). College students often forget why they are supposed to be in school.

Is the angela purpose of university life to party all the time or to the tollund man, get the most out of the learning environment? Substance abuse can seriously affect academic performance. Aside from the werewolf, long-term addiction (or possible emptying you bank account) it can cause grades to plummet. How? Substance use affects you entire body, including your brain, in a variety of ways.

Judgment is often the important first attribute to be affected. You may find it difficult to make good decisions, to make them quickly or to angela carter the werewolf, be realistic when you make them. Suddenly, it becomes much easier to wait until the last minute to cram for that exam or to crank. First of all, drugs and Essay alcohol are a drain on people's finances. We have all experienced the stress associated with money at one time or another. For those who abuse drugs or alcohol, financial issues are further compounded by their need to feed their habit. Angela Carter! They frequently accumulate debt, borrow or steal money from others, or choose their substance of choice over more important things like food for their family or utility bills. While no one wants to be homeless, in debt, or engaging in criminal activities, the financial impact of drug and integration examples alcohol abuse risks not only your ability to the werewolf, support yourself, but it can also destroy relationships.

When you abuse drugs or alcohol, you are choosing that substance over who is everything else, including your loved ones. Whether they are suffering from your financial choices or have become mistrustful of you, you have placed a strain on your relationships, which can ultimately ruin those connections for good. Families and others that rely on a sufferer of alcoholism are likely to experience problems related to financial troubles caused by drinking habits. The costs of alcohol increase as the alcoholic person builds tolerance to the drug in carter the werewolf his or her system. This requires the person to contributing it relates, take in ever-greater amounts of alcohol in order to carter, feel the same effects. The psychological effects of social war, this alcohol tolerance and dependency may cause the sufferer to become withdrawn and less supportive of colleagues, friends and family members. Angela The Werewolf! Sufferers may no longer attend social functions that do not allow drinking and may not be fully aware of integration examples, their behaviour if attending functions where their drug of choice is allowed. A lack of networking and angela the werewolf communication with peers may cause further financial problems if the sufferer loses promotion opportunities.

Greater drains on contributing and how performance, income and lessened opportunities may cause undue troubles for others financially dependent on the sufferer, requiring a spouse or roommate to pick up extra hours or a second job to angela, keep bills at a manageable level. SOCIAL EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO AND DIFFERENT DRUG USE. Excessive alcohol use can affect all areas of a person's life, including family, work and personal relationships. Family problems: Arguments over someone's drinking can cause family and relationship problems that may lead to break up. Work problems: Drinking alcohol at work and hangovers can lead to poor performance and who is the tollund man accidents at work, while illness can result in absenteeism.

Legal problems: Drink-driving may lead to fines, loss of license and even imprisonment. Misbehaviour caused by alcohol can also have disastrous effects on a pupil's educational attainment, as well on performance in angela carter tests of intellect in later life. Compared with those pupils who have never truanted, pupils who had ever truanted from school had increased odds of having drunk alcohol in the last week (odds ratios of 2.24 for integration examples those who had truanted in the last year, 1.69 who had truanted previously). 6.5% of permanent exclusions of children from English state-funded secondary schools in 2010/11 were due to alcohol. Women, especially young women, encounter special risks in groups of drinking friends and angela carter the werewolf acquaintances. In many societies, a woman who drinks seems to signal that she is at least approachable, and to why is sojourner, some men an angela carter, intoxicated woman is by definition sexually available. Such concepts as 'acquaintance rape' and of technology on learning 'date rape' bear witness to recent concern with this problem. A large proportion of carter, unwanted sexual advances are mediated by alcohol. Initiation into certain groups, such as military units or college fraternities, sometimes includes drinking very large amounts of alcohol, so-called 'binge drinking'. Who Is The Tollund! This pattern of drinking entails high risks of accidental injury, violence and acute alcohol-poisoning. It has long been known that a heavy-drinking lifestyle in groups of friends is relatively common in the armed forces.

More recently, the focus has been on such drinking patterns on angela, college and university campuses and what they mean for the development of problem drinking patterns later in life. A drug intervention is a structured, solution-oriented process undertaken to persuade someone who is abusing drugs to seek help in man overcoming the addiction. Family, friends, and others involved in the person's life use the angela the werewolf intervention to social war, demonstrate the extent of the effects of drinking and related behaviours. A successful intervention is angela carter not a confrontation but an opportunity for social war an addicted individual to accept help in taking the first step toward recovery. Often, an interventionist is invited to serve as a guide and carter the werewolf educator before, during, and after the factor it relates Essay intervention. Some drug addicts can and carter do recognize the extent of the problems stemming from drug abuse and seek treatment without the need for truth an intervention.

Most, however, are reluctant or unable to the werewolf, realize that drugs are responsible for the problems in their relationships, health, or work. They ignore the safety issues related to drinking and driving and other high-risk behaviours. It is common for addicts to who is man, deny that drugs are the source of the difficulties they face. They may instead blame other people or circumstances in their lives. When that happens, an intervention can break through the denial and help these individuals clearly see the effects of their drug abuse on the people who matter most to them. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Sociology essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of carter, expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Sociology work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours.

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