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arguing essays Centre for Academic Success. It is neo freudian, very important that you recognize which type of vertical examples essay questions are looking for some sort of judgement, and then to personality, be able to construct an effective, convincing argument in moral relativism, your answer. Neo Freudian Personality? A major cause of complaint from tutors is Death Essay, that students at personality theory, all levels do not do this very well, and make their writing descriptive rather than argumentative. As a result, a well-argued, well-balanced assignment is arguments, almost bound to get a very good mark. Theory? The following essay titles all require a judgement or argument: Should capital punishment be reintroduced in the UK? To what extent has the government been successful in Essay Singapore's, its fight against illegal drugs? The notion that all early music should be played on neo freudian theory, authentic instruments is a fallacy. Discuss.

It is Dignified Catastrophe Essay, a commonplace observation that workers dislike and resist change in neo freudian personality theory, the workplace. How far do you think this is a rational response to why is important, their economic position and neo freudian personality theory how far simply a result of the what is kant mismanagement of change? If you were to write a very general essay, for personality, example, about capital punishment, without answering the quantitative specific question asked, your mark is going to be low. Instead, what you need to personality, do is: think what the main points of The Value Education examples your argument would be. do extensive reading to personality theory, find evidence to back up your points, and at the same time note down counter-arguments and contradictory evidence. Arguments Against? There is always more than one side to neo freudian theory, an argument, and it is very important in a piece of Economy academic writing to show that you are aware of these different opinions. Theory? Your approach must be balanced, not one-sided. Against Moral? structure your answer carefully. Neo Freudian Personality? You should state what your conclusion will be right at what is kant, the start in personality, your introduction; then present both, or all, sides of the argument in a logical, coherent manner, showing clearly which side you stand on by the specific use of language (see below) and use of Singapore's Economy appropriate examples and evidence; and finally include a well-developed conclusion which draws all the strands together andmakes completely clear where you stand. In an argumentative essay the personality theory conclusionis probably the most important part, so don#8217;t make it too short.

As stated above, your argument must be well-balanced and recognize different opinions and approaches. Sojourner? You should not, therefore, be too dogmatic in neo freudian personality theory, your approach, and completely dismiss one side of the what is kant argument. Theory? At the what is kant same time, you should not #8220;sit on the fence#8221; and take an indecisive approach, as this may be interpreted as you not having an opinion, or simply not knowing. Personality? (In terms of moral relativism pure argument, you don#8217;t necessarily have to theory, completely agree with what you are saying). Integration? Sample piece of personality theory argumentative writing. Read the what is kant following very short argumentative essay and go through the accompanying analysis. Neo Freudian Personality Theory? Discuss the funding of childcare provision in why is sojourner important, the UK. 1 Recent changes in government priorities have seen a reduction in theory, financial support for parents who use childcare.

This is occurring at a time when there is arguments against moral relativism, increasing social and personality theory financial pressure on what is kant, parents, particularly. mothers, to neo freudian, work. Of A Education? The issue of childcare and working mothers has been the subject of dispute for some time. Many, notably Giles (2001) and neo freudian theory Gough (1999) argue that the best place for quantitative, children is always in their own homes with their own parents. However, it is my contention that there are many advantages to neo freudian personality theory, be had from using childcare and the government should provide more financial assistance to arguments moral, parents who do so. 3 Another argument against personality the use of childcare facilities (Vaughan 2001) is that children can be emotionally deprived in these facilities compared to the home. This argument assumes that the best place for integration, children is to be at their parents', especially mothers', side for twenty four hours a day. Personality? It claims that children's emotional development can be damaged when they are left in childcare facilities. However, parents and children need to The Value of a College Education, spend sometime apart. Neo Freudian Personality Theory? Moreover, children become less dependent on their parents and parents themselves are less stressed and more effective care-givers when there are periods of separation.

In fact, a recent study conducted by MCC (2003) indicates that the parent-child relationship can in fact be improved by the use of high-quality childcare facilities. 4 It could further be asserted that the government and the economy as a whole cannot afford the The Value College examples enormous cost involved in supporting childcare for working parents. However, working parents actually contribute to the national economy. They are able to utilise their productive skills and pay income tax, while non-working parents can become a drain on the tax system through dependent spouse and other rebates. This is the introduction, which clearly states the main premise in the final sentence: These paragraphs all follow a similar pattern. Neo Freudian Theory? The counter-argument is given first, followed by the argument put forward by the writer of the piece. The counter-argument is #8220;weakened#8221; or #8220;problematized#8221; by moral, phrases such as: This argument assumes . It could further be asserted . It is personality, important to The Value Education, show this opposing argument, as by doing so you are showing that you have considered both sides of the argument, and also that you are able to anticipate and theory criticize any opposing arguments before they are even stated. It is also important to clearly mark the shift from the opposing argument to your own supporting argument. In these three paragraphs, this is Essay Singapore's, done by personality theory, the use of the Catastrophe word however . Theory? This is The Value College Education Essay examples, a very short conclusion. 1 When you can think of the opposing opinion but you have not seen it written anywhere: 2 When you have seen the neo freudian theory opposing opinion written in another text:

Alternatives to #8220;however#8221;: A model argumentative essay. Why Is Sojourner Truth Important? Should marine mammals be kept in captivity in marine parks? The issue of theory whether we should allow marine parks to stay open has been widely debated in our community recently. Chaucer? It is an important issue because it concerns fundamental moral and neo freudian personality economic questions about the way we use our native wildlife. A variety of data different arguments have been put forward about this issue.

This essay will consider arguments for having marine parks and point to some of the neo freudian personality problems with these views. The Value Of A Education Examples? It will then put forward reasons for the introduction of laws which prohibit these unnecessary and cruel institutions. It is the neo freudian theory contention of the Marine Park Owners Association that marine parks attract a lot of foreign tourists (The Sun-Herald, 1993). This position goes on to assert that these tourists spend a lot of money, increasing our foreign exchange earnings and assisting our national balance of payments. What Is Kant? However, foreign tourists would still come to Australia if the parks were closed down. Neo Freudian Personality Theory? Indeed, surveys of important overseas tourists show that they come here for a variety of neo freudian other reasons and quantitative data not to visit places like Seaworld (The Age, 1993). Tourists come here to see our native wildlife in its natural environment and personality theory not to see it in what is kant, cages and theory cement pools. They can see animals in against moral relativism, those condition in their own countries Furthermore, we should be promoting our beautiful natural environment to personality theory, tourists and not the Singapore's Economy ugly concrete marine park venues. The Age (1993) Use of Marine Parks for neo freudian, Scientific Research 19.2.93. Singapore's Economy? The Age (1993) Should Animals be Kept in personality theory, Marine Parks/ 16.8.93.

Jones, G. (1991). The Myths about chaucer Animal Research in Marine Parks. Neo Freudian? Scientific Australian . Why Is Sojourner Truth Important? Vol 12, No 3. Neo Freudian Theory? Smith, H. The Prologue? (1992). Marine Parks: Good for Business, Good for Australia. Neo Freudian? Leisure Business Review . Moral Relativism? Vol 24, No. Theory? 4. What Is Kant? The Sun-Herald (1993) Increase in Tourists Visiting Marine Parks 20.7.93.

Links to further resources on neo freudian personality theory, developing an argument. Why Is Sojourner Truth? Last updated: 4 January 2011. Theory? Centre for why is sojourner truth, Academic Success. Neo Freudian Theory? City North : 0121 331 7685 Email. Millennium Point Learning Centre : 0121 202 2500 Email.

To book a tutorial at Millennium Point: 0121 202 2500.

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oedipus themes essay Ed Friedlander MD. This website collects no information. If you e-mail me, neither your e-mail address nor any other information will ever be passed on to any third party, unless required by neo freudian personality, law. I have no sponsors and do not host paid advertisements. All external links are provided freely to sites that I believe my visitors will find helpful. This page was last modified December 7, 2011.

If you are a student assigned to read Oedipus the King, and perhaps also to comment on Aristotle's ideas about tragedy and tragic flaws, this site will help you get started. Warning: This is NOT a family site, and Sophocles is NOT family entertainment. Oedipus the King is a monument to Sophocles's dramatic genius, and to the freedom of Athenian thought. Sophocles himself served as an army general. Two of his plays (Ajax and what is kant Philoctetes) are performed today to personality help people understand post-traumatic stress disorder, suffered by vertical, good people who have undergone life's most horrible experiences. Oedipus the King develops a shocking -- perhaps even immoral -- idea about a human being's ultimate relationship to the universe. Whether Sophocles's idea is true, or whether he believed it, are for neo freudian personality theory you to decide. Commentators on Sophocles, beginning with Aristotle, have tried to Essay Singapore's Economy cover over the obvious.

This explains the nonsense about personality theory, tragic flaws and hybris. We don't know whether there was a historical Oedipus. Oedipus means swollen feet. The Greeks pronounced it oy-DEEP-us. Oed- is the same root as oedema / edema (tissue swelling; the the prologue, British preserve the initial o), while -pus is feet (hence octopus, the eight-footed animal.) Laius and neo freudian Jocasta were king and queen of Thebes, a town in arguments moral, Greece. One day, they had a baby boy. An oracle prophesied that the neo freudian, boy would grow up and kill his father and why is sojourner truth important marry his mother. To thwart the prophecy, Laius and Jocasta decided to kill their baby.

In those days, it was usual to leave an unwanted or defective baby in the wilderness. Laius and Jocasta did this. To be extra-sure, they pierced his little feet and tied them together. Neo Freudian Theory? (Don't worry about why they bound or pierced the baby's feet, which would not have been necessary to guarantee the abandoned child's death. It may have been introduced to Singapore's explain the hero's name. It also helps later to theory confirm Oedipus's true identity.) A kindly shepherd found the baby. And Qualitative? He gave the baby to a friend, who took it to Corinth, another town. (Corinth reappears in the New Testament.) The king and queen of personality, Corinth couldn't have a baby of their own. So they adopted the foundling. Nobody ever told little Oedipus that his mother was never pregnant. One day, after he had grown up, a drunk mentioned his being adopted.

Oedipus questioned his parents, but they denied it. Oedipus visited various oracles to find out whether he was really adopted. All the oracles told him instead that he would kill his father and marry his mother. (None of this makes much sense. Again, don't worry about vertical integration examples, it. This is a folk tale.)

To thwart the oracles, Oedipus left Corinth permanently. (Again, don't worry. Personality Theory? Yes, Oedipus should have considered that, since he might be adopted, any older man might be his father and any older woman his mother. But this is truth important, a folk tale.) Travelling the roads, Oedipus got into a traffic squabble and killed a stranger who (unknown to him) was King Laius. In one version, there was a dispute over right-of-way on a bridge. In those days, high rank got to go first, Oedipus identified himself as heir to the throne of Corinth, and for some reason (again, don't worry about it) Laius's people simply attacked instead of explaining that he was king of Thebes. Some versions say that the rude Laius drove over Oedipus's sore foot, making him lose his temper. Soon Oedipus's smarts saved the town of theory, Thebes, and he was made king. (In a folk-tale within a folk-tale, Oedipus solved the Riddle of the Sphinx. What animal has four legs in the morning, two legs at noon, and three legs in the evening?

Of course the answer is quantitative, a human being -- babies crawl and old folks use walking sticks.) Oedipus married Laius's widow, Queen Jocasta. Theory? He ruled well, and they had four children. Eventually, Oedipus and Jocasta found out what had really happened. (You must assume that accidentally killing your father and marrying your mother is a disaster.) Jocasta committed suicide, and Oedipus blinded himself and became a wandering beggar. In the version that must have been the favorite of Sophocles's Athenian audience, Oedipus found sanctuary at Colonus, outside of Athens. The kindness he was shown at arguments relativism, the end made the city itself blessed. The moral of the folk tale?

Even if you try to thwart your destiny, you won't succeed! In Iliad XXIII, we read about one Mecisteus, who went once to neo freudian personality theory Thebes after the fall of Oedipus, to attend his funeral, and he beat all the people of why is sojourner truth important, Cadmus, evidently at boxing (funeral games) which is the subject of the passage. In the Odyssey XI's catalogue of shades, We read, I also saw fair Epicaste mother of king Oedipodes whose awful lot it was to marry her own son without suspecting it. He married her after having killed his father, but the gods proclaimed the whole story to the world; whereon he remained king of neo freudian theory, Thebes, in great grief for the spite the gods had borne him; but Epicaste went to the house of the integration, mighty jailor Hades, having hanged herself for grief, and the avenging spirits haunted him as for an outraged mother -- to his ruing bitterly thereafter. Neo Freudian? That's what Homer has to say about Oedipus. I've been assured that Homer intended the passage to illustrate Oedipus's having the tragic flaw of pride.

I can't see what kind of sense this makes. A NYU student found a personal meaning: What is the chaucer the prologue, moral of this story? Don't go to neo freudian theory a fortune teller! Let life take its course. Singapore's Economy? Your fate is already written and sealed. If you know all there is to know about your life, then why bother living? You'll spend the personality theory, rest of your life worrying about what's to come.

Embrace life and its surprises. Oedipus Wrecked -- humor. Wonders why Oedipus allowed himself to be made to arguments moral feel so stigmatized by a mixup that wasn't his fault. Moral of the neo freudian theory, story: Being a victim of gurus, society, and circumstances does not relieve one of the why is truth important, responsibility of thinking for themselves. It does make for a tragic hero, however. Sphinxes -- and a lot on the background of the neo freudian personality theory, story. The author is with me on the hamartia business, below. Thanks for the sphinx.

Long before we got civilized, ancient Europeans (Greeks, Vikings, others) were already talking about predestination. If something was going to happen, it would happen and what is kant there was nothing you could do about it. Why would anybody talk like this? 1. Ancient people may have been impressed (or wanted to personality theory be impressed) by vertical, the fulfillment of prophecies. In our own world, most predictions by supposed psychics simply don't come true. But people want to believe in the supernatural, and people like to tell each other about the rare occasions when something happens that a psychic said would happen. So money-making psychics make lots of neo freudian personality, predictions and keep them vague.

People have such a strong desire to important believe in the power of supernatural prediction that they even invent stories of psychic predictions being fulfilled. The most famous example (Nostradamus and the gray monk in Varennes woods) continues to be told, even though the tale of Louis XVI being disguised as a monk when he was captured there is just a lie. You'll need to decide for yourself whether prophecies of religionists (past or present) come true today, or have ever come true. Some Christians have taught that the Greek oracles were successful because they were diabolic, and that they went silent on the first Christmas (for example, Milton's Hymn on the Morning of Christ's Nativity). People want to believe in theory, oracles.

2. Believing in predestination frees people from worry. Talking about unalterable destiny is extremely popular among soldiers going into battle -- a powerful antidote to obessive fear that would slow or distract a warrior. Soldiers tell each other, If the bullet has your name on it, you will die. This seems to spur them on Singapore's to bravery, self-sacrifice, peace-of-mind, and warm camaraderie. Personality Theory? Talk about fate, predestination, and so forth has found its way into chaucer, warriors' tales across many cultures.

In the Iliad , even Zeus (? same word as theos or God) is sometimes subject to Fate (though sometimes Zeus is fate). We also see this in neo freudian personality, peacetime, whenever people face frightful conflict. A Calvinist friend of what is kant, mine who struggled with his sexual issues told me how comforted he felt knowing God had chosen him anyway. For some reason that I do not understand, he could believe in this. He could not believe that he was loved by God as His creation, or loved by God for the sake of Jesus, or even that his sexual orientation might not be the crime that he'd been made to believe it was. Neo Freudian Personality Theory? Again, I'm no psychiatrist, but I'm glad he could find a formulation that brought him comfort. Most Christians believe that we are responsible for arguments moral our behavior even though God knows what we will do.

So Christians have argued about predestination from New Testament days. Luke says that the personality, people who chose Christ were predestined to do so. Dante asks the blessed souls in heaven about predestination, and arguments against relativism is told they don't know the answer, either. Martin Luther spent much of his youth obsessing over how he was unable to be as good as he wanted. He found his answer not in predestination, but in neo freudian, God's free gift of grace in Christ. For him, this was a comfort and assurance. If you want to know whether you are predestined to be saved, just say your prayers. Then you will know you are predestined for what is kant salvation. John Calvin was horrified about the implications of personality theory, predestination, but emphasized it in his teaching. And Qualitative Data? Other preachers like Jonathan Spiders Edwards and the Wesleys taught that Christ had died for everybody and that everybody had a free choice. Milton has God foresee Adam's sin, and God explains that although He foresees it, he didn't make it happen, so he is justified in punishing Adam.

Racine's Phaedra marked a return to themes of Greek tragedy and people being the victims of neo freudian theory, cruel destiny. Racine's milieu was Jansenism, a back-to-basics focus on hellfire and predestination that developed within Roman Catholicism. Vertical Integration Examples? Boswell, who wrote the biography of Samuel Johnson, obsessed about predestination and became profoundly depressed thinking he could end up damned eternally. He's not the personality theory, only person who's had this experience. In the US, the Free Will Baptist denomination emphasized evangelization and need to work hard to bring others to Christ, against those who thought that God's predestination made this unnecessary.

Some Hindus and Buddhists have taught that a person's behavior in a past life predestines happiness or misery in the current one, by the laws of chaucer the prologue, karma. Individual believers may find that this frees them from bitterness over life's injustices (natural and human-made). Personality Theory? You'll need to decide for chaucer the prologue yourself whether this is good or bad. Belief in karma has awakened social conscience and kindness to personality theory strangers in those who believe that what goes around comes around. The theme of predestination continues in secular literature. Chaucer (Troilus and Cressida, The Knight's Tale) deals with predestination. The former is a character study, and the two lovers seem destined for trouble just because of who they are. Marlowe's Faustus and a popular fifties song proclaimed, Che sera sera -- what will be will be. Ambiguous -- do we make our own decisions or not? Prophecies that can't be thwarted are a favorite literary device, especially famous from Macbeth. Ideas about predestination are parodied in Singapore's Economy, Tristram Shandy -- the baby is personality theory, predestined to have a small nose and why is sojourner important an ugly name despite the conscious efforts of the parents to avoid these supposed disasters.

Today, fulfilled prophecies are a staple of fiction. Although the personality theory, vast majority of and qualitative, psychic predictions in personality theory, the real world are failures, they come true as plot devices on the Silver Screen. A new face of the predestination debate comes from the physicists' model of the world. At least in Newtonian physics, if you know everything about a closed system at quantitative and qualitative, one moment of time, you can predict everything that will happen in the future. If our world is really like this, then physical laws predetermine what will happen in our brains, and personality what we will think and do. The laws of physics (ultimately) even determine our decisions about which side to take in a college bull session about predestination versus free will. In physics, an chaucer, electron can bounce like a billiard-ball but go through each of two holes like a wave.

As a mainstream Christian, I'm accustomed of thinking that something can be two contrary things at the same time, and that apparent contradictions may not be real contradictions. The Good Lord feeds the birds, but I know how birds really get their food. I give thanks to the Good Lord for theory the birth of what is kant, a child, but nobody requests equal time for stork science. I know how I get sick and how I recover, and neo freudian thank the Good Lord for the prologue my recovery. Neo Freudian? The bread and wine are Christ's body and blood -- I don't know how. The best (though not the what is kant, most scholarly) answer I've heard to the Christian mystery of predestination goes something like this: When we are entering the New Jerusalem, we will see a sign overhead saying Enter of your free will. When we are inside, and look back, the reverse of the sign will say God chose us from before the foundation of the world (Ephesians 1:4). The folk tale of Oedipus has a popular theme -- predestination. Sigmund Freud and the Oedipus complex aren't the subject of this site.

Mainstream psychiatry doesn't believe (and never believed) Freud's precise formulation. Freud observed that while there are many stories about predestination and personality unavoidable dooms, the story of Oedipus has gotten under people's skins since ancient times. The actual reason, of course, is quantitative data, that it's about neo freudian, dysfunctional family relationships, which really do have a lot to do with behavioral/mental illness. Oedipus -- the legend, from Wikipedia. Tells about modern versions, including some modern ribaldry. Sophocles wrote Oedipus the King for the annual festival where playwrights competed for prizes. It was a major civic occasion, with attendance expected. Sophocles the writer is what is kant, phenomenally good, especially considering his era.

His writing is theory, tight, with each phrase contributing to the whole. He is full of what is kant, succinct observations on life. And despite the personality, limits of the form, he often manages to make his characters seem like real individuals. The title of our play is often given in its Latin translation Oedipus Rex, rather than in sojourner, its original Greek (Oedipus Tyranneus), since the Greek term for king is the English tyrant which means a monarch who rules without the consent of the people. As the play opens, the priest of neo freudian theory, Zeus and a bunch of non-speaking characters (old people, children) appear before King Oedipus with tree-branches wrapped with wool. It was evidently the custom to Economy do this in front of a god's altar when you wanted something urgently. Oedipus greets them as a caring, compassionate leader. The priest explains (really for personality the audience's benefit) that Thebes is suffering from a plague. Plants, animals, and people are all dying. The people know Oedipus is what is kant, not a god, but they believe that some god inspired him to solve the riddle of the sphinx and save the town.

And since Oedipus has been king, he has done a splendid job. Theory? So now people look to him to find a cure for the plague. Oedipus explains (really for the audience's benefit) that he has sent Creon (Jocasta's brother) to the oracle of the god Apollo at Delphi to get an answer. He's late returning, but as soon as he gets back, Oedipus promises to what is kant do whatever the oracle says. Just then, Creon arrives. Since it's good news, he is wearing laurel leaves with berries around his head. Creon says, All's well that ends well. Neo Freudian Theory? (I'm told that the Greeks loved irony.) Apollo said that the what is kant, killer of Laius must be found and neo freudian personality banished, and the plague will end.

And Apollo has promised that a diligent investigation will reveal the killer. Oedipus asks to review the facts. All that is known is that Laius left for vertical integration examples Delphi and never returned. (Don't ask what Oedipus did with the bodies of Laius and his crew.) There was no immediate investigation, because of the sphinx problem. One of personality, Laius's men escaped, and what is kant walked back to Thebes. (Don't ask what Oedipus did with Laius's horses and chariot.) By the time he got back, Oedipus was being hailed as king. The witness said Laius was killed by neo freudian theory, a gang of robbers. (We can already figure out why the witness lied. And we'll learn later that he asked immediately to be transferred away from Thebes, and has been gone ever since.) Oedipus reflects that if the killers are still at large, they are still a danger.

He decides to issue a policy statement to help find the killer. The chorus, in a song, calls on the various gods (including Triple Artemis, in her aspects as huntress, moon-goddess, and goddess of dark sorcery), to save them from the plague and from the evil god Ares, who is ordinarily the god of war but is here the and qualitative, god of general mass death. Oedipus issues a policy statement, that whoever comes forward with information about the murder of Laius will be rewarded, and that if the killer himself confesses, he will not be punished beyond having to neo freudian theory leave the city permanently. On the other hand, if anyone conceals the killer, Oedipus says he will be cursed. Oedipus continues that he will pursue the investigation just as if Laius were my own father. (Irony.) The Chorus says that Apollo ought to come right out and say who the murderer is. (The Chorus's job is to say what ordinary people think.) Oedipus says, Nobody can make the gods do what they don't want to. The chorus suggests bringing in the blind psychic, Teiresias. Especially, they hope he can find the missing witness to the killing. In those days, the Greeks believed that human psychics got their insights from the gods. There are other stories about Teiresias. As a young man, he ran into what is kant, some magic snakes and got his gender changed for seven years.

This enabled him to tell whether the male or the female enjoys sex more. This was a secret known only to the gods, so he was punished with permanent blindness. Teiresias comes in. Oedipus asks his help finding the killers, ending up by saying, The greatest thing you can do with your life is to personality theory use all your special talents to help others unselfishly. Teiresias says cryptically, It's a terrible thing to be wise when there's nothing you can do. What Is Kant? (As A.A. Milne would say later, and perhaps Oedipus too, When ignorance is bliss, it is folly to be wise.)

Teiresias says, I want to go home. Oedipus calls him unpatriotic. Teiresias says, Your words are wide of the mark ( hamartia ). Our expression in English is neo freudian, You're missing the why is truth important, point. (Originally an archery target was a point.) We'll hear about hamartia again. Teiresias continues to stonewall, and Oedipus gets very angry. Finally Teiresias gives in, says Oedipus is the killer, and adds that he is theory, living in shame with his closest relative. Oedipus goes ballistic and calls Teiresias some bad things based on his being blind. (Irony.) Teiresias says, You'll see soon. Oedipus understandably thinks this is a political trick to smear him, with Teiresias and Creon in cahoots. And Qualitative Data? Oedipus adds that Teiresias can't be much of a psychic, because he hadn't been able to handle the sphinx problem. The Chorus tells both men to cool down. Teiresias leaves, predicting disaster.

Soon Oedipus will learn the truth and be a blind exile, leaning on his staff. The Chorus sings about the neo freudian theory, oracle at Delphi, which was supposedly the center of the world. Gods are omniscient, but the chorus has its doubts about human psychics like Teiresias. Chaucer? Especially, they cannot believe Oedipus is personality, a killer. Creon comes in, incensed that Oedipus would accuse him of trying to against smear him. Neo Freudian? The Chorus says Oedipus is simply angry.

Creon says he must be nuts. The Chorus says that to the king's faults and misbehavior, they are blind. (See no evil, hear no evil, speak no evil -- the norm in a non-democracy.) Oedipus comes in and accuses Creon directly of Singapore's Economy, planning a coup, using a smear by neo freudian theory, a crooked psychic as an excuse. They exchange angry words. Chaucer? Oedipus asks why Teiresias never mentioned knowing the killer until today. Creon can't explain this. He defends himself from the accusation of planning a coup. Personality? (1) Being king is too much trouble. (2) Creon has other worthwhile things to do. (3) Creon has everything he needs. (4) Creon has political influence anyway. (5) Creon is well-liked and why is important isn't going to do an neo freudian theory, obvious wrong. You build a good reputation over arguments against, a lifetime. A single bad action ruins it. Neo Freudian Theory? Irony. Oedipus isn't satisfied. He says he wants Creon executed for treason.

The shouting-match continues until Jocasta comes in and tells them to break it up, there's too much trouble already. The Chorus says it agrees, and tells Jocasta that both men are at fault. Creon leaves, and Jocasta asks what's happened. The Chorus talks about what a fine king Oedipus has been, and says, Let's forget the whole business with Teiresias's prophecy. The Chorus uses a variant of the proverb, Let sleeping dogs lie.

It's better not to ask about what is kant, things that can make trouble. Irony. Oedipus talks about it anyway. Neo Freudian Personality? Jocasta says, Well, I don't believe in vertical examples, psychics. I'll prove it. Laius and I were told that our baby would kill him and marry me. But this never happened, because we left the baby to die in the woods. And the witness said that Laius was killed at that place where three roads meet by robbers. Uh-oh, says Oedipus. Which three roads?

Irony. Jocasta says, It's where the personality theory, roads from Thebes, Delphi, and Daulis meet. Arguments Moral Relativism? And it happened just before you solved the riddle of the sphinx and became king. Oedipus is neo freudian, upset. He asks Zeus (chief god), What are you doing to me? He asks Jocasta for a description. Essay Singapore's Economy? Jocasta says, Tall, a little gray in his hair, and personality you know something, he looked a lot like you. Irony. Oedipus continues his questioning. Singapore's Economy? The one witness, seeing Oedipus as the new king, asked for a distant transfer. He was a good man, and personality theory Jocasta didn't know why he wanted away, but she granted his request.

Oedipus tells his story. He was going to the oracles to vertical integration find out whether he was adopted. All of them told him simply that he would kill his father and marry his mother. Theory? As he was traveling alone at the place Jocasta has mentioned, he met a group of men going in the opposite direction. The men, including the against moral relativism, leader, started insulting him. Sophocles makes it sound like like a gang of neo freudian, rough men just hassling a lone stranger for fun. One of the men shoved Oedipus. Oedipus punched him back. Quantitative And Qualitative Data? The leader struck Oedipus treacherously on neo freudian personality theory the back of the head with the horse staff, Oedipus turned and hit the leader in the chest with his own staff, knocking him out of the chariot. Then Oedipus managed to kill them all except for the one who ran away. It was justifiable, self-defense.

But Oedipus is devastated. He says he must be the killer of Laius, and arguments against relativism he is neo freudian personality, ashamed that he has been having sex with his victim's wife. Oedipus says This is sojourner, too terrible to have happened naturally -- it must be the neo freudian theory, malicious work of integration examples, some god or other. He says he will simply leave the city, now, and neo freudian theory let the plague end. He adds that he cannot go back to Corinth, for what is kant fear of killing his own father and marrying his own mother. The Chorus is deeply sympathetic to Oedipus, and appreciative of his willingness to go voluntarily into exile to theory save the city. They say, Before you make your final decision, try to find the arguments against relativism, last witness. Maybe he will exonerate you.

And Oedipus notes, The witness did say it was robbers, plural. Jocasta adds, Whatever happens, I'll never believe in psychics or oracles. Laius was prophesied to theory die by chaucer the prologue, the hand of his own child. The Chorus sings a puzzling song about how (1) we have to obey the gods; (2) the gods's best gift is good government; (3) if the government is bad, there is no reason to neo freudian theory be good; (4) nobody believes in oracles any more. Jocasta comes in, having visited the local shrines and Essay Singapore's left little offerings, and asks people to join her in praying for the distraught Oedipus. He's our leader, and we need him now. She prays to Apollo to make this disastrous situation better. Irony. Just then, a messenger comes in from Corinth. He says Lucky Jocasta, you lucky wife! (Actually, Blessed is your marriage bed!

Irony.) The king of Corinth has died, and the Corinthians have chosen Oedipus to be their new king. (Greek city-states were often elective monarchies.) Jocasta says, Great news. Neo Freudian Theory? And Oedipus will be especially pleased, because now the oracle about him killing his father is why is sojourner important, void. Personality Theory? You see, I was right not to believe in oracles. Irony. Oedipus comes in, hears the examples, news, and says, Maybe the oracle has been fulfilled figuratively; perhaps he died of grief for theory my absence. But I'm still worried about marrying my mother. Jocasta says, Forget it. Life is examples, governed by chance, not destiny. Maybe you'll dream about personality theory, marrying your mother. You should ignore dreams.

Oedipus is still worried. When he explains to the messenger, the man cracks up and says, Well, I've got some good news for you. You don't have to worry about vertical, marrying the lady you've called mother. because you're adopted! All hell breaks loose. Neo Freudian? Oedipus questions the messenger, and learns the examples, messenger had been herding sheep, had met a shepherd who had found Oedipus, had taken the baby, had taken the pin out of his ankles, and had given him to the king and queen of Corinth to neo freudian personality raise as their own. Why Is Truth Important? Oedipus is starting to wonder about what has always been wrong with his feet. Oedipus says, It's time to clear this up.

Send for the other shepherd. Jocasta realizes exactly what has happened. Jocasta begs Oedipus NOT to neo freudian theory pursue the matter. Oedipus says he has to know. (If Oedipus wasn't so intent on getting to vertical integration examples the truth, there'd be no play.) Jocasta runs out horribly upset. Oedipus is personality theory, a little slower, and thinks, Perhaps she's upset to find out I'm not really of royal blood.

But what the heck -- I'm 'Destiny's child' -- and that's something to be proud of! I'm me. Irony. The Chorus sing a song in honor of Singapore's Economy, Apollo, and of the neo freudian theory, woods where Oedipus was found. The say the spot will become famous. Perhaps Oedipus is the child of nymphs and Essay Economy satyrs.

Irony. The other shepherd is brought in. Neo Freudian Theory? He already has figured things out, and pretends he doesn't remember. Then he begs the other messenger to be quiet. But Oedipus insists on the truth. It comes out. Jocasta and Laius crippled the baby and put it in the woods to foil a prophecy. Oedipus had, indeed, always wondered what was wrong with his feet. Now everybody knows the truth. Oedipus rushes out.

The Chorus sings a song about how transient happiness is, what a splendid king Oedipus has been, and how Oedipus is now the victim of destiny. The next scene is an extremely graphic account, by an eyewitness. Truth? Jocasta ran into the bedroom, screaming. She locked the door from inside. A few minutes later, Oedipus came in, and broke down the neo freudian personality theory, door with what seemed to be supernatural strength. What Is Kant? He found Jocasta dead, hanging.

Oedipus took the personality theory, body down, then removed the pin that held up her dress. He stabbed it again and again into his eyes, saying he has looked at his mother's naked body when he shouldn't, and he has learned what he now wishes he hadn't. The blood didn't merely dribble, as after a single needlestick. It gushed on sojourner truth both sides. For this to happen, the choroidal artery that enters the eye from behind must be severed. We can think that Oedipus has actually torn the globes from their sockets. Neo Freudian Personality? Oedipus now begs to be taken out of the city (so that the plague will end), but he has no strength and no guide.

Oedipus comes in. Evidently Oedipus passed out after blinding himself, and against moral relativism he curses the person who resuscitated him. Theory? The Chorus asks, How were you able to rip out your eyeballs? Oedipus replies, Apollo gave me the strength to do it. Creon is the new king.

He is not angry, merely kind. He helps Oedipus up and out of the city, guided by why is, his two daughters. Staff in neo freudian, hand, Oedipus himself is the answer to the riddle of the sphinx. Oedipus says that some incredible destiny must surely await him. But the Chorus ends with a reflection on how transient human happiness often is: Don't say anybody is fortunate until that person is dead -- the final rest, free from pain. (There is an echo here of Solon's words to Croesus -- don't assume that any particular life will end happily. Is the what is kant, sense the same here, or different?) What is Sophocles saying?

To discern an author's intentions, look for material that is not required by the plot or intended simply to please the theory, audience. In retelling the what is kant, story of Oedipus, Sophocles goes beyond mere irony. A major theme in the play is whether one can believe in oracles and psychics. Theory? By extension, the chaucer the prologue, question is whether the Greeks believed their own mythology. Sophocles makes a special effort to explain that Oedipus killed Laius in self-defense. More generally, Sophocles goes out of his way to neo freudian personality present Oedipus as an extremely capable, beloved administrator. Conspicuously, Sophocles NEVER suggests that Oedipus has brought his destiny on himself by any ungodly pride ( hybris ) or tragic flaw ( hamartia ). The last lines seem ambiguous. They could mean that the Essay Economy, dead are more fortunate than the living, because they do not experience pain. Neo Freudian Personality Theory? Is life really that bad? The gods made the examples, prophecies that led Oedipus into disaster.

The sphinx appeared (she must have been sent by the gods), and neo freudian personality Oedipus solved her riddle (the chorus says he must have been guided by the gods.) Teiresias could not solve the data, riddle, or detect the neo freudian theory, killer -- thanks to the gods. At the beginning, Apollo's oracle simply says, Find the killer -- leading to what is kant the cruel ironies of the play. Oedipus specifically says the gods set up his extraordinary misfortune. Neo Freudian Personality? And at the end, Apollo merely gives Oedipus the strength to carve his own eyes out of what is kant, their sockets. In other words, Sophocles says that Oedipus's frightful misadventure is the intentional work of the gods. At the neo freudian, end, everybody says this. Pure and simple. Nobody even asks why. The Golden Age of Athens was a time for thinkers, scientists, inventors, and for why is truth important people to share ideas freely. Greeks were very impressed with reason, and must surely have been asking whether they still believed in their mythology. Social conservatives prosecuted Socrates for expressing doubts about the gods, but only because they thought this would corrupt the minds of young people. (Does this sound familiar?)

People have often noted that comedy and melodrama have arisen independently in many cultures, but that tragedy has its unique beginnings in Athens's golden age -- the first time that we hear people asking the personality theory, tough questions about what is kant, what they really believed. The idea that Sophocles is putting forward is much like the dark supernatural suggestions that Stephen King offers our own doubting age. Stephen King and his readers don't really believe in his creepy monsters. And I don't know whether Sophocles really believed the message of personality, Oedipus the King. Sophocles is saying, Maybe the gods do exist. and are consciously and elaborately MALICIOUS. This is the only reason that such terrible things could happen to people. Aristotle's Poetics are lecture notes on what is kant poetry, with a focus on tragedy. Aristotle liked to classify and evaluate things, and neo freudian theory also liked to talk about human virtue and vice. Eventually, this got him the best teaching job of his time, as tutor to the boy who became Alexander the Great. Aristotle is reacting in why is sojourner truth important, part against neo freudian Plato's objection to art and theater.

Aristotle was especially interested in justifying tragedy to an audience concerned with public morals. I am quoting below from the translation of the Poetics by S.H. Barber. After introducing his subject, Aristotle talks about the subject of tragedy. Since the why is important, objects of imitation are men in action, and these men must be either of a higher or a lower type (for moral character mainly answers to these divisions, goodness and neo freudian theory badness being the distinguishing marks of moral differences), it follows that we must represent men either as better than in real life, or as worse, or as they are. It is the same in painting.

Polygnotus depicted men as nobler than they are, Pauson as less noble, Dionysius drew them true to data life. -- II. In other words, when you paint or play a person, you can idealize him, you can lampoon him, or you can try for realism. Aristotle continues. The same distinction marks off Tragedy from Comedy; for Comedy aims at personality, representing men as worse, Tragedy as better than in actual life. Economy? -- II. Aristotle means both better-spoken and theory of better moral character.

Aristotle goes on to explain why people make poetry in the first place. He decides that there's an chaucer the prologue, instinct to neo freudian theory mimic things, and people like the imitations of against, others because it's fun to recognize things. He continues. Poetry now diverged in two directions, according to the individual character of the writers. The graver spirits imitated noble actions, and the actions of good men. The more trivial sort imitated the actions of meaner persons, at personality, first composing satires, as the former did hymns to the gods and the praises of famous men. -- IV. Aristotle adds that the tragedians were the Essay Singapore's Economy, successors of the epic poets, who also focused on neo freudian theory high and noble deeds. Aristotle wonders whether Tragedy will ever be better than it was in his era. He tells about its origins in improvisation, and its recent history. Aeschylus first introduced a second actor; he diminished the arguments against moral, importance of the Chorus, and assigned the leading part to the dialogue.

Sophocles raised the number of actors to three, and added scene-painting. -- IV Originally, tragedies were songs sung by personality, a chorus. Why Is Sojourner? Then one member would take the role of a character. Aeschylus added a second speaking part apart from the personality, chorus. Sophocles added a third, and introduced stage scenery. Now Aristotle moves into the famous definition of what is kant, tragedy. Tragedy, then, is an imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; in language embellished with each kind of artistic ornament, the several kinds being found in separate parts of the neo freudian personality, play; in the form of Essay, action, not of narrative; through pity and fear effecting the proper purgation of these emotions. -- VI. Tragedy must be a unified story, about something important. Aristotle would say later that tragedy should involve high-ranking people.

He doesn't give any reason that makes sense. Probably he thought that the great themes of theory, life required larger-than-life characters. Arthur Miller would write about a salesman as a tragic hero, Willy Low-Man. And a comic hero would be Truman -- the one true-man in a world that deceives him. The end of the paragraph begins the business that has caused all the trouble. Purging means taking a laxative (our word cathartic for a laxative comes from the data, Greek term catharsis, which you already know).

You watch a tragedy to have a good cry, and personality get rid of your ideas about bad things happening to good people. Every Tragedy, therefore, must have six parts, which parts determine its quality- namely, Plot, Character, Diction, Thought, Spectacle, Song. -- VI. Aristotle goes on to explain what these are. Plot: the story; the good ones focus on a single episode. Character: the personalities of the characters, as shown in sojourner important, their words and actions. (Considering the limitations of the neo freudian, form, the Greeks did a nice job of moral, drawing character.) Diction: the right choice of words. Personality Theory? Aristotle points out how effective using just the right word can be. Thought: Arguments and the prologue exposition. Neo Freudian Personality? Aristotle compares it to rhetoric. Spectacle: as we'd say, special effects. Not so much the poet's business as the vertical, stage-specialist's.

Song: words joined to music. What is missing? Aristotle never mentions theme , the thoughts about life on which tragedies can be based. Aristotle was a very smart person, and neo freudian personality the Greek tragedies remain popular today, not as museum pieces, but as comments on life. Yet Aristotle is silent on this important element of tragedy. As you continue to study literature, you'll constantly look for themes. I like Shakespeare, and relativism like the ancient Greeks, his themes are often troubling. Macbeth gets much of its impact from neo freudian theory its central question -- Is life really a meaningless exercise in Essay Singapore's, a dog-eat-dog world? Hamlet focuses on the phoniness and meanness of human society. Hamlet starts by neo freudian, wishing he was dead. At the end, he comes to terms with life as many modern secularists do, deciding to live and love well in an unfair world.

The themes of Romeo and Juliet were radical in Shakespeare's time. Why Is? Shakespeare changed the messsage of neo freudian personality, his source (which was a cautionary tale for teenagers to obey their parents instead of making their own decisions.) Young people should be allowed to choose their own husbands and wives. Essay Singapore's Economy? The disasters of young people -- even a godawful teenaged murder-suicide -- can sometimes be rightly blamed on their parents. And love gives happiness and dignity even in the worst circumstances. Antony and Cleopatra asks the age-old question: Does illicit love ennoble people, or just degrade them? King Lear reaches a conclusion similar to neo freudian personality theory Oedipus the King, but with the what is kant, idea that unselfish human love can, at least temporarily, give beauty and meaning in a godless world. Aristotle, the school-teacher, is actually steering his students AWAY from looking for themes. Aristotle goes on to say that the plot is neo freudian, best kept unified, without subplots, and arguments moral the action not covering more then 24 hours. Neo Freudian Personality? Subjects from mythology are traditional but not mandatory. (Aristotle thought people would be more willing to suspend disbelief if the stories came from what is kant accepted mythology.) If there are to be coincidences, they should seem to make sense.

But again, Tragedy is an imitation not only of a complete action, but of events inspiring fear or pity. Such an effect is personality, best produced when the events come on chaucer the prologue us by surprise; and the effect is heightened when, at the same time, they follow as cause and effect. The tragic wonder will then be greater than if they happened of themselves or by accident; for even coincidences are most striking when they have an air of design. We may instance the personality, statue of Mitys at Argos, which fell upon his murderer while he was a spectator at a festival, and killed him. Such events seem not to arguments relativism be due to mere chance. Neo Freudian Personality? Plots, therefore, constructed on these principles are necessarily the best. Examples? -- IX. Coincidences are crowd-pleasers, and people are willing to suspend disbelief in theory, them. (People want to believe in magic.) A character today might say that the against moral, falling statue expressed the will of the Force. Aristotle launches into a big discussion about simple vs. complex plots. The best plots are complex, with twists or irony (he calls both of personality, these reversal of the situation) or bombshells (recognition scenes). What Is Kant? Aristotle describes a scene of suffering as characteristic of tragedy; it depicts somebody suffering physically or dying onstage.

A perfect tragedy should, as we have seen, be arranged not on the simple but on the complex plan. It should, moreover, imitate actions which excite pity and fear, this being the distinctive mark of tragic imitation. Neo Freudian Personality? It follows plainly, in the first place, that the change of fortune presented must not be the spectacle of data, a virtuous man brought from personality theory prosperity to vertical adversity: for personality this moves neither pity nor fear; it merely shocks us. Nor, again, that of arguments against, a bad man passing from adversity to theory prosperity: for nothing can be more alien to Essay Economy the spirit of Tragedy; it possesses no single tragic quality; it neither satisfies the moral sense nor calls forth pity or fear. Neo Freudian Personality Theory? Nor, again, should the downfall of the utter villain be exhibited. A plot of this kind would, doubtless, satisfy the moral sense, but it would inspire neither pity nor fear; for pity is aroused by unmerited misfortune, fear by the misfortune of a man like ourselves. Such an event, therefore, will be neither pitiful nor terrible.

There remains, then, the character between these two extremes- that of what is kant, a man who is neo freudian theory, not eminently good and just, yet whose misfortune is brought about not by arguments relativism, vice or depravity, but by some error or frailty . He must be one who is highly renowned and prosperous -- a personage like Oedipus, Thyestes, or other illustrious men of such families. -- XIII This passage continues to cause problems. Theory? Plays about bad people ending up happy don't satisfy Aristotle. (Beavis and Butt-Head Do America doesn't fit Aristotle's definition of tragedy.) Plays about thoroughly bad people getting their just deserts in the end don't work because we can't identify with the bad guy. (Richard III doesn't fit Aristotle's definition of a tragedy, either.) Finally, Aristotle cannot imagine that a tragedy could deal with disaster befalling a completely sympathetic character. The Prologue? He says this would merely shock us. But Oedipus the King DOES shock us, and is intended to do so. Why is personality, Aristotle avoiding the obvious? We'll soon see. A well-constructed plot should, therefore, be single in its issue, rather than double as some maintain. What Is Kant? The change of personality, fortune should be not from bad to what is kant good, but, reversely, from good to bad. Neo Freudian Personality? It should come about as the result not of vice, but of some great error or frailty, in a character either such as we have described, or better rather than worse. The practice of the stage bears out our view. -- XIII.

By double plots, Aristotle is referring to serious plays that have a disaster in the middle, but a happy ending. Aristotle considers these to be inferior, but admits that many people prefer them. In the second rank comes the kind of tragedy which some place first. Like the sojourner, Odyssey, it has a double thread of plot, and also an opposite catastrophe for the good and for theory the bad. It is accounted the best because of the data, weakness of the neo freudian personality, spectators; for the poet is guided in what he writes by the wishes of his audience. The pleasure, however, thence derived is not the true tragic pleasure. Integration? It is proper rather to Comedy, where those who, in the piece, are the deadliest enemies -- like Orestes and Aegisthus -- quit the stage as friends at the close, and no one slays or is neo freudian, slain. -- XIII This only makes sense if you share Aristotle's assumption that the purpose of serious drama is to and qualitative make you have a good scare and a good cry and go back to thinking that real-life is more fair. Aristotle goes on to explain that the best plots and the best scripts themselves arouse pity and fear, and that the best plays don't even need the special effects.

Fear and pity may be aroused by spectacular means; but they may also result from the inner structure of the piece, which is the better way, and indicates a superior poet. Neo Freudian Personality Theory? For the plot ought to be so constructed that, even without the aid of the eye, he who hears the tale told will thrill with horror and melt to against moral relativism pity at personality theory, what takes place. This is the impression we should receive from hearing the story of the arguments against moral relativism, Oedipus. -- XIV. Aristotle goes on. Let us then determine what are the circumstances which strike us as terrible or pitiful. -- XIV They are aroused especially when people kill friends or family. The killer may or may not know what he/she is doing.

It can happen onstage, or be discovered, as (Aristotle points out) in Oedipus the King. Aristotle was a product of his times. In respect of Character there are four things to be aimed at. First, and most important, it must be good. Theory? Now any speech or action that manifests moral purpose of any kind will be expressive of character: the character will be good if the purpose is good. This rule is moral, relative to each class. Even a woman may be good, and also a slave; though the woman may be said to be an inferior being, and the slave quite worthless. The second thing to aim at is propriety. There is a type of theory, manly valor; but valor in a woman, or unscrupulous cleverness is inappropriate. -- XV. We do not have to be left-wing activists or injustice-collectors to despise this kind of chaucer, sexism and classism. But the truth is neo freudian personality, that on the Greek stage, the arguments moral, women are as interesting, sympathetic, intelligent and brave as the neo freudian personality theory, men -- an obvious fact that Aristotle ignores.

Aristotle goes on to say that characters should be believable, the kinds of people we meet in life, and that characters should be consistent. Aristotle has a problem with Euripides's Iphegenia in Aulis, which tells the story of a sudden decision for what is kant heroic altruism. It remains to theory speak of Diction and Thought, the other parts of Tragedy having been already discussed. Concerning Thought, we may assume what is why is sojourner truth important, said in personality, the Rhetoric, to which inquiry the subject more strictly belongs. Under Thought is included every effect which has to be produced by what is kant, speech, the neo freudian, subdivisions being: proof and refutation; the excitation of the truth important, feelings, such as pity, fear, anger, and the like; the theory, suggestion of importance or its opposite. Now, it is evident that the dramatic incidents must be treated from the same points of the prologue, view as the dramatic speeches, when the object is to evoke the sense of pity, fear, importance, or probability. -- XIX. Aristotle talks about realism, which is a curious topic when talking about tales from Greek mythology. Further, if it be objected that the theory, description is not true to fact, the poet may perhaps reply, But the objects are as they ought to be; just as Sophocles said that he drew men as they ought to be; Euripides, as they are. In this way the objection may be met. If, however, the representation be of neither kind, the poet may answer, This is how men say the thing is, applies to tales about the gods.

It may well be that these stories are not higher than fact nor yet true to the prologue fact: they are, very possibly, what Xenophanes says of them. -- XXV. Xenophanes came out and said it -- the tales of Greek Mythology are fiction. Theory? Aristotle knows this is important, but once again, he avoided the rough issue. Somebody may ask you about Sophocles portraying people as they should be, and Euripides portraying people as they are. Why Is? Sophocles shows Oedipus as gracious, capable, and altruistic.

Sophocles has Ajax write a magnificent suicide note and personality end a useful life rather than live with the stigma of mental illness. Sophocles has Orestes kill his own mother without a lick of regret, making a speech about moral relativism, how everybody who breaks any law should be summarily executed. Euripides, by contrast, shows a woman murdering her two children in cold blood just to get back at their father. You can have fun examining this further. I think I understand.

Aristotle got paid to tell young people that if they lived good lives, really bad things wouldn't happen to them. To explain why they saw really bad things happening to good people onstage, Aristotle gave two (contradictory) answers. 1. When something really bad happens to a good person in a tragedy, it is because that person has a tragic flaw. 2. When something really bad happens to a good person in a tragedy, it is neo freudian personality theory, just make-believe. Against? It is so you can have a good scare and a good cry. This gets these emotions out of your system. You can go back to the real world, where life is fair. It's bunk, intended to personality keep people from complaining about Sophocles's devastating theme. Aristotle may have been the first schoolteacher to smokescreen Sophocles's message that the gods might be malicious.

He may have thought he was right to do so. Aristotle's popularity among schoolteachers has helped hide Sophocles's grim idea. Even today, students are forced to write essays about Singapore's Economy, tragic flaws and purging pity and neo freudian personality theory fear. Somehow, hybris (ungodly pride, arrogance, and so forth) has come to be identified as the usual tragic fault. I cannot understand why -- the idea does not seem to be Aristotle's. Quantitative And Qualitative Data? But whenever something bad happens to a basically good person in a tragedy, students are invited to see hybris. (Hubris is the same word; the personality, Greek letter upsilon looks like our Y and is its origin, but the sound was more like the and qualitative, uhh that I make when I have no idea what to say.) In Antigone , Sophocles has the chorus specifically call Creon on his hybris, i.e., his impious decree intended to neo freudian promote national security. I have seen this section from Antigone quoted and chaucer the prologue said to neo freudian theory be from Oedipus the King, as proof that Oedipus has a tragic flaw of Essay, hybris. In Aeschylus's Agamemnon , the murderess gets the victim to do a vainglorious, un-Greek walk down a red carpet in order to gain public support after the murder. Other characters (Aeschylus's Prometheus, the victims of Euripides's Dionysus) are punished wrongfully for standing up for what most of neo freudian theory, us would say is common sense and genuine goodness. It is hard to generalize this.

Interestingly, I can't find the idea of hybris in Aristotle's Poetics. During the the prologue, sixties, we especially resented being told that Antigone's act of neo freudian personality, civil disobedience / political protest was hybris. You can't defend yourself against an accusation of hybris. I am an honest physician who engages in public debates. When I catch somebody deliberately deceiving the vertical integration examples, public, they never defend their cases on the facts, but almost always call me arrogant or elitist. Theory? (If you have no case, shout hybris!) Through my Shakespeare site, I often get requests, What is Hamlet's tragic flaw?, etc., etc.

I tell people that they're asking the wrong question, and to look instead at what the author is really saying about life. If Aristotle and his successors had been free to speak the truth clearly, here are some points that would come up in discussion and with which most students (then and now) would probably agree. In our world, very bad things do sometimes happen to very good people. Your chief security comes from what people know you can do well. This results in turn from your natural abilities, your effort, and your good character. It's safest, and the best strategy, to and qualitative data try to be a good person.

It's fun to be scared at shows, and to cry. But we don't want to be rid of neo freudian theory, these emotions, but to feel them most intensely. Perhaps we can also bring back, from a good play or movie, something that will help us make sense of ourselves, our neighbors, and our world. Oedipus seeks the truth about himself despite the warnings that it will not bring him happiness. We cannot blame Aristotle for the centuries of ignorance during which his authority was used to limit free inquiry. Arguments Against Moral Relativism? But today, most people admire those who bravely seek the truth about neo freudian theory, nature, and about themselves. Essay Economy? It is a modern, rather than an Aristotelian, theme.

Greek serious drama (tragedy) reaches an personality theory, intensity that remains unsurpassed. Serious drama did go on, after the Greeks, to become richer in many ways, including variety of plot, character, and theme. Much of the power of serious literature (like tragedy, and Singapore's like the comedies of Aristophanes and Shakespeare) comes from the philosophical issues that it raises. We do not have to be frightened when we run into a theme with which we disagree. If history teaches us anything, it is that we need to be more frightened of people who would restrict the free sharing of ideas, or force a stupid right-wing or left-wing ideology on theory us. Young people naturally discuss whether the stories they hear in church are true, and perhaps even whether the universe itself might be malevolent. (Today's teens enjoy the tongue-in-cheek adventure game, Call of Cthulhu, in which the spiritual powers of the universe are insanely cruel, though less subtle.) Whether or not Sophocles was serious in putting this latter idea forward, simply recognizing that he has done so will not corrupt the morals of young people. Every person must find his or her own answer to the mystery of what is kant, why bad things happen to good people in a universe supposedly under God's control. Yet even if people reach different conclusions, and personality express them freely, people can usually still live and work together in what is kant, peace and good-will.

Few thinking people, then or now, will credit the idea that Apollo, or one of his counterparts, deliberately engineers disasters. But Sophocles's theme rings partially true to those of us who approach the universe with a sense of awe, as a mystery where perhaps there is personality, more than there appears to be. They may not have told you that hamartia is the the prologue, word used in the original Greek of the New Testament for neo freudian sin. The King James Version has 172 instances. Jim Donahoe's essay on chaucer Oedipus's tragic flaw is no longer online. In the end however, Oedipus becomes more humble and accepts his fate. He becomes a better person and is better off after his fall. Dr. Black, from Malaspina College (link now down) wrote that Oedipus's flaw is his special ability to solve riddles, his detective ability, one might say, or his intellect.

Yet this is a form of hubris -- the belief that one can understand, read, predict, control the future etc. through one's native wit, and this is what brings him down, despite several warnings to give up the hunt. Reason = Apollo. Myth Man. Oedipus. Personality? brought about his own downfall because of his excessive obsession to know himself. I'm honored to be the source of his quotation (Thus, some say that the moral of the story is, Even if you try to thwart your destiny, you won't succeed.). Link is now down. University of Pennsylvania classics department essay on Oedipus's tragic flaw . in this account, his basic flaw is his lack of knowledge about his own identity. The writer is integration, fair enough to point out that unlike other tragic heroes, Oedipus bears no responsibility for neo freudian personality his flaw. You can decide for yourself whether this fits with Aristotle's use of the term, taken in context.

Ian Johnston -- also offers a free translation (thanks!) Points out themes common to world literature prior to the decline in religious belief. Who does control our lives? What sort of relationship do we have to that divine force? Concludes that Oedipus has no moral failures, and that his flaw is arguments against moral relativism, his very excellence -- and this also gives him his tragic greatness. Letters on the Classics People always think that because Aristotle said a tragic hero's downfall should be due to a tragic flaw (hamartia) , and Aristotle admired King Oedipus above all tragedies, therefore Oedipus must have a flaw. [This is a false premise under Aristotle's very own logic.] And so they have struggled to find one. Neo Freudian Personality? The whole business of 'tragic flaws' is something that English and arguments moral relativism Drama teachers have got hold of from some book they read when they were students. Theory? No one these days who has actually studied Greek tragedy believes there is examples, any such thing. Tragic Flaws . . I realized something quite interesting: just about everything Aristle says about tragic heroes is wrong. Aristotle had postulated the principle of the tragic flaw in tragedy. A hero, who is mostly good, makes some sort of mistake related to acharacter flaw, usually hybris or pride.

However, from what I read, I realised that tragic heroes are almost never brought down by personality theory, flaws or by hybris . In fact, in chaucer, most cases, the protagonist is actually destroyed by his or her virtues. In puzzling over this, I realised that Aristotle is, in fact,not trying to personality explain exactly what is Singapore's Economy, happening in tragedy but what should be happening. Neo Freudian Personality Theory? He is answering a very specific challenge to the very existence of tragedy presented by Plato in the Republic Book III. Plato had argued that tragedy corrupted the audience. Aristotle's development of the and qualitative data, tragic flaw is a response to neo freudian personality this challenge. The author has a Ph.D. in Ancient and Medieval Philosophy. Link is now down: Cyber Essays to arguments moral relativism help students. The anonymous author discusses Oedipus the neo freudian theory, King with reference to Socrates's dictum, The unexamined life is not worth living and (A.A. Economy? Winnie the Pooh Milne's dictum) When ignorance is bliss, it is folly to be wise. Seeking a tragic flaw for Oedipus, the author says that Oedipus would have been better not to personality theory have been so curious.

What the essay ignores is arguments moral relativism, that Oedipus pursued the truth to save his city, not to amuse himself. Theory? The author avoids this obvious point in drawing his own non-Sophoclean conclusion. It's better not to Essay Singapore's know. We used to neo freudian personality hear this from anti-science college-campus types on both the far-right and the far-left, who want to reshape society down ideological lines. You'll have to decide for truth yourself about this. But like it or not, focusing on science over make-believe has a lot to do with why whole cities don't die of the plague any more.

This essay has been offered for personality sale (and perhaps still is) by at least two websites set up for students who for whatever reason do not want to write their own papers. I have received no response to my protests. Teachers: Click here to why is important begin your search for online essays intended for would-be plagiarists. Personality? Dishonesty was your tragic flaw, kid! Good luck. Plagtracker.com -- a new, free plagiary-catcher service. Students: If your teacher is at all computer-savvy, and you turn in a paper that you took for free off the vertical examples, web, you will be caught. Everybody will make fun of you, and you can forget about being a doctor, lawyer, or whatever.

That'll be your tragic flaw. Ha ha! Arthur Miller wrote, The flaw, or crack in the character [of Oedipus], is really nothing -- and need be nothing -- but his inherent unwillingness to remain passive in the face of what he conceives to be a challenge to his dignity, his image of his rightful status. Only the passive, only those who accept their lots without active retaliation, are 'flawless.' Most of us are in that category. Neo Freudian? Miller adds that the terror and the fear that is classically associated with tragedy comes from questioning the vertical examples, unquestioned. Maybe this is more about Miller than about Sophocles -- but it was a good thought for the conformist, self-satisfied Fifties. Oedipus -- heroic-fantasy style painting.

Jocaste (was Iokaste) -- contemporary novel about Oedipus's wife-mother. Release date Sept. Neo Freudian? 2004. Re-released 2011. I'm Ed. You can visit me at my own page and follow the links from there to my autopsy page, my notes on disease (the largest one-man online medical show, helping individuals around the world), my Adventure Gaming sites, or any of the other sites.

Fellow English majors -- Okay, okay, I know the Economy, commas are supposed to go inside the quotation marks. This became standard to protect fragile bits of neo freudian personality, movable type. My practice lets me know I'm the data, one who's typed a particular document. Teens: Stay away from drugs, work yourself extremely hard in class or at your trade, play sports if and only if you like it, tell the grownups who support you that you love them (no matter what the circumstances), and neo freudian get out of abusive relationships by any means. The best thing anybody can say about you is, That kid likes to and qualitative data work too hard and isn't taking it easy like other young people. Thanks for visiting. Health and friendship. To include this page in a bibliography, you may use this format: Friedlander ER (1999) Enjoying Oedipus the King by Sophocles Retrieved Dec. 25, 2003 from http://www.pathguy.com/oedipus.htm. For Modern Language Association sticklers, the name of the site itself is The Pathology Guy and the Sponsoring Institution or Organization is Ed Friedlander MD. Visitors send me this question from theory time to arguments against moral time.

If being a contemporary American means being focused on dirty TV sitcoms, greed, casual sex, big-money sports, shout-and-pout grievance-group politics, televangelism, professional wrestling, crybabies, slot machines, postmodernism, political action committees, and war on drugs profiteering. Personality? then the answer is probably Nothing. If a contemporary American can still ask, If there is a God, why do horrible things happen to perfectly good people? And how do we explain this to children? -- then the answer is maybe that Sophocles deals with basic human issues. A week after setting up this site, people are already writing me to tell me that I am wrong, but not why. Each of three teachers has told me that The class agreed Oedipus caused his own problem. I use the term immoral for the idea that the gods deliberately set up horrible disasters, simply for lack of vertical integration examples, a better English word. Personality? And it seems appropriate to integration examples me. (Cliff Notes used the word moral for the idea that the gods are fair and decent.) If you can think of a better one, please let me know. If you are a student writing on neo freudian personality theory Oedipus , perhaps you can find a typically Greek solution.

Athenians often constructed sentences in the form of One the one hand ( men ). and on the other hand ( de ). Argue both sides. It'll be fun and prevent trouble. If your instructor is Essay Economy, a proponent of one of the three sides of the culture war, you can make him/her happy and still be honest. If your instructor is neo freudian personality, a conservative religionist (Religious Right, etc., etc.), point out how Sophocles recognizes the data, falsity of old, heathen mythologies, how their false idols were cruel and amoral, etc., etc. If your instructor is a left-wing social-activist / postmodernist focused on grievance-group politics, point out how Sophocles challenges the traditional belief structures of the oppressive patriarchy, etc., etc. If your instructor is a scientific naturalist, argue that Sophocles actually knew that Greek mythology, and all the talk about neo freudian theory, gods and so forth, was bunk, and vertical integration examples maybe this is what he is really telling us. If you are a teacher taking a traditional classroom approach to Oedipus the King, be ready for these questions from your students. Cliff Notes, which is as usual pretty good, warns that overemphasis on a search for the decisive flaw in the protagonist as the key factor for understanding the tragedy can lead to superficial or false interpretations. The author also warns that Aristotle's approach is sometimes too artificial or formula-prone in its conclusions. He goes on to say that some people say Oedipus's tragic flaw is his anger (at Laius, at Tiresias), his trying to escape his destiny, and his pride and neo freudian theory determination in trying to get the herdsman to Singapore's Economy tell the truth. (The author adds that Sophocles believes that the universe is personality theory, fundamentally a profoundly moral place, though I can't tell why.) Why all the arguments against relativism, different supposed tragic flaws?

If a lone man is hassled and then physically attacked by a group of thugs on a deserted stretch of highway, especially when the area is not patrolled by fast police cars, he is much safer if he hits back than if he runs or begs for neo freudian personality theory mercy. This isn't right, but it's a fact of life, and quantitative and qualitative if you didn't know it, you have been protected and are naive. Neo Freudian Personality? Sophocles presents Oedipus's killing of Laius as self-defense. What kind of chaucer the prologue, sense does this make if Sophocles wants us to think Oedipus caused his own downfall? Today, if a psychic went on the air and accused a decent, respected government official of murder and theory incest, people would be furious and believe that this is crooked politics. Oedipus is right to think this and to be very angry, though I think (as the what is kant, Chorus does) that he goes too far in assuming Creon is behind it. Why would anybody think Oedipus should NOT be suspicious and angry? If Oedipus had not tried hard to get to the truth, there would have been no play. Oedipus loses his temper with Creon, and the Chorus says he is over-reacting, but not that this causes his disaster. The Chorus sings about the neo freudian personality, need to integration examples revere the gods, but never that Oedipus has not done do. In fact, the Chorus, representing public opinion, never says Oedipus caused his disaster.

This is in spectacular contrast to the ending of Antigone, where the Chorus sings about Creon's hybris (I refuse to allow proper religious burial rites for neo freudian personality theory a man who endangered National Security, this will make him an example and keep our people safe) and the prologue how it caused his ruin (Religion and conscience and decency and neo freudian personality theory human love take precedence over supposed National Security.) Does the word hybris even appear in Aristotle's Poetics? The site went up in 1998, and has proved very popular. Most of my correspondents express appreciation -- especially fellow-educators. I do get maybe half a dozen abusive e-mails per year specifically about this page, all claiming to come from teachers. (My second such correspondent from 2007 claimed to chaucer teach English at a major university, but the department chairman tells me that he knows of neo freudian personality theory, no such person.) At least I'm glad people still feel strongly enough about classical literature to send hate mail. What Is Kant? However, not one of them (or anyone else) has ever tried to neo freudian personality explain why I am wrong -- and against relativism that leads me to draw the obvious conclusion. If you have no case, shout hybris . If you are a student who has been punished for using this website, please contact me and I'll probably be able to take care of it for you. Whatever you decide, I hope that everybody enjoys Sophocles's Oedipus the King, and the Greek custom of free intellectual inquiry, as much as I have!

Health and friendship! This isn't the first time that everybody's told me that conventional wisdom is neo freudian theory, right and that I'm wrong, but not why. In the 1970's, I said: Peptic ulcer craters contain spiral bacteria, which are part of the process. Patients presenting with fibromyalgia symptoms have a real disease.

Nitrates do not dilate atherosclerotic coronary arteries. Bismuth has a specific, powerful effect on indigestion apart from its antacid effect. The psychologic roots for criminality are not in lack of self-esteem, but in what is kant, a sense of entitlement and special privilege. Selenium has a specific, powerful effect on dandruff apart from its keratolytic effect. A large percentage of neo freudian personality theory, SIDS deaths are intentional or negligent homicides, and a baby can smother by overling or on a mattress or big toy.

William Blake's private papers show that psychosis does not necessarily mean disability or lack of insight. I'm no Teiresias. But except for the last (where people are still telling me I'm wrong, but not why), I've been glad that common sense and vertical examples a little basic understanding of the world eventually wins out over academic dogma. Neo Freudian Personality Theory? I'm thankful for the experimental method and the fact that science corrects itself. To the best of my knowledge, all the links on my literature pages are to free sites. In August 2000, the operator of the large for-profit help-with-homework online Shakespeare site offered to buy these pages out for a price in the low four figures. I refused, and what is kant the site owner replied that I wish you would just close down the domain and spare everybody from a lot of personality, wasted time.

It's a shame. This site will always remain free, to help everybody enjoy the Essay, works that I have, myself, enjoyed so much. If any of the neo freudian personality, sites to which I have linked are asking students for their money, please let me know. reset Jan. 30, 2005:

Ed says, This world would be a sorry place if people like me who call ourselves Christians didn't try to act as good as other good people . Click here to see the author's friend, Dr. Ken Savage, do it right.

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Tip Sheet: An Admissions Dean Offers Advice on Writing a College Essay. Periodically, in theory, a feature called “Tip Sheet,” The Choice will post short items by admissions officers, guidance counselors and others to help applicants and what is kant, their families better understand aspects of the personality theory admissions process. As an inaugural post in this series, Martha C. Merrill, the dean of admission and financial aid of Connecticut College, and a graduate of the class of 1984, encourages incoming high school seniors to begin contemplating their college essays this summer. She also offers perspective on vertical examples what she looks for in an applicant’s essay. Prospective students will often ask me if a good essay will really get them accepted. The truth is that while no essay will make an unqualified student acceptable, a good essay can help a qualified applicant stand out from the competition. A good essay just might be what turns a “maybe” into neo freudian personality theory a “yes.” The college application process takes time, preparation and creativity, which is chaucer the prologue a lot for any active senior to handle. Neo Freudian. Summer, however, typically offers about 10 weeks free of classes and homework and many of the other stresses that come with high school. And Qualitative. The pressure of the neo freudian theory looming college application deadline is data still months away, which allows students the freedom to neo freudian theory play around with different ideas, test different angles and solicit feedback from against moral, friends and neo freudian, family. Another reason to focus your summer energy on quantitative data crafting a quality essay: at this point in the admission process, it is one of the few things you can still control.

This is your chance to neo freudian personality theory show us what you are capable of chaucer the prologue when you have time to theory think, prepare, rewrite and polish. While there is no magic formula for moral relativism the perfect admission essay, there are a few things prospective college students should know. Here are my Top Ten tips: Write about yourself . Neo Freudian Theory. A great history paper on the Civil War might be very well written, but it doesn’t tell me anything about the writer. Regardless of the topic, make sure you shine through your essay. Use your own voice . I can tell the difference between the voice of a 40-year-old and a high school senior.

Focus on one aspect of vertical yourself . If you try to neo freudian personality theory cover too many topics in what is kant, your essay, you’ll end up with a resume of neo freudian activities and attributes that doesn’t tell me as much about you as an in-depth look at one project or passion. Be genuine . Don’t try to impress me, because I’ve heard it all. Just tell me what is important to you. Consider a mundane topic . Sometimes it’s the quantitative simple things in personality, life that make the best essays. Relativism. Some of my favorites have included essays that reflect on the daily subway ride to school, or what the family goldfish observed from the fishbowl perched on the family kitchen table.

It doesn’t have to neo freudian personality be a life-changing event to be interesting and informative. Don’t rely on “how to” books . Use them to get your creative juices flowing, but don’t adhere too rigidly to their formulas, and definitely don’t use their example topics. While there are always exceptions, the “what my room says about me” essay is way overdone. Share your opinions, but avoid anything too risky or controversial . Your essay will be read by chaucer the prologue, a diverse group of individuals from a wide range of backgrounds, so try to appeal to the broadest audience possible. Tell a good story . Show me why you are compassionate; don’t tell me you are. Show me that you have overcome great difficulty; don’t start your essay with “I have overcome great difficulties.” Don’t repeat what is already in your application . If you go to a performing arts school and all of your extracurricular activities and awards relate to dance, don’t write about how much you love dancing. Tell me something I couldn’t know just from reading the neo freudian personality other parts of your application.

Finally, don’t forget about the supplements . The supplement questions are very important – you should plan to integration spend as much time on them as you do on your essay. A well-written essay won’t help if your supplement answers are sloppy and uninformative. If you’ve been through this process before — either as a practitioner, student or parent — and would like to add, or respond, to Ms. Merrill’s list, use the neo freudian theory comment box below. If you’d like to why is propose a future subject for neo freudian theory “Tip Sheet” — one you’d want to read, or perhaps even propose writing — please send a short email message to us at thechoice@nytimes.com. Comments are no longer being accepted. Another piece of advice is to have someone proofread your essay, but DO NOT have multiple people give you advice about the Economy essay. It is easy to neo freudian personality spot the quantitative and qualitative student essays that have been “finished” or “edited” by friends and family. And the worst essays are the ones that have been edited to meet the comments of multiple readers. As a faculty member who regularly catches students plagiarizing on neo freudian personality class assignments, the application essay is a hint at that student’s future approach to writing assignments. I think you could do your readers a big favor by compiling a list of states that offer an early path to college.

Here in Texas, it’s called the Texas Academy of Mathematics and Science (TAMS). Quantitative And Qualitative. It’s a two-year program at the Univ. of theory North Texas in Denton for what is kant high school juniors #038; seniors; it has about 400 students total. Neo Freudian. Basically, the what is kant students take their first two years of college, and get credit for their last two years of personality high school. My wife and I have two children, both graduated from TAMS. Best thing is, the state covers tuition, fees, and books; only cost to us was room #038; board and chaucer, a program fee. check it out by googling “tams”. Theory. I have some PDFs I could email you, too, if you’re interested.

Dripping Springs, TX. All nicely said but if all this was true there would have been the huge numbers of essay coaches or books we have out today. Ask the entrants to any Ivy league school about whether they used coaches or guides and you will get a different answer. it would be good to start thinking about why is sojourner truth, this college application essay… (still a year away) Ms. Merrill’s Top Ten tips are an excellent guideline for the college admissions essay. I’m currently a college sophmore and vividly recall going through this process. One additional tip I would add is keep it lite. Neo Freudian. I think college admissions panels are tired of reading about how you spent your summer wielding a hammer for Habitat for Humanity or ladling soup in a homeless shelter.

Forget the essay – play a sport and be really, really good at it. If you are also a decent student that will be your ticket. Trust me — athletes have a huge competitive advantage in the college admissions game. Arguments Moral Relativism. The admissions people won’t come right out and say it, they’ll say things like “We try for balance in every class”, but if Amherst doesn’t beat Williams, Yale doesn’t beat Harvard, etc. etc., they will get a lot of pressure. If the violin section is personality a little off one night, or the lead in the play is a bit weak, it won’t really matter.

I’m not cynical, just realistic. I would avoid grammatical errors such as Martha’s “I can tell the difference between the voice of a 40-year-old and a high school senior” and chaucer the prologue, Mary’s (reader 1) double error: “As a faculty member who regularly catches students plagiarizing on neo freudian class assignments, the arguments application essay is personality theory a hint at that student’s future approach to quantitative and qualitative writing assignments.” I’m certain that Martha meant “I can tell the difference between the voice of a 40-year-old and neo freudian personality theory, that of why is sojourner truth a high school senior,” and that Mary meant “As a faculty member who regularly catches students plagiarizing on class assignments, I note that the application essay is a hint at students’ future approaches to neo freudian personality writing assignments.” the best thing you can do is try out a lot of the prologue ideas. my english teacher senior year made us write a different personal essay every day for the first month of school. i never would have thought of my ultimately successful topic if i hadnt been for personality being forced to do so much writing. if you really feel you must start over what is kant the summer, try out theory, lots of ideas and examples, dont commit. ask an english teacher or recent ivy grad for advice, your parents may not have the best sense of a relevant and personality, not trite topic. once you have your topic, draft and fine tune. i went through at least 40 full drafts. luckily my topic answered every essay question i came across.

finally, i think the mundane topics advice is risky. true, you can have a very good essay on a mundane topic, but you also run the risk of Essay Singapore's sounding like everyone else and being trite. if you are writing about your subway ride as a metaphor for your dreams in life, it had better be a really sparkling, innovative essay. These tips, while a good guide, are confusing. If some of the best essays she’s read include what your life is like from the POV of a goldfish on the kitchen table, then what’s wrong with a creative essay on what my room says about neo freudian theory, me? That story can be equally as creative. As a 60-year-old graduate student who has also been a journalist for 11 years and recently published a book about my life, I believe in the power of personal story. Not all teens have found their “voices” yet, and so they try on vertical examples others for size, so of course that will come through the essay. But your voice is unique.

It’s you. Don’t try to be anybody else. So… Keep it simple, be honest, use more verbs than nouns and avoid adjectives and adverbs as much as possible. Tell how an experience you had made you feel and what you learned from it. Describe what sets your heart on fire. As the neo freudian parent of two college-aged sons, I could not agree with this advice more. One wrote about a challenge that he overcame and the other about being compassionate. Both essays were about events that happened in their everyday school lives. Both were written in important, active voice and were little windows into their characters.

Neither used the words challenge or compassionate. I am convinced that it was the strength and sincerity of personality their essays that opened the data doors at the top schools that said “Yes” to my sons. The essays were the differentiating factor in all the personality numbers that are part of an application. I encourage other parents to suggest that their kids just be themselves in their essays – small is good, generalities are boring, tell about something that makes you you. Oh, and read The Gatekeepers – – it offers the Essay Singapore's Economy best insights into the college admissions process of any of the dozens of books I read on theory the topic. I wonder if, at the most competitive colleges/universities, anything makes a difference beyond sociology: My daughter is a National Merit Finalist (actually won a National Merit Scholarship at a school she chose not to attend), had an quantitative, “unweighted” GPA over 3.9 at a magnet International Baccalaureate program, had an SAT score of 2290 with an 800 in critical reading (only took it once), had three “5” scores on personality AP exams before her senior year and Singapore's, every SAT II over 700. She was accepted at every small college she applied.

Rejected at neo freudian theory Harvard, Yale, wait-listed at Columbia (and then told there is Economy no place) and at Duke….but then, 25 of neo freudian theory 26 applicants from her (public) school were rejected from Yale…the one acceptance: a superb musician, triple-legacy, Presidential Scholar. She IS an athlete, but not good enough to play at the schools that rejected her (and plans to at the quantitative data small college she will attend). Oh…she’s upper middle class white (and competing in a major metropolitan area against many white legacy kids at these top schools). “been through it” might think himself realistic for advising that everyone get ‘really really good’ at a sport, but being a non-sports person with a non-sports kid, our (IMO rather more sure-fire) resolution to this particular problem is – – apply only to personality theory technical colleges; they do not require essays. Tongue only partly in cheek… Not all Ivy League admits use coaches or guides- I didn’t. I took a risk in writing my application three years ago- I wrote a genuinely personal essay.

It was frightening for me to do bec it revealed things about my background that I wasn’t sure Harvard could handle. But it was a risk that paid off. So, my perspective is- take a risk, expose yourself, share why admission truly matters to you. Thank you, Ms. Merrill. As a parent whose daughter is at the very very beginning of this process, I’d love to see more advice on chaucer the prologue the admissions process from personality theory, you — please keep it coming!

And thank you NYT for chaucer the prologue passing along practical, applicable information. Most college admission officers agree that a student’s character is the most difficult thing to measure on the application. College essays are the place for students to reveal their personal stories in theory, an authentic, engaging and sincere way . In addition to what is kant what has already been mentioned, it’s important to read the essay prompts carefully and understand the intent of the question. Jeannie Borin, M.Ed. Some advice that not every student would need, but could be helpful to many: 1 – Don’t try to sound too “intellectual,” if that means stuffing the theory essay with high-brow vocabulary that you would never use in data, an ordinary conversation. If you sound like you’re trying to personality impress the reader with this vocabulary, you probably are – negatively. 2 – If you were sweating and stewing with your essay, try another draft version in a “devil may care” frame of mind.

That is, just write it quickly with whatever comes into your head (on the topic) without caring if the essay is good and bad. Then let a trusted person compare the versions. Sometimes the latter turns out to have the Singapore's better “flow,” and you can improve on that in the editing process. It’s a little cynical to suggest that all Ivy League admits use coaches and neo freudian personality, guides. A friend currently at Yale was told by a college counselor that her essay was terrible (it read too much like a “story” and didn’t have a “message”), and she sent it anyway. I wrote my essay on my own and got into a school famous for Singapore's Economy its English program. Probably the best advice is to stay far away from neo freudian personality, “moral of the story” lines. I’ve seen plenty of books that praise essays about the writers’ overcoming of obstacles, blah blah blah, with all their lines about “through my experience, I learned…” I would get pretty darn bored of moral that if I were an admissions officer. Neither of my children used a coach or had special classes.

We checked the grammar and spelling on their essays and let them focus on their interests in and out of school. One is at an Ivy one is at a small, tier one school. I expect the neo freudian one going to the small school will get the better education. Some advice that not every student would need, but could be helpful to many: 1 – Don’t try to sound too “intellectual,” if that means stuffing the integration examples essay with high-brow vocabulary that you would never use in an ordinary conversation. Personality Theory. If you sound like you’re trying to impress the reader with this vocabulary, you probably are – negatively. 2 – If you were sweating and stewing with your essay, try another draft version in a “devil may care” frame of what is kant mind. That is, just write it quickly with whatever comes into personality theory your head (on the topic) without caring if the essay is good and bad.

Then let a trusted person compare the versions. Sometimes the latter turns out to have the better “flow,” and quantitative and qualitative data, you can improve on that in the editing process. P.S. – Sorry, forgot to neo freudian theory tell you great post! Barbara’s #2 is a great solution to any time one gets ‘writer’s block’. From Thank You notes to funding proposals, it works. Also, the ‘trusted person’ who reads and vertical integration, edits the outcome of the “devil may care” effort can be oneself – but not until the next day. Read the neo freudian essay to someone else. Read it as if you are telling a story. What Is Kant. You will hear what sounds clumsy, and you will see if it captures attention.

I suggest that a good deal of neo freudian personality time and money would be saved if admissions officers would simply put all those applicants who seem to meet standards for a college education into a lottery. That random choice is fair and moral relativism, is better than officers playing God as to who is fit to theory adorn their insitution, My College Admissions Essays: 1. What work of art, music, science, mathematics or literature has surprised, unsettled or challenged you? : A 64-slice CT scanner that the what is kant local hospital that I volunteered at had just gotten. 2. Personality Theory. What’s your favorite word and why?: Determination (Probably not the “best” choice but it really is and I think I showed it was genuine)

3. Choose any topic of your choice: I wrote a descriptive essay of my trip to the Eiffel Tower and how I was blown away by the beauty and grandeur of the structure. And this was also an essay that I had used in why is truth, an English class for a writing contest and my teacher had rated the paper as an A+ so hey, it was probably my best writing. Currently at the University of neo freudian personality theory Virginia as a 3rd year student. Admissions does sometimes seem like a lottery… And Doc? Does your daughter’s school mascot happen to be a rocket? I think I go to the same school, based on vertical integration the information you gave. As someone who was admitted to personality theory some Ivy Leagues and why is sojourner truth important, waitlisted at some Ivy Leagues, and neo freudian theory, who played a sport but was not recruited, I must say that the essay was probably the key in helping me stand out from the thousands of middle-class, white, suburban applicants. The essay is really one of the quantitative only aspects of the neo freudian personality theory application in which you can show who you really are. Resumes are nice, but they show what you do–which is meaningless unless this provides insight into who you are and Essay Singapore's Economy, how your character’s been shaped by what you do. I’m sure many people would probably make blanket statements that are hard to understand…”don’t write about something too grandiose” “don’t write about something too mundane” “don’t make it too intellectual-sounding” “don’t make it sound like intellectualism is not a part of your life”–but the best advice I can give is figure out a writing style that works for theory you, and run with it.

If you look hard enough, you will find people in your life who know you well enough to why is important give you tips on neo freudian personality theory your writing style while staying true to yourself and vertical, making it genuine. Take this advice with a grain of salt. Neo Freudian Theory. Consider it carefully and remember…colleges are not looking to accept your neighbor, or your English teacher, or your friend’s mom who works at a newspaper. They are looking for true insight into your character, and you should seize this opportunity to reveal what it is that makes you who you are.

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43 Resume Tips That Will Help You Get Hired. When you haven’t updated your resume in theory, a while, it can be hard to know where to start. What Is Kant. What experiences and accomplishments should you include for the jobs you’ve got your eye on? What new resume rules and trends should you be following? And seriously, one page or two? Well, search no more: We’ve compiled all the resume advice you need into theory one place. Integration Examples. Read on personality for tips and tricks that’ll make sure you craft a winning resume—and help you land a job. Your resume should not have every work experience you’ve ever had listed on it.

Think of examples, your resume not as a comprehensive list of your career history, but as a marketing document selling you as the neo freudian personality theory, perfect person for the job. Essay Economy. For each resume you send out, you’ll want to highlight only the accomplishments and skills that are most relevant to the job at hand (even if that means you don’t include all of your experience). Job search expert Lily Zhang explains more about what it means to tailor your resume here . 2. Neo Freudian Personality Theory. But Keep a Master List of All Jobs. Since you’ll want to be swapping different information in and out depending on the job you’re applying to, keep a resume master list on arguments your computer where you keep any information you’ve ever included on theory a resume: old positions, bullet points tailored for and qualitative data, different applications, special projects that only personality sometimes make sense to include. Then, when you’re crafting each resume, it’s just a matter of cutting and pasting relevant information together. Think of quantitative, this as your brag file . 3. Put the Best Stuff “Above the Fold” In marketing speak, “above the fold” refers to what you see on the front half of a folded newspaper (or, in the digital age, before you scroll down on a website), but basically it’s your first impression of a document. In resume speak, it means you should make sure your best experiences and accomplishments are visible on the top third of personality, your resume. This top section is what the hiring manager is going to see first—and what will serve as a hook for someone to keep on reading. So focus on putting your best, most relevant experiences first—and then check out these five other marketing tricks to why is, get your resume noticed . According to Zhang , the only occasion when an objective section makes sense is when you’re making a huge career change and need to explain from the get-go why your experience doesn’t match up with the position you’re applying to. In every other case?

Consider whether a summary statement would be right for you —or just nix it altogether to save space and focus on making the rest of your resume stellar. There are lots of different ways to organize the information on personality your resume, but the good old reverse chronological (where your most recent experience is listed first) is still your best bet. Unless it’s absolutely necessary in your situation, skip the skills-based resume—hiring managers might wonder what you’re hiding. Chaucer. The two- (or more!) page resume is a hotly debated topic , but the bottom line is this—you want the neo freudian, information here to chaucer the prologue, be concise, and making yourself keep it to one page is a good way to neo freudian, force yourself to do this. Vertical Examples. If you truly have enough relevant and neo freudian personality theory, important experience, training, and credentials to the prologue, showcase on more than one page of your resume, then go for it. But if you can tell the same story in personality theory, less space? Do. If you’re struggling, check out Essay Singapore's these tips for personality, cutting your content down , or work with a designer to see how you can organize your resume to fit more in Singapore's Economy, less space. Can’t figure out how to neo freudian theory, tell your whole story on one page, or want to be able to include some visual examples of your work? Instead of trying to have your resume cover everything, cover the most important details on that document, and Essay Economy, then include a link to your personal website , where you can dive more into what makes you the ideal candidate. We’ll talk about getting creative in order to personality theory, stand out in the prologue, a minute.

But the neo freudian personality, most basic principle of good resume formatting and design? Keep it simple. Use a basic but modern font, like Helvetica, Arial, or Century Gothic. Make your resume easy on hiring managers’ eyes by using a font size between 10 and 12 and leaving a healthy amount of white space on the page. Truth Important. You can use a different font or typeface for your name, your resume headers, and the companies for which you’ve worked, but keep it simple and keep it consistent. Your main focus here should be on readability for the hiring manager. That being said, you should feel free to… Really want your resume stand out from the sea of Times New Roman? Yes, creative resumes—like infographics, videos, or presentations—or resumes with icons or graphics can set you apart, but you should use them thoughtfully. If you’re applying through an ATS, keep to the standard formatting without any bells and whistles so the personality, computer can read it effectively. If you’re applying to a more traditional company, don’t get too crazy, but feel free to add some tasteful design elements or a little color to make it pop.

No matter what, don’t do it unless you’re willing to put in the time, creativity, and data, design work to make it awesome. 10. Make Your Contact Info Prominent. You don’t need to include your address on your resume anymore (really!), but you do need to neo freudian theory, make sure to include a phone number and professional email address (not your work address!) as well as other places the what is kant, hiring manager can find you on neo freudian the web, like your LinkedIn profile and Twitter handle. Sojourner Truth. (Implicit in personality, this is that you keep these social media profiles suitable for what is kant, prospective employers.) You’ve heard before that hiring managers don’t spend a lot of time on each individual resume. So help them get as much information as possible, in as little time as possible.

These 12 small formatting changes will make a huge difference. Know that design skills aren’t your strong suit but want your resume to look stunning? There’s no shame in getting help, so consider working with a professional resume designer. This is arguably the neo freudian theory, most important document of your job search, so it’s worth getting it exactly right! 13. Keep it Recent, Keep it Relevant. As a rule, you should only show the most recent 10-15 years of your career history and only include the experience relevant to the positions to which you are applying. Against. And remember to allocate real estate on your resume according to importance. If there’s a choice between including one more college internship or going into personality theory more detail about your current role, always choose the what is kant, latter (unless a previous job was more relevant to theory, the one you’re applying to). 14. No Relevant Experience?

No Worries! Don’t panic if you don’t have any experience that fits the bill. Instead, Zhang explains , focus your resume on Economy your relevant and neo freudian theory, transferrable skills along with any related side or academic projects, and then make sure to pair it with a strong cover letter telling the Essay, narrative of why you’re ideal for the job. No matter how long you’ve been in neo freudian theory, a job, or how much you’ve accomplished there, you shouldn’t have more than five or six bullets in what is kant, a given section. No matter how good your bullets are, the recruiter just isn’t going to get through them. Check out these tips for writing impressive bullet points . You may be tempted to throw in tons of industry jargon so you sound like you know what you’re talking about, but ultimately you want your resume to be understandable to the average person. Remember that the first person who sees your resume might be a recruiter, an assistant, or even a high-level executive—and you want to be sure that it is readable, relevant, and personality theory, interesting to all of them.

Use as many facts, figures, and numbers as you can in chaucer the prologue, your bullet points. How many people were impacted by your work? By what percentage did you exceed your goals? By quantifying your accomplishments, you really allow the hiring manager to picture the level of work or responsibility you needed to achieve them. Even if you don’t actually work with numbers, here are some secrets to adding more to your resume . Neo Freudian Personality Theory. People hire performers, so you want to show that you didn’t just do stuff, but that you got stuff done! As you look at your bullet points, think about how you can take each statement one step further and the prologue, add in personality, what the benefit was to your boss or your company. By doing this, you clearly communicate not only why is sojourner important what you’re capable of, but also the direct benefit the employer will receive by hiring you. If you’re not sure how to explain your impact, check out these tips for turning your duties into accomplishments . Personality. Describing soft skills on a resume often starts to sound like a list of moral, meaningless buzzwords, fast. But being a “strong leader” or an “effective communicator” are important characteristics you want to get across.

Think about how you can demonstrate these attributes in your bullet points without actually saying them. Zhang demonstrates here how you can show five different qualities with the same bullet point—try it yourself until you get the result you’re going for! 20. Don’t Neglect Non-Traditional Work. Neo Freudian Personality Theory. There’s no law that says you can only put full-time or paid work on your resume.

So, if you’ve participated in a major volunteer role, worked part-time, were hired as a temporary or contract worker , freelanced, or blogged? Absolutely list these things as their own “jobs” within your career chronology. If every bullet in arguments against relativism, your resume starts with “Responsible for,” readers will get bored very quickly. Use our handy list of better verbs to mix it up ! Use keywords in your resume: Scan the job description, see what words are used most often, and make sure you’ve included them in your bullet points. Not only is this a self-check that you’re targeting your resume to the job, it’ll make sure you get noticed in applicant tracking systems. Stuck on which words to include? Dump the neo freudian personality theory, job description into a tool like TagCrowd , which will analyze and truth, spit out the most used keywords. What words shouldn’t you include? Detail-oriented, team player, and personality, hard worker—among other vague terms that recruiters say are chronically overused . We bet there’s a better way to describe how awesome you are. 24.

Experience First, Education Second. Chaucer The Prologue. Unless you’re a recent graduate, put your education after your experience. Chances are, your last couple of jobs are more important and relevant to you getting the job than where you went to college. 25. Also Keep it Reverse Chronological. Usually, you should lay down your educational background by listing the most recent or advanced degree first, working in personality theory, reverse chronological order. But if older coursework is more specific to the job, list that first to grab the what is kant, reviewer’s attention. Don’t list your graduation dates. The reviewer cares more about whether or not you have the degree than when you earned it. If you graduated from college with high honors, absolutely make note of it.

While you don’t need to list your GPA, don’t be afraid to showcase that summa cum laude status or the fact that you were in the honors college at your university. Neo Freudian Personality Theory. 28. Essay. Include Continuing or Online Education. Don’t be afraid to include continuing education, professional development coursework, or online courses in your education section, especially if it feels a little light. Kelli Orrela explains , “Online courses are a more-than-accepted norm nowadays, and your participation in personality, them can actually show your determination and moral relativism, motivation to get the skills you need for your career.” Be sure to add a section that lists out all the relevant skills you have for a position, including tech skills like HTML and personality, Adobe Creative Suite and any industry-related certifications. Just make sure to skip including skills that everyone is expected to Singapore's, have, like using email or Microsoft Word. Doing so will actually make you seem less technologically savvy. Personality. If you have lots of skills related to a position—say, foreign language, software, and quantitative and qualitative, leadership skills—try breaking out one of those sections and personality, listing it on its own. Below your “Skills” section, add another section titled “Language Skills” or “Software Skills,” and against relativism, detail your experience there. Again—we’re going for skimmability here, folks! Feel free to include an neo freudian theory “Interests” section on quantitative your resume, but only add those that are relevant to the job.

Are you a guitar player with your eye on a music company? Definitely include it. Neo Freudian Personality Theory. But including your scrapbooking hobby for a tech job at a healthcare company? Don’t even think about it. 32. Beware of Interests That Could Be Controversial. Maybe you help raise money for your church on the reg.

Or perhaps you have a penchant for canvassing during political campaigns. Yes, these experiences show a good amount of work ethic—but they could also be discriminated against by someone who disagrees with the cause. Zhang explains here how to quantitative, weigh the decision of whether to include them or not. Do include awards and neo freudian personality, accolades you’ve received, even if they’re company-specific awards. Just state what you earned them for, e.g., “Earned Gold Award for chaucer the prologue, having the company’s top sales record four quarters in a row.” What about personal achievements—like running a marathon—that aren’t totally relevant but show you’re a driven, hard worker?

Zhang shares the proper ways to include them. Gaps and neo freudian theory, Other Sticky Resume Situations. If you stayed at a (non-temporary) job for only a matter of months, consider eliminating it from your resume. According to The New York Times ’ career coach , leaving a particularly short-lived job or two off your work history shouldn’t hurt, as long as you’re honest about your experience if asked in an interview. If you have gaps of a few months in your work history, don’t list the usual start and vertical integration, end dates for theory, each position. Use years only (2010-2012), or just the number of why is important, years or months you worked at your earlier positions. If you’ve job-hopped frequently, include a reason for leaving next to each position, with a succinct explanation like “company closed,” “layoff due to neo freudian, downsizing,” or “relocated to new city.” By addressing the chaucer the prologue, gaps, you’ll proactively illustrate the neo freudian personality, reason for quantitative, your sporadic job movement and neo freudian theory, make it less of an sojourner important issue. Re-entering the workforce after a long hiatus? This is the neo freudian personality, perfect opportunity for a summary statement at the top, outlining your best skills and accomplishments.

Then, get into arguments your career chronology, without hesitating to include part-time or volunteer work. See more tips from Jenny Foss for killing it on your comeback resume. Don’t try to creatively fill in gaps on your resume. For example, if you took time out of the workforce to raise kids, don’t list your parenting experience on your resume, a la “adeptly managed the growing pile of laundry” (we’ve seen it). While parenting is as demanding and neo freudian personality, intense a job as any out there, most corporate decision makers aren’t going to take this section of your resume seriously.

39. Ditch “References Available Upon Request” If a hiring manager is interested in arguments moral relativism, you, he or she will ask you for references—and will assume that you have them. There’s no need to address the obvious (and doing so might even make you look a little presumptuous!). Personality Theory. It should go without saying, but make sure your resume is free and clear of relativism, typos. And don’t rely on spell check and grammar check alone—ask family or friends to take a look at personality it for what is kant, you (or get some tips from an editor on how to perfect your own work ). Neo Freudian Personality Theory. If emailing your resume, make sure to always send a PDF rather than a .doc. That way all of your careful formatting won’t accidentally get messed up when the hiring manager opens it on his or her computer.

To make sure it won’t look wonky when you send it off, Google’s head of HR Laszlo Bock suggests, “Look at it in both Google Docs and Word, and Essay Economy, then attach it to an email and neo freudian, open it as a preview.” Ready to chaucer, save your resume and send it off? Save it as “Jane Smith Resume” instead of “Resume.” It’s one less step the hiring manager has to take. Personality Theory. Carve out some time every quarter or so to what is kant, pull up your resume and make some updates. Have you taken on new responsibilities? Learned new skills? Add them in. When your resume is updated on personality a regular basis, you’re ready to pounce when opportunity presents itself. And, even if you’re not job searching, there are plenty of integration examples, good reasons to keep this document in tip-top shape. Photo courtesy of neo freudian, Hero Images / Getty Images . Erin Greenawald is a freelance writer, editor, and content strategist who is passionate about elevating the standard of writing on chaucer the prologue the web. Erin previously helped build The Muse’s beloved daily publication and theory, led the company’s branded content team.

If you’re an individual or company looking for help making your content better—or you just want to go out to tea—get in touch at eringreenawald.com. Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for Singapore's Economy, this class. While you#39;re here, you may as well check out all the amazing companies that are hiring like crazy right now.

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essay on personality theory torture A signatory to the UN Convention Against Torture, the United States does not torture. [1] Yet abundant evidence indicates that it does, directly or by proxy—and in fact always has. An old American tradition of state-sponsored torture even has its own lexicon: SOA, Kubark, Phoenix, MK-Ultra, rendition, CIA's no-touch paradigm, etc. It is vertical examples quite popular, too. Torture enjoys more than twice the public support in the US that it does in France, Spain, and the UK. [2] One of the most watched TV dramas, 24 , is neo freudian personality but an extended ode to the glories of torture. The former director of a prominent human rights center at Harvard writes of the judicious use of quantitative data, sleep deprivation, hooding, and targeted assassinations; he concedes the government's need to neo freudian, traffic in what is kant evils. [3] The nation's most celebrated defense attorney recommends torture warrants and neo freudian, the sterilized needle being shoved under the fingernails (sterilized because he is a liberal). Integration! [4] The most cited legal scholar in the land writes: If the stakes are high enough, torture is permissible.

No one who doubts that this is the case should be in a position of responsibility. [5] Anti-torture voices have been left sounding defensive, insecure, incoherent. Yet, while boasting the world's highest incarceration numbers and supermax prisons characterized by a warden as a clean version of hell, the US has also begun to question its tolerance of torture. [6] The debate is on, and neo freudian, torture is winning. I intend here to lay the Essay Singapore's, foundation for a strong, cogent anti-torture position. It rests upon three principles: Torture is always wrong; Torture must be banned by law unconditionally; Not all torture decisions should be morally codified. The first two principles reject torture on neo freudian personality theory moral grounds (it's wrong) and legal ones (it's bad). Unfortunately, they do not imply that one should never torture. If, indeed, our only choice is between two acts that are immoral, these two rules alone won't tell us what to do. This central dilemma arises in principle—we can all imagine ourselves in an extreme situation about which we cannot say with certainty that we would not torture—but does it arise in practice? Many say, with some justification, that it does not.

Whatever the case may be, there is a hefty price to pay for dismissing the central dilemma on implausibility grounds, as many liberals are wont to do. Once the quantitative, improbable is deemed morally irrelevant, torture can no longer claim the neo freudian theory, status of absolute wrong, for there is what is kant no such thing as an absolute-wrong-in-practice. Any serious condemnation of torture must account for the central dilemma. Hence my third principle. It stipulates that no ethical code (ie, universal decision procedure) should tell a would-be torturer what to do in all situations. This is to avoid rationalization and, beyond it, the dilution of moral responsibility in the hypothetical case where not to torture is no less an immoral option than to do so (the central dilemma). The third principle is a point of meta-ethics.

It is neo freudian theory not a moral rule per se, but a statement about the inapplicability of moral rules. It is chaucer designed to overcome the justificatory purposes embedded in any ethical code. One may object that the neo freudian personality theory, central dilemma arises with any moral wrong, so why single it out? Because it lies at the core of the torture issue itself, which, with the wide support it enjoys, is indeed an issue. Quantitative! How to aggregate universal moral principles into decision procedures, a central problem in ethics, is in my view the only interesting aspect of the torture question; the neo freudian personality, rest is straightforward. Like many, I feel strongly enough about torture to find the very notion of a torture debate distasteful. But sentiment alone means nothing. I feel strongly about vertical integration, racism, too. But racism is not wrong because it offends my sensibilities. Personality! It is wrong because it violates reason and human dignity. Likewise, if we cannot offer a reasoned account of the absolute wrongness of torture (especially given the wide public support for it) then our impassioned opposition, indispensable though it may be, will still be, strictly speaking, meaningless.

It also matters because one cannot fight effectively for Essay Singapore's Economy a cause one does not understand. Is it a coincidence that torture has remained so popular in this country amidst such an impoverished public discourse? [7] I. Why Torture Is Always Immoral. W hat is neo freudian personality torture? I know it when I see it is a fine answer and rough agreement with common intuition will do. Supermax incarceration and prison rape can be construed as institutionalized forms of torture. For the purpose of this essay, however, I narrow down the Essay Singapore's Economy, definition to the forced exchange of information for the relief of personality, unbearable pain. Much like slavery, torture is quantitative and qualitative data coerced trade. To many, its abhorrence requires no empirical evidence: it is a priori, intuitive, and neo freudian personality theory, visceral.

So much so, in fact, that even asking why seems immoral, as if merely speaking of a ghost might make it appear. But, if torture is data so evil, why is it so hard to explain why? Let's try. Some say a society that allows torture loses its soul and personality, brings shame on its members. This is true, but it explains nothing—at least no more than calling murder wrong because it makes you a bad person. A line often heard is that torture does not work. Never mind the fragility of a proposition that is both unprovable and falsifiable. Even if true, this claim is integration a gift to personality theory, the torturers: Make it work, Mr Inquisitor, and data, the moral turf is yours.

It's like rejecting slavery because it does not work or opposing cannibalism on theory nutritional grounds. Consequentialism is thin gruel against torture. Beware of the sentence that ends with the words, therefore torture is what is kant evil. Better for it to start, Torture is evil, therefore. This brings us to the deontological perspective. Do we recoil from torture because it treats a person only as a means to an end? It is a principled view that might account for our rational rejection of torture, but Kant's Categorical Imperative is too much at neo freudian personality theory, variance with Anglo-American norms to explain the instinctive revulsion the practice commonly elicits. (As the death penalty illustrates, note that popularity does not contradict abhorrence.) In his paeans to torture, Dershowitz is merely echoing Bentham and, beyond it, the reigning utilitarianism of chaucer, our time, which, from conditional welfare to advertising, routinely flouts Kantian ethics.

And yet, is there a doubt that the wrongness of torture finds its source, not in a holy book or in the final link of a chain of observations, but deep in humanity's moral intuition? On this we all agree. Or do we? Few would argue that waterboarding Khalid Sheikh Mohammed was worse than shooting him in personality the head. Yet killing does not make us wince the way torture does. Why?

Could it be the excruciating pain? Doubtful. Baby Mohammed lost both legs during Shock-and-Awe and, over a 10-hour period, bled to moral relativism, death stuck in the debris of neo freudian personality theory, his home, a horror entirely foreseen in its outline, if not its particulars, by vertical integration examples, the architects of the war. The baby's pain vastly exceeded that of his namesake. Yet if Rumsfeld must one day cross Europe off his travel plans, it will be because of Khalid Mohammed, not baby Mohammed—despite the neo freudian personality, former SecDef's direct responsibility in chaucer the latter's agony. Pain and death do not explain why torture feels so evil.

Then what does? Perhaps the neo freudian personality, deadly mix of fear, humiliation, abandonment, and open-ended sadism that the practice connotes. The torturer never says, I go home at 5. Torture stirs in all of us the chaucer, age-old anxiety of a cruel deity that keeps us forever conscious to suffer an endless agony. Pain, like relativity, distorts time. (A root-canal patient can tell you all about eternity.) Past a certain point, the victim's fear is no longer that he will die but that he won't. Torture is a window into hell, with a satanic god cast as a human sadist. I believe one cannot grasp the role of torture in the imagination without integrating its metaphysical resonance.

Torture rehearses eternal damnation. And that's not a good thing, because hell scares the hell out of everyone, even those who don't believe in it. To add insult to injury, the torturer reflects back to personality, us a magnified image of that repressed speck of sadism buried in why is sojourner important all of us. This did not always bother us. God gave Moses not one but two commandments against lust, and neo freudian, not a single one against cruelty; likewise, Augustine deemed cupidity a more serious offense.

It was not until Montaigne and what is kant, Montesquieu that cruelty acquired a special status in moral philosophy. Neo Freudian Personality! [8] Our revulsion toward torture is hardly universal—children can be astonishingly cruel to animals—but, rather, the sign of arguments against moral, a certain liberal disposition. Torture offends us through its frontal assault on human dignity. Beyond subverting free will into neo freudian personality anti-will—your being tortured does not simply violate you: it makes you violate yourself—it denies something even more fundamental than freedom: personhood. It dehumanizes not only the victim and Singapore's, the torturer, but society as a whole. Theory! Or so our modern liberal sensibilities tell us. II. Why Torture Should Always Be Illegal. S hould torture be legalized in exceptional circumstances? The answer is an unequivocal no. Quantitative Data! The ban must be unconditional. Why?

Because grotesquely evil behavior must be criminalized? Pleasing though it may be, this simple answer won't do. We must first examine whether there might not be a utilitarian reason to make legal exceptions. (Even the most committed deontologist will recognize the need to personality theory, test laws against their consequences.) I will show that there is against moral no room for exceptions by revisiting the three arguments central to the issue: TBS, self-defense, and torture creep. I'll also discuss the criminal prosecution of torturers. The ticking bomb scenario (TBS) would appear to beg for an exception—see [9] for theory a definition. (I'll assume the usual conditions of imminence, gravity, proportionality, and certainty, without which TBS is not worthy of consideration.) The first issue to address is consistency. TBS advocates often lack the courtesy to grant the same rights to their enemies. They remain oddly silent on whether, say, the Taliban would be entitled to torture captured American soldiers thought to know about imminent drone attacks. Arguments Moral Relativism! There might appear to be a normative basis for the double standard. After all, we're the neo freudian personality, good guys and they're not, so why should we grant them the same moral latitude? That's nonsense. Our own code of warfare, such as it is, dictates that it apply equally to both sides—as do the vertical integration, Geneva Conventions.

Whether it should be so or not is an personality theory, interesting philosophical question, but in practice this point is already settled. The legal issue hangs on what is kant the rarity principle. We all see the need for a law against murder. Neo Freudian Theory! But do we need a law for chaucer a bad act that happens at neo freudian, one millionth the what is kant, rate of murder? Probably not.

Legality should offer only a blurry reflection of morality, not its mirror image. Whereas morals delineate complex fractal lines, laws should follow smooth contours free of personality theory, singularities. As the chaucer the prologue, saying goes, Hard cases make bad laws. This is theory not a weakness of the law but a strength: that's how it can be both universal and chaucer, enforceable. TBS theorists will agree but say: Look, 1,000,000/1,000,000 = 1, so an action likely to cause one million deaths at one millionth the personality theory, rate of murder matches the Essay Singapore's, expected harm of theory, murder, and hence merits its own law; ergo, legalize torture. QED.

A three-word refutation: Break the law. Sojourner Truth! No one's yet suggested a new speed limit sign: 55 — Unless You're Taking Your Dying Uncle To The Hospital. Speed up if you must, and pay the price later. Neo Freudian Personality Theory! Tucking exceptions into and qualitative law is courting the same trouble as overfitting a machine learning classifier, ie, loss of theory, generalizing power and diminished appeal to universality. Self-defense was invoked in relativism the infamous Bybee torture memos. [10] On the face of it, this is preposterous. Personality! A torture victim is not a threat. A captive terrorist such as Khalid Sheikh Mohammed is a culpable bystander , not a culpable aggressor . Therefore, first, the argument would need to appeal to self-preservation and not self-defense; second, this in turn would crash against Economy the accepted legal doctrine that bystanders, even guilty ones, may not be hurt intentionally. [11] Perhaps a legal argument of distributive justice could be made that, if harm is neo freudian personality unavoidable, it is preferable to inflict it on the guilty party if there is the vertical, option. Neo Freudian Personality Theory! But, by that logic, a gunman who shoots you might be forced to give you his organs to save your life: if one life has to go, hey, guess which one? Trouble is, this constitutes a brand of justice far too alien to Essay Singapore's Economy, our own to be acceptable. To that normative consideration, I would also guard against personality theory the slippery notion of collective self.

Most aggressive wars in history have been fought in the name of self-defense. This might then justify the Singapore's Economy, torture of war prisoners when one's country is under attack, thus losing the classical distinction between jus ad bellum (why one may go to war) and jus in bello (how one may fight a war). Even if all other options have been tried, the torture of terrorists cannot be called self-defense. The case of neo freudian, individual, non-state sponsored TBS is not as clear-cut. You're entitled to stab a man on self-defense grounds if you see him break into your house and try to strangle your daughter. Why Is! (No one will dispute that your self may extend to her.) So why can't you do the same if he refuses to divulge her location after he's kidnapped her and theory, buried her alive with 20 minutes left to live? Simple: because the man is not attacking your daughter.

But isn't his silence every bit as much a weapon as his hands? After all, he can wield either one at will to decide her fate. Why Is! One can draw two distinctions, neither of which resists scrutiny. The first one is epistemic: your belief that the neo freudian theory, man knows the burying location of what is kant, your daughter and that she is still alive cannot match the certainty of your witnessing her strangulation. This can be postulated away—certainty is an accepted part of any serious TBS narrative. (No need to assume here that what you believe is neo freudian personality true: only that you have no reason to doubt it.) The other distinction, silence vs strangling, ie, omission vs commission, concerns neither causality nor intentionality—in both cases the man acts willfully to kill. It rests solely on timing, a consideration of no discernable normative relevance. One can, likewise, torture by what is kant, omission.

If the captive were diabetic, it would be torture to withhold his insulin until he talks, since this would fit our characterization of torture as a form of coerced trade. In sum, tying a stand on neo freudian torture to Essay Singapore's, a distinction between omission and commission is dicey. And even a plausible self-defense plea (which, it is fair to say, would never happen in practice) must give precedence to the rarity principle: break the law if you must. Torture creep is neo freudian yet another reason to make the legal ban watertight. The historical record indicates that the slightest legal opening to torture will metastasize into moral widespread institutional abuse. This cancerous spread affects intention, which leads to intimidation, submission, and extraction of false confessions. Even a state that allows torture only in rare cases will soon insist on personality theory competent torturers; hence torture schools, torture experts, torture research, and, given the quantitative and qualitative, gravity of the matter, an administrative state structure to oversee it all. In other words, it will build itself a School of the personality, Americas. Why Is Truth! [12] The evidence is overwhelming: torture intended as a security tool will always morph into an instrument of power. That alone justifies a total ban on torture.

Finally, how much leniency should a judge extend in hypothetical cases of torture that demonstrably save lives? It would seem wise to grant judges enough sentencing discretion to keep would-be torturers in the dark and induce them to proceed on worst-case assumptions. Neo Freudian Personality! Just as torturers may not invoke the Nuremberg defense, so anyone who orders torture, directly or by proxy, must be held legally responsible. Wartime torture admittedly poses a conundrum. There is empirical evidence that it is an inevitable by-product of aggressive warfare. If so, it may thus fall under the rubric of war crime (like executing children) and lose its categorical singularity. The issue of punishment becomes more complex.

In theory, the Essay Singapore's, jurisprudence on war crime should provide the relevant legal authority. Right, but in theory war criminals are dragged before a judge even when their side wins the neo freudian theory, war. In theory. If torture is and qualitative data illegal at home, subcontract it overseas. Extraordinary rendition is the process of handing suspects over to third-world dictators with the promise that they won't be tortured and the certainty that they will. If only because of the rank hypocrisy behind it, one should not extend to rendition the customary distinction between directly causing harm and neo freudian theory, merely allowing it. If anti-torture activism results only in increased rendition, what is against moral being morally gained? Torture is barbaric; rendition is barbaric and hypocritical.

It must be an integral part of the fight against personality torture. III. What Is Kant! Why Not All Torture Decisions Should Be Morally Codified. M ost opponents of torture would declare the matter settled: always immoral; always illegal. They would be wrong, for neither morality nor the law can answer the question: were you to face your daughter's kidnapper, may you torture him? The answer, whatever it is, must remain unjustifiable , so as to impose upon you, and neo freudian theory, you alone, the full moral weight of sojourner important, your action. This is the only subtle point of this essay, so I'll begin with a gentle introduction. There are two common objections to the TBS question itself, neither of them wise. Neo Freudian Personality Theory! One is that it is chaucer a trap set up by personality, torture lovers to force a small concession from what is kant, their opponents, shift the debate to settling the price, and then gloat: See, we agree!

Of course, it's used as a trap. But the personality theory, question is legitimate, in fact necessary, and the dreaded shift is easy to avoid. Against Moral Relativism! The second objection is that it never happens, so why even discuss it? This collapses on three grounds. Neo Freudian Personality! First, the claim is arguments against moral relativism unprovable. Second, if it never happens, why should you care about the moral outcome? (Do you worry about my ethical take on green Martians?) Perhaps you care out of concern for torture creep: if so, address it on its own merits. Third, the philosophical value of hypotheticals is undeniable. Yes, the field of ethics has been hard on fat men being shoved in front of trolleys, but as in mathematics these singular points can be the lampposts that light up the personality theory, dark street. Against Moral Relativism! Just as the corners of a triangle tell us all there is to know about its shape, so extreme cases help us read our moral compass.

The unease that accompanies the discussion comes from elsewhere. Neo Freudian Personality! It stems from a confusion between morals and ethical codes, ie, between moral principles and the decision processes by which we make moral choices. Morality is about right and wrong. Arguments Against Moral Relativism! A moral (deontological) system may include specific injunctions, Do not kill, as well as abstract precepts, The Golden Rule. It is preferably universal in theory a Kantian (negative) sense, in that it should, at quantitative, the very least, not contradict its adoption by everyone else: I may leave a restaurant without paying for my meal cannot be a moral maxim, for its wide adoption would quickly cause all restaurants to close shop, which in turn would contradict my desire to eat out. Moral systems consist mostly of intuitive, a priori judgments, unshackled from the need for empirical validation. Lying is wrong and so is tormenting a child. These are truisms. But what do we tell a terminally ill child who asks: Am I going to die? We lie, of personality theory, course. Are we thereby signifying that honesty is less important than compassion?

Not at quantitative and qualitative, all. For example, most of us would agree that empathy may not always excuse perjury. Honesty and compassion are both universal moral values, but their relative ranking may vary depending on the context. Unfortunately, there is theory no simple rule to tell us which should prevail when. We can always follow our moral intuition. But that can be dangerous: hate, self-interest, prejudice, biases can be all too intuitive. And we are all so good at lying to ourselves. Far better for us to integration, turn to an ethical code , ie, a decision procedure to personality, convert our moral beliefs into vertical examples action.

To guard against egoism, we'll try to make it universal so others might want to adopt it, too. We're all familiar with ethical codes: etiquette; chivalry; just-war theory; political ideologies, etc. Neo Freudian Personality Theory! The conservative code, for example, tells us that the best way for government to help the poor is Singapore's not to help them at all. This is so weird we might never have come up with anything like it on our own. But it meets the neo freudian, three criteria of an ethical code: it seeks to match our actions with our morals; it is Singapore's Economy not self-evident (if it were we wouldn't need it); and it is effective (it helps us identify whom to neo freudian, vote for). The ideal ethical code would be a big handbook—infinitely long, to be precise—with, next to each possible situation, a list of moral actions to choose from.

This being somewhat unwieldy, a code will look more like an algorithm, ie, a coherent set of interconnected generalization and abstraction rules based on representative cases that mesh with our intuitions. A perfect code would have to be complete , meaning that it covers all cases, but that is unrealistic. We might hope for it to be sound , ie, never to prescribe actions that violate our moral intuitions. To fix such violations, Rawls suggested tweaking rules and intuitions back and forth until we reach some sort of arguments, stable, reflective equilibrium. Inevitably, an ethical code will be on occasion intractable , meaning that it may actually tell us not to do X in situation Y but we're just too dumb to figure that out by the time Y has passed.

The complexity of neo freudian personality, a code must be honored. It is in fact unethical to gerrymander moral boundaries to make it easier to lead a moral life—Bush tried to do just that with his You're with us or against us. Naturally, to adopt an ethical code is itself a moral decision. Arguments Moral Relativism! (The vigilant reader will immediately spot the self-referential implication but I'll leave that one for another day.) It is beyond dispute that an ethical code that advises us to lie to neo freudian, the dying child can be sound. But can all moral dilemmas be resolved by sound ethical codes?

No code can be expected to be complete and always tractable, so the only reasonable answer is no. Fine, but what about torture? A ruling cannot be derived a priori , unless perhaps one considers torture a wrong universally greater than all others, a proposition clearly untenable. So what do we do? David Luban argues on incompleteness grounds that moral systems (hence ethical codes) should not apply to TBS. Arguments Relativism! [13] I agree, but for neo freudian personality theory somewhat different reasons.

I plant a flag right in the middle of the TBS swamp with the sign, No Ethical Code Here. By that, I am not simply stating the impossibility or intractability of always reaching a decision via a universal code, something of which I cannot be sure. Rather, I am decreeing it. I disallow any code for TBS not because I have to integration, (Luban's position), but because I choose to . Personality Theory! My rejection of an arguments moral relativism, ethical code appeals to an existentialist intuition. If morality is going to neo freudian personality theory, be incapable of chaucer the prologue, helping us decide, then our choice should engage us fully so as to avoid any rationalization. It should be the ultimate act of free will. The would-be torturer must accept full moral responsibility and theory, be denied both alibis: My code made me do it and I was confused. The latter says that even incompleteness is no excuse. Here is quantitative a quick explanation. Considering the real-life story of neo freudian theory, a young Frenchman in the 1940s torn between his urge to fight the Germans to avenge the execution of his brother and his desire to stay with his heartbroken mother, Sartre reviewed various moral systems to highlight the difficulty of teasing ethical guidance out of them.

His point was that ethical codes are dressed up as advisory devices when in fact they serve only justificatory purposes. In other words, how do we know that ethical codes aren't rationalization engines in disguise, mechanisms for evading responsibility, sophisticated dodges? This points to the exculpatory nature of an chaucer, ethical code. The neat thing about being advised, you see, is that we can always blame the advisor. Sophie is given a choice: to neo freudian personality, kill one of her two children or have both of them killed. She has no choice but to act immorally. The Prologue! This is not my judgment but hers; more accurately, it is an a posteriori inference from the personality, knowledge that she'll be racked with guilt for the rest of against moral, her life. Personality! Sophie's choice falls within the what is kant, world of morals but beyond the human reach of moral guidelines. The injunction, Spare the child who. is morally impermissible. Sophie is thus able to act in theory a way that, though necessarily immoral, is not ethically mistaken. No one can ever tell her, You saved the wrong child.

In fact, we so believe that no ethical code should apply that we'd be shocked to hear Sophie justify her choice by appealing to some holy book claiming that God prefers, say, older siblings. My religion made me do it would reek of bad faith (in the arguments against, Sartrean sense of self-lying) and theory, suggest that perhaps Sophie preferred her older child but blamed her faith instead. It is chaucer morally imperative for her to renounce any ethical code and neo freudian personality theory, take full responsibility for her choice—or, as an existentialist would put it, to arguments against moral relativism, admit that she is neo freudian theory condemned to against relativism, be free. The kidnapping story is identical except in one key aspect: the temptation of a code. Faced with the kidnapper and the mental picture of your daughter imploring you to do everything in your power to save her, your intuition is likely to neo freudian theory, whisper in why is sojourner your ear, Torture the bastard! Unlike Sophie's, your choice may even seem entirely obvious. This intuition may help you decide but, even after integrating the moral relevance of family, it still violates the deontological constraint of treating torture as a universal moral wrong: after all, your intuition might be quite different if the bastard were your son and personality, the captive girl the Essay, past killer of neo freudian personality, your daughter. To give up on an ethical code altogether may be quite difficult, in quantitative data fact. But this is the only way to respect the absolute wrongness of torture. If you're going to neo freudian theory, do it, you'd better be ready to own it and take all the blame. In this instance, free will implies carrying out, and accepting to carry out, your own decision in the belief that you would do it again in the future.

In other words, neither of these excuses is acceptable: I was foolish; or I did what I thought was best but that was against my will. Consider a variant of TBS where torturing one person prevents the torturing of two other people elsewhere. Should you do it? Basic utilitarianism of rights says yes. The danger is that moral calculus is nothing but the Singapore's, exercise of an ethical code, hence a rationalization. I am not saying this is not allowed to influence your decision—one cannot shield oneself from all moral calculus. I am saying that in the end you must be the only owner of your decision. You must accept the guilt for your action as the necessary consequence of your freedom and you must reject any attempt to justify your choice. What if you are ordered to torture? Assuming a moral choice is neo freudian personality possible, ie, disobedience is not punishable by why is sojourner truth, death, you should refuse to torture unless you are confident that you would give the same order—were you in a position to do so—if you also knew that you had to neo freudian personality theory, carry it out yourself. (Merely believing that you would give the order is not enough.)

The final verdict on torture: always wrong; always illegal; always unjustifiable.

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Essays schrijven - het literaire zelfonderzoek. Naast hoofdredacteur van Schrijven Magazine en Schrijven Online is personality theory, Louis Stiller ook docent essayschrijven bij de Schrijversvakschool in Essay Amsterdam, en auteur van een aantal essayboeken. Tevens is neo freudian theory, hij auteur van het boek 'Essays schrijven', in vertical examples de Schrijfbibliotheek van Augustus. Essays zijn overal, elke dag. In de krant, op de radio, in de Tweede Kamer, in neo freudian personality theory de klas, in relativism de kerk. Neo Freudian Personality Theory? Elke dag vergasten auteurs Ca of Singapore's Economy Mu ons op een essayjuweeltje in het linkerbenedenhoekje van de Volkskrant. Theory? Elke week spreken dominees en pastoors hun uitgesponnen religieuze essays vanaf de preekstoel.

Elke maand verschijnen tientallen literaire essays in tijdschriften als Tirade, De Gids of against Bunker Hill – soms vermomd als recensie, monografie of ingezonden brief. Door deze alomtegenwoordigheid zouden we het essay het meest succesvolle literaire genre kunnen noemen. Nog meer dan gedichten en verhalen. Die tref je weliswaar tegenwoordig ook op de merkwaardigste plaatsen aan, maar de veelkoppigheid van het essay maakt dat je vaak als lezer, kijker of personality theory luisteraar nauwelijks door hebt dat je met een essay te maken hebt. Chaucer? Ingezonden brief van een brandweercommandant in neo freudian theory NRC Handelsblad: essay. Arguments Against Relativism? Slotbeschouwing bij het najaarsoverleg: essay: Gesproken column van Francisco van Jole in neo freudian De Leugen Regeert: essay. Ondanks deze brede verschijning lijkt het essay nog altijd het literaire genre met de minste status te zijn. Vertical? Romanschrijver, dat willen we worden, of dichter; toneelschrijver zou ook mooi zijn, misschien scenarist.

Verhalenverteller, ook leuk. Neo Freudian Personality Theory? Maar essayist? Ooit een groepje adolescenten bij de studie Nederlands met rode konen horen discussieren wie betere essays schrijft: Piet Meeuse of examples Bas Heine? Weliswaar wordt de PC Hooftprijs afwisselend uitgereikt aan een dichter, een prozaist en een essayist, maar nog nooit hoorde ik een aangeschoten jongedame in personality theory de kroeg opscheppen dat zij de beste essayist van Nederland wil worden. Veel uitgevoerd, weinig begeerd: dat is het lot van het essay. Het zij zo. Bedenk: waar kun je essays aantreffen? In welke media, op welke plekken? Wat doen die essays?

Wat is against relativism, hun doel, hun functie? Probeer voor jezelf te formuleren wat essays zijn. Deel 2: Op zoek naar de persoonlijke vraag. Wat een essay precies is, is neo freudian personality theory, nog altijd voer voor vele discussies. Singapore's? Is elke willekeurige column en recensie in neo freudian personality een dag- of what is kant weekblad er een, hoort een biografie ook tot het genre, en kun je alle schoolopstellen essays noemen? Dat laatste is nog niet eens zo’n rare veronderstelling, als je naar het curriculum van Amerikaanse en Engelse scholen kijkt. Theory? Essayschrijven wordt daar gedrild: inleiding, these, uitwerking, conclusie. Against Moral? Ook de dikke Van Dale lijkt een Angelsaksische knieval te maken door een essay te definieren als ‘een persoonlijk gekleurde verhandeling over een wetenschappelijk of neo freudian personality theory letterkundig onderwerp’, met daarachter een grote pijl en het woord ‘opstel’. Er zijn echter verschillende redenen om het schoolopstel niet tot de kerngroep der essays toe te laten. Een van de belangrijkste argumenten is against moral, dat een echt essay een persoonlijk onderzoek is, een gedachtenexperiment waarbij je van te voren niet weet waar het je zal leiden. Neo Freudian Personality Theory? En zelfs als je nergens uitkomt, dan nog is truth important, het soms boeiend om op te schrijven hoe je van punt A naar punt G kwam, via F, S, L en – wederom – A. Neo Freudian Personality Theory? Een opstel heeft daarvoor een veel te rigide structuur.

Alleen al die verplichte conclusie: dat heeft weinig te maken met het meanderende, onderzoekende karakter dat het echte essay kenmerkt. And Qualitative? De Franse werkwoorden assayer / essaier die ten grondslag liggen aan het genre betekenen dan ook proeven, toetsen of personality theory uitproberen. Arguments Moral? ‘Essayisten zijn vrijbuiters, ze zijn niemand ook maar een zier verplicht,’ concludeert Tanny Dobbelaar dan ook in haar boek Schrijven met Montaigne (besproken in neo freudian personality Club Schrijven Magazine 9/5). Wat zijn dan wel ‘echte’ essays, welke horen tot de kerngroep? Een naam werd hiervoor al even genoemd, namelijk de grondlegger van het genre, Michel de Montaigne (1533-1592) die zich halverwege zijn leven terugtrok op zijn landgoed om zijn gedachten te ordenen en te scherpen in een nieuwe vorm, die hij de naam essai meegaf. Wie Montaignes drie kloeke delen essays leest (niet te snel, ze zijn voor fijnproevers), ziet al snel wat deze onderscheidt van opstellen, scripties en dissertaties. Why Is Sojourner Truth Important? Bij een Montaigne-essay ga je namelijk uit van je persoonlijke ervaringen, gedachten en emoties – iets wat je in (semi)wetenschappelijke werk juist te allen tijde probeert te vermijden.

Vrijwel alle goede essays geven dan ook inzicht in neo freudian personality het persoonlijke leven of in de persoonlijke gedachten van de auteur. Chaucer? Niet omdat die belangrijk zijn (soms gaat het om hele eenvoudige waarnemingen), maar omdat ze een aanleiding kunnen vormen om algemeen geldende ideeen te onderzoeken. Wanneer kun je zeggen dat iemand een gelukkig leven heeft gehad? Wat betekent het om verbannen te zijn? Mag een arts fouten maken?

Wat is personality, de waarde van vriendschap? Dat soort kwesties worden door Montaigne en zijn nazaten onderzocht. Uiteindelijk gaat het niet om ‘hoe je ergens over denkt’, maar ‘hoe je ergens over arguments against moral denkt’. Ofte wel: het gaat niet om je mening, niet eens om je argumenten, maar om de manier waarop je redeneert, voelt, verbanden legt: de logica, evenzeer als de plotselinge invallen. Als je een goed essay schrijft, geef je de lezer een kijkje in theory je geest. Zoek een vraag, een kwestie, een zorg die al een tijd in arguments against moral je hoofd rondwarrelt. Neo Freudian Personality Theory? Je hoeft er nog geen antwoord op te weten. Essay? Liever niet. Neo Freudian? Probeer je gedachte op te schrijven en kijk of Essay Economy je er een algemene, abstracte vraag uit kunt afleiden. Elke essay begint in neo freudian personality theory wezen met zo’n vraag. And Qualitative? Kijk vooral naar kwesties waarover je twijfelt: hoe duidelijker het antwoord je voor ogen staat, hoe ongeschikter het onderwerp is theory, voor een essay.

Formuleer nu je basisvraag. Zoek een vraag, een kwestie, een zorg die al een tijd in je hoofd rondwarrelt. Je hoeft er nog geen antwoord op te weten. Integration Examples? Liever niet. Neo Freudian Personality Theory? Probeer je gedachte op te schrijven en kijk of je er een algemene, abstracte vraag uit kunt afleiden. Chaucer The Prologue? Elke essay begint in wezen met zo’n vraag. Kijk vooral naar kwesties waarover je twijfelt: hoe duidelijker het antwoord je voor ogen staat, hoe ongeschikter het onderwerp is neo freudian personality theory, voor een essay. Formuleer nu je basisvraag. Een persoonlijke aanleiding, zorg of vraag is what is kant, het beginpunt van een essay, maar daar moet het niet bij blijven. Neo Freudian? Met een essay wil je uiteindelijk proberen uit je persoonlijke ervaringen een algemene kwestie aan te snijden en te onderzoeken, zoals Jorge Luis Borges deed in why is sojourner zijn beroemde mini-essay ‘Argumentum Ornithologicum’ uit het boek De Maker . ‘Ik sluit mijn ogen en zie een zwerm vogels.

Het visioen duurt een seconde of neo freudian misschien korter; ik weet niet hoeveel vogels ik heb gezien. Was hun aantal bepaald of Economy onbepaald? Deze vraag impliceert die naar het bestaan van God. Als God bestaat, is theory, het aantal bepaald, want God weet hoeveel vogels ik heb gezien. Examples? Als God niet bestaat, is personality, het aantal onbepaald, want dan kan niemand de telling verrichten. Essay? In dat geval zag ik niet negen, acht, zeven, zes, vijf, vier, drie of theory twee vogles. Ik zag een aantal tussen de tien en een, dat niet negen, acht, zeven, zes, vijf, enz., is. Sojourner Truth Important? Een dergelijk getal is theory, niet voorstelbaar: ergo, God bestaat.’ Slechts tien regels telt het essay, dat begint met de beroemde zin: ‘Ik sluit mijn ogen en zie een zwerm vogels.’ Hoeveel vogels het zijn weet Borges niet, en juist dat intrigeert hem. Als God bestaat, weet hij het juiste aantal en is het een bepaald getal.

En als God niet bestaat is truth important, het een onbepaald getal, want niemand heeft het aantal vogels geteld: het kunnen er drie, vijf, acht of negen zijn. Theory? En dus zag Borges in chaucer the prologue die flits een getal dat niet twee, drie, vier, etcetera was, en dat kan niet. En dat bewijst dat God bestaat. Van een eenvoudig fantasiebeeld naar een Godsbewijs in neo freudian tien zinnen: dat is what is kant, het essay ten voeten uit. Personality Theory? Wat ook goed te zien is aan dit voorbeeld is vertical examples, hoe een essay bij de lezer werkt: het biedt geen voordehandliggende conclusie, maar zet aan tot denken, tot redeneren, tot het verzinnen van tegenargumenten. Klopt het wel wat Borges beweert? Hoezo is neo freudian personality theory, een onbestaand getal een bewijs dat God bestaat? Kun je het bestaan van God wel beredeneren? De lezer maakt als het ware zelf het essay af. Bedenk hoe je zelf een lezer over arguments relativism je onderwerp kan laten nadenken. Wat prikkelt hem?

Hoe kun je hem laten nadenken? Natuurlijk niet door hem alleen maar te overladen met argumenten en voorbeelden. Hoe moet je redeneren, schrijven, om je lezer in theory zijn hoofd je essay 'af te maken'? Om een essay goed op te kunnen bouwen, moet je als schrijver eerst vele wegen in Essay Singapore's je hoofd aflopen. Sommige wegen lopen al snel dood, andere zijn te evident: daarvoor hoeft een lezer je artikel niet te lezen. Neo Freudian Personality Theory? Zoek dus naar de onverwachte sporen, die je een eind verder brengen. Doe dit door jezelf voortdurend vragen te stellen, argumenten en voorbeelden te verzinnen, losjes te associeren. What Is Kant? Je materiaal mag je overal vandaan halen, van wetenschappelijke rapporten tot songteksten. Personality Theory? Juist die vele mogelijke dwarsverbanden onderscheiden een essay van een wetenschappelijke tekst. Stel bijvoorbeeld dat je je al een tijdje ergert aan mensen die trein en tram proberen in te komen voordat iedereen de trein verlaten heeft – een verschijnsel dat de laatste jaren steeds vaker de kop opsteekt. Als je rechttoe rechtaan je ergernis zou uitschrijven, zou je geen essay hebben, maar een opinierend stuk, een column.

Je onderzoekt namelijk niets, poneert alleen maar. Dus: zet je ergernis opzij en probeer onder, achter, in, over why is het probleem te duiken. Je medepassagiers voor laten gaan is neo freudian theory, een kwestie van etiquette, maar wat is what is kant, de functie van etiquette? Kan die functie veranderen? Ken je nog meer voorbeelden van modern voordringen? Waar doet je die langs elkaar duwende en schuivende massa aan denken, welk beeld komt in neo freudian je op? Hoe gaat het in de ons omringende landen? Hebben we eigenlijk al een naam voor de voordringers?

En hoe noemen we de mensen die zich laten wegdringen? Probeer in chaucer deze fase zoveel mogelijk ideeen en sporen te verzamelen: het bekritiseren en uitwerken ervan komt later. Ga terug naar je basisvraag of theory –kwestie uit oefening Zet deze middenop een vel papier. Against? Associeer nu vrijelijk en zet de beelden, woorden, vragen, voorbeelden en argumenten eromheen. Theory? Schets met pijlen welke elementen met elkaar te maken hebben. Doe nu hetzelfde met de beelden, woorden, vragen en voorbeelden: werk ze verder uit door ze op hun beurt weer te omringen met eigen beelden, woorden, vragen en voorbeelden.

Hoe ga je hier een essay uitschrijven? Bedenk een route, een structuur, een vorm. Na het vrijelijk associeren begint het bekritiseren van je eigen ideeen: welke zijn te evident, welke sporen lopen dood. Singapore's Economy? Zoek naar de gedachtensporen waarvan je – vaak intuitief – vermoedt dat er veel achter schuilt. Neo Freudian Theory? In het voorbeeld van de voordringende treinreizigers kun je bijvoorbeeld al snel vermoeden dat de gedachten over etiquette een beetje voor de hand liggen. Truth Important? En een sociologische verkenning van treingedrag bij onze buurlanden is personality theory, meer iets voor Elsevier. Chaucer The Prologue? Zoek naar een vager, lastiger spoor, zoals de naamgevingskwestie of neo freudian een intrigerend beeld dat spontaan bij je opkwam, toen je over chaucer the prologue dit onderwerp nadacht. Wat je altijd kunt doen: een paar uur op een groot station doorbrengen en observeren wat er nu precies gebeurt. Neo Freudian Theory? Nogmaals: niet om je te ergeren (probeer die emotie even aan de kant te schuiven), maar om te weten wat dat nu precies inhoudt, dat voordringen, hoe het eruit ziet, wat de geluiden zijn, de geuren, de kleuren.

Het gebruik van je zintuigen is Essay Singapore's Economy, sowieso een belangrijk onderzoeksmiddel bij het schrijven van essays. Theory? Je bent je eigen controlemiddel, je eigen meetinstrument. Quantitative And Qualitative Data? Een goede essayist is neo freudian, een scepticus, iemand die veel bekritiseert, over vertical integration weinig een pasklaar oordeel klaar heeft, en alles zoveel mogelijk onderzoekt. De zintuigen spelen daarbij een cruciale rol. Personality? Wat betekent vriendschap? Observeer ‘ns een verjaardagsfeestje, probeer in moral het cafe de echte vriendschappen te onderscheiden van de onechte, en stel enkele cruciale vragen aan je beste vriend of vriendin. Neo Freudian? Kijk, meet, leer. Neem je onderwerp, je vraag of je twijfel en verzin een onderzoek dat je zou kunnen doen: een literatuuronderzoek in what is kant de bibliotheek, observeer het gedrag van mensen, of houdt een weeklang je eigen leven in de gaten. Kijk, meet, leer. Personality Theory? Probeer vervolgens hier conclusies uit te trekken, maar liever nog vervolgvragen, argumenten, verdere associaties. Bij het uitwerken van een essay ben je zo vrij als een vogel: het essay heeft geen vaste vorm en geen vaste formule.

Je kunt er voor kiezen je gedachtenroute in what is kant z’n geheel op te schrijven, en je lezers deelgenoot te maken van je mentale reis. Neo Freudian? Maar je kunt ook alleen de resultaten van die reis weergeven, ongeveer zoals Borges zijn ornithologische argument in tien zinnen wist weer te geven. Belangrijker nog dan de vorm is why is truth, de stijl waarin je dit alles giet. Neo Freudian Personality Theory? Een essay is the prologue, een literaire vorm en probeer daarom zo weinig mogelijk te preken, ook al geloof je zeer sterk in neo freudian personality je eigen opvattingen. Wees vooral sceptisch – ook over chaucer je eigen gedachten, waarden en ideeen.

Onderzoek veel, geloof in weinig. Probeer verder algemene uitspraken zoveel mogelijk te concretiseren. Neo Freudian? Dat de verkeersveiligheid eind jaren ’60 bar en boos was, is chaucer the prologue, een algemene uitspraak, dat er toen meer dan drieduizend verkeersdoden per theory jaar waren (nu: om en nabij de 1100) is integration, een concreet feit waar je lezers zich iets bij kunnen voorstellen. Een ander iets dat je bij het schrijven in personality de gaten moet houden is moral relativism, dat je natuurlijk met een rationeel betoog bezig bent, met argumenten en redeneringen. Personality? Dat kan een gortdroog betoog worden. Truth Important? Presenteer daarom de feiten zo levendig mogelijk. Wees evocatief: geef je lezer iets om voor z’n ogen tevoorschijn te toveren. Mondialisering is een groot woord, maar een korte beschrijving van de Amerikaanse callcenters in neo freudian personality New Delhi of what is kant de bloemenveiling van Aalsmeer waar rozen uit Rwanda worden verhandeld, levert je lezer een beeld. Om het spannend te houden kun je werken met de bekende middelen die je ook bij proza of toneel toepast: werp vragen op, laat opzettelijk gaten vallen die je elders pas invult en kom steeds terug op je hoofdvraag, het liefst in personality theory verschillende varianten. Werk niet met een vast plan, maar wel met een basisidee, een sfeer, een grondtoon. Wat je altijd kunt doen om een langzaam inzakkend essay te versterken is what is kant, een tweede lijn aan te brengen.

Dat kan zelfs een prozaverhaal zijn, zoals Milan Kundera toepaste in zijn novelle Ballingen. Neo Freudian Personality Theory? Pas met zo’n afwisseling van betoog en verhaal wel op dat je de lezer niet te snel heen en weer laat schieten: geef hem rustig de tijd om in what is kant je betoog of in je verhaal te komen. Neo Freudian Theory? Liever een paar pagina’s per examples deel, dan afwisselen per alinea. Leun bij je redeneringen zo weinig mogelijk op de autoriteit van anderen. Neo Freudian Personality? Citeren mag, maar nog beter is against moral, het, om het gelezene te herkauwen en in neo freudian personality theory je eigen woorden neer te pennen. Werk je gedachtenstroom uit. Kies voor een uitgangspunt en bepaal je toon, maar maak geen schema hoe je betoog zal gaan. Why Is Sojourner Truth Important? Laat je leiden door je eigen geschrijf. Neo Freudian Theory? Zorg er wel voor dat je blijft redeneren, argumenteren, naar voorbeelden en (zintuigelijke) ervaringen zoekt. Ga niet te snel, wees precies in je redeneringen en argumenten. Quantitative Data? Hoe scherper je gedachtengang kunt beschrijven, hoe dichter je bij nieuwe inzichten komt, zo blijkt uit de ervaring.

Tijdens het schrijven ontstaan vaak de interessantste gedachten – geef ze de ruimte. Lees vervolgens je eigen essay en probeer te achterhalen of neo freudian theory hij ‘werkt’. Waar ga je te snel, waar te langzaam? Blijft er genoeg over chaucer the prologue om als lezer door te willen lezen? Is het slot intrigerend genoeg om nog ‘ns flink over neo freudian theory na te denken?

Laat het geheel vervolgens aan anderen lezen en vraag hen om commentaar. Data? Herschrijf, herformuleer tot je de scherpste route door je eigen geest hebt blootgelegd. Heb je een tip voor een onderwerp van een schrijfoefening? Stuur dan een mailtje hier. Intensieve online cursussen. Goed en betaalbaar! In een stuk getiteld: ' Schrijven Magazine, omdat iedereen schrijver wil worden '. en krijg zelf een cadeau!

In ieder nummer van Schrijven Magazine interviewen we een dichter over neo freudian personality het schrijfproces!