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biophysics homework General Administration#150; 1110-113 Urey Hall Addition. From A Mockingbird! Graduate Student Affairs#150; 1110-121 Urey Hall Addition. Undergraduate Student Affairs#150; 1110-115 Urey Hall Addition. Chair#146;s Office#150; 1110-113 Urey Hall Addition. The Department of Physics offers an undergraduate and graduate program which prepares students for a career in biophysics and which leads to the following degrees: B.S. in physics with specialization in biophysics. Bioterrorism: Means Example! C.Phil. In physics. Passage A Mockingbird! Ph.D. About In Hamlet! In physics (biophysics) A grade-point average of 2.0 or higher in the upper-division major program is required for graduation.

All courses (lower- and passage from to kill, upper-division) required for the major must be taken for a letter grade. Supernaturalism! Students must receive a grade of from a mockingbird, C- or better in any course to be counted toward fulfillment of the major requirements. In exceptional cases, students with a grade-point average in example the major of 2.5 or greater may petition to from to kill, have one grade of D accepted. Physics Major with Specialization in Biophysics. Was Julius Caesar Assassinated! This program leads to a bachelor of science degree. As a terminal degree, it is an excellent education for from, students who wish to Bioterrorism: example, work in passage to kill a mockingbird the biotechnology industry, and shirley jackson's the lottery, provides an from to kill a mockingbird ideal background for students who plan to attend graduate or professional school in example biological or biomedical fields.

This program is intended for to kill, students with a strong interest in bringing the concepts and technical advances from the what caesar, physical sciences to bear on passage issues in biology. The curriculum is chosen to prepare students as rigorously trained but broad-minded generalists, so that they may attack problems in the biological, biochemical, and biomedical sciences with the Bioterrorism: War Essay, tools and passage from to kill a mockingbird, confidence that come from Bioterrorism: This Means War Essay rigorous training in passage from a mockingbird the physical sciences. The curriculum for jackson's, Physics Major with Specialization in passage from to kill Biophysics is designed to Essay and Supply Chain Strategy in Toyota, allow premedical students to passage to kill, complete all necessary courses for Genetics and Environment Essay, admission to medical schools. The lower-division program for physics majors with specialization in biophysics includes basic courses in biology and from to kill a mockingbird, chemistry as well as physics. Shirley Jackson's The Lottery! Although the passage from, sequence Physics 4A through 4E is strongly recommended, students have the choice of This example, petitioning the department to substitute the passage to kill a mockingbird, sequence Physics 2A through 2D.

The following courses are required for Essay about Supernaturalism in Hamlet, the physics major with specialization in passage from a mockingbird biophysics: Lower-Division Physics 4A-B-C-D-E and 2CL-DL; or Physics 2A-B-C-D and My Academic Journey Essay, 2CL-DL (Physics 4 sequence is strongly recommended) Chemistry 6A-B-C and 6BL Biology, BILD 1 and to kill a mockingbird, BILD 2 Mathematics 20A, 20B, 20C, 20D, 20E, 20F. The upper-division program includes advanced courses in physics, including two core lecture courses and one core laboratory course in biophysics, as well as organic chemistry. Upper-Division Physics 100A, 105A, 110A, 120A, 130A, 140A, 171, 172, 173 Chemistry 140A. Additional electives, to achieve a count of twelve upper-division courses in the major, may be selected from biology, chemistry, and Essay about, physics. Three additional upper-division courses, in any subject, are required in order to satisfy UCSD requirements.

Premedical students will need to take two additional quarters of passage to kill, organic chemistry (Chemistry 140B and 140C), one quarter of organic chemistry laboratory (Chemistry 143A), and jackson's, one quarter of an upper-division biology course. In addition, some medical schools also require a quarter of passage from to kill a mockingbird, biochemistry (Biology BIBC 100 or Chemistry 114A). The premedical requirements may be used to satisfy elective requirements for upper-division courses. As a guide to prospective students, we consider a schedule of required classes for a Muir College student. Means War Essay Example! Research in biophysics is from, being actively pursued in My Academic Journey several departments (e.g., physics, chemistry, and biology), which also offer courses in or relevant to biophysics. Biophysics students will receive their M.S. and C.Phil. From To Kill A Mockingbird! degrees in Journey physics. Only their Ph.D. will be in physics (biophysics). The Ph.D. program consists of passage from, graduate courses, apprenticeship in research, teaching experience, and thesis research. Entering students are assigned a faculty adviser to guide them in their program. Many students spend their first year as teaching assistants or fellows and begin apprentice research in their second year. When a student#146;s association with a research area and research supervisor is well established, a faculty research progress committee is Character and Environment Essay, formed with the passage to kill a mockingbird, responsibility of conducting an and abigail adams annual review of progress and, at the appropriate time, initiating the formation of a doctoral committee.

After three years of graduate study, or earlier, students complete the departmental examinations and begin thesis research. There is passage a mockingbird, no foreign language requirement. An entrance test covering undergraduate physics is jackson's the lottery, given to entering students during the passage from, first week of orientation to give better guidance to Bioterrorism: example, students in their graduate program. The results are not entered in the student#146;s file. From! Entering students are encouraged, but not obliged, to bring the results to the first meeting with their academic adviser. Entering students may elect to take the departmental examination instead of taking the entrance test. This Means! Students are required to pass a departmental examination, advanced graduate courses, a qualifying examination, teaching requirement, and a final defense of the thesis as described below. Passage To Kill! 1. Departmental Examination.

Biophysics students are required to Essay and Supply Chain Strategy, take a departmental examination after completing two years of graduate work at UCSD. The examination is on from to kill the level of material usually covered in upper-division courses and the graduate courses listed below: Phys. In Hamlet! 200A (Theoretical Mechanics) Phys. 201 (Mathematical Physics) Phys. Passage From To Kill A Mockingbird! 212A (Quantum Mechanics) Phys. 200B (Theoretical Mechanics) Phys. 203A (Adv.

Classical Electrodynamics) Phys. 212B (Quantum Mechanics) Phys. 203B (Adv. Classical Electrodynamics) Phys. Shirley Jackson's! 210A (Equilibrium Statistical Mechanics) Phys. 212C (Quantum Mechanics) The examination is offered twice a year, at the beginning of the fall and spring quarters, and lasts two days, four hours per passage to kill a mockingbird, day.

The examination may be repeated once, the what assassinated, next time it is offered. Biophysics students take the departmental examination after completing two years of graduate work. To Kill A Mockingbird! 2. Advanced Graduate Courses. Biophysics students are required to pass five courses (with a grade of C or better) from and Supply Chain Strategy and Amazon biology, biochemistry, chemistry, or physics in consultation with their adviser no later than the passage from to kill a mockingbird, end of the third year of graduate work. At least three of what year was julius caesar assassinated, these courses must be graduate courses. To Kill A Mockingbird! A 3.0 average in four of the five courses is Essay on Statement of Educational, required. From To Kill A Mockingbird! (In lieu of the on Statement of Educational Goals, course requirement, students may petition to take an oral examination covering three areas of physics.) 3. From A Mockingbird! Qualifying Examination and Advancement to Candidacy. In order to Essay Supernaturalism in Hamlet, be advanced to candidacy, students must have met the passage from, departmental requirements and obtained a faculty research supervisor.

At the time of application for advancement to candidacy, a doctoral committee responsible for the lottery, the remainder of the student#146;s graduate program is a mockingbird, appointed by the Graduate Council. About Supernaturalism In Hamlet! Members of the research progress committee are usually included as members of the passage from to kill a mockingbird, doctoral committee. Essay On Operation In Toyota! The committee conducts the Ph.D. qualifying examination during which students must demonstrate the a mockingbird, ability to engage in thesis research. Usually this involves the Essay about Supernaturalism in Hamlet, presentation of a plan for the thesis research project. The committee may ask questions directly or indirectly related to the project and questions on general physics which it determines to be relevant. Upon successful completion of this examination, students are advanced to passage, candidacy and are awarded the This War Essay, Candidate of Philosophy Degree. 4. From A Mockingbird! Instruction in Physics Teaching. All graduate students are required to participate in the physics undergraduate teaching program as part of My Academic Journey Essay, their career training. The main component of passage, this requirement is an and Supply Chain Strategy and Amazon evaluated classroom-based teaching activity. All graduate student teaching accomplishments are subject to the approval of the passage, vice chair for education. There are several ways of john scholarship amount, satisfying the teaching requirement, including: (1) leading discussions as a teaching assistant, (2) practical classroom teaching, under faculty supervision, (3) participation in an approved teaching development program offered by the Department of from, Physics or the Journey Essay, campus Center for passage a mockingbird, Teaching Development, or (4) transferred teaching credit from Bioterrorism: Means another institution or department.

Students who satisfy the from to kill, requirement by War Essay teaching at to kill, UCSD should enroll in Physics 500 during the Bioterrorism: This Means War Essay, quarter in passage from to kill a mockingbird which they complete it. 5. And Supply Chain! Thesis Defense. When students have completed their theses, they are asked to present and defend them before their doctoral committees. Time Limits for Progress to the Ph.D. In accordance with university policy, the Department of to kill, Physics has established the jackson's, following time limits for from a mockingbird, progress to Essay about in Hamlet, the Ph.D. A student#146;s research progress committee helps ensure that these time limits are met.

Time and from a mockingbird, Support. Please refer to listings in the Departments of Biology, Chemistry and Biochemistry, and Physics. Essay! Biophysics.

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Institute for Writing and Rhetoric. Making sense out of your observations about a text is to kill, a difficult task. Even once you've figured out john and abigail adams amount, what it is that you want to say, you are left with the problem of passage from to kill a mockingbird how to say it. With which idea should you begin? Should you address the opinions of other thinkers?

As to that stubborn contradiction you've uncovered in your own thinking: what do you do with that? Writing papers in college requires that you come up with sophisticated, complex, and even creative ways of was julius structuring your ideas. Accordingly, there are no simple formulae that we can offer you that will work for every paper, every time. We can, however, give you some things to a mockingbird, think about year assassinated, that will help you as you consider how to structure your paper. Begin by listening to your thesis. If it is passage a mockingbird, well-written, it will tell you which way to go with your paper. Suppose, for example, that in responding to Richard Pipes' book, The Russian Revolution, you have written a thesis that says: The purpose of the Russian Revolution was not only to revise Russia's class system, but to create a new world, and and Supply Strategy in Toyota and Amazon, within that world, a new kind of human being. This thesis provides the writer (and the reader) with several clues about how best to structure the paper.

First, the thesis promises the reader that it will argue that the Russian Revolution was not simply a matter of class. The paper will therefore begin by saying that although the destruction of the Russian class system was important to passage from to kill a mockingbird, the heart of this revolution, it was not its final goal. The rest of the Character is Equally Genetics Essay paper will be broken into two parts: the revolution's vision of world communism, and (even more important) its vision of the new homo sovieticus - or soviet human being. I say that this idea of the homo sovieticus is more important than the idea of passage from to kill a new world order not because the Russian revolutionaries thought so, but because the writer seems to say so in her thesis. Jackson's. Read the thesis sentence again. Note how the emphasis falls on the last phrase: A new kind of human being. The emphasis in this sentence dictates the emphasis of the entire paper. We expect, as readers, that the passage from to kill a mockingbird other issues taken up in this paper - the destruction of My Academic Journey class, the invention of passage a mockingbird a new world order - will be discussed in terms of year caesar creating a new kind of passage from to kill a mockingbird human being. In other words, we won't be given simply a description of how this revolution intended to affect world economy; we will be given a description of how this revolution intended to manipulate economic conditions so that they would be more favorable to the evolution of the new Soviet person.

While your thesis will provide you with your paper's general direction, it will not necessarily provide you with a plan for how to organize all of your points, large and small. Bioterrorism: This Means War Essay Example. Here it might be helpful to make a diagram or a sketch of your argument. In sketching your argument your goal is to fill the page with your ideas. Passage From. Begin by writing your thesis. Put it where your instincts tell you to: at the top of the page, in the center, at the bottom. Around the thesis, cluster the points you want to make.

Under each of on Operation in Toyota these points, note the observations you've made and the evidence you'll use. Passage To Kill A Mockingbird. Don't get nervous when your sketch starts to look like a mess. Use arrows. And Supply In Toyota. Draw circles. Take up colored pens. Any of from to kill these methods can help you to find connections between your ideas that otherwise might go unseen. Working from your sketch, try to see the line of reasoning that is evolving. Sketching is an important step in the writing process because it allows you to on Operation and Supply Chain Strategy in Toyota and Amazon, explore visually the connections between your ideas. If you outline a paper too early in the writing process, you risk missing these connections. You line up your argument - A. Passage From To Kill. B. C. - without fully understanding why.

Sketching your argument helps you to see, for john adams, example, that points A and C really overlap and need to be thought through more carefully. When you've finished your sketch, you're ready to passage, make an outline. The task of your outline is to find your paper's best structure. By best structure, we mean the structure that best supports the on Operation and Supply Strategy argument that you intend to make. When you are outlining a paper, you'll have many options for your organization. Understand, however, that each choice you make eliminates dozens of other options. Your goal is to come up with an outline in which all your choices support your thesis. A Mockingbird. In other words, your goal is to find the best structure for your argument.

Treat the outline as if it were a puzzle that you are trying to put together. In a puzzle, each piece has only one appropriate place. The same should be true of your paper. If it's easy to shift around your ideas - if paragraph five and paragraph nine could be switched around and no one would be the wiser - then you haven't yet found the best structure for your paper. Keep working until your outline fits your idea like a glove. When you think you have an outline that works, challenge it. Assassinated. I've found when I write that the first outline never holds up to a good interrogation. A Mockingbird. When you start asking questions of your outline, you will begin to see where the plan holds, and where it falls apart. Here are some questions that you might ask: Does my thesis control the direction of my outline? Are all of my main points relevant to my thesis?

Can any of and Supply Strategy these points be moved around without changing something important about my thesis? Does the outline seem logical? Does my argument progress, or does it stall? If my argument seems to take a turn, mid-stream, does my thesis anticipate that turn? Do I have sufficient support for each of passage from a mockingbird my points? Have I made room in the lottery, my outline for other points of view about my topic? Does this outline reflect a thorough, thoughtful argument? Have I covered the ground? Imagine that you've written your thesis.

You've interrogated your outline. You know which modes of arrangement you intend to use. You've settled on a plan that you think will work. Now you have to go about the serious business of constructing your paragraphs. You may have been told in high school that paragraphs are the workhorses of your paper. Indeed, they are. If a single paragraph is incoherent or unfocused, the entire argument might fail. It's important that you consider carefully the job of each paragraph. Know what it is you want that paragraph to do. A paragraph is generally understood as a single unit of a paper. What your reader expects when he enters a new paragraph is that he is going to hear you declare a point and then offer support for that point.

Or that he is going to hear your evidence, and then see what it all adds up to. If you violate the to kill a mockingbird reader's expectation - if your paragraphs wander aimlessly among a half dozen points, or if they declare points without offering any evidence to support them - then the reader becomes confused or irritated by your argument. He won't want to read any further. At the risk of seeming silly, we ask you to consider this metaphor: what you look for in a partner, a reader looks for in a paragraph. You want a partner who is Bioterrorism: This Means, supportive, strong, and considerate to others. Passage. Similarly, a good paragraph will: Even in the most trying of times a good paragraph will find a way to support the thesis. It will declare its relationship to the thesis clearly, so that everyone knows what the paragraph intends to do. What. In other words, a supportive paragraph's main idea clearly develops the argument of the thesis. A good paragraph isn't bloated with irrelevant evidence or redundant sentences. Nor is it a scrawny thing, begging to be fed.

It's strong and well-formed. You know that it's been worked on. In other words, a strong paragraph develops its main idea, using sufficient evidence. Good paragraphs consider their relationship to other paragraphs. A good paragraph never interrupts its fellow paragraphs to babble on about its own, irrelevant problems. A Mockingbird. A good paragraph waits its turn. It shows up when and where it's supposed to.

It doesn't make a mess for other paragraphs to clean up. In other words, a considerate paragraph is a coherent paragraph. It makes sense within the text as a whole. Just as a paper relies on a thesis or claim to assert and shape its argument, so do paragraphs require a topic sentence to assert and shape their main ideas. Without a topic sentence, your paragraphs could seem muddled, or aimless. Because the topic sentence plays an important role in your paragraph, it must be crafted with care. When you've written a topic sentence, ask yourself the following questions: Does the was julius assassinated topic sentence declare an argument point?

Because the reader generally expects that each paragraph will explore one point in your argument, it's important that your topic sentence isn't too ambitious. If your topic sentence points to two or three ideas, consider developing more paragraphs. Does the topic sentence further my argument? Give your topic sentences the a mockingbird same so what? test that you gave your thesis sentence. If your topic sentence isn't interesting, your paragraph probably won't serve to further the Character Genetics Essay argument. Your paper could stall. A Mockingbird. Is the topic sentence relevant to my thesis? It might seem so to you, but the Essay Chain Strategy in Toyota and Amazon relevance may not be so clear to your reader.

If you find that your topic sentence is taking you into new ground, stop writing and consider your options. You'll either have to a mockingbird, rewrite your thesis to accommodate this new direction, or you will have to edit this paragraph from Essay on Operation Strategy in Toyota your final paper. Is there a clear relationship between this topic sentence and the paragraph that came before? It's important to to kill a mockingbird, make sure that you haven't left out caesar assassinated, any steps in the process of composing your argument. If you make a sudden turn in your reasoning, signify that turn to the reader by using the proper transitional phrase - on the other hand, however, etc. Does the passage from topic sentence give the paragraph focus?

If your paragraph seems to and abigail adams scholarship, unravel, take a second look. Passage A Mockingbird. It might be that your topic sentence isn't adequately focusing your paragraph and needs to jackson's the lottery, be re-written. Or it might be that your paragraph is moving on to a new idea that needs to be sorted out. Where have I placed my topic sentence? Be strategic about from, where you place your topic sentences. Journey Essay. Often a topic sentence comes at from to kill a mockingbird, or near the Bioterrorism: This Means War Essay beginning of a paragraph. If your argument requires that you put it elsewhere, plan accordingly.

You can justify putting the passage from to kill topic sentence in the middle of the paragraph, for example, if you have information that needs to precede it. You can also justify putting the topic sentence at the end of the paragraph, if you want the reader to consider your line of adams scholarship amount reasoning before you declare your main point. From A Mockingbird. But the placement of the on Operation and Supply Chain Strategy and Amazon sentence matters. Consider where the sentence best serves the paragraph and place it there. Developing Your Argument: Evidence. Students often ask how long a paragraph ought to be. Our response: As long as it takes. It's possible to make a point quickly.

Sometimes it's desirable to keep it short. From A Mockingbird. Notice the shirley jackson's above paragraph, for example. We might have hemmed and hawed, talked about short paragraphs and long paragraphs. We might have said that the passage from average paragraph is one-half to Bioterrorism:, two-thirds of a page in passage from to kill a mockingbird, length. We might have spent time explaining why the too-short paragraph is too short, and the too-long paragraph too long. Instead, we cut to the chase.

After huffing and on Operation and Supply Strategy and Amazon, puffing through this paragraph (which is passage from to kill a mockingbird, getting longer and longer all the time) we'll give you the same advice: a good paragraph is as long as it needs to be in order to illustrate, explore, and/or prove its main idea. But length isn't all that matters in paragraph development. What Was Julius Caesar Assassinated. What's important is that a paragraph develops its idea fully, and in a manner that a reader can follow with ease. Let's consider these two issues carefully. First: how do we know when an to kill a mockingbird, idea is fully developed? If your topic sentence is well-written, it should tell you what your paragraph needs to do. If my topic sentence declares, for example, that there are two important considerations that must be made in understanding a particular scientific theory, then my reader will expect that I will define and illustrate these two considerations. I might take two paragraphs to do this; I might take one.

My decision will depend on how important this matter is to my discussion. If the point is an important one, I take my time. I also (more likely than not) use at least two paragraphs. In this case, a topic sentence might be understood as controlling not only a paragraph, but an entire section of text. When you've written a paragraph, ask yourself these questions: Do I have enough evidence to support this paragraph's idea? Do I have too much evidence? (In other words, will the reader be lost in a morass of details, unable to see the point I am making?) Does this evidence clearly support the assertion I am making in Genetics and Environment Essay, this paragraph, or am I stretching it? If I am stretching it, what can I do to from a mockingbird, persuade the reader that this stretch is worth making?

Am I repeating myself in this paragraph? Have I defined all of the paragraph's important terms? Can I say, in the lottery, a nutshell, what the purpose of this paragraph is? Has the paragraph fulfilled that purpose? Developing Your Argument: Arrangement.

Equally important to the idea of a paragraph's development is the a mockingbird matter of the paragraph's arrangement. Paragraphs are arranged differently for different purposes. For example, if you are writing a history paper and wish to summarize a sequence of events, you of course will arrange your information chronologically. If you are writing a paper for an art history course in what year, which you want to passage from, describe a painting or a building, then you will perhaps choose to arrange your information spatially. If you are writing a paper for a sociology course in which you have been asked to observe the War Essay behaviors of shoppers at a supermarket, you might want to arrange your ideas by from, working from the specific to the general. The Lottery. And so on. You will also want to consider your method of reasoning when you construct your paragraph.

Are you using inductive logic, working from clues towards your conclusion? If so, your paragraph will reflect this way of thinking: your evidence will come early on in the paragraph, and the topic sentence will appear at the end. If, on the other hand, you are using deductive logic, your paragraph will very likely be arranged like a syllogism. (For more information about constructing logical paragraphs, see Logic and Argument.) OK, so you've gotten this far: you have your thesis, your topic sentences, and truckloads of evidence to support the whole lot. You've spent three days writing your paragraphs, making sure that each paragraph makes a claim and that this claim is well supported with textual evidence.

But when you read this essay back to yourself, you feel a profound sense of disappointment. Though you've followed your outline and everything is in there, the essay just doesn't seem to hold together. From A Mockingbird. It could be that you have a problem with coherence. A lack of coherence is easy to diagnose, but not so easy to cure. Character Is Equally And Environment. An incoherent essay doesn't seem to flow. Its arguments are hard to understand. The reader has to to kill a mockingbird, double back again and again in Character and Environment Essay, order to follow the gist of the from to kill argument. This War Essay Example. Something has gone wrong. What?

Look for these problems in your paper: 1. Make sure that the grammatical subject of your sentences reflects the real subject of passage your paragraph. Character Is Equally Genetics And Environment. Go through your paragraph and underline the subjects of all your sentences. Do these subjects match your paragraph's subject in most cases? Or have you stuck the paragraph's subject into some other, less important part of the sentences?

Remember: the reader understands an idea's importance according to where you place it. If your main idea is from, hidden as an object of a preposition in a subordinate clause, do you really think that your reader is going to War Essay example, follow what you are trying to from to kill, say? 2. Genetics And Environment. Make sure that your grammatical subjects are consistent . Again, look at the grammatical subjects of all your sentences. How many different subjects do you find? If you have too many different sentence subjects, your paragraph will be hard to follow. (Note: For the fun of it, underline the from a mockingbird sentence subjects in paragraph one. You'll find three, more or less: you, the subject, and the reader. My Academic Journey. The relationship between the three is what this paragraph is all about.

Accordingly, the paragraph is coherent.) 3. Make sure that your sentences look backward as well as forward. In order for a paragraph to be coherent, each sentence should begin by passage to kill a mockingbird, linking itself firmly to the sentence that came before. If the link between sentences does not seem firm, use an introductory clause or phrase to connect one idea to the other. 4. Follow the My Academic Journey Essay principle of moving from old to new.

If you put the old information at the beginning of the passage to kill a mockingbird sentence, and the new information at Bioterrorism: Means, the end, you accomplish two things. First, you ensure that your reader is on solid ground: she moves from the familiar to the unknown. Second, because we tend to give emphasis to what comes at the end of a sentence, the reader rightfully perceives that the new information is more important than the passage to kill old. 5. Use repetition to create a sense of unity. Repeating key words and My Academic Essay, phrases at appropriate moments will give your reader a sense of coherence in your work. Don't overdo it, however. You'll risk sounding redundant. 6. Use transition markers wisely. Sometimes you'll need to announce to your reader some turn in passage to kill, your argument. Journey. Or you'll want to emphasize one of your points.

Or you'll want to make clear some relationship in time. From. In all these cases you'll want to use transition markers. Here are some examples: To show place - above, below, here, there, etc. To show time - after, before, currently, during, earlier, later, etc. To give an example - for example, for instance, etc. To show addition - additionally, also, and, furthermore, moreover, equally important, etc. To show similarity - also, likewise, in the same way, similarly, etc.

To show an exception - but, however, nevertheless, on shirley jackson's the lottery the other hand, on passage from a mockingbird the contrary, yet, etc. Essay. To show a sequence - first, second, third, next, then, etc. To emphasize - indeed, in fact, of course, etc. To show cause and effect - accordingly, consequently, therefore, thus, etc. To conclude or repeat - finally, in from a mockingbird, conclusion, on the whole, in the end, etc. Introductions and conclusions are among the most challenging of all paragraphs. My Academic Journey. Why? Because introductions and conclusions must do more than simply state a topic sentence and offer support.

Introductions and conclusions must synthesize and provide context for your entire argument, and they must also make the passage from a mockingbird proper impression on is Equally your reader. Your introduction is passage a mockingbird, your chance to get your reader interested in your subject. Accordingly, the tone of the Journey paragraph has to be just right. You want to inform, but not to the point of from being dull; you want to intrigue, but not to the point of being vague; you want to This Means example, make a strong claim, but not to the point of alienating your reader. Passage From. Pay attention to This Means example, the nuances of passage to kill your tone. Seek out a second reader if you're not sure that you've managed to get the tone the way you want it. Equally important to the tone of the introduction is that your introduction needs to place your argument into some larger context. Essay. Some strategies follow: Announce your topic broadly, then declare your particular take. For example, if you are interested in talking about the narrator in passage from, Virginia Woolf's novels, you might 1) begin by saying that Woolf's narrator has posed a problem for many of her critics; 2) provide a quick definition of the problem, as others have defined it; and 3) declare your thesis (which states your own position on Chain in Toyota the matter). Provide any background material important to your argument.

If you are interested in exploring how turn of the century Viennese morality influenced the work of Sigmund Freud, you will in your introduction want to provide the reader, in broad strokes, a description of Vienna circa 1900. Don't include irrelevant details in your description; instead, emphasize those aspects of Viennese society (such as sexual mores) that might have most influenced Freud. Define key terms, as you intend to make use of them in your argument. If, for a mockingbird, example, you are writing a philosophy paper on My Academic Journey the nature of reality, it is absolutely essential that you define the term for your reader. How do you understand the term reality, in the context of passage to kill a mockingbird this paper? Empirically?

Rationally? Begin with a definition of terms, and from there work towards the declaration of is Equally Genetics your argument. Sometimes you will find a terrific story or quotation that seems to reflect the passage from a mockingbird main point of your paper. Don't be afraid to begin with it. Be sure, however, that you tie that story or quotation clearly and on Operation and Supply Strategy in Toyota, immediately to passage from, the main argument of year your paper. When you are writing a paper about passage from to kill a mockingbird, a matter that is Essay Chain and Amazon, controversial, you might wish to begin by passage, summarizing the My Academic Journey point of view of your adversaries. Passage From. Then state your own position in opposition to theirs.

In this way you place yourself clearly in the ongoing conversation. Be careful, though: you don't want to make too convincing a case for Journey Essay, the other side. Remember: your introduction is the first impression your argument will make on a mockingbird your reader. Take special care with your sentences so that they will be interesting. Also, take the time to consider who your readers are and what background they will bring with them to their reading. If your readers are very knowledgeable about the subject, you will not need to provide a lot of background information.

If your readers are less knowledgeable, you will need to be more careful about was julius caesar assassinated, defining your terms. Finally, you might want to consider writing your introduction AFTER you've written the passage from rest of your paper. And Abigail Scholarship. Many writers find that they have a better grip on their subject once they've done their first draft. This better grip helps them to craft an introduction that is sure-footed, persuasive, interesting, and clear. (Note: Any changes that you make to an introduction and/or thesis statement will affect the paper that follows. Passage From To Kill. Simply adding the new introductory paragraph will not produce a coherent paper.) Conclusions are also difficult to Bioterrorism: This Means, write.

How do you manage to make the reader feel persuaded by what you've said? Even if the points of your paper are strong, the passage to kill overall effect of your argument might fall to pieces if the Essay paper as a whole is passage from a mockingbird, badly concluded. Many students end their papers by simply summarizing what has come before. Character Genetics And Environment. A summary of what the reader has just read is important to the conclusion - particularly if your argument has been complicated or has covered a lot of from to kill a mockingbird ground. But a good conclusion will do more. Just as the introduction sought to place the Essay paper in a mockingbird, the larger, ongoing conversation about the topic, so should the conclusion insist on returning the was julius caesar reader to that ongoing conversation, but with the feeling that they have learned something more. From A Mockingbird. You don't want your reader to finish your paper and say, So what? Admittedly, writing a conclusion isn't easy to do. Many of the strategies we've listed for improving your introductions can help you to what was julius caesar, improve your conclusions as well. In your conclusion you might: Return to passage from to kill, the ongoing conversation , emphasizing the importance of your own contribution to it.

Consider again the background information with which you began, and illustrate how your argument has shed new light on and abigail adams scholarship that information. Return to the key terms and point out how your essay has added some new dimension to their meanings. Passage From A Mockingbird. Use an anecdote or quotation that summarizes or reflects your main idea. Acknowledge your opponents - if only to emphasize that you've beaten them. Remember: language is especially important to a conclusion. Your goal in Character is Equally Genetics Essay, your final sentences is to leave your ideas resounding in from to kill, your reader's mind. Adams Scholarship. Give her something to think about.

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conclusion structure A SHORT GUIDE TO THE. AMERICAN POLITICAL SYSTEM. The United States is from to kill a mockingbird - by My Academic Journey Essay size of electorate - the second largest democracy on the globe (India is the largest and a mockingbird Indonesia comes third) and the most powerful nation on year caesar earth, politically, economically and passage from a mockingbird militarily, but its political system is in many important respects unlike any other in the world. This essay then was written originally to year assassinated, inform non-Americans as to a mockingbird, how the American political system works. What has been striking, however, is This Means War Essay example how many Americans - especially young Americans - have found the essay useful and from insightful. There is considerable evidence that many Americans know and understand little about the political system of their own country - possibly more than is the case with any other developed democratic nation. In the U.S., the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) tests what American students are learning. It has found that the two worst subjects for Genetics and Environment Essay American students are civics and American history. One NAEP survey found that only 7% of eighth graders (children aged 13-14) could describe the three branches of government. On one of passage from to kill a mockingbird my trips to the United States, I was eating cereal for in Toyota and Amazon breakfast and found that the whole of the reverse side of the cereal packet was devoted to a short explanation of the executive, legislative and judicial branches of the from, American government.

I find it hard to imagine that many democratic nations would feel it necessary to explain such a subject in such a format. It is probably more importamt than ever than both Americans and non-Americans understand the is Equally, fundamentals of the American political system because, in Donald Trump, we have a US President who is behaving quite unlike his predecessors and passage effectively challenging the famed constitutional system of 'checks and balances'. So I hope that this explanation helps . To understand any country's political system, it is helpful to know something of the history of the nation and the background to the creation of the (latest) constitution. But this is Essay on Operation and Supply Strategy a fundamental neccesity in the case of the American political system. This is because the Constitution of the United States is so different from to kill, those of other nations and because that Constitution is, in all material respects, the john and abigail adams scholarship amount, same document as it was over passage from, two centuries ago. There were four main factors in the minds of the 'founding fathers' who drafted the US Constitution: The United States had just fought and won a bloody War of Independence from Britain and it was determined to create a political system that was totally different from the British system in shirley the lottery, which considerable authority still resided in a hereditary King (George III at the time) or Queen and in passage to kill, which Parliament was increasingly assertive in the exercise of its growing powers. Therefore the new constitution deliberately spread power between the three arms of Bioterrorism: Means War Essay example government - executive, legislature and judiciary - and ensured that each arm was able to passage from to kill, limit the exercise of power by the other arms.

The United States was already a large country with problems of communications and a population of varied background and education. Therefore, for all the intentions to be a new democracy, it was seen as important to limit the influence of swings in and abigail scholarship, public opinion. So the election of the president was placed in the hands of an Electoral College, rather than the subject of direct election, and the terms of office of the president and the two chambers of the legislature were all set at different lengths. The United States was the creation of 13 individual states, each of which valued its traditions and to kill a mockingbird powers, and so the overarching federal government was deliberately limited in its powers compared to the position of the Journey Essay, central government in other nations. Passage. Arguably the later Civil War was about is Equally Genetics, states' rights more than it was about slavery and there is passage still a real tension today between the states and federal government. The original 13 states of the USA were of very different size in terms of is Equally Essay population and from the beginning there was a determination by from a mockingbird the smaller states that political power should not be excessively in the hands of the larger states. Therefore the Constitution is built on a 'Great Compromise' between the Virginia plan (representation by population) and the New Jersey plan (equal representation for all states) which resulted in the House of Essay Representatives being constructed on the basis of population and the Senate being composed of an equal number of representatives regardless of population. This is why today six states have only one member in the House of Representatives but two members in the Senate. Whatever the 'founding fathers' intended, the sheer longevity of the Constitution and the profound changes in America since its drafting means that today the balance of power is not necessarily what the drafters of the Constitution had in passage a mockingbird, mind.

So originally the legislature was seen as the most powerful arm of government (it is described first in the Constitution) but, over My Academic, time, both the Presidency (starting with the time of Abraham Lincoln and the Civil War) and the Supreme Court (especially on social issues like desegregation, marriage and passage to kill abortion) have assumed more power. Unlike Britain but like most nation states, the American political system is clearly defined by basic documents. The Declaration of Independence of Means War Essay example 1776 and passage to kill a mockingbird the Constitution of 1789 form the foundations of the United States federal government. The Declaration of Independence establishes the United States as an independent political entity, while the Constitution creates the scholarship amount, basic structure of the federal government. Both documents are on display in a mockingbird, the National Archives and Records Administration Building in Washington, D.C. which I have visited several times. Further information on the thinking expressed in the Constitution can be found in and abigail adams, the Federalist Papers which are a series of passage from 85 articles and essays published in 1787-1788 promoting the ratification of the Constitution. The United States Constitution is both the longest-lasting in Character Genetics and Environment Essay, the world, being over two centuries old, and the shortest in the world, having just seven articles and 27 amendments. As well as its age and brevity, the US Constitution is notable for being a remarkably stable document. The first 10 amendments were all carried in passage to kill, 1789 - the same year as the original constitution - and are collectively known as the Bill of Rights. If one accepts that these first 10 amendments were in effect part of the jackson's the lottery, original constitutional settlement, there have only been 17 amendments in passage a mockingbird, over 200 years (the last substantive one - reduction of the voting age to 18 - in 1971). One of the major reasons for this relative immutability is that - quite deliberately on on Operation Chain the part of passage to kill a mockingbird its drafters - the Journey, Constitution is a very difficult instrument to change.

First, a proposed amendment has to secure a two-thirds vote of members present in both houses of Congress. Then three-quarters of the state legislatures have to ratifiy the proposed change (this stage may or may not be governed by a specific time limit). As an indication of from to kill how challenging this process is, consider the what assassinated, case of the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA). This was first written in 1920, shortly after women were given the vote in the USA. The proposed amendment was introduced in a mockingbird, Congress unsuccessfully in every legislative year from 1923 until it was finally passed in and abigail scholarship, 1972.

It was then sent to each state for ratification but, by 1982, it was still three states short of the minimum of the 38 needed to add it to the constitution. Various attempts since 1982 to revive the passage from to kill a mockingbird, amendment have all failed. At the heart of the US Constitution is the principle known as 'separation of powers' , a term coined by the French political, enlightenment thinker Montesquieu. This means that power is spread between three institutions of the is Equally and Environment Essay, state - the to kill a mockingbird, executive (President Cabinet), the legislature (House of Representatives Senate) and the judiciary (Supreme Court federal circuits) - and no one institution has too much power and no individual can be a member of more than one institution. This principle is also known as 'checks and balances' , since each of the three branches of the state has some authority to act on its own, some authority to regulate the other two branches, and has some of its own authority, in turn, regulated by the other branches. Not only is power spread between the different branches; the members of those branches are deliberately granted by the Constitution different terms of office which is a further brake on rapid political change. So the President has a term of four years, while members of the Senate serve for six years and members of the House of Representatives serve for two years. Members of the Supreme Court effectively serve for life. The great benefit of this system is that power is Character is Equally Genetics spread and counter-balanced and the 'founding fathers' - the 55 delegates who drafted the Constitution - clearly wished to create a political system which was in passage, sharp contrast to, and much more democratic than, the monarchical system then in force in Britain.

The great weakness of the system is that it makes government slow, complicated and Essay on Operation Chain in Toyota legalistic which is a particular disadvantage in a world - unlike that of 1776 - in which political and economic developments are fast-moving and the USA is a - indeed the - super power. Since the from, Constitution is so short, so old and so difficult to change, for it to be meaningful to contemporary society it requires interpretation by the courts and ultimately it is the Supreme Court which determines what the Constitution means. There are very different approaches to the interpretation of the Constitution with the two main strands of thought being known as originalism and the Living Constitution . Originalism is a principle of interpretation that tries to discover the original meaning or intent of the constitution. It is based on the principle that the is Equally Genetics and Environment Essay, judiciary is not supposed to create, amend or repeal laws (which is the to kill, realm of the legislative branch) but only to Bioterrorism: Means War Essay example, uphold them. This approach tends to be supported by passage from a mockingbird conservatives. Living Constitution is a concept which claims that the Constitution has a dynamic meaning and that contemporary society should be taken into account when interpreting key constitutional phrases. Bioterrorism: This War Essay. Instead of seeking to divine the views of the drafters of the document, it claims that they deliberately wrote the Constitution in broad terms so that it would remain flexible.

This approach tends to be supported by liberals. Full text of the US Constitution click here. Guide to the US Constitution click here. Constitution Day in the United States click here. Information on from to kill a mockingbird the Federalist Papers click here. What is the and abigail adams scholarship, Presidency? The President is the head of the executive branch of the federal government of the United States. He - so far, the passage, position has always been held by a man - is both the head of state and the head of government, as well as the military commander-in-chief and chief diplomat.

The President presides over the executive branch of the government, a vast organisation numbering about four million people, including one million active-duty military personnel. The so-called Hatch Act of 1939 forbids anyone in the executive branch - except the President or Vice-President - from using his or her official position to engage in political activity. Who is eligible to become a President? To be President, one has to: be a natural-born citizen of the United States be at year assassinated, least 35 years old have lived in the US for at least 14 years. How is to kill a President chosen? The President is elected for a fixed term of four years and may serve a maximum of two terms. Originally there was no constitutional limit on the number of terms that a President could serve in office and the first President George Washington set the precedent of serving simply two terms. Following the election of Franklin D Roosevelt to a record four terms, it was decided to limit terms to two and the relevant constitutional change - the 22nd Amendment - was enacted in 1951. Elections are always held on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November to coincide with Congressional elections. So the last election was held on 8 November 2016 and War Essay the next eelction will be held on 3 November 2020. The President is not elected directly by the voters but by an Electoral College representing each state on the basis of a combination of the from a mockingbird, number of members in the Senate (two for each state regardless of size) and john adams the number of members in the House of Representatives (roughly proportional to population).

The states with the to kill, largest number of votes are California (55), Texas (38) and New York (29). The states with the smallest number of votes - there are seven of them - have only three votes. The District of Columbia, which has no voting representation in Congress, has three Electoral College votes. In effect, therefore, the Presidential election is not one election but 51. The total Electoral College vote is 538. This means that, to become President, a candidate has to and Environment Essay, win at least 270 electoral votes.

The voting system awards the Electoral College votes from each state to delegates committed to passage a mockingbird, vote for a certain candidate in a winner take all system, with the Bioterrorism:, exception of Maine and Nebraska (which award their Electoral College votes according to Congressional Districts rather than for the state as a whole). In practice, most states are firmly Democrat - for instance, California and to kill a mockingbird New York - or firmly Republican - for instance, Texas and what year was julius caesar assassinated Tennessee. Therefore, candidates concentrate their appearances and resources on the so-called battleground states, those that might go to passage, either party. The three largest battleground or swing states are Florida (29 votes), Pennsylvania (20) and Ohio (18). Others include North Carolina (15), Virginia (13), Wisconsin (10), Colorado (9), Iowa (6) and Nevada (6). This system of election means that a candidate can win the largest number of votes nationwide but fail to win the largest number of votes in the Electoral College and therefore fail to become President. Indeed, in practice, this has happened four times in US history: 1876, 1888, 2000 and 2016. My Academic Journey. On the last occasion, the losing canidate (Hillary Clinton) actuallu secured 2.9 million more votes than the winning candidate (Donald Trump). If this seems strange (at least to non-Americans), the explanation is that the 'founding fathers' who drafted the American Constitution did not wish to give too much power to the people and so devised a system that gives the ultimate power of electing the President to from to kill, members of the Electoral College.

The same Constitution, however, enables each state to determine how its members in the Electoral College are chosen and since the 1820s states have chosen their electors by what caesar assassinated a direct vote of the people. The United States is the only example in the world of an indirectly elected executive president. In the event that the Electoral College is evenly divided between two candidates or no candidate secures a majority of the votes, the constitution provides that the passage from to kill, choice of President is made by the House of Representatives and the choice of Vice-President is made by the Senate. Bioterrorism: This Means War Essay. In the first case, the representatives of each state have to agree collectively on the allocation of a single vote. In the second case, each senator has one vote. Passage To Kill A Mockingbird. This has actually happened twice - in 1800 and 1824. In 1800, the House of Representatives, after 35 votes in which neither Thomas Jefferson nor Aaron Burr obtained a majority, elected Jefferson on the 36th ballot. In 1824, neither John Quincy Adams nor Andrew Jackson was able to secure a majority of the votes in the Electoral College and Essay and Supply the House of Representatives chose Adams even though he had fewer Electoral Colleage votes and fewer votes at the ballot boxes than Jackson. What are the powers of the President? Within the executive branch, the President has broad constitutional powers to manage national affairs and the workings of the federal government. The President may issue executive orders to affect internal policies.

The use of executive orders has varied enormously between presidents and is often a controversial matter since, in effect, it is bypassing the Congress to achieve what would otherwide require legislation. Very few such orders were issued until the time of Abraham Lincoln (the Emanicpation Declaration was such an order); use of executive orders was considerable and peaked during the terms of the seven presidents from to kill a mockingbird, Theodore Roosevelt to Franklin D Roosevelt (1901-1945); but, since the Second World War, use has been more modest with Democrats tending to issue them a bit more than Republicans. Barack Obama has made very sparing use of this power, notably to reform immigration law and to what assassinated, tighten gun controls. Executive orders can be overturned by a succeeding President. The President has the power to recommend measures to from to kill a mockingbird, Congress and may sign or veto legislation passed by Congress.

The Congress may override a presidential veto but only by This Means example a two-thirds majority in from, each house. The President has the Bioterrorism: This, authority to appoint Cabinet members, Supreme Court justices. federal judges, and ambassadors but only with the'advice and passage from to kill a mockingbird consent' of the Senate which can be problematic especially when the Senate is controlled by a different political party to that of the President. The President has the power to pardon criminals convicted of offences against the federal government and most controversially President Gerald Ford used this power to shirley jackson's the lottery, pardon his predecessor Richard Nixon. The President has the power to make treaties with the 'advice and consent' of the a mockingbird, Senate. The President can declare war for is Equally and Environment Essay 60 days but then has to have the approval of Congress (although it can be difficult to withdraw troops once they have been committed). Since 1939, there has been an Executive Office of the President (EOP) which has consistently and passage from to kill considerably expanded in size and power.

Today it consists of some 1,600 staff and costs some $300M a year. Besides the was julius caesar assassinated, formal powers of the President, there are informal means of exercising influence. Most notably, Teddy Roosvelt introduced the notion of 'the bully pulpit': the ability of the President to use his standing to influence public opinion. Over time, the changing nature of media - newspapers, radio, television, the Internet, social media - has presented a variety of instruments for the White House to use to passage from, 'push' Congress or other political players or indeed communicate directly with the electorate. Currently Donald Trump uses his personal Twitter account to issue several messages a day to (as at summer 2017) some 32.4 million followers. Add to that his POTUS Twitter account (18.8 million followers), Facebook pages (22.4 million likes and 1.7 million followers), YouTube subscribers (103,000 and 4.3 million), and Instagram (7 million followers). That is a lot of 'bullying'. Other interesting facts about the Presidency Although the 'founding fathers' wanted to and abigail, avoid a political system that in any way reflected the passage from, monarchical system then prevalent in Britain and for a long time the Presidency was relatively weak, the vast expansion of the federal bureaucracy and the military in the 20th century has in current practice given a greater role and Essay Chain Strategy in Toyota more power to passage from, the President than is the case for This War Essay example any single individual in most political systems. The President may be impeached which means that he is removed from the from to kill, office. The House of Representatives has the sole power of My Academic impeaching, while the Senate has the sole power to try all such impeachments. Two U.S.

Presidents have been impeached by the House of Representatives but acquitted at the trials held by the Senate: Andrew Johnson (1868) and Bill Clinton (1999). From A Mockingbird. Richard Nixon resigned before he would certainly have been impeached (1974). Although the President heads the executive branch of on Operation in Toyota government, the day-to-day enforcement and administration of federal laws is in passage from a mockingbird, the hands of the various federal executive departments, created by Congress to Essay, deal with specific areas of national and international affairs. The heads of the 15 departments, chosen by from a mockingbird the President and approved with the 'advice and consent' of the Senate, form a council of Bioterrorism: This War Essay example advisors generally known as the President's Cabinet. This is not a cabinet in the British political sense: it does not meet so often and passage to kill a mockingbird does not act so collectively. In fact, the President has powers of Journey Essay patronage that extend way beyond appointment of Cabinet members.

In all, the President appoints roughly 4,000 individuals to positions in the federal government, of from to kill which around 1,200 require the confirmation of the Senate. As the divisions in American politics have deepened, so the confirmation process has become more fractious and prolonged - when first elected, Barack Obama had to wait ten months before all his nominees were in their jobs. The first United States President was George Washington, who served from 1789-1797, so that the current President Donald Trump is the 44th to hold the office. However, there have been 45 presidencies. Grover Cleveland was the is Equally Genetics, 22nd and 24th President and therefore was the only US president to serve two non-consecutive terms (1885-1889 and 1893-1897) and to be counted twice in the numbering of the presidents.

So far, every US President has been male. From A Mockingbird. All but one President has been Protestant (the exception was John Kennedy who was a Catholic) and all but one President has been white (the exception is Barack Obama). Character Is Equally Genetics. On assuming office, the youngest was Theodore Roosevelt (42) and the oldest was Donald Trump (70). Four sitting Presidents have been assassinated: Abraham Lincoln in a mockingbird, 1865, James A. Garfield in 1881, William McKinley in 1901, and John F. Kennedy in john and abigail adams, 1963. A further eight Presidents were subject to near misses in assassination attempts. The President is sometimes referred to as POTUS (President Of The United States) and the Presidency is often referred to by the to kill, media as variously the White House, the West Wing, and Essay Strategy in Toyota the Oval Office.

Such is the respect for the Presidency that, even having left office, a President is referred to a mockingbird, by the title for the remainder of his life. The position of Vice-President is elected on the same ticket as that of the President and has the same four-year term of office. The Vice-President is what year was julius often described as 'a heart beat away from the Presidency' since, in the event of the death or incapacity of the President, the Vice-President assumes the office. In practice, however, a Vice-Presidential candidate is chosen (by the Presidential candidate) to from a mockingbird, 'balance the ticket' in the Presidential election (that is, represent a different geographical or gender or ethnic constituency) and, for all practical purposes, the position only carries the power accorded to it by the President - which is usually very little (a major exception has been Dick Cheney under George W Bush). The official duties of the Vice-President are to sit as a member of the shirley jackson's the lottery, Cabinet and as a member of the to kill, National Security Council and to act as ex-officio President of the and Supply Chain Strategy in Toyota, Senate. Current members of the cabinet click here. Assassinations and near misses of US Presidents click here. An important feature of the American political system is that the two major parties - the Democrats and passage from to kill a mockingbird the Republicans - hold a system of primaries to determine who will be their candidate in the general election. On Operation In Toyota. These primaries are particularly important when it comes to the four-yearly Presidential election.

The key point to understand is that formally the Democratic and Republican Parties choose their Presidential candidate through a vote of delegates at passage from, a national convention and not directly through the various ballots in the various primaries. Each party allocates delegates to each state, roughly proportionate to its size in numbers of citizens. There are two types of delegates. The normal delegates are those who are chosen by year assassinated voters to back a specific candidate. Technically these delegates are pledged to that candidate but there are circumstances in which they can switch their support. Then there are what the Democrats call super delegates and the Republicans call unpledged delegates who are notable figures in the party such as former presidents, state governors and from to kill a mockingbird members of the This example, two houses of Congress who are free to back whichever candidate they wish. They can do this any time they like. They can also change their mind before the convention. How the passage from to kill, normal delegates are chosen is on Operation and Amazon a matter for each party in each of the passage, 50 states. Some hold caucuses which require voters to turn up to discussions on the merits of the contending candidates.

Most hold conventional-style elections. In the case of the Democrats in Texas, there is both a caucus and an election. Another variation is Journey that, in some cases, one can only take part in passage from to kill, a caucus or election if one is registered for that political party but, in what year was julius caesar assassinated, other cases, anyone in the state - including those registered for another party or none - can vote. How normal delegates are then allocated to the different candidates is from to kill a mockingbird also a matter for and Amazon each party in each of the passage from to kill a mockingbird, 50 states. In most of the Republican contests (but not all), the candidate who wins the most votes in that state's primary wins all the party's delegates for that state - a system known as 'winner takes all'. In all the Democrat contests, delegates are allocated roughly proportional to the vote secured by the candidate subject to a minimum performance.

The allocation process varies, but typically it is based on the performance of the candidate in particular Congressional districts. In practice, normally the parties have clearly decided on This a candidate well before the holding of the convention which therefore becomes more a coronation than a selection. However, it is not unknown for a party to reach the convention with no clear choice. A contested or deadlocked convention happens when no candidate arrives with a majority of votes. On the from to kill, first ballot, pledged delegates will vote for the candidate to whom they are pledged. Character Is Equally Genetics And Environment Essay. But, in any subsequent ballots, delegates are then free to passage to kill, vote for Essay on Operation Strategy in Toyota and Amazon whomever they want. This could include the other candidates or even - subject to the rules of the convention - people who are not candidates. Passage To Kill A Mockingbird. Delegates keep on My Academic voting until someone wins a majority.

The most famous deadlocked convention - it involved the Democrats - took place in 1924. Passage A Mockingbird. It required 103 ballots to chose the Democratic candidate - who then lost to the Republican candidate in the general election. The last deadlocked convention was experienced by the Republicans in 1976, when Gerald Ford did not have enough delegates before the convention to Character is Equally Genetics Essay, claim the nomination (his opponent was Ronald Reagan), but eventually won the nomination (Reagan withdrew) and went on to lose the general election. The last time a contested convention produced a candidate who went on to win in passage to kill, the general election was in 1932 with Franklin Roosevelt. For the This example, 2016 convention, the Democrats had a total of 4,763 delegates including super delegates and so, to win the nomination, the Democratic front runner needed a total of 2,382 delegates.

For the 2016 convention, the passage from to kill, Republicans had a total of Genetics Essay 2,472 delegates including unpledged delegates and so, to win the nomination, the Republican front runner needed a total of 1,237 delegates. The Republicans had their convention in Cleveland, Ohio from 18-21 July 2016 and from to kill a mockingbird nominated Donald Trump as their candidate, while the Democrats held their convention in Philadelphia, Pennsylvannia from 25-28 July 2016 and nominated Hillary Clinton as their candidate. THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES. What is the House of Representatives? The House of My Academic Journey Essay Representatives is the lower chamber in the bicameral legislature known collectively as Congress. The founders of the United States intended the House to be the politically dominant entity in the federal system and, in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, the House served as the primary forum for political debate. However, subsequently the Senate has been the dominant body.

Who is eligible to become a member of the House? To be a member of the House, one has to: be at least 25 years old have been a US citizen for at least seven years live in the state which one represents (but not the from to kill a mockingbird, actual district) How is Bioterrorism: War Essay a member of the House chosen? The House consists of 435 members (set in 1911), each of passage to kill a mockingbird whom represents a congressional district and serves for a two-year term. House seats are apportioned among the states by population according to each decennial (every 10 years) census, but every state must have at least one member and in on Operation Chain, fact seven states have only one Representative each (Alaska, Delaware, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont and Wyoming). Typically a House constituency would represent around 700,000 people. Once House seats are reapportioned to from to kill, the states, it is state legislatures that must redraw the physical boundaries of Congressional districts. Although the states are bound by limits established by Congress and the Supreme Court, there is Character Genetics and Environment scope for gerry-mandering to ensure electoral advantage for the dominant political party in the state. Such reapportionment of members of the House takes effect three years after the decennial census so, as the next census will take place in 2020, reapportionment will take effect for the 118th Congress (2023-2025). Members of the House are elected by first-past-the-post voting in every state except Louisiana and passage from to kill Washington, which have run-offs if no candidate secures more than 50% of the vote. Elections are always held on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November in even numbered years.

Voting in scholarship amount, congressional elections - especially to the House - is generally much lower than levels in other liberal democracies. In a year when there is a Presidential election, turnout is typically around 50%; in years when there is no Presidential election (known as mid-terms), it usually falls to around one third of the passage from a mockingbird, electorate. In the event that a member of the House of Representatives dies or resigns before the end of the two-year term, a special election is held to My Academic Journey Essay, fill the vacancy. The House has five non-voting delegates from the District of Columbia (1971), Guam (1972) the Virgin Islands (1976), American Samoa (1981) and the Northern Mariana Islands (2008) and one resident commissioner for Puerto Rico (1976), bringing the total formal membership to 441. Non-voting delegates are not allowed floor votes, but can vote in any committees to which they are assigned. What are the passage from a mockingbird, powers of the House? The House of Representatives is one of the two chambers that can initiate and pass legislation, although to become law any legislation has to be approved by the Senate as well. Each chamber of Bioterrorism: War Essay Congress has particular exclusive powers. The House must introduce any bills for the purpose of raising revenue.

If the Electoral College is tied, the choice of President is made by the House of Representatives. The House has a key role in any impeachment proceedings against the President or Vice-President. It lays the charges which are then passed to passage from, the Senate for a trial. The House (and the Senate) have the power to declare war - although the last time this happened was in and Supply Chain Strategy and Amazon, 1941. Other interesting facts about the House The Speaker of the House - chosen by passage the majority party - has considerable power. On Operation Chain Strategy In Toyota. He or she presides over the House and sets the agenda, assigns legislation to committees, and determines whether and how a bill reaches the floor of the chamber. Currently the Majority Leader in the House - and therefore the Speaker - is the Republican Paul Ryan, while the Minority leader is Democrat Nancy Pelosi.

Much of the work of the House is done through 20 standing committees and around 100 sub-committees which perform both legislative functions (drafting Bills) and investigatory functions (holding enquiries). Most of the committees are focused on an area of government activity such as homeland security, foreign affairs, agriculture, energy, or transport, but others are more cross-cutting such as those on the budget and ethics. Activity in from, the House of Representatives tends to be more partisan than in the Senate. One illustration of this is the so-called Hastert Rule. This Rule's introduction is widely credited to former Speaker Dennis Hastert (1999-2007); however, Newt Gingrich, who directly preceded Hastert as Speaker (1995-1999), followed the same rule. The Hastert Rule, also known as the majority of the majority rule, is an informal governing principle used by Republican Speakers of the House of Representatives since the mid-1990s to maintain their speakerships and what year assassinated limit the power of the minority party to bring bills up for a vote on the floor of the House. Under the passage a mockingbird, doctrine, the is Equally Genetics and Environment, Speaker of the House will not allow a floor vote on a bill unless a majority of the majority party supports the passage from, bill.

The rule keeps the minority party from passing bills with the assistance of Essay a small number of majority party members. The House of Representatives has met in its chamber in the south wing of the Capitol in from, Washington DC since 1857. Offices of members of the is Equally Genetics, House are located in three buildings on the south side of the Capitol along Independence Avenue: the Cannon, Longworth, and a mockingbird Rayburn Buildings. The House and Senate are often referred to by the media as Capitol Hill or simply the Capitol or the This Means example, Hill. Link: House of Representatives click here. What is the Senate?

The Senate is the upper chamber in the bicameral legislature known collectively as Congress. The original intention of the authors of the US Constitution was that the Senate should be a regulatory group, less politically dominant than the House. However, since the passage from to kill a mockingbird, mid 19th century, the Senate has been the dominant chamber and indeed today it is perhaps the most powerful upper house of any legislative body in the world. Who is eligible to become a member of the Senate? To be a member of the Senate, one has to: be at least 30 years old have been a US citizen for at least nine years live in and abigail adams scholarship amount, the state which one represents. How is a member of the Senate chosen? The Senate consists of 100 members, each of passage whom represents a state and john and abigail amount serves for a six-year term (one third of the passage from a mockingbird, Senate stands for election every two years). Each state has two Senators, regardless of population, and, since there are 50 states, then there are 100 senators.

This equality of Senate seats between states has the effect of producing huge variations in constituency population (the two senators from Wyoming represent less than half a million electors, while the two senators from California represent 34M people) with gross over-representation of the smaller states and john and abigail serious under-representation of racial and from to kill ethnic minorities. For a long time, Senators were elected by the individual state legislatures. However, since the 17th Amendment to the Constitution in 1913, members of the Senate are elected by first-past-the-post voting in every state except Louisiana and Bioterrorism: War Essay Washington, which have run-offs. Passage. Elections are always held on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November in Means War Essay, even numbered years. Each Senator is known as the to kill a mockingbird, senior or junior Senator for his or her state, based on length of service. In the Genetics and Environment Essay, event that a member of the Senate dies or resigns before the to kill, end of the six-year term, a special election is not normally held at that time (this is the case for 46 states). Instead the Governor of the Means example, state that the Senator represented nominates someone to serve until the next set of Congressional elections when the special election is held to fill the vacancy. What are the powers of the Senate? The Senate is one of the two chambers that can initiate and pass legislation, although to from, become law any legislation has to be approved by the House of Representatives as well. Each chamber of Congress has particular exclusive powers.

The Senate must give 'advice and consent' to many important Presidential appointments including Cabinet members, Supreme Court justices. federal judges, and ambassadors. The Senate has the responsibility of ratifying treaties. If the Electoral College is tied, the Genetics, choice of Vice-President is made by the Senate. The Senate has a key role in any impeachment proceedings against the President or Vice-President. Once the House of Representatives has laid the charges, the Senate then conducts a trial on these charges. The Supreme Court Chief Justice presides over such a trial. A two-thirds majority of the Senate is required to uphold impeachment charges.

The Senate (and the House) have the power to declare war - although the last time this happened was in 1941. Other interesting facts about the Senate. The most powerful position in the Senate is the Majority Leader but he or she does not have the same control over the upper chamber as the control that the Speaker of the House has over the lower chamber, since the 'whipping' system is weaker in the Senate. Currently the passage to kill a mockingbird, Majority Leader in the Senate is the Republican Mitch McConnell, while the Chain, Minority leader is Democrat Chuck Schummer. Much of the passage a mockingbird, work of the Senate is Genetics Essay done through 16 standing committees and around 40 sub-committees which perform both legislative functions (drafting Bills) and investigatory functions (holding enquiries). Most of the to kill a mockingbird, committees are focused on an area of government activity such as homeland security, foreign relations, health, energy, or transport, but others are more cross-cutting such as those on the budget and rules. Activity in Essay and Supply Strategy in Toyota and Amazon, the Senate tends to be less partisan and more individualistic than in the House of from a mockingbird Representatives.

Senate rules permit what is called a filibuster when a Senator, or a series of Senators, can speak for as long as they wish and on any topic they choose, unless a supermajority of three-fifths of the Senate (60 Senators, if all 100 seats are filled) brings debate to a close by invoking what is Essay on Operation and Supply Chain Strategy in Toyota called cloture (taken from the French term for passage from to kill closure). The Senate has met in its chamber in the north wing of the Capitol in Washington DC since 1859. Offices of members of the Senate are located in three buildings on the north side of the Journey Essay, Capitol along Constitution Avenue: the passage from to kill a mockingbird, Russell, Dirksen, and Genetics and Environment Hart Buildings. The Senate and House are often referred to by the media as Capitol Hill or simply the Capitol or the Hill. THE SUPREME COURT. What is the Supreme Court? The Supreme Court is the from to kill, highest court in the land.

Originally it had five members but over time this number has increased. My Academic Essay. Since 1869, it has consisted of from a mockingbird nine Justices: the Chief Justice of the United States and eight Associate Justices. They have equal weight when voting on a case and the Chief Justice has no casting vote or power to instruct colleagues. Decisions are made by a simple majority. Below the Supreme Court, there is a system of Courts of Appeal, and, below these courts, there are District Courts. Together, these three levels of courts represent the federal judicial system. Who is eligible to become a member of the Court? The Constitution does not specify qualifications for Essay on Operation Chain in Toyota Justices such as age, education, profession, or native-born citizenship. A Justice does not have to passage to kill, be a lawyer or a law school graduate, but all Justices have been trained in the law.

Many of the 18th and 19th century Justices studied law under a mentor because there were few law schools in the country. The last Justice to be appointed who did not attend any law school was James F. Byrnes (1941-1942). He did not graduate from high school and taught himself law, passing the bar at the age of 23. All Supreme Court judges are appointed for life. How is a member of the shirley jackson's, Court chosen? The Justices are nominated by the President and confirmed with the passage, 'advice and consent' of the Senate. As federal judges, the Justices serve during good behavior, meaning essentially that they serve for life and can be removed only by resignation or by impeachment and subsequent conviction. Since the Supreme Court makes so many 'political' decisions and its members are appointed so rarely, the appointment of Justices by the President is often a very charged and controversial matter. Since Justices serve for life and therefore usually beyond the War Essay example, term of office of the appointing President, such appointment are often regarded as an important part of any particular President's legacy. What are the powers of the passage from a mockingbird, Court? The Supreme Court is the highest court in the United States.

The court deals with matters pertaining to the federal government, disputes between states, and interpretation of the Constitution. It can declare legislation or executive action made at Means War Essay, any level of the government as unconstitutional, nullifying the law and creating precedent for future law and passage from a mockingbird decisions. However, the Character is Equally and Environment Essay, Supreme Court can only rule on from a mockingbird a lower court decision so it cannot take the initiative to consider a matter. There are three ways that a matter can come to the Supreme Court: A federal authority makes a decision that is challenged as unconstitutional which goes straight to the Supreme Court which is not obliged to take it A state makes a decision which someone believes is unconstitutional but the matter would have to have previously been heard by a Federal Court of Bioterrorism: This Means War Essay example Appeal (there are 11 circuits covering the 50 states) There is a conflict between states that needs to be resolved (if the two or more states are in the same circuit, the matter would first have to go to the appropriate Federal Court of Appeal) Other interesting facts about the Court. Each year, around 8,000 petitions are made to passage from, the Supreme Court seeking a judgement, but each term the number of cases determined is only about 100. When a case is considered in public by the Court, each side of the case only has half-an-hour to state its position. All the detail is set out in documents and all the rest of the time of the public hearing is shirley jackson's taken up by questions from the Justices. Decisions of the Supreme Court are taken in private conference, following discussion and passage debate.

No Justice speaks for a second time until every Justice has spoken once. Given how difficult it is to change the Character Genetics and Environment, US Constitution through the formal method, one has seen informal changes to the Constitution through various decisions of the Supreme Court which have given specific meanings to some of the from to kill, general phases in the Constitution. What Year Caesar Assassinated. It is one of the many ironies of the American political system that an unelected and unaccountable body like the Supreme Court can in practice exercise so much political power in a system which proclaims itself as so democractic. The Supreme Court in practice therefore has a much more 'political' role than the highest courts of European democracies. In the 1960s, the court played a major role in bringing about desegregation.

The scope of abortion in the USA is effectively set by the Supreme Court whereas, in other countries, it would be set by legislation. Indeed in 2000, it made the passage from to kill a mockingbird, most political decision imaginable by determining - by seven votes to two - the outcome of that year's presidential election. It decided that George W Bush had beaten Al Gore, although Gore won the most votes overall. A recent and momentous instance of this exercise of Journey Essay political power was the Supreme Court decision in the case of the challenge to Barack Obama's signature piece of legislation, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, often dubbed Obamacare. No less than 26 states challenged the legality of these health reforms under a clause in the constitution governing interstate commerce.

In the end, the Court ruled by five to four that, while the individual mandate provision in the Act is not itself a tax, the penalties imposed for not buying health insurance do represent taxes and therefore the entire requirement falls within the remit of Congress's right to impose taxes. William Howard Taft (1857-1930) was the 27th President of the United States (1909-1913) and a mockingbird later the tenth Chief Justice of the United States (1921-1930). Journey. He is the only person to have served in both of a mockingbird these offices. In the history of the United States, there has only been four women members, two black members and one Hispanic member of the Supreme Court. The present membership of the Supreme Court includes three women members and one black member. Of the nine members, five are Catholic and jackson's three are Jewish while one - Neil Gorsuch - was raised as a Catholic but attends a Protestant church.

Following the appointment by President Trump of Neil Gorsuch to the Supreme Court, there is passage to kill a mockingbird now a five to four conservative-liberal majority on the court. All the what caesar assassinated, conservative members were appointed by Republican presidents, while all the liberals were appointed by Democratic presidents. A special feature of the American political system in respect of the from a mockingbird, judiciary is on Operation Strategy and Amazon that, although federal judges are appointed, nationwide 87% of all state court judges are elected and 39 states elect at least some of their judges. Outside of the a mockingbird, United States, there are only two nations that have judicial elections and then only in Chain Strategy in Toyota, limited fashion. To Kill. Smaller Swiss cantons elect judges and appointed justices on the Japanese Supreme Court must sometimes face retention elections (although those elections are a formality). POLITICAL PARTIES ELECTIONS. To an extent quite extraordinary in My Academic Essay, democratic countries, the American political system is dominated by passage from to kill two political parties: the Democratic Party and Essay and Amazon the Republican Party (often known as the 'Grand Old Party' or GOP). These are very old and passage from to kill a mockingbird very stable parties - the Democrats go back to 1824 and in Toyota and Amazon the Republicans were founded in 1854.

In illustrations and promotional material, the Democratic Party is often represented as a donkey, while the Republican Party is featured as an elephant. The origin of these symbols is the political cartoonist Thomas Nast who came up with them in 1870 and 1874 respectively. The main reason for the dominance of these two parties is that - like most other Anglo-Saxon countries (notably Britain) - the electoral system is 'first past the post' or simple majority which, combined with the large voter size of the constituencies in the House and (even more) the Senate, ensures that effectively only passage two parties can play. The other key factor is the huge influence of money in year caesar, the American electoral system. Since effectively a candidate can spend any amount he can raise (not allowed in many other countries) and since one can buy broadcasting time (again not allowed in many countries), the US can only 'afford' two parties or, to put it another way, candidates of any other party face a formidable financial barrier to entry. Some people tend to from a mockingbird, view the division between the shirley the lottery, Democratic Party and the Republican Party in the United States as the same as that between Labour and Conservative in Britain or between Social Democrats and Christian Democrats in Germany.

The comparison is valid in the sense that, in each country, one political party is characterised as Centre-Left and the other as Centre-Right or, to put it another way, one party is more economically interventionist and socially radical than the other. However, the analogy has many weaknesses. The Centre in American politics is considerably to the Right of the Centre in most European states including Britain, Germany, France, Italy and (even more especially) the Scandinavian countries. So, for instance, most members of the passage to kill, Conservative Party in the UK would support a national health service, whereas many members of the Democratic Party in Character is Equally Genetics and Environment, the US would not. As a consequence of the from a mockingbird, enormous geographical size of the United States and the different histories of the different states (exemplified by the Civil War), geography is a factor in ideological positioning to a much greater extent than in john and abigail adams, other democratic countries. For instance, a Northern Republican could be more liberal than a Southern Democract. Conversely there is a group of Democratic Congressmen that are fiscally very conservative - they are known as blue dog Democrats or even DINO (Democrats In Name Only). In the United States, divisions over passage to kill a mockingbird, social matters - such as abortion, capital punishment, same-sex relationships and stem cell research - matter and follow party lines in a way which is not true of most European countries. In Britain, for instance, these sort of issues would be regarded as matters of personal conscience and would not feature prominently in election debates between candidates and parties. In the USA, religion is a factor in Bioterrorism: example, politics in a way unique in western democracies. Candidates openly proclaim their faith in from a mockingbird, a manner which would be regarded as bizarre elswhere (even in a Catholic country like France) and Bioterrorism: Means religious groupings - such as the Christian Coalition of from a mockingbird America [click here] - exert a significiant political influence in a manner which would be regarded as improper in most European countries (Poland is an exception here).

In the United States, the 'whipping system' - that is the instructions to members of the House and the Senate on how to vote - is Journey Essay not as strict or effective as it is in most European countries. Passage To Kill A Mockingbird. As a consequence, members of Congress are less constrained by party affiliation and Character is Equally Genetics Essay freer to act individually. In the passage from to kill, USA, political parties are much weaker institutions than they are in other democracies. Between the selection of candidates, they are less active than their counterparts in other countries and, during elections, they are less influential in campaigning, with individual politicians and their campaigns having much more influence. The cost of elections is My Academic Journey much greater in the US than in other democracies which has the effects of limiting the range of from to kill candidates, increasing the influence of Genetics and Environment Essay corporate interests and pressure groups, and enhancing the from to kill, position of the incumbent office holder (especially in the winning of primaries).

As long ago as 1895, the Chairman of the Republican National Committee Mark Hanna stated: There are two things that are important in politics. The first is money, and I can't remember what the second one is. Whereas in other countries, voters shape the policies and select the candidates of a party by joining it, in the USA voters register as a supporter of one of the major parties and then vote in primary elections to what caesar assassinated, determine who should be the party's candidate in the 'real' election. One other oddity of the American party system is that, whereas in most countries of the to kill a mockingbird, world the Character is Equally Essay, colour red is associated with the Left-wing party and the colour blue with the Right-wing party, in the United States the reverse is the case. So the from to kill, 'blue states' are those traditionally won by the Democrats, while the 'red states' are those normally controlled by john and abigail amount the Republicans. Two interesting features of American political elections are low turnout and the importance of incumbency. Traditionally turnout in US congressional elections is much lower than in other liberal democracies especially those of Western Europe. When there is a presidential election, turnout is only about half; when there is from a mockingbird no presidential election, turnout is merely about one third. The exception was the elections of 2008: the excitement of the candidacy of Barack Obama led to an unusually high turnout of what caesar 63%, the highest since 1960 (the election of John F Kennedy). While Congress as an institution is passage a mockingbird held in shirley the lottery, popular contempt, voters like their member of Congress and indeed there is a phenomenon known as 'sophomore surge' whereby incumbents tend to a mockingbird, increase their share of the and Supply in Toyota, vote when they seek re-election.

More generally most incumbents win re-election for several reasons: they allocate time and passage from a mockingbird resources to waging a permanent re-election campaign; they can win earmarks which are appropriations of shirley government spending for from to kill projects in the constituency; and they find it easier than challengers to raise money for election campaigns. The Democratic Party click here. The Republican Party click here. THE FEDERAL SYSTEM. Understanding the shirley the lottery, federal nature of the United States is critical to appreciating the complexities of the American political system. Most political systems are created top-down. A national system of government is constructed and a certain amount of power is released to lower levels of government. The unique history of the United States means that, in this case, the political system was created bottom-up. First, some 240 years ago, there were were 13 autonomous states who, following the War of Independence against from a mockingbird, the British, created a system of government in what assassinated, which the various states somewhat reluctantly ceded power to the federal government. Around a century later, the respective authority of the federal government and the individual states was an issue at the heart of the Civil War when there was a bloody conflict over who had the right to determine whether slavery was or was not permissable.

With the exception of Switzerland, no other Western democracy diffuses power to the same degree as America. So today the passage a mockingbird, powers of the federal government remain strictly limited by the Constitution - the critical Tenth Amendment of 1791 - which leaves a great deal of authority to the individual states. Each state has an executive, a legislature and a judiciary. The head of the Essay on Operation and Supply Strategy in Toyota, executive is the Governor who is passage from a mockingbird directly elected. As with the President at federal level, state Governors can issue Executive Orders. The legislature consists of a Senate and a House of Representatives (the exception is the shirley jackson's the lottery, state of Nebraska which has a unicameral system). The judiciary consists of a state system of courts. The 50 states are divided into counties (parishes in Louisiana and passage to kill boroughs in Alaska). Each county has its court. Althought the Constitution prescribes precisely when Presidential and Congressional elections will be held, the dates and Essay on Operation in Toyota and Amazon times of state and local elections are determined by state governments. Therefore there is a plethora of elections in the United States and, at almost all times, an election is being held somewhere in the country.

State and local elections, like federal elections, use the 'first past the post' system of election. In fact, most states choose to elect the governor and legislature when Congressional elections are held on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November in even numbered years. From To Kill A Mockingbird. Exceptions are the states of and abigail adams scholarship amount Virginia and New Jersey which hold their governor and passage to kill legislature elections in odd numbered years (known as off-year elections). This means that these states provide the first electoral indication of how voters view the performance of a newly-elected President and/or Congress. The debate about federalism in the US is far from over. There are those who argue for a stronger role for the federal government and there are advocates of locating more power at the state level. The recent rise of the Bioterrorism: Means example, electorally-successful Tea Party movement owes a good deal to the view that the federal government has become too dominant, too intrusive and too profligate. Meanwhile many states - especially those west of the Rockies - have what has been called the fourth arm of government: this is the a mockingbird, ballot or referendum initiative. This enables a policy question to Chain, be put to the electorate as a result of the collection of a certain number of signatures or the decison of the state legislation. Over the last century, some 3,000 such initiatives have been conducted - in some cases (such as California) with profound results.

In all political systems, there is passage from a mockingbird a disconnect between the formal arrangements, as set out in the constitution and relevant laws, and the informal arrangements, as occurs in practice. Arguably, in the United States this disconnect is sharper than in Character and Environment Essay, most other democratic systems because: The US Constitution is an old one (late 18th century) whereas most countries have had several constitutions with the from, current one typically being a 20th century creation. The US Constitution is relatively immutable so it is very difficult to change the provisions to reflect the reforms that have come about over time from the pressure of events. Since the US adopted its Constitution, the US has become the pre-eminent world economic and what was julius caesar political power which has brought about major changes in how the Presidency operates, most especially in the international sphere. What this means is from to kill a mockingbird that, in the last century and War Essay most especially since the end of the Second World War, the reality of to kill a mockingbird how the American political system operates has changed quite fundamentally in terms which are not always evident from the terms of the Constitution (and indeed some might argue are in some respects in contravention of the Constitution).

The main changes are as follows: The balance of power between the Congress and the President has shifted significantly in favour of the President. This is evident in the domestic sphere through practices like 'impoundment' (when money is taken from the purpose intended by Character is Equally Essay Congress and to kill a mockingbird allocated to another purpose favoured by the President) and in the international sphere through refusal to Journey, invoke the War Powers Resolution in spite of major military invasions. Different terms for this accretion of power by the Presidency are the unitary executive and the imperial presidency. The impact of private funding of political campaigns and of lobbyists and special interest groups in political decision making have increased considerably. Candidates raise their own money for campaigns, there is effectively no limit on the money that can be spent in to kill a mockingbird, such campaigns (thanks to what is called super Political Action Committees), and the levels of expenditure - especially in the presidential primaries and is Equally and Environment election proper - have risen astronomically. In the to kill a mockingbird, presidential race of 2012, both Barack Obama and Mitt Romney spent over one billion dollars. Even in the mid-term Congressional elections of 2014, total expenditure was nearly $4 billion. All this has led to what was julius caesar assassinated, some observers describing the American political system as a plutocracy, since it is effectively controlled by private finance from big businesses, which expect certain policies and practices to follow from the candidates they are funding, and from to kill big donors, who often expect preferment such as an ambassadorship from a candidate elected as President. There has been a growth of assassinated what is called pork barrel politics through the use of from to kill earmarks. The term pork barrel refers to the appropriation of government spending for projects that are intended primarily to benefit particular constituents, such as those in marginal seats, or campaign contributors.

Such appropriations are achieved through earmarks which can be found both in legislation (also called hard earmarks or hardmarks) and in on Operation and Amazon, the text of Congressional committee reports (also called soft earmarks or softmarks). The nature of political debate in the United States has become markedly more partisan and from to kill bitter. The personal lifestyle as well as the political record of a candidate might well be challenged and even the patriotism or religiosity of the shirley jackson's, candidate may be called into question. Whereas the politics of most European countries has become more consensual, US domestic politics has become polarised and tribal. As a result, the from to kill a mockingbird, political culture is often more concerned with satisfying the demands of the political 'base' rather than attempting to achieve a national consensus. One final trend worth noting is the frequency of the same family to provide members of Congress. Low polling in john and abigail adams scholarship amount, elections, the high cost of running for election, and the focus on the individual more than the party all mean that a well-known name can work successfully for a candidate. Everyone is familiar with the Kennedys, Clintons and Bushs in American politics but, in 2014, there are no less than 37 members of Congress who have a relative who has served in the legislature. A DIVIDED DEMOCRACY. Of course, all nation states are divided, especially in terms of from a mockingbird power and This Means War Essay wealth, but also - to from to kill a mockingbird, different extents - by gender, race, ethnicity, religion and other factors.

Indeed the constitution and This War Essay institutions of a democratic society are deliberately intended to provide for the expression and resolution of such divisions. However, it is passage from to kill often observed that the USA is an especially divided democracy in at least four respects: It is divided horizontally through the 'separation of shirley jackson's powers', so that the executive, the legislature and the judiciary are quite distinct in terms of both powers and personalties. Each arm of government exercises a check on the other. It is divided vertically through the federal system of government with the division of powers between the passage to kill, federal government and the state governments a very important issue that arguably was once the shirley, subject of passage to kill a mockingbird a civil war.

In such a large country geographically, the federal goverment can seem very distant to many citizens. It is divided politically through the sharp (and often bitter) differences of view on many economic issues like tackling the recession and Journey Essay reforming health care and social issues ranging from gun control to gay rights. From To Kill A Mockingbird. Since 2009, such differences have been highlighted by the presence of the first black President in the White House and the rapid emergence of a Tea Party movement that is both virulently anti-Obama and anti-mainstream Republicanism. It is Essay on Operation Chain in Toyota and Amazon divided racially through the growth of the non-white electorate. When Ronald Reagan was first elected President in 1980, almost 90% of the US electorate was white; today some 30% of voters are non-white; and that proportion is growing (especially Spanish-speaking communities). The Democratic Party tends to do better among non-white voters than the Republicans and therefore the demographic trends are viewed as favourable to Democrats. One of the most visible and dramatic illustrations of how the divisons in American politics frustrate decision-making is the regular failure to agree a federal budget before the start of the new financial period. This results in what is passage to kill a mockingbird known as federal 'shutdown' when most federal employees are sent home because they cannot be paid and many federal institutions therefore close down. Character Genetics And Environment. This is not an passage, isolated occurrence: it has happened 18 times since 1976 (the last one was in 2013).

A major role of the Congress is to pass legislation but the divided nature of American politics has made this increasingly diffiicult and the Congress frequently exhibits legislative grid-lock. And Abigail Adams Amount. Hillary Clinton - former First Lady, former Senator, and former Secretary of passage from to kill a mockingbird State - in her memoir Hard Choices (2014) talks of all the horse trading, arm-twisting, vote counting, alternating appeals to principle and shirley jackson's the lottery self-interest, and hard-ball politics that go into passing major legislation . Reading this short essay, it will be evident to many (especially non-American) readers that the United States is passage from a mockingbird different from other democracies. This observation has given rise to Bioterrorism: This example, the notion of American exceptionalism. This is an ill-defined term which has been used differently at different times. From the creation of the Republic in 1776, there has been a sense that the United States has been exceptional in its commitment to freedom as expressed in the US Constitution and the Bill of Rights. Even though today there are many challenges to freedom in the USA, many Americans still feel that their attachment to freedom - however defined - is a distinguishing feature of passage from to kill their nation as compared to all others. Another important version of American exceptionalism revolves around the lack of a clear ideological or class-based division between the two major political parties. The USA has never had a credible socialist or anti-capitalist party; both the main parties are pro-capital and pro-business and john and abigail adams amount speak largely to the 'middle class'. Other versions of the concept revolve around the alleged 'superiority' of the United States because of its history, size, wealth and global dominance plus the 'sophistication' of passage to kill a mockingbird its constitution and power of its values such as individualism, innovation and entrepreneurship.

In perhaps its most extreme form, the concept has a religious dimension with the belief that God has especially chosen or blessed the country. Of course, it is shirley easy to view the American political system as exceptional in negative terms such as the unusual influence of passage from to kill race, religion and money as compared to other liberal democracies. In truth, for Character and Environment all its special features, the American political system needs to be seen as one among many models of passage a mockingbird democracy with its own strenghs and weaknesses that need to be assessed in is Equally Genetics, comparison to those of other democracies. discussion of American exceptionalism click here. how to critique a political system click here. Americans are losing faith in the American political system as people around the to kill a mockingbird, world are questioning the continued pre-eminence of the Character Genetics Essay, United States as the dominant global power. Since 2004, a clear majority of Americans have told Gallup that they are dissatisfied with the way they are governed. The numbers of those has several times climbed above 80% which is higher than at the time of the Watergate scandal. This disillusionment is reflected in the falling number of Americans who even bother to from to kill a mockingbird, vote. Bioterrorism: This Means War Essay Example. In The World In 2015, John Micklethwait, editor-in-chief of The Economist, wrote: In America, there is nothing particularly democratic about the ascent of money politics, the arcane blocking procedures of passage Congress or the gerrymandering of district boundaries.

Indeed they are all reminiscent of the rotten boroughs of My Academic Journey Essay 18th century England that infuriated the Founding Fathers. The debate about the passage from a mockingbird, effectiveness of the US political system is a part of the wider debate about whether or not the United States is in relative decline on Character Genetics and Environment Essay the world stage. In his book Time To Start Thinking: America And The Spectre Of Decline [for my review click here], Edward Luce writes: Sometimes it seems Americans are engaged in some kind of collusion in which voters pretend to elect their lawmakers and lawmakers pretend to govern. This, in some ways, is America's core problem: the more America postpones any coherent response to passage a mockingbird, the onset of relative decline, the more difficult the politics are likely to get. These issues have been highlighted by the recent election as US President of Donald Trump, someone who ran for Essay election as the anti-establishment candidate who was going todrain the swamp, who has never previously held political office, and who is governing in a most unconventional style. His insistence that he will Make America Great Again and his intention to boost dramatically defence expenditure address directly the position of the US as global player. Last modified on 30 August 2017.

If you would like to passage, comment on this essay e-mail me. If you would like me to year was julius caesar assassinated, speak on this subject contact me. For a comparison of the from to kill a mockingbird, American and British political systems click here. For guides to Bioterrorism: This War Essay example, the political systems of other nations click here.