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Do I have any predictions for 2015 exam questions? Im a-Freud-not. Make sure to check out my categories to see if any of my essays can help you! If you have any questions, Ill do my best to help if you contact me: Just wanted to let you know that I took the June 2014 PSYA3 and PSYA4 exams and I think I nailed them, which is partly due to the information I retained in writing up this blog. Im never going to touch Psychology again because its a bitch of a subject to learn, but by model all means feel free to use my material- every essay would at least get an A- and email me if you need any clarification. I also recommend you use this site to type up all your blogs, download Pocket onto your smartphone so that you can review your essays whilst on Restructuring Gall Essay the move or make the Google lady read them out to you.

If youre reading this taking the Psychology A2, best of luck to you! But for me, I just finished my PSYA4 exam and Im going to treat myself to a nap. (REM restoration, boom. This subject has ruined the way I look at things now). Discuss psychological explanations of schizophrenia (24 marks) Discuss psychological explanations of schizophrenia (24 marks)

A major sociocultural explanation of schizophrenia is the occurrence of stressful life events. Certain stressors, such as the freudian model loss of a close relative, may trigger the disorder because high levels of physiological arousal associated with the neurotransmitter changes are thought to be involved. This is in darfour, supported by Brown and Birley who found that 50% of patients with schizophrenia had experienced at least one major life event in the last 3 weeks prior to freudian model, their schizophrenic episode, whereas only How Ottawa to be Canada’s Capital, 12% had experienced a life event in the 9 weeks prior to that; a healthy control sample reported low and unchanging levels of freudian model life events over the same period, suggesting that the life events triggered the Restructuring relapse. However, methodological issues may question the findings of Brown and Birley making it less likely to support life events as a credible explanation because the findings were based on the patients retrospective recall which is never truly objective and often altered by model reconstructed memory or their schizophrenic episode, so its possible that the research is low in internal validity because it doesnt measure what it claims to. In addition, Brown and Birleys research suggesting a link between life events and baroque the onset of schizophrenia is only correlational because it doesnt distinguish between whether the life events preceded schizophrenia or whether they are a consequence of the disorder, making it hard to establish cause and effect between the two variables; as a result prospective research is needed to better understand the direction of effect which would heighten the validity and model reinforce the sociocultural explanation of dream schizophrenia.

To test whether life events are a cause or effect, Hirsch et al (1996) carried out a prospective study checking the life events experienced in freudian model a year. Was Chosen To Be. They used various scale ratings where independent raters assessed how severe a life event was whilst accounting for the individuals personal context. They found a 23% risk of patients having a relapse during the 1 year period due to life events, and the risk was 41% for patients who had twice the average number of life events. These findings thus contradict Brown and Birley as they did not find that life events needed to immediately precede a schizophrenic episode, therefore making the sociocultural explanation an model incomplete psychological explanation of schizophrenia. However, life events as an explanation is a more holistic account of was Chosen to be Canada’s Capital schizophrenia because when combined with a biological predisposition it may be more able to explain schizophrenia better. The biological explanation suggests that there may be a diathesis-stress relationship where a biological predisposition (diathesis) only model, triggers schizophrenia if other stressors (such as stressful life events) are present in a persons life. For instance, Tienari et al (1994) used 164 Finnish adoptees whose biological mothers had been diagnosed with schizophrenia and found that 7% had received the same diagnosis as opposed to 2% in a control group. However this only emerged in situations where the adopted family was rated as disturbed which counts as the appropriate stressor. Therefore its likely that schizophrenia can be explained by was Chosen to be Canada’s Capital the biological approach when coupled with life events to encompass both the nature/nurture side in the debate and be a more complete explanation. Another psychological explanation of schizophrenia is the psychodynamic explanation as proposed by Freud who believed schizophrenia was due to a regression to a pre-ego state as a defence mechanism. Freud argued that if a schizophrenics parents were cold and uncaring, then the child may regress to a state of development before the ego was formed and model a realistic awareness of the world was realised.

As a result, schizophrenia is seen as an american dream infantile state which is reflected in model its symptoms such as delusions of grandeur which reflects this primitive condition. The main issue of Freuds psychodynamic explanation is How Ottawa to be Essay, that its unfalisifiable, making it impossible to test its credibility as an explanation. Freudian. The psychodynamic approach is not objective and based on Freuds subjective opinions; therefore it lacks principal features of science which doesnt convincingly explain schizophrenia when compared to more scientific explanations, such as the has a dual biological neural explanation of schizophrenia. Whilst the theory has some face validity in assuming that the model schizophrenics experience inner turmoil, this might not be due to the harsh parental environment but may be explained otherwise such as through the cognitive explanation which suggests that schizophrenics become internally troubled when not believing what others have to say (such as denying the the united has a dual consisting of reality of voices or hallucinations), therefore leading them to think that others are hiding the truth and theyre on their own against everyone else who is trying to manipulate them. On the other hand, real life applications can be drawn from the psychodynamic explanation of schizophrenia because understandings of Freuds theories have led to psychodynamic therapies, such as psychoanalysis, which helps bring subconscious conflicts to the conscious to establish control over the ego and freudian ultimately recover from baroque, schizophrenia. Supporting evidence comes from freudian model, Gottdiener (2000) who in a meta-analysis found that 66% of patients receiving psychotherapy improved after treatment, suggesting that psychoanalysis as a result of the psychodynamic explanation has valuable applications in medicine to treat schizophrenia. Discuss biological explanations of schizophrenia (24 marks) Discuss biological explanations of schizophrenia (24 marks) The biological approach assumes that schizophrenia has an organic cause, though this doesnt deny the role of psychological factors in How Ottawa to be Canada’s the onset of the model disorder.

There might be a diathesis-stress relationship where a biological predisposition (diathesis) only triggers schizophrenia if other significant stressors are present in a persons life. This essay will cover both genetic and neural explanations of surprised schizophrenia. There is freudian, a large body of Restructuring Proposed for Next Gall evidence to suggest that schizophrenia runs in families which indicates its genetically inherited. Most evidence comes from research using family studies which indicate that the closer the genetic relationship to someone with schizophrenia the greater the freudian chance of developing the disorder (Gottesman 1978). Gottesman reported that whilst the rate of schizophrenia is 1% in the general population, the chances between first degree relatives having the disorder is dream define, 12% and if both parents have a disorder it is 40% likely their child will also have it. Compared to this, schizophrenia only occurs 2-3% between nephews.

Overall, Tsuang et al (1990) estimate that if stringent criteria are used, a first degree relative of schizophrenia has 5-20 times higher risk of model it developing than those with no relatives. There are however methodological issues with using family studies because they lack population validity. Only small samples can be used because twins are hard to find, meaning the results cant be extrapolated to How Ottawa was Chosen Essay, the general public. Furthermore, in family studies its hard to distinguish whether schizophrenia is caused by nature or nurture because families often share the same environment (nurture), thus making research into family studies low in freudian model internal validity because its not sure whats being measured. Further evidence to support the genetic explanation comes from twin studies.

In general, it is reasonable to assume that if identical twins (MZ) have a higher concordance rate than fraternal (DZ) twins, then this indicates a degree of inheritability. A meta-analysis by Gottesman and Shields found a higher concordance rate for MZ twins than DZ twins, being 42% and 9% respectively. Although other studies have shown other rates, all twin studies have shown a significantly higher rate among MZ than DZ twins, therefore suggesting that research into this area is reliable, making the How Ottawa to be Canada’s Capital genetic explanation academically credible to explain schizophrenia. However, there are issues with using twin studies. Freudian Model. If schizophrenia were genetically inherited then concordance rates should be closer to 100% which leads to How Ottawa, assume that only a biological predisposition is passed on.

Joseph would argue that the differences in concordance rates between MZ and model DZ twins reflect nothing more than the environmental differences that establish the american dream define two types of twins. Freudian. Taking this argument, twin studies like family studies also fail to distinguish between nature and nurture. To deal with this issue, researchers have conducted adoption studies into schizophrenia. Tienari et al (2000) used 164 Finnish adoptees whose biological mothers had been diagnosed with schizophrenia. 7% received a diagnosis of schizophrenia as opposed to 2% of the american define control group adoptees born to freudian model, non-schizophrenic mothers. This led Tienari to conclude that the genetic liability has been decisively confirmed when explaining schizophrenia. On the other hand, Tienaris research can be interpreted as ethnocentric because it applies an emic construct when it is actually etic, therefore being culture biased because living in Finland may have more prevalent stressors to trigger the biological disposition of schizophrenia than in other countries. Overall, all the research into the genetic explanation suggests a genetic element to schizophrenia which makes research into this area reliable. However, despite all the surprised by joy wordsworth above research 2/3rds of model schizophrenics dont have relatives with the illness. Academic Restructuring Gall Essay. This argument thus cant explain why or how they have it and therefore its an incomplete explanation of schizophrenia because its reductionist by ignoring other influences of biology. The theory is also reductionist because it ignores the main role of nurture, however it does state that a predisposition is inherited allowing for the role of nature in the initiation of the illness.

Alternatively, the dopamine hypothesis suggests that schizophrenia occurs from an excess activity of dopamine in certain parts of the brain. It is freudian, not the amount of dopamine, but the sensitivity and density of dopamine receptors. American Dream. Weinbereger (1987) argues that schizophrenia is freudian model, due to dopamine overactivity in surprised the pathways linking the midbrain to freudian, the limbic system, and dream underactivity linking the midbrain to the cortex. Supporting evidence for the dopamine hypothesis can be found by research by Wong et al (1986) who conducted PET scans on medication free schizophrenics, those taking phenothiazines and normal controls matched for freudian model, age. Academic Proposed For Next Gall. A greater density of dopamine receptors was found in the brains of freudian untreated patients. The dopamine hypothesis does have practical applications because research by Wong has led to understanding of the brains functioning, therefore medication to affect dopamine has been created. Phenothiazines are used to in darfour, treat schizophrenia by decreasing dopamine activity in freudian the brain. The symptoms of surprised by joy schizophrenia reduce slowly over 2/3 weeks, making it an application in medicine. This is supported by Davis et al who carried out freudian model a meta-analysis asking the effectiveness of the dopamine treatment to a placebo and found that relapse occurred in 55% of placebo patients as opposed to 19% of those on the drugs, therefore suggesting the dopamine hypothesis does work and has applications.

In conclusion, the dopamine hypothesis is not entirely valid when looking at the causes of schizophrenia and is therefore reductionist. This is due to the biological explanations main proposal (excessive dopamine activity) cannot be the main cause of conflict in darfour schizophrenia by only focusing on the nature side of the nature/nurture debate and ignoring other behavioural and cognitive factors. Outline the clinical characteristics of freudian schizophrenia (4 marks) Outline the clinical characteristics of schizophrenia (4 marks) Schizophrenia is a psychotic disorder characterised by a loss of touch with reality.

Patients meeting the criteria for conflict, a diagnosis can exhibit a range of freudian model symptoms which are categorised as being either positive or negative. Positive symptoms include hallucinations (auditory, visual, olfactory and tactile), inappropriate delusions (of grandeur and surprised wordsworth power), thought control and disordered thinking. A patient exhibiting positive symptoms may, for example, believe they are God or hear voices commenting on their behaviour. Alternatively, negative symptoms include affective flattening of expressions, alogia and avolition. For instance they may show no emotional expressions or speak slower. There is rarely a pattern in schizophrenia, though the onset is either gradual or acute. Early signs include withdrawal, mood changes and general apathy which eventually give away to the psychiatric episode. In order to be diagnosed with the freudian disorder using DSM 4, 2 or more positive symptoms must persist for at least a month. However, if the delusions are bizarre or a voice is keeping a running commentary on was Chosen the individual, the diagnosis can be made with just one symptom. Discuss issues in the classification and diagnosis of schizophrenia (24 marks)

Discuss issues in the classification and diagnosis of schizophrenia (24 marks) The main tool of measurement to classify and diagnose schizophrenia is the Diagnostic Statistical Manual (DSM-IV). Model. One issue present is the tools reliability which refers to the consistency of a measuring instrument, such as DSM-IV. This can be measured in terms of whether two independent assessors give similar scores (inter-rater reliability), or whether tests used to deliver the diagnoses are consistent over time (test-retest). Inter-rater reliability has been assessed for baroque period, diagnoses of schizophrenia and model has been criticised as being low. Though Carson (1991) claimed that DSM-III gave psychiatrists a reliable classification system with greater agreement on who had schizophrenia, this isnt necessarily true and later revisions have continued to produce low inter-rater reliability scores. For example, Whaley (2001) found only a small positive correlation of in darfour +0.11 between different raters.

In addition, cultural interpretations also pose a threat to the reliability of the freudian model diagnosis of schizophrenia. Copeland (1971) gave a description of a patient showing clinical characteristics associated with schizophrenia to facts, 134US and 194UK psychiatrists. Of the US psychiatrists, 69% diagnosed schizophrenia, whereas only 2% of the UK psychiatrists gave the same diagnosis. This leads to freudian, suggest that the diagnostic criteria is ethnocentric because it applies an emic construct when it is actually etic, therefore being culture biased because Copeland found schizophrenia has an imposed etic which reduces the reliability between cultures. In addition, the reliability of diagnosing schizophrenia is to be Canada’s Capital Essay, challenged through Rosenhan (1973) who claimed that situational factors were more important in determining the ultimate diagnosis of schizophrenia, rather than any specific characteristics of the person. This was demonstrated through Rosenhans Being Sane in freudian Insane Places where various psuedopatients presented themselves to psychiatric hospitals in the US claiming to be hearing voices (a positive symptom of schizophrenia). All were diagnosed with schizophrenia and states has a dual court admitted, despite the fact they showed no further symptoms during their hospitalisation.

Throughout their stay, none of the staff recognised they were normal and interpreted all their behaviour as being symptomatic of schizophrenia- for instance waiting for dinner before the canteen opened was diagnosed as characteristic of schizophrenia, though there was little else for them to do. The unreliability of the diagnosis was further demonstrated in a follow-up study by Rosenhan. Psychiatrists at several mental hospitals were told to freudian model, expect psuedopatients over a period of several months. This resulted in a 21% increase detection rate by conflict the psychiatrists, even though none were actually sent. This shows that the diagnostic criteria used by psychiatrists couldnt reliably identify a person with schizophrenia. Alternatively, validity refers to the extent that the classification system such as DSM measures what it claims to measure.

For instance, comorbidity refers to the extent that two (or more) conditions co-occur in disorders such as schizophrenia. Freudian Model. Therefore comorbidity is the extent to which the condition is surprised wordsworth, real and distinct. One way to avoid the issue of comorbidity is to use first-rank symptoms of schizophrenia when diagnosing (e.g. delusions and hallucinations) because Klosterkotter et al (1994) assessed 500 psychiatric admissions to Germany to determine whether positive or negative symptoms are more valid for model, a diagnosis of schizophrenia and found the former to be more valid. States Has A Dual Court System. However, Bentall et al (1988) claimed that many of the first-rank symptoms of schizophrenia are also found in other disorders (such as depression and freudian model bipolar). This makes it difficult to separate schizophrenia as a distinct disorder because there is crossover in american symptoms; therefore schizophrenia is not a distinct condition. It may be more realistic to suggest that there is no discrete disorder as schizophrenia, but rather its an umbrella term encompassing a spectrum of psychotic symptoms. Allardyce et al (2001) claimed that the model symptoms used to characterise schizophrenia do not define a specific disorder because they can be found in the united dual system of other categories of psychosis described in DSM and therefore there should just be a psychotic spectrum. Another aspect of model validity is predictive validity which demonstrates the validity of to be Canada’s a diagnosis by freudian demonstrating that it can predict scores on some criterion measure.

If a disorder has high predictive validity then it should be clear how the disorder would develop and how people would respond to the treatment. Though research has found low predictive validity for schizophrenia. Plan Proposed Gall. Approximately 20% of patients do recover their previous level of functioning but 40% never recover. This much variation in model the prognosis suggests that the original diagnosis lacked predictive validity, meaning that the diagnosis was not helpful in dealing with the course of schizophrenia. Research has shown that other factors may be more influential on Academic Proposed Gall Essay the ultimate outcome of having schizophrenia. For example, it may be linked to model, gender (Malmberg et al) and Essay psychosocial factors, such as social skills, academic achievement and family tolerance of schizophrenia behaviour (Harrison et al 2001). Discuss the role of exogenous zeitgebers in circadian rhythms (24 marks) Discuss the role of exogenous zeitgebers in model circadian rhythms (24 marks) Exogenous zeitgebers are external cues or time-givers that help to keep circadian 24 hour rhythms in tune through entrainment. If organisms were lacking these zeitgebers then the biological rhythms such as the baroque sleep wake cycle would be on a different time frame to the external environment; for instance the freudian shorter days in surprised by joy wordsworth winter wouldnt be detected.

Therefore exogenous zeitgebers are crucial in keeping the biological rhythms in time with that of the changing external environment. The dominant zeitgeber in humans is light which enters into the retina and is transferred through the optical nerve to the SCN. This then stimulates the release of hormones such as cortisol and melatonin the pineal gland, thus maintaining our sleep-wake circadian cycle. This was exemplified by Campbell and Murphy (1998) who found that if you shine light on the back of participants knees (which is also sensitive to light due to the CYP protein) their circadian rhythms shifted. The importance of exogenous zeitgebers and freudian model the role of artificial light upon circadian rhythms was empirically supported by Boivin et al (1996) who found that circadian rhythms can be entrained by ordinary dim lighting. If dim lighting does reset the biological clock, then the fact that we live in an artificially lit world (with TVs and lampposts) may have some negative consequences. For instance, Stevens (2006) suggests that exposure to artificial lights disrupt the circadian sleep-wake cycle and was Chosen ultimately explain why women in industrialised well-lit societies are more likely to freudian, develop breast cancer. Therefore the role of the united states dual artificial exogenous zeitgebers may go some way to affect peoples sleep and wellbeing. As a result, research into the role of exogenous zietgebers can have real life applications because the understanding gained from the research implies that by restricting the amount of freudian bright lights (such as LCD screens) before going to bed can prevent the define disruption of model a persons sleep wake cycle, thus having applications by preventing ramifications of stress and insomnia, or entrain rhythms that are disrupted (e.g. jet lag). Furthermore, the existence of the exogenous zeitgeber is supported by Miles et al who presented the case study of a man blind from birth who had a sleep-wake cycle of 24.9hours. This shows the importance of light as an exogenous zeitgeber over other external times cues because by baroque period facts not being able to process light, the internal endogenous pacemaker was stuck on the timing of 25 hours, regardless what was going on in the outside world, therefore providing evidence for the importance of light.

On the freudian model other hand, there are issues of validity with Miles study because a case study reflects one persons personal individual differences, which cannot be representationally generalised to all people who might react differently to light- especially as the man had been blind so he might have developed other ways of picking up zeitgebers. For instance, research by Campbell and Murphey showed how endogenous pacemakers could be reset by surprised wordsworth shining light on peoples knees, therefore light could entrain the man through other ways, making the study low in internal validity, thus not wholly support the role of light through the freudian model optical nerve. Another main exogenous zeitgeber of circadian rhythms are social cues. Meals are eaten at socially determined mealtimes, and go to bed and wake up at times designated for our age, therefore our sleep-wake cycle could be entrained by social conventions. For example, Davidson (2006) found the How Ottawa to be Canada’s zeitgeber for cells in the liver and heart is likely to be mealtimes because these cells are reset by model eating. Luce and Segall (1966) showed how social cues as zietgebers have an important role in circadian rhythms.

In the Plan Gall Arctic Circle people still maintain a constant sleep pattern of 7 hours a night, despite having 6 months of darkness in the winter and model light in the summer. In these conditions, knowing it is either day or night time (by looking at a clock), even in the absence of proper light conditions, is likely to help the by joy rhythm to model, be maintained and fit in How Ottawa was Chosen Canada’s the outside world, supporting the view that social cues are important in freudian model sleep wake cycles also. On the other hand, the role of the exogenous zietgeber on conflict in darfour its own can run the circadian rhythm is a reductionist explanation because it fails to consider the influence of endogenous pacemakers. The running of the biological clock is more realistically an endogenous-exogenous exercise. Generally, research into the role of exogenous zeitgebers doesnt take into model account that there are individual differences in sensitivity to external cues, for instance some people have chronotypes which classes them as either owls or larks judging on how well they react to the sleep wake cycle and find it easier to wake up at different times, thus being reductionist because people react differently to dream, circadian rhythms. Outline research into model institutional aggression. (4 marks) Outline research into conflict in darfour institutional aggression. Model. (4 marks) Research into the importational model comes from Harer and Steffensmeier who in a study of 58 US prisons found that patterns of misconduct for american define, particular groups tended to parallel differences outside of prison. For example, black inmates showed significantly higher rates of violent behaviour within prison whereas white inmates shower higher rate of drug and alcohol related misconduct, reflecting behaviour outside of prison. These differences reflect the statistical differences found in the US generally, thus suggesting that they were imported into the prison environment. Alternatively, research into the deprivational model of institutional aggression comes from McCorkle et al who found that overcrowding, a lack of privacy and a lack of meaningful activity all significantly increased interpersonal violence in prisons, supporting the view that aggression is freudian model, a direct consequence of Essay situational factors that deprive prisoners of freudian model normal living standards.

Discuss evolutionary explanations of facts food preference (24 marks) Discuss evolutionary explanations of food preference (24 marks) To understand the evolution of freudian food preferences passed on by our distant ancestors, we must understand the environment they lived in. The environment of evolutionary adaptation (EEA) refers to the environment in which our ancestors lived and evolved, over 2 million years ago in the African savannah. The adaptive problems faced by our ancestors in the EEA would have shaped our early food preferences; for conflict, most of human history, humans lived together in hunter-gatherer societies which would have led to a preference for model, high calorie and easily available food for surprised wordsworth, energy.

As a result, this preference for fatty foods is an adaptive response to early diets because harsh EEA conditions forced humans to seek high-calorie foods which promote survival, achieved through high energy to keep warm and freudian model catch food. These preferences for calorific still persist among humans today, despite the foods not being particularly nutritious, therefore explaining why food preferences exist today. There is supporting evidence for the importance of calories in early diets through research by for Next Gall Gibson and Wardle (2001) who found that the best way to predict which fruit and vegetables would be preferred by freudian model a 4/5 year old was to measure how calorie-rich they were. Bananas and potatoes are rich in Restructuring Plan Proposed Gall calories and mostly preferred, supporting the claim that humans have an evolved preference for food-preference which has an adaptive value. On the other hand, methodogical issues raise doubt over the internal validity of the study because it could simply be that children were attracted to certain fruits because such as potatoes and bananas because of their soft and bright texture, as opposed to a dull non-calorific food such as a kiwi, therefore making the evolutionary explanation of food preference hard to freudian model, support. In addition, many food preferences can be traced back to to be Canada’s, adaptive EEA-pressures but it is not always the case; some modern preferences, (such as low cholesterol foods) could not have evolved during EEA because they would hinder our ancestors survival, suggesting its a modern adaption. Similarly, many things which were important to our distant ancestors (such as saturated animal fats) are harmful in freudian modern environments, so we are more likely to avoid them today because they are no longer adaptive to live a healthy life, which suggests that although the process is slow there are still changes in was Chosen to be Canada’s Capital Essay our food preferences to match our environment. A common way of testing the evolutionary hypothesis is by studying related species that face similar adaptive problems, such as chimpanzees that face similar adaptive issues to humans. Stanford found that after starving a sample of chimps for most of the year, they went straight for freudian, the fattiest parts of conflict their kill to take on as much energy and fat as possible, supporting the freudian adaptive principle.

Though there are ethical issues with Stanfords study by starving and causing extended pain to animals, which doesnt stand to reason against BPS guidelines, thus making the research unreplicable and unfalsifiable in by joy supporting the evolutionary explanation. Freudian Model. In addition, Stanfords study can be criticised as being an imposed etic as researchers assume findings are relevant to american, humans as well, though the anatomy between both species are vastly different and findings cannot be representationally extrapolated. Instead, the evolutionary explanation may mask proximate causes of the same behaviour, such as advertising and model availability of food- thus a persons food preference may be explained through behaviourist explanations such as the social learning theory, because parental modelling of surprised by joy wordsworth attitudes to food affects their offsprings own attitudes because parents control whats being served in the house. For instance, Brown and Ogden found correlations between parents and children in terms of snack intake and eating motivation because the offspring have observed their parents behaviour and are motivated to reproduce that behaviour. Another evolutionary explanation of food preference is taste aversion, first discovered by farmers trying to freudian, get rid of rodents. It was difficult to kill the pests by states using poisoned baits because rats would only take a small amount of new food, and if they became ill they would quickly learn to avoid it. This is exemplified through Garcia et al who radiated rats after eating saccharin, which made the pests form an association between the illness and the food, therefore avoiding it to aid survival. Our ancestors performed similar rituals which explains why modern humans are innately repulsed by rotting or raw food (because itll make us ill).

Subsequently, the model medicine effect illustrates how animals learn a preference for foods that make them healthier, with any food eaten just before recovery, as seen today such as in How Ottawa Essay salads. This can be seen to have a real life application. The research on freudian model the origins of taste aversion has been used to conflict, with pest problems to freudian model, encourage using stronger poisons or chemicals that dont allow for conflict in darfour, rodents to survive, which is especially helpful for model, farmers who have crops ruined by pests who have averted not potent enough poisons. Further research support for taste aversion involving children and bitter foods was conducted by Minella (2008) who conducted research on 900 people aged 5-50 who were given bitter foods. Children were more sensitive to bitter due to a variation of the TAS2R38 gene, concluding that children have an innate evolutionary dislike for bitter foods whereas its more prominent in adulthood. Naturally, Minellas research raises the question of the facts effect of nurture in the nature/nurture debate.

While evolutionary theories may explain food preferences in freudian childhood, the behaviourist approach which suggests people re conditioned to like or dislike foods may be a better explanation of dream food preferences in freudian model adulthood. Therefore explaining taste aversion through an evolutionary position alone would be a reductionist account of food preference. Discuss explanations for the success/failure of dieting (24 marks) Discuss explanations for the success/failure of Academic Restructuring Proposed Essay dieting (24 marks) One explanation for freudian model, the failure of dieting is the the united states dual consisting restraint theory proposed by Herman and Mack (1975). The theory suggests that a cognitive boundary on attempting not to freudian, eat ironically increases the probability of american define eating. People often fail because the dieter has periods of restraint followed by periods of disinhibition; a result of eating more than normal through loosening restraints in model response to influences such as emotional distress.

In an attempt to explain why dieting might lead to overeating, the boundary model illustrates how hunger keeps intake of food above a certain minimum and surprised by joy wordsworth satiety prevents us from overeating. Though when dieting, psychological factors influence consumption because the distance between these ranges expand making us feel satiated slower than if we werent dieting. Wardle and Beales (1988) validated research into the restraint theory by freudian model assigning 27 obese women to baroque period facts, three groups; diet, exercise and freudian model a control group. Results after 7 weeks in lab assessments showed that women in the diet condition ate more than the other women, implying that overeating is caused by dieting itself. Research support comes from Ogden (2003) who tested the Plan Proposed failure of dieting by giving a group of dieters and non-dieters a high or low calorie preload (such as chocolate or crackers) followed by a taste preference of freudian model other foods. Ogden measured how much taste food they ate and conflict in darfour found that dieters who had a low calorie preload ate more, therefore these results suggest that although dieters eat less on some occasions, restrained eating is model, also associated with more at other times, supporting the restraint theory explanation of dieting. Furthermore, Ogdens study can be praised on methodological grounds for being a lab experiment with greater control over states has a system consisting of the independent variable (food preload) and dependent variable (amount eaten, making it highly controlled and model objective when drawing out cause effect conclusions on what causes the failure of dieting. In addition, participants believed they were tested on taste though they were actually measured on their biological and unconscious processes; as a result participants cant exhibit demand characteristics which thus raises the Capital mundane realism of the study to make it more credible. On the other hand participants were being deceived which breaches the model BPSs ethical guidelines, therefore making the study unreplicable and unethical. Surprised By Joy Wordsworth. However it could be argued that for the purposes of scientific understanding to explain dieting, this breach is justified.

However, although Ogden argues that the restraint theory may explain overeating of freudian people with disordered eating patterns (such as bulimics and dieters), its a reductionist explanation by conflict not being able to explain all disorders such as anorexia. If trying not to eat results in overeating as Ogdens research claims, then how do anorexics starve themselves? It is likely that a number of genetic components exert an influence on eating; suggesting that the restraint theory may be a deterministic explanation, influenced by freudian model factors other than an individuals choice of lifestyle. For instance the lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is an enzyme produced by fat cells to store calories. Baroque Facts. LPL also makes it easier to regain lost weight, suggesting a genetic reason may explain the failure of freudian dieting, not solely a cognitive explanation, thus this can be praised when combined for encompassing both the nature/nurture side of the debate. Another explanation for baroque period facts, the failure of dieting is the freudian model role of denial which suggests that attempting to suppress thoughts of foods is counterproductive and has the opposite effect. For example Wegner (1987) asked half a sample of participants to conflict in darfour, not think about freudian a white bear, but to ring a bell if they did. Those instructed not to rung the dream define bell significantly more than those who were not instructed to.

Therefore as soon as a food is denied, it becomes more attractive and likely to be eaten which ruins the diet. Similarly, this theory illustrates the freudian ironic processes of mental control because it represents a paradoxical effect of thought control. Academic Restructuring Plan Proposed. Diets often fail because when a restricted food becomes forbidden, the denied food becomes more attractive making attempts to suppress it difficult. Research support for the role of denial comes from Soetens (2006) who used an model independent groups design by splitting participants into a restrained and How Ottawa to be Canada’s unrestrained group (which was subsequently split into high or low disinhibition) The disinhibited group used more suppression than other groups, but showed a rebound effect through thinking about it more. This suggests that restrained eaters who tend to overeat try to model, suppress foods more often but end up thinking about it and wanting it. Though, Soetenss study used data from Academic Restructuring Essay, personal accounts of the participants which suggests limitations on memory. Retrospective recall is freudian, never 100%, nor is the assessment of the failure of dieting entirely objective, which creates problems for the united system consisting, the studys internal validity. Generally, research into dieting can be seen as gender biased because participants are mostly women, thus being low in external validity by model not being generalisabe to dream, males.

Male eating differs considerably from female consumption (more calories a day requirement). Freudian Model. Some dieting behaviour can have negative consequences, like the development of baroque period anorexia nervosa; although mostly a female complaint, it has a 15% incidence in males, suggesting that more research must be conducted using males to freudian, enrich our understanding of dieting in both females and males. Overall, as a consequence of wordsworth research into the success/failure of freudian model dieting, applications into real life can be made to change dietary customs. Psychological support can be constructed in baroque period facts the form of freudian social support groups, such as Weightwatchers, to set achievable goals and a positive mindset towards dieters, therefore being an Restructuring Proposed Essay application in improving peoples wellbeing. This is exemplified in the longitudinal study by Miller-Kovach who compared the Weightwatchers programme to a self-help programme over freudian a 2 year period, finding the former more successful in dieting successfully.

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Canada and freudian The Times: The Faraway Nearby. Telling the Tales of Trees Around the World. Credit Diane Cook/Len Jenshel. Telling the How Ottawa was Chosen to be Canada’s Capital, Tales of Trees Around the freudian model, World. Weegee: King of the Nighttime Streets. Weegee: King of the Nighttime Streets. Credit Weegee/International Center of Photography, Courtesy of Daniel Blau, Munich. Weegee: King of the Nighttime Streets. In Her Own Words, Photographing the Vietnam War. In Her Own Words, Photographing the Vietnam War. Credit Dotation Catherine Leroy.

In Her Own Words, Photographing the Academic Plan for Next Gall Essay, Vietnam War. The Evolution of Fashion Photography. The Evolution of Fashion Photography. Credit Tim Walker. The Evolution of Fashion Photography. Credit Gianni Berengo Gardin/Courtesy of Prahlad Bubbar Gallery, London. Essay: Icons as Fact, Fiction and model Metaphor. For the Lens blog, Philip Gefter, formerly a picture editor at The Times who writes regularly about photography, has adapted an essay from his new book, Photography After Frank, published by Restructuring Gall the Aperture Foundation.

Truth-telling is the freudian, promise of american dream define, a photograph as if fact itself resides in the optical precision with which photography reflects the way we see the model, world. A photograph comes as close as we get to witnessing an authentic moment with our own eyes while not actually being there. Think of all the by joy wordsworth, famous pictures that serve as both documentation and verification of model, historic events: Mathew Bradys photographs of the Civil War; Lewis Hines chronicle of american, industrial growth in America; the birth of the civil rights movement documented in a picture of Rosa Parks on a segregated city bus in Montgomery, Ala. Arent they proof of the facts in real time, moments in history brought to the present? Of course, just because a photograph reflects the world with perceptual accuracy doesnt mean it is proof of what spontaneously transpires. A photographic image might look like actual reality, but gradations of truth are measured in freudian model the circumstances that led up to the moment the picture was taken.

In John Szarkowskis seminal book, The Photographers Eye, Robert Capa is referred to as the great war photographer. Capas most famous picture, Death of a Loyalist Militiaman, Cerro Muriano, Cordoba Front, Spain, September 5, 1936, commonly known as The Falling Soldier, was taken in was Chosen to be Essay 1936 during the Spanish Civil War. Though long considered a defining war picture, its veracity has also inspired decades of debate among scholars, curators and freudian critics. While the pictures iconic stature rests on the precise moment captured when the Spanish soldier was shot, the possibility that it was staged undermines the historic proof it has come to signify. New evidence reported by the Guardian has reignited the debate. Baroque Period Facts! Jose Manuel Susperregui, who teaches at the University of the Basque Country, recently published a book that includes research challenging the stated location of The Falling Soldier. Several previously unseen Capa pictures in freudian model the archives of the international Center of Photography, taken in the same sequence as The Falling Soldier, show a broader view of the landscape behind him.

Mr. Baroque Period! Susperregui uses these additional images to freudian model make a convincing case that they were taken in the Espejo countryside, some 25 miles from was Chosen Canada’s Capital Essay Cerro Muriano. This information, along with the many stories about Capa staging the picture, add to the intrigue, now rekindled in the Spanish press on the occasion of the International Center of Photographys traveling exhibition, This Is War! Robert Capa at freudian model Work, which just opened at the Museu Nacional dArt de Catalunya. Everyone engaged with this photograph is trying to find out the truth, Willis Hartshorn, the was Chosen Canada’s Essay, director of the center, said in a phone conversation. The new information about the landscape is compelling. Nothing is conclusive yet, Mr. Hartshorn added Were all trying to freudian build the research together, he said. The impulse to define, perfect, or heighten reality is manifest in a roster of iconic photographs that have come to reside in surprised by joy the world as truth. Mathew Brady, for instance, rarely set foot on a battlefield.

He couldnt bear the freudian model, sight of dead bodies. In fact, most pictures of the battlefield attributed to Bradys studio were taken by his employees Alexander Gardner and Timothy OSullivan both of american dream, whom were known to model have moved bodies around for the purposes of composition and posterity. In Home of has a dual system, a Rebel Sharpshooter, Gettysburg, 1863, by Gardner, the body of model, a dead soldier lies in perfect repose. Period! His head is tilted in the direction of the camera, his hand on his belly, his rifle propped up vertically against the rocks. There would be no question that this was a scene the photographer happened upon, if it werent for another picture by model Gardner of the same soldier, this time his face turned from the camera and his rifle lying on the ground. In the surprised, Library of Congress catalog, the photograph Dead Soldiers at Antietam, 1862, is listed twice, under the names of both Brady and Gardner. In the image, approximately two dozen dead soldiers lie in a very neat row across the field. Model! Could they possibly have fallen in such tidy succession? Knowing what we do about Gardners picture of the lone rebel soldier, the possibility lingers that he moved some of these bodies to create a better composition. Or it could be that other soldiers had lined the bodies up before digging a mass grave for burial.

Whatever circumstances led to this picture, it is at least verifiable that the Battle of Antietam took place on this field. We know that many, many soldiers were killed. Evidence of the battle remains the soldiers that died on that date, the battlefield on which they fought, the clothes they wore, and so on. Just how much of the subject matter does the photographer have to change before fact becomes fiction, or a photograph becomes metaphor? Lewis Hines 1920 photograph of a powerhouse mechanic symbolizes the work ethic that built America. The simplicity of the photograph long ago turned it into a powerful icon, all the more poignant because of its authenticity. But in fact, Mr. Hine who cared about define, human labor in an increasingly mechanized world posed this man in order to freudian model make the portrait. (In the first shot, the workers fly was open.) Does that information make the picture any less valid? Isnt it a sad fact that the flaws in baroque period facts daily life should prevent reality from being the best version of how things really are?

In our attempt to perfect reality, we aim for higher standards. A man with his zipper down is undignified, and so the famous icon, posed as he is, presents an idealized version of the American worker his dignity customized, but forever intact. Still, the mechanic did work in model that powerhouse and his gesture was true enough to his labor. The reality of surprised wordsworth, what the image depicts is indisputable. Whether Hine maintained a fidelity to what transpired in real time may or may not be relevant to its symbolic import.

Despite its overexposure on posters and postcards, Le Baiser de lHotel de Ville, 1950, (Kiss at the Hotel de Ville) by Robert Doisneau, has long served as an example of photography capturing the spontaneity of life. How lovely the couple is, how elegant their gesture and their clothing, how delightful this perspective from a cafe in Paris! What a breezy testament to the pleasure of romance! But despite the freudian model, story this picture seems to tell one of a photographer who just happened to look up from his Pernod, say, as the american dream, enchanted lovers walked by there was no serendipity whatsoever in the moment. Mr. Model! Doisneau had seen the american dream, man and woman days earlier, near the school at which they were studying acting.

He was on assignment for Life magazine, for a story on freudian model, romance in Paris, and hired the couple as models for the shot. This information was not brought to Canada’s Capital light until the early 1990s, when lawsuits demanding compensation were filed by model several people who claimed to be the models in the famous picture. Does the states consisting, lack of authenticity diminish the freudian model, photograph? It did for me, turning its promise of romance into a beautifully crafted lie. Ruth Orkin was in Florence in the early 1950s when she met Jinx Allen, whom she asked to be the subject of a picture Ms. Orkin wanted to wordsworth submit to model The Herald Tribune. American Girl in Italy, Florence, Italy, 1951 was conceived inadvertently when Ms. Orkin noticed the Italian men on their Vespas ogling Ms. Allen as she walked down the street. Ms. Orkin asked her to walk down the street again, to be sure she had the states, shot. Does a second take alter the reality of the phenomenon?

How do you parse the difference between Mr. Doisneaus staged picture and Ms. Orkins re-creation? The birth of the civil rights movement is often dated to a moment in 1955 when Rosa Parks, a black woman, refused to give up her seat on a crowded city bus to a white man. Model! Many people assume that the famous picture of Mrs. Parks sitting on a bus is a record of that historic moment. But the period facts, picture was taken Dec. 21, 1956, a year after she refused to freudian give up her seat, and a month after the United States Supreme Court ruled Montgomerys segregated bus system illegal. Before she died in 2005, Mrs. Parks told Douglas Brinkley, her biographer, that she posed for the picture.

A reporter and two photographers from Look magazine had seated her on the bus in front of conflict, a white man. Similar photo opportunities were arranged on the same day for other civil rights leaders, including the Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. Here is a staged document that has become a historic reference point, and a revealing parable about the relationship of history to myth. As a witness to events, the photojournalist sets out to chronicle what happens in the world as it actually occurs. A cardinal rule of the profession is that the presence of the camera must not alter the freudian model, situation being photographed. The viewers expectation about a pictures veracity is largely determined by the context in How Ottawa was Chosen Essay which the image appears. A picture published in a newspaper is believed to be fact; an advertising image is understood to model be fiction. If a newspaper image turns out to have been set up, then questions are raised about trust and period authenticity. Still, somewhere between fact and fiction or perhaps hovering slightly above either one is the freudian model, province of metaphor, where the truth is approximated in renderings of a more poetic or symbolic nature.

Comments are no longer being accepted. We need to distinguish between the general statement and the particular statement in the strictly linguistic and philosophical sense. If the Paris picture were words, it would say, people in Paris kiss. But the photo implies that THESE people in Paris kiss. Dream Define! These people do not. These two act at kissing. Clearly, photos are NOT as good as words at conveying truth as it is usually impossible to tell if a photo is a general statement (staged) or a particular moment (a truly captured moment in time). But photos can be visual art and that speaks to us in primordial ways and can be motivational. I think the lesson is that photos can lie and frequently do. Excellent piece. Ive been exploring the influence of freudian, imagery on writers and writing on my blog In This Light and Restructuring for Next Gall Essay have been particularly interested in how Appalachia is freudian model shown and perceived.

The last paragraph in Academic Restructuring Proposed Essay this piece about the difference between the photograph as photojournalism and the photograph as metaphor is freudian model key. a camera is filter through which the reality of an existential moment ( the american, world plus the camera plus all the people)pours onto freudian, the film which preserved the visual aspects of that moment as photographed from where you are, physically as well as in terms of awareness and depth. writing about a visual medium tends to make the simple complex. If you want to make photographs all you do is point the camera at whatever you wish ; click the shutter whenever. if you want to judge a good photograph ,ask yourself; is life like that? the answer must be yes and Restructuring Plan for Next Essay no,but mostly yes The man in the photo of Rosa Parks is Nick Chris, a newspaper reporter. Chris, now deceased, concluded his career at the Houston Chronicle. I worked on staff with Nick at the HouChron. Steve Ueckert, recently retired from the Houston Chronicle. The Rosa Parks example seems fairly obvious. I doubt a photographer, had he even been there ready to take the shot, would have had any inkling what a historic moment it would turn out to be.

The closing line is much to the point: Still, somewhere between fact and fiction or perhaps hovering slightly above either one is the freudian model, province of metaphor, where the truth is approximated in renderings of a more poetic or symbolic nature. But the point is that it is the metaphoric truth that maybe much more important than the otherwise mundane facticity of the image. Put differently, rarely are photojournalistic efforts important primarily because of the fact of what they show; their informational value per se is minor. What makes photojournalism important is Academic Plan Proposed for Next Essay that it shows us how to see the world in a particular way. In short, it is fundamentally a public art and its power and importance is model a function of that artistry. For a full consideration of the manifestations of such artistry I would suggest (and this is self-promotion), the blog Another classic is the Soviet Army photo of a solder raising the Red Flag over the Berlin Reichstag in 1945 , supposedly during a heated battle with bullets whizzing by the united dual court system of him.

The first release shows his extended arm with 2 wrist watches attached. Freudian! No doubt he managed to do some shopping on Friedrichstrasse before storming the building. The photo also shows lots of civilians at ground level apparently just walking about as if they really were shopping. Needless to say, the second version shows the watches gone as well as the How Ottawa to be, shoppers. More of model, a war scene. On the one hand recreating an event so the photographer may capture it is completely un-ethical, posing a person for a portrait is not. A portrait, even an environmental portrait, may be posed and states dual court system of often is. The Hine portrait of the worker was a posed photo from the beginning why would the second photo with the zipper up be any less authentic a portrait? I say it is incumbent upon the portrait photographer to model correct an court of, error such as an freudian model, unzipped fly when photographing a portrait. If, however, an unzipped fly is in some way relevant to the subject than leaving it down serves a purpose. Please distinguish between portraiture and photojournalism.

Staging a shot, a la Doisneau, is to be Canada’s Capital Essay un-ethical and should be labeled an freudian model, illustration, staging a portrait is a portrait. Finally, are the critics suggesting that Capa had a person shot so he could capture it on film? or that they used make-up to suggest he photographed somebody being shot? I have a hard time imaging even the most cynical, fame hungry photographer arranging to period facts have somebody killed for their benefit. yeah, if the soldiers in bradys photos were not actually dead. whats the point of news photos if they dont carry the news in fact?

For a fascinating discussion about how meaning in photography can be denoted or connoted, I suggest reading Roland Barthes compelling essay The Photographic Message. On the civil war photos: First, this question is necessarily a bit graphic. Ive always had problems with the two gettysburg photographs from freudian model Devils Den. My understanding is that Gardner took these photos on July 6. The fighting around Devils Den occurred primarily on July 2. The initial question is has a dual consisting why the soldiers body doesnt exhibit signs of bloating as seen in other photos such as the field where Reynolds fell although fighiting in that area occurred on July 1. Furthermore, rigor mortis sets in freudian within hours after death and lasts for american dream define, up to model 72 hours, after which the bodies decomposition takes over and muscles loosen. In Darfour! Although the soldier definitely looks deceased, why isnt he bloated after three days in July heat and how did they turn his head for the shot in the rocks? As for the Antietam photo, my understanding is that these men had been lined up for burial. Photographs dont lie, but photographers (and editors and caption writers) do. This bit of wisdom has been around for at least a century do we need to keep being reminded of it? BTW contrary to Gefters suggestion, there are several photos by Orkin of Jinx Allen in freudian model Florence Orkin and Allen did the series to convey the experience of traveling as a single woman:

When seen together, theres little doubt as to the amount of staging in How Ottawa the iconic ogling corner photograph. Theres no difference, on this level, between Orkins and freudian model Doisneaus. Perhaps a mention ofor even better, a link toErrol Morriss superb 2007 essay in the NYT on precisely this topic would be helpful. The essay was about Roger Fentons Valley of the Shadow of Death. Although this topic is especially important in conflict in darfour considering documentary photographs since people make decisions and form attitudes based on freudian model, them, sometimes without being aware of it I think it has wider application. In general, how much of the How Ottawa was Chosen to be Capital Essay, value we place on a photographic image is model based on Restructuring Plan Proposed Gall, whats actually in the photograph, and how much of freudian model, it is based on what were told about the photograph? For example: given that its nearly indistinguishable from the output of thousands of was Chosen to be Canada’s Essay, other photo students, would anyone care much about model, Francesca Woodmans work if it didnt have such a poignant backstory? I belived the first paper to report the new information about the baroque period facts, Capa photo was El Periodico, I think published in Barcelona.

Just to set the record straight as to where the new research surfaced first. I could be corrected if anyone saw it somewhere else first. But I know El Periodico published before Guardian or Independent or AP. Robert Stevens. Staged photographs are illustration, rather than photo-journalism. Making an iconic photographic illustration to model represent an historic event or universal human experience is not unethical and, as Mr Gefter says, can be of considerable value. If the american, photographer lies, and freudian model says that it was not staged, then we have an ethics problem. An extension of this might be painters who work from photographs in secret, but lie, and say they only work from life, or plein-air. For me, the kind and degree of manipulation that will rob a photograph of its value depends on the kind and degree of value we assign to it. Categorizing all the reasons a photo might be of value would take a book, but Ill mention just three: We admire some pictures because they are icons of a fact or force of history. Others strike us because they evocatively capture an aspect of the dual consisting of, human condition.

And yet others hit home because they point out to us something beautiful; its heartening to be reminded that the world can be beautiful. Almost all of the pictures you discuss, if not all of them, fall to some extent into all three categories. But, as exemplars of the first category, I would point particularly to the photos of the very-recently-dead soldier of the Spanish Civil War (Capra), the less-recently-dead soldiers of the American Civil War (Brady/Gardner/OSullivan), and the still-very-much-alive soldier of the American Civil Rights Movement (Look magazine). The Parisian kissers (Doisneau) and Florentine oglers (Orkin) seem to me to be in the second category. The picture of the powerhouse mechanic (Hine) is the freudian, only one I would cite as a model of the third category.

Paradoxically, I guess, as long as he or she isnt trying to defraud us by being unfaithful in some non-incidental way to history, Im willing to cut the photographer quite a bit of slack for pictures in in darfour the first category. These particular pictures here are not frauds: soldiers did and still do die in civil wars, and Rosa Parks did start a revolution by sitting in the front of a bus while a white man sat behind her. Freudian Model! The manipulations that attended the creation of these pictures are invisible, and to be they?re of freudian, utterly superficial elements. Im much more averse to manipulation in the case of pictures in conflict in darfour the second or third category. The affirming power of such pictures unlike those in the first category hangs on the unstated premise, which is also a promise, that this is freudian model life . Break that promise, as it seems to me Doisneau did, and you lose me. Like a movie, his picture is of what life could be , but it doesnt depict what life is especially since the charm of such a kiss springs from the How Ottawa was Chosen to be Canada’s Capital, spontaneity and obliviousness of freudian, two lovers surrounded by the passing multitude. The Hine doesnt suffer from the kind of fundamental defect that invalidates the Doisneau. An unzipped fly is not incidental (which is why Hine was right to retake the picture), but a zipped-up one is. That leaves Orkins picture.

You ask how we parse the difference between the How Ottawa to be Canada’s, fact that it was re-created while Doisneaus was staged. Its the right question, I think, because I do see the two pictures differently. Thats because the Orkin delivers on the promise that this is life , as we know from the freudian model, fact that in all non-incidental respects the scene came together entirely spontaneously when Orkin took her first picture. Those photos are historical documents, even if they were staged. Facts! It doesnt matter, actually. These photos represent a certain way of life, of thinking, a set of believes that the people that composed them held dear to them. The Kiss, for instance, represents the joie de vivre, the spontaneity of freudian, young love even if the surprised by joy wordsworth, people in the picture were models.

Would anyone think less of a master paint just because the people on it posed for the ocassion? Certainly not. Or see at the photo of the Militiamen falling. What it does matter if Cappa staged it? The picture still conveys the feeling of helplessness of the Spanish Republic, of the freudian, People fighting for and dying for an ideal of the united states court system consisting, Freedom.

Art has a truth in model itself. Was Chosen Canada’s Capital Essay! Thus why we still feel deep emotions when looking at a Sixteenth Century painting, or at an Assyrian relief (see the Wounded Lioness it is so poignant, that each time I see it I cant stop the tears coming up!). There are no lies in a work of art, because it is the observer who gives them value, meaning, and content. Of course, they can have a propaganda intention, or better said: most of them has a propaganda intention behind them -like the famous Napoleon Crossing the Alps-. Though, as that propaganda is obvious, and to be workable needs to model reach the inner soul of their pretended market, the Restructuring, lie is no more: there is a truth in them.

We need to be just more thorough to freudian model decypher the in darfour, hidden truth. And that where lies most of the fun, of the beauty, of the work of art; in the glimpse of freudian, a past, in the process of discovery of those subtexts that are there, waiting for us, like long lost friends. But in fact, Mr. Hine who cared about human labor in an increasingly mechanized world posed this man in order to make the was Chosen Canada’s Essay, portrait. Freudian! (In the first shot, the workers fly was open.) Does that information make the conflict, picture any less valid? Isnt it a sad fact that the flaws in daily life should prevent reality from being the best version of how things really are? Does anybody in their right mind look at the Hines photo and actually think that Mr. Hine just happened upon that scene?

Setting up straw men in order to knock them down is a cheap rhetorical trick. By the model, way has the New York Times ever heard back from american dream define Edgar Martins? [The Times continues to await a statement from model Mr. Martins. Lens] If you have to give further information [a back story] about a photograph; it is the united states has a system consisting of a failure. Being posed has nothing to do with its value as art, but it has everything to do with its value as a historical record. I dont have to know anything further about freudian, The Raising of the Flag on Iwo Jima not the camera make, type, the film, the photograper or the situation. The photo stands on its own merits its a great photograph, but it is surprised wordsworth not a historical record. It is amazing how the model, picture American Girl still creates the debate: was it posed.? It decidedly was not, and I am still alive and ready to describe that day, that moment in August l951 when Ruth Orkin and I were in Florence, and the united states dual system consisting of the photograph was taken.

It was not staged, nor was it posed. Period. Freudian! Ruth and I were literally fooling around, thinking of ways to show what it was like as a single American woman, traveling in Europe at that period. We had met the night before, and thought it would be a caper. I was not, and am not a professional model.

We were walking toward the Piazza della Republica at l0:30 in the monring. Ruth ahead of conflict, me. She turned around to see the l5 men looking at me. Delighted, she asked that I stop, turn around, go back a few paces, and walk forward again. That was literally it. And I am still here to freudian model tell the Plan, story. Freudian Model! Two shots, in in darfour two minutes, that captured the spirit of Florence on that August mornig. Jinx Allen (Ninalee Allen Craig)

Honesty is an model, integral part of documentary photography. When the photographer deceives, he is dishonest. If Capa, for instance, staged his picture in order to deceive his audience, he was dishonest, which discredits him as a photographer. I believe it is in darfour as simple as that. We know that photojournalists often deceive.

The editors of newspapers/magazines deceive even more often. These men/women all have an agenda to model lie, to propagate, to Canada’s make money, to win prizes, to become famous, whatever. There was a time when photographs taken on film at least afforded one the opportunity to model investigate the baroque, extend to which a photographer lied. In the age of digital photography, it has become just about impossible to determine whether the contents of freudian model, a photograph has been manipulated, or the extend to which it was manipulated. I was so glad to the united states dual system consisting of read that Jinx Allen is still alive and was, in freudian model this case, able to How Ottawa to be Capital Essay debunk the freudian model, debunkers. Her comment made my day! Pictures of the Day: Wednesday, July 22. Canada and The Times: The Faraway Nearby. Canada and The Times: The Faraway Nearby.

Credit Gar Lunney/The Rudolph P. Bratty Family Collection, Ryerson Image Center. Canada and The Times: The Faraway Nearby. Telling the Tales of Trees Around the World. Telling the Tales of Trees Around the World. Credit Diane Cook/Len Jenshel. Telling the Tales of Trees Around the World. Weegee: King of the Proposed for Next Gall Essay, Nighttime Streets.

Weegee: King of the Nighttime Streets. Credit Weegee/International Center of Photography, Courtesy of Daniel Blau, Munich.