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A Sample Check Cashing #038; Payday Loan Business Plan Template. Gordon? Are you about starting a check cashing company? If YES, here is a complete sample payday loan business plan template feasibility report you can use for the audiolingual FREE . Okay, so we have considered all the requirements for starting a payday loan business. Allport? We also took it further by analyzing and drafting a sample payday loan service marketing plan template backed up by glory the movie, actionable guerrilla marketing ideas for payday loan companies. Allport Theory? So let#8217;s proceed to the business planning section . Why Start a Check Cashing Payday Loan Business? Becoming an entrepreneur is just the persuasive essays, way to go if indeed you dont want to theory, place a cap on how much you earn per month or annually. If you live in the United States and you are a qualified accountant or financial consultants, then you should consider starting check cashing and payday Loan Services firm. You can be rest assured that your services would always be in demand not only by people that cuts across different financial divides within your area of charles dickens operations but also by allport theory, businesses.

Just like most industries, the check cashing and payday loan services industry is pretty open for as many people that are interested in the industry as long as you have what it takes to run a check cashing and Facebook, payday loan services firm. Even if you dont have the finance and other requirements for starting a standard check cashing and gordon allport theory payday services firm, you can come into Facebook, Means of Socialization, the industry by starting out as a firm servicing individuals and allport households in your neighborhood. The Audiolingual? If you have decided to allport theory, start a check cashing and glory the movie payday loan services firm, then you must make sure that you carry out allport theory, thorough feasibility studies and also market survey. This will enable you properly locate the the audiolingual, business in a community or city with the right demography; a location that can readily accept your services. Gordon Allport? Business plan is yet another very important business document that you should not take for granted in the bid to launching your own business. Below is a sample check cashing and Facebook, a Useful Means of Socialization Essay payday loan services firm business plan template that will help you successfully launch your own business; A Sample Check Cashing Payday Loan Business Plan Template. Firms that operate in gordon allport the Check Cashing and Payday Loan Services industry cashes checks, drafts or money orders for abnormal psychology the general public. Firms in this industry may also offer payday loans, installment loans and allport other related financial services. It is important to on The Internet:, categorically state that banks and firms that operate exclusively online are not part of the Check Cashing and allport theory Payday Loan Services industry. The industry has loads of small business operators servicing a wide range of clients.

The Check Cashing and Payday Loan Services industry is indeed in a mature stage of its growth. The industry is characterized by New Journal, growth in theory line with the overall outlook of the is Equally, economy, consolidation from the largest players in allport the industry and wholehearted market acceptance of industry products and services. The check cashing and payday loan services line of Facebook, a Useful business will continue to be in gordon allport high demand by the general public in New Journal the United States, It cant be ruled out allport theory, that the glory the movie, nature of the gordon theory, Check Cashing and Payday Loan Services industry gives room for and Environment Essay it to gordon allport theory, perform well during the recession. Vikas Swarup? This is theory so because, as consumers struggled during difficult economic times, they used industry services to Character is Equally and Environment, advance their paychecks or to gordon theory, get quick cash back. Though, as the economy continues to Essay on The Internet: The World’s New Journal, recover and gordon theory consumers start to dickens, fatten their wallets, there is allport likelihood that the the audiolingual method, demand for gordon allport the industry#8217;s services will decline. Moreover, industry regulations have been increasing, hampering revenue growth and profit margins for firms in the Check Cashing and Facebook, Means of Socialization Essay Payday Loan Services industry. Allport Theory? The Check Cashing Payday Loan Services industry is indeed a large industry and pretty much active in most developed countries of the testing persuasive, world most especially in the United States of America, United Kingdom, Mexico and Canada et al. Statistics has it that in the United States of America alone, there are about 14,569registered and licensed (big, medium scale and gordon allport theory small) Check Cashing Payday Loan Services firm scattered all across the animal testing persuasive essays, United States responsible for employing about gordon allport, 89,794 people and glory the movie the industry rakes in gordon a whooping sum of $11 billion annually. Genetics And Environment Essay? The industry is allport projected to on The Internet: The World’s, enjoy 1.8 percent annual growth within 2011 and 2016. The establishments with the allport, lion share of the method, available market in gordon theory this industry are Cash America International and realism AARC.

A recent report released by gordon allport theory, IBISWORLD shows that the Essay on The Internet:, Check Cashing and Payday Loan Services industry has relatively low barriers to entry, particularly when compared to gordon allport, other financial services industries. Facebook, A Useful Means Of Socialization Essay? According to theory, Cash America, a new retail location can be ready for glory the movie business within four to allport, eight weeks after the location and Essay on The Internet: appropriate licenses have been secured. Total start-up costs generally range from gordon theory, $500,000 to the audiolingual method, $600,000 for the investment in property and equipment. The report further stated that in gordon allport Mexico and abnormal rieger other international markets, start-up costs are generally less expensive, with the gordon allport theory, initial required investment ranging from abnormal psychology rieger, $50,000 to $120,000 due to the smaller size of these locations and lower labor and materials costs. Gordon? One thing is certain about starting a check cashing and payday loan services business, if you are able to vikas swarup, conduct your market research and feasibility studies, you are more likely not going to struggle to secure clients because there are always clients all across the United States who would need your services from to time. Lastly, with check cashing and allport payday loan services business, you can afford to partner with other smaller firms that are into financial related services. Glory The Movie? You can partner with tax consulting firm, you can partner with accounting and auditing firms and gordon you can partner with human resources consulting firms et al.

The bottom line is vikas swarup that if you have a robust network and allport theory you are well positioned, you can indeed maximize profits with your check cashing and Character and Environment payday loan services firm. Check Cashing Payday Loan Business Plan Executive Summary. Gordon Theory? Cash 24 7 Financial Services, LLC is Essay Internet: a registered and licensed check cashing and payday loan services firm that will be based in Los Angeles California. The company will handle all aspect of check cashing and gordon allport theory payday loan services such as providing payday loans for recurring expenses, providing payday loans for unexpected emergencies/expenses, providing check cashing services, providing payday loans for other reasons, loan servicing and administration, cash handling and glory the movie management services for businesses, money transmission servicing, selling money orders and travelers checks and gordon safe deposit box renting. We are aware that to method, run an all round and standard check cashing and payday loan services firm can be demanding which is why we are well trained, certified and equipped to perform excellently well. Cash 24 7 Financial Services, LLC is a client focused and result driven check cashing and allport theory payday loan services firm that provides broad- based services at abnormal psychology rieger, an affordable fee that wont in any way put a hole in the pocket of our clients. We will offer standard and professional services to all to our individual clients, and gordon allport theory corporate clients at glory the movie, local, state, national, and international level. Gordon Allport Theory? We will ensure that we work hard to method, meet and surpass our clients expectations whenever they hire our services. At Cash 24 7 Financial Services, LLC, our clients best interest would always come first, and gordon theory everything we do is guided by our values and animal professional ethics.

We will ensure that we hire professionals who are well experienced in gordon the check cashing and payday loan services industry. Character Is Equally Genetics Essay? Cash 24 7 Financial Services, LLC will at all times demonstrate her commitment to sustainability, both individually and as a firm, by actively participating in gordon allport our communities and method integrating sustainable business practices wherever possible. We will ensure that we hold ourselves accountable to gordon allport, the highest standards by meeting our clients needs precisely and completely. We will cultivate a working environment that provides a human, sustainable approach to earning a living, and psychology living in gordon theory our world, for our partners, employees and for our clients. Our plan is to position the vikas swarup, business to gordon allport, become one of the dickens, leading brands in the check cashing and payday loan services industry in the whole of gordon theory Los Angeles California, and testing persuasive essays also to theory, be amongst the top 20 check cashing and payday loan services firms in charles the United States of allport theory America within the first 10 years of operations. This might look too tall a dream but we are optimistic that this will surely be realized because we have done our research and the audiolingual feasibility studies and allport theory we are enthusiastic and charles realism confident that Los Angeles California is the right place to launch our check cashing and payday loan services business before sourcing for clients from allport, other cities in on The Internet: The World’s New Journal the United States of gordon allport theory America. Facebook, A Useful Means? Cash 24 7 Financial Services, LLC is founded by Michael Larry and allport theory Joel Evans, his business partner for many years. The organization will be managed by persuasive essays, both of gordon theory them since they have adequate working experience to manage such business.

Michael Larry has well over Means of Socialization Essay, 10 years of experience working at gordon allport theory, various capacities within the check cashing and method payday loan services industry in the United States of America. Gordon Allport Theory? He graduated from both University of California Berkley with a Degree in Accounting, and Character University of theory Harvard (MSc.) and he is Essay on The Internet: New Journal a chartered account. Theory? Joel Evans has ample experience in the area of vikas swarup tax consulting and gordon allport financial auditing. Cash 24 7 Financial Services, LLC is the audiolingual going to allport theory, offer varieties of services within the abnormal psychology, scope of the check cashing and payday loan services industry in the United States of gordon America. Vikas Swarup? Our intention of starting our check cashing and payday loan services firm is to gordon allport, work with individual clients and vikas swarup corporate clients to handle their financial needs as it relates to the services we offer.

We are well prepared to gordon allport theory, make profits from the glory the movie, industry and gordon allport theory we will do all that is permitted by the law in vikas swarup the United States to achieve our business goals, aim and ambition. Our business offerings are listed below; Providing payday loans for gordon allport recurring expenses Providing payday loans for unexpected emergencies/expenses Providing check cashing services Providing payday loans for other reasons Loan servicing and the audiolingual administration Cash handling and gordon theory management services for businesses Money transmission servicing Safe deposit box renting Selling money orders and travelers checks Providing financial advice to individuals and small businesses. Our vision is to vikas swarup, build a check cashing and payday loan services firm brand that will become the number one choice for both individual and allport corporate clients in the whole of Los Angeles California. Our vision reflects our values: integrity, service, excellence and teamwork. Our mission is to animal testing persuasive, provide professional, reliable and gordon allport theory trusted check cashing and payday loan services that to individual and testing persuasive essays corporate clients. Theory? We will position the business to Character, become one of the gordon, leading brands in abnormal the check cashing and payday loan services line of gordon allport theory business in the whole of Los Angeles California, and also to glory the movie, be amongst the top 20 check cashing and payday loan services firms in allport the United States of America within the first 10 years of operations. Normally we would have settled for two or three staff members, but as part of Means our plan to allport theory, build a standard check cashing and payday loan services firm in Los Angeles California, we have perfected plans to get it right from the beginning which is Essay why we are going the allport, extra mile to is Equally and Environment Essay, ensure that we have competent, honest and gordon hardworking employees to occupy all the available positions in our firm. Facebook, A Useful Means Essay? The picture of the gordon theory, kind of check cashing and vikas swarup payday loan services firm we intend building and the business goals we want to gordon allport theory, achieve is what informed the amount we are ready to pay for the best hands available in and around Los Angeles California. We will ensure that we only abnormal rieger hire people that are qualified, honest, hardworking, customer centric and allport theory are ready to work to help us build a prosperous business that will benefit all the stake holders (the owners, workforce, and customers).

As a matter of fact, profit-sharing arrangement will be made available to all our senior management staff and it will be based on their performance for a period of five years or more depending how fast we meet our set target. Charles Realism? In view of that, we have decided to hire qualified and gordon allport competent hands to occupy the glory the movie, following positions; Chief Executive Officer Check Cashing and Loan Consultants Admin and HR Manager Marketing and gordon allport theory Sales Executive Accountant Customer Care Executive / Front Desk Officer. Roles and and Environment Responsibilities. Increases management#8217;s effectiveness by recruiting, selecting, orienting, training, coaching, counseling, and disciplining managers; communicating values, strategies, and gordon allport objectives; assigning accountabilities; planning, monitoring, and appraising job results; developing incentives; developing a climate for offering information and vikas swarup opinions; providing educational opportunities.

Responsible for fixing prices and signing business deals Responsible for providing direction for the business Creates, communicates, and gordon allport theory implements the organization#8217;s vision, mission, and overall direction i.e. leading the development and implementation of the overall organization#8217;s strategy. Character Is Equally Essay? Responsible for theory signing checks and glory the movie documents on allport theory behalf of the company Evaluates the and Environment, success of the organization. Check Cashing and gordon Loan Consultants. Responsible for providing payday loans for vikas swarup recurring expenses for gordon allport clients Responsible for Essay Internet: The World’s providing payday loans for unexpected emergencies/expenses Responsible for gordon allport theory providing check cashing services Responsible for providing payday loans for vikas swarup other reasons Handles loan servicing and gordon allport administration In charge of cash handling and management services for Character is Equally Genetics Essay businesses Handles money transmission servicing In charge of gordon safe deposit box renting Responsible for selling money orders and vikas swarup travelers checks Responsible for providing financial advice to individuals and small businesses. Responsible for overseeing the gordon, smooth running of glory the movie HR and administrative tasks for the organization Designs job descriptions with KPI to drive performance management for gordon allport theory clients Regularly hold meetings with key stakeholders to review the effectiveness of the audiolingual HR Policies, Procedures and allport Processes Maintains office supplies by glory the movie, checking stocks; placing and expediting orders; evaluating new products. Ensures operation of allport equipment by completing preventive maintenance requirements; calling for repairs. Defines job positions for recruitment and glory the movie managing interviewing process Carries out allport theory, staff induction for New Journal new team members Responsible for gordon allport theory training, evaluation and assessment of employees Responsible for arranging travel, meetings and appointments Updates job knowledge by vikas swarup, participating in educational opportunities; reading professional publications; maintaining personal networks; participating in professional organizations.

Oversees the gordon allport, smooth running of the method, daily office activities. Gordon? Marketing and glory the movie Sales Executive. Identifies, prioritizes, and gordon reaches out to new partners, and business opportunities et al Identifies development opportunities; follows up on is Equally development leads and gordon allport theory contacts; participates in the structuring and financing of projects; assures the animal, completion of relevant projects. Writes winning proposal documents, negotiate fees and gordon allport rates in vikas swarup line with company policy Responsible for handling business research, marker surveys and gordon theory feasibility studies for vikas swarup clients Responsible for gordon allport supervising implementation, advocate for the customers needs, and testing persuasive essays communicate with clients Develops, executes and gordon allport evaluates new plans for Essay Internet: The World’s expanding increase sales Documents all customer contact and information Represents the gordon allport theory, company in strategic meetings Helps to increase sales and a Useful Means of Socialization growth for the company. Responsible for preparing financial reports, budgets, and financial statements for the organization create reports from the gordon, information concerning the financial transactions recorded by the bookkeeper Prepare the income statement and balance sheet using the Facebook, Means of Socialization, trial balance and gordon allport theory ledgers prepared by Essay Internet: New Journal, the bookkeeper. Provides managements with financial analyses, development budgets, and accounting reports; analyzes financial feasibility for allport the most complex proposed projects; conducts market research to forecast trends and testing persuasive essays business conditions. Gordon Allport? Responsible for financial forecasting and Character is Equally Essay risks analysis. Performs cash management, general ledger accounting, and theory financial reporting for dickens realism one or more properties. Responsible for developing and managing financial systems and policies Responsible for administering payrolls Ensuring compliance with taxation legislation Handles all financial transactions for the firm Serves as internal auditor for theory the firm. Client Service Executive / Front Desk Officer. Welcomes guests and clients by Facebook, Means of Socialization Essay, greeting them in person or on gordon theory the telephone; answering or directing inquiries.

Ensures that all contacts with clients (e-mail, walk-In center, SMS or phone) provides the client with a personalized customer service experience of the highest level Through interaction with clients on the phone, uses every opportunity to build clients interest in glory the movie the companys products and gordon services Manages administrative duties assigned by the audiolingual method, the manager in gordon an effective and timely manner Consistently stays abreast of psychology rieger any new information on gordon allport the companys products, promotional campaigns etc. to ensure accurate and helpful information is supplied to clients Receives parcels / documents for the company Distributes mails in the organization Handles any other duties as assigned. Check Cashing Payday Loan Business Plan SWOT Analysis. Cash 24 7 Financial Services, LLC engaged the services of a core professional in is Equally and Environment the area of business consulting and gordon structuring to assist the firm in building a well structured check cashing and animal testing payday loan services firm that can favorably compete in the highly competitive check cashing and payday loan services industry. Part of what the team of business consultant did was to work with the allport theory, management of our organization in conducting a SWOT analysis for Cash 24 7 Financial Services, LLC. Here is glory the movie a summary from the result of the SWOT analysis that was conducted on behalf of Cash 24 7 Financial Services, LLC; Our core strength lies in the power of gordon allport theory our team; our workforce. We have a team that can go all the way to give our clients value for their money; a team that are trained and equipped to Facebook, Means of Socialization, pay attention to details and to gordon, deliver excellent jobs. We are well positioned and the audiolingual we know we will attract loads of gordon allport theory clients from the first day we open our door for business.

As a new check cashing and vikas swarup payday loan services firm, it might take some time for allport theory our organization to the audiolingual, break into gordon allport theory, the market and gain acceptance especially from Essay The World’s New Journal, corporate clients in the already saturated check cashing and allport theory payday loan services industry; that is perhaps our major weakness. So also, we may not have the required cash to Essay Internet: The World’s New Journal, give our business the theory, kind of psychology publicity we would have loved to. The opportunities in the check cashing and payday loan services industry is allport theory massive considering the number of Facebook, a Useful Means of Socialization individuals and gordon even corporate organizations who cant afford to do without the glory the movie, services of gordon allport theory check cashing and method payday loan services firms. As a standard and well positioned check cashing and gordon theory payday loan services firm in Los Angeles California, we are ready to vikas swarup, take advantage of any opportunity that comes our way. Theory? Some of the charles dickens realism, threats that we are likely going to allport, face as a check cashing and payday loan service firm operating in the United States are unfavorable government policies, the arrival of a competitor within our location of glory the movie operations and gordon allport global economic downturn which usually affects purchasing / spending power. Method? There is gordon allport hardly anything we can do as regards these threats other than to charles realism, be optimistic that things will continue to work for our good.

Check Cashing Payday Loan Business Plan MARKET ANALYSIS. If you a close watcher of the trends in gordon the Check Cashing and Payday Loan Services industry, you will agree that it cant be ruled out that the nature of the Facebook, of Socialization, Check Cashing and Payday Loan Services industry gives room for it to allport theory, perform well during the the audiolingual, recession. Gordon Allport? This is of Socialization so because, as consumers struggled during difficult economic times, they used industry services to advance their paychecks or to allport, get quick cash back. Though, as the economy continues to recover and consumers start to Genetics and Environment, fatten their wallets, there is allport likelihood that the demand for the industry#8217;s services will decline. Moreover, industry regulations have been increasing, hampering revenue growth and profit margins for animal testing firms in the Check Cashing and Payday Loan Services industry. Theory? Although the industry is animal essays pretty much open to gordon, startups at method, different levels, but it is innovation, excellent and trusted services that usually support the theory, growths of glory the movie new players in theory the Check Cashing and Payday Loan Services industry. Lastly, it is now becoming trendier to find check cashing and Essay The World’s New Journal payday loan services firms offering other financial related services just as a means of gordon generating more revenue for the business and as a means of Essay on The expanding and staying highly competitive in allport theory the industry. Charles? The demographic and gordon theory psychographics composition of glory the movie those who need the services of check cashing and payday loan services provider cuts across both individuals and corporate organizations especially small businesses. Cash 24 7 Financial Services, LLC will initially serve small to gordon allport theory, medium sized business, from of Socialization Essay, new ventures to gordon allport, well established businesses and individual clients, but that does not in on The Internet: The World’s New Journal any way stop us from gordon allport, growing to be able to compete with the leading check cashing and payday loan service firms in the United States. Glory The Movie? As a standard and licensed check cashing and theory payday loan service firm, Cash 24 7 Financial Services, LLC offers a wide range of Facebook, Means of Socialization Essay services hence we are well trained and equipped to services a wide range of clientele base.

Our target market cuts across businesses of gordon allport different sizes and abnormal rieger industries. We are coming into the industry with a business concept that will enable us work with the small businesses and bigger corporations in and around Los Angeles California and other cities in the United States of America. Below is gordon a list of the businesses and organizations that we have specifically design our products and abnormal rieger services for; Business men and women Mom and gordon allport Pop Businesses NGOs Individuals Corporate executives Religious Organizations (Pilgrimage journeys et al) Entrepreneurs and Start Ups. A Useful Means Of Socialization? Our Competitive Advantage. The level of gordon theory competitions in Essay The World’s New Journal the check cashing and payday loan services industry depends largely on theory the location of the vikas swarup, business and theory of course the niche of your services. If you can successfully create a unique brand identity for your check cashing and payday loan services firm or carve out a unique market, you are likely going to experience less competition.

For instance, if you are one of the few check cashing and payday loan services firms in your locations that also offer tax consulting, accounting and bookkeeping and vikas swarup payroll services you are likely going to have a competitive advantage over your competitors. Although the competition in gordon allport theory the check cashing and glory the movie payday loan services industry is not just within same service providers but also other financial consulting related service providers in the financial consulting services industry. We are quite aware that to allport theory, be highly competitive in the audiolingual method the check cashing and payday loan services industry means that we should be able to gordon allport, deliver consistent quality service, our clients should be able to meet their financial needs and the audiolingual we should be able to meet the expectations of clients. Gordon Allport Theory? Cash 24 7 Financial Services, LLC might be a new entrant into charles, the check cashing and payday loan services industry in theory the United States of America, but the charles realism, management staffs and owners of the gordon, business are considered gurus. They are people who are core professionals and licensed and highly qualified in on The Internet: the United States. These are part of what will count as a competitive advantage for gordon us. Lastly, our employees will be well taken care of, and their welfare package will be among the Essay, best within our category (start ups check cashing and gordon allport theory payday loan service firms) in the industry meaning that they will be more than willing to build the Character is Equally Genetics Essay, business with us and help deliver our set goals and achieve all our aims and objectives.

Check Cashing Payday Loan Business Plan SALES AND MARKETING STRATEGY. Gordon Allport? We are mindful of the is Equally Genetics and Environment Essay, fact that there are stiffer competitions amongst check cashing and payday loan service firms and other related financial consulting service providers in the United States of theory America, hence we have been able to hire some of the best business developer to handle our sales and marketing. Our sales and vikas swarup marketing team will be recruited base on gordon theory their vast experience in dickens the industry and gordon allport they will be trained on Means of Socialization Essay a regular basis so as to gordon theory, be well equipped to meet their targets and the overall goal of the organization. We will also ensure that our excellent job deliveries speak for us in on The The World’s New Journal the market place; we want to build a standard check cashing and payday loan service firm that will leverage on word of mouth advertisement from allport, satisfied clients ( both individuals and corporate organizations ). Our goal is to grow our check cashing and payday loan services firm to become one of the top 20 check cashing and payday loan services firms in the United States of America which is charles realism why we have mapped out strategy that will help us take advantage of the gordon allport, available market and realism grow to become a major force to gordon, reckon with not only in the Los Angeles California but also in a Useful Means of Socialization Essay other cities in gordon theory the United States of America. A Useful Means Essay? Cash 24 7 Financial Services, LLC is set to gordon theory, make use of the following marketing and the audiolingual method sales strategies to attract clients; Introduce our business by theory, sending introductory letters alongside our brochure to corporate organizations, households, schools, Businesses, Non Profit Organizations and key stake holders in New York City and other cities in New York. Advertise our business in animal testing persuasive relevant financial and business related magazines, newspapers, TV stations, and radio station. List our business on yellow pages ads (local directories) Attend relevant international and theory local finance and the audiolingual method business expos, seminars, and gordon allport business fairs et al Create different packages for Means of Socialization different category of clients (individuals, start ups and theory established corporate organizations) in order to vikas swarup, work with their budgets and theory still deliver quality services to them Leverage on the internet to promote our business Engage direct marketing approach Encourage word of mouth marketing from loyal and psychology satisfied clients Join local chambers of commerce and industry with the gordon theory, aim of networking and marketing our services. Character Genetics? Cash 24 7 Financial Services, LLC is allport theory established with the aim of maximizing profits in the check cashing and the audiolingual payday loan services industry and we are going to go all the allport, way to is Equally Essay, ensure that we do all it takes to attract clients on a regular basis and sign retainer ship with most of our clients. Gordon? Cash 24 7 Financial Services, LLC will generate income by is Equally Genetics and Environment Essay, offering the theory, following services to individuals, households, start ups, NGOs and for glory the movie corporate organizations; Providing payday loans for gordon recurring expenses Providing payday loans for Character is Equally Genetics Essay unexpected emergencies/expenses Providing check cashing services Providing payday loans for allport theory other reasons Loan servicing and Facebook, a Useful administration Cash handling and management services for businesses Money transmission servicing Safe deposit box renting Selling money orders and travelers checks Providing financial advice to allport theory, individuals and essays small businesses.

One thing is theory certain, there would always be households, individuals, start ups, NGOs and corporate organizations who would need the services of check cashing and payday loan services firms. Vikas Swarup? We are well positioned to allport theory, take on the available market in Facebook, Los Angeles California and allport theory other key cities in the United States of dickens realism America and gordon allport we are quite optimistic that we will meet our set target of generating enough income / profits from the first six month of operations and abnormal grow the allport theory, business and our clientele base beyond Los Angeles to vikas swarup, other cities all across the United States of America. We have been able to gordon theory, critically examine the check cashing and payday loan services market space and we have analyzed our chances in the industry and we have been able to come up with the essays, following sales forecast. The sales projections are based on information gathered on gordon theory the field and some assumptions that are peculiar to startups in method Los Angeles California. Gordon? Below are the sales projections for Cash 24 7 Financial Services, LLC, it is based on the location of Means of Socialization our business and the wide range of check cashing and payday loan services that we will be offering;

N.B : This projection is done based on what is theory obtainable in the industry and with the assumption that there wont be any major economic meltdown and a Useful Means natural disasters within the period stated above. Gordon Allport Theory? There wont be any major competitor offering same additional services as we do within same location. Vikas Swarup? Please note that the above projection might be lower and at theory, the same time it might be higher. Fixed prices and commissions for psychology rieger services rendered is a long time tradition in the industry. However, for gordon allport theory some types of check cashing and payday loan services, flat fees make more sense because they allow clients to better predict service charge. Psychology? As a result of allport this, Cash 24 7 Financial Services, LLC will charge our clients a flat fee for realism many basic services such as providing payday loans for recurring expenses, providing payday loans for unexpected emergencies/expenses, providing check cashing services, providing payday loans for allport theory other reasons, loan servicing and charles dickens administration, cash handling and management services for theory businesses, money transmission servicing, selling money orders and travelers checks and safe deposit box renting et al. At Cash 24 7 Financial Services, LLC we will keep our fees below the average market rate for all of our clients by keeping our overhead low and by abnormal psychology, collecting payment in allport theory advance. In addition, we will also offer special discounted rates to testing persuasive essays, individuals, start ups, nonprofits, cooperatives, and small social enterprises. We are aware that there are some clients that would need regular access to allport theory, check cashing and payday services, we will offer flat rate for method such services that will be tailored to take care of such clients needs.

The payment policy adopted by theory, Cash 24 7 Financial Services, LLC is all inclusive because we are quite aware that different customers prefer different payment options as it suits them but at the same time, we will ensure that we abide by glory the movie, the financial rules and regulation of the United States of America. Here are the payment options that Cash 24 7 Financial Services, LLC will make available to her clients; Payment via bank transfer Payment with cash Payment via credit cards / Point of Sale Machines (POS Machines) Payment via online bank transfer Payment via check Payment via mobile money transfer Payment via bank draft. Gordon Theory? In view of the above, we have chosen banking platforms that will enable our client make payment for services rendered without any stress on Character is Equally and Environment Essay their part. Our bank account numbers will be made available on gordon allport theory our website and promotional materials to clients who may want to deposit cash or make online transfer for services rendered. Check Cashing Payday Loan Business Plan Publicity and Advertising Strategy.

We have been able to testing persuasive, work with our brand and publicity consultants to help us map out gordon allport, publicity and advertising strategies that will help us walk our way into the heart of the audiolingual our target market. Allport? We are set to glory the movie, take the check cashing and payday loan services industry by allport, storm which is why we have made provisions for effective publicity and vikas swarup advertisement of our check cashing and allport payday loan services firm. Below are the vikas swarup, platforms we intend to leverage on gordon to promote and advertise Cash 24 7 Financial Services, LLC; Place adverts on both print (community based newspapers and psychology rieger magazines) and electronic media platforms Sponsor relevant community based events / programs Leverage on allport theory the internet and social media platforms like; Instagram, Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Google + et al to promote our brand Install our Bill Boards on method strategic locations all around Los Angeles California Engage in road show from time to time to create awareness of allport theory our business Distribute our fliers and handbills in Means of Socialization target areas Ensure that all our workers wear our branded shirts and gordon theory all our vehicles are well branded with our companys logo et al. Check Cashing Payday Loan Business Plan Financial Projections and Costing. Essay The World’s New Journal? Starting a check cashing and allport payday loan services firm can be cost effective; this is realism so because on gordon theory the average, you are not expected to acquire expensive machines and Facebook, of Socialization Essay equipment. Basically, what you should be concerned about is the amount needed to gordon allport theory, secure a standard office facility in a good and Character is Equally Genetics and Environment Essay busy business district, the theory, amount needed to furniture and equip the office, the Means Essay, amount to gordon allport, purchase the required software applications, the amount needed to pay bills, promote the is Equally and Environment, business and obtain the appropriate business license and certifications. This is the financial projection and theory costing for starting Cash 24 7 Financial Services, LLC; The total fee for Means of Socialization Essay incorporating the business in gordon theory the United States of is Equally Genetics and Environment America $750. The budget for basic insurance policy covers, permits and gordon allport business license $2,500 The Amount needed to Essay, acquire a suitable Office facility in gordon allport a business district 6 months (Re Construction of the facility inclusive) $100,000. The cost for charles realism equipping the gordon, office (computers, software applications, printers, fax machines, furniture, telephones, filing cabins, safety gadgets and electronics et al) $5,000 The cost for purchase of the required software applications (CRM software, Accounting and Bookkeeping software and Payroll software et al) $10,500 The Cost of Launching our official Website $600 Budget for is Equally Genetics paying at gordon, least three employees for 3 months plus utility bills $10,000 Additional Expenditure (Business cards, Signage, Adverts and Promotions et al) $2,500 Miscellaneous: $1,000.

Going by method, the report from the market research and feasibility studies conducted, we will need over one hundred and fifty thousand ( 150,000 ) U.S. Gordon Allport? dollars to successfully set up a small scale but standard check cashing and payday loan services firm in the United States of animal testing America. Please note that the salaries of employees are included in the budget. Generating Funds / Startup Capital for Cash 24 7 Financial Services, LLC. Gordon? No matter how fantastic your business idea might be, if you dont have the required money to finance the is Equally, business, the business might not become a reality. No doubt raising start up capital for gordon a business might not come cheap, but it is on The New Journal a task that an entrepreneur must go through. Gordon? Cash 24 7 Financial Services, LLC is a business that will be owned and vikas swarup managed by gordon theory, Michael Larry and the audiolingual his business partner Joel Evans. Gordon Theory? They are the sole financial of the charles dickens realism, firm, but may likely welcome partners later which is why they decided to allport, restrict the sourcing of the glory the movie, start up capital for the business to just three major sources. These are the gordon allport, areas we intend generating our start up capital; Generate part of the Facebook, a Useful, start up capital from gordon, personal savings Source for realism soft loans from gordon allport theory, family members and vikas swarup friends Apply for loan from my Bank. N.B: We have been able to theory, generate about $50,000 (Personal savings $40,000 and animal essays soft loan from family members $10,000) and gordon theory we are at the final stages of obtaining a loan facility of $100,000 from dickens realism, our bank. Gordon Allport Theory? All the animal essays, papers and document has been duly signed and theory submitted, the dickens realism, loan has been approved and any moment from gordon allport, now our account will be credited. PAYDAY LOANS BUSINESS GROWTH: Sustainability and Expansion Strategy.

The future of The World’s New Journal a business lies in gordon allport theory the numbers of dickens loyal customers that they have the capacity and gordon allport theory competence of the employees, their investment strategy and the business structure. If all of these factors are missing from glory the movie, a business (company), then it wont be too long before the allport theory, business close shop. One of our major goals of starting Cash 24 7 Financial Services, LLC is to build a business that will survive off its own cash flow without the need for injecting finance from external sources once the testing essays, business is officially running. Gordon Theory? We know that one of the ways of glory the movie gaining approval and winning customers over allport theory, is to offer our check cashing and payday loan services a little bit cheaper than what is obtainable in psychology rieger the market and we are well prepared to gordon, survive on lower profit margin for a while. Cash 24 7 Financial Services, LLC will make sure that the Character is Equally Genetics, right foundation, structures and processes are put in place to gordon, ensure that our staff welfare are well taken of. Our companys corporate culture is method designed to drive our business to greater heights and training and theory re training of our workforce is at method, the top burner of our business strategy. Theory? As a matter of vikas swarup fact, profit-sharing arrangement will be made available to all our management staff and it will be based on gordon theory their performance for a period of three years or more as determined by psychology rieger, the board of the gordon allport, organization. Method? We know that if that is put in place, we will be able to successfully hire and retain the best hands we can get in the industry; they will be more committed to allport theory, help us build the animal essays, business of allport our dreams.

Business Name Availability Check: Completed Business Incorporation: Completed Opening of Corporate Bank Accounts various banks in charles dickens realism the United States: Completed Opening Online Payment Platforms: Completed Application and gordon Obtaining Tax Payers ID: In Progress Application for business license and permit: Completed Purchase of All form of Insurance for the Business: Completed Conducting Feasibility Studies: Completed Generating part of the testing essays, start up capital from the founders: Completed Applications for loan from our Bankers: In Progress Securing a standard office facility in a business district in Los Angeles California (Renovation inclusive): Completed Writing of Business Plan: Completed Drafting of Employees Handbook: Completed Drafting of allport theory Contract Documents: In Progress Design of rieger The Companys Logo: Completed Graphic Designs and Printing of allport theory Packaging Marketing / Promotional Materials: Completed Recruitment of employees: In Progress Purchase of the Needed software applications, furniture, office equipment, electronic appliances and animal testing persuasive essays facility facelift: In progress Creating Official Website for gordon allport the Company: In Progress Creating Awareness for the business (Business PR): In Progress Health and Safety and Fire Safety Arrangement: In Progress Establishing business relationship with vendors and key players in psychology rieger the industry: In Progress.

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Graduate Policy Handbook - MS Program. Students should be exposed to and participate in theory leading-edge research. Depending on their long-range objectives, students should also do one or more of the following: Develop skills for critical thinking and for analyzing results. Learn to write technically and articulately. Evolve research ideas and produce research results. Learn about group development and be technically capable of leading a development team. Demonstrate ability to The World’s develop software for industrial-size problems. Students may pursue an MS degree with a Thesis Option or with a Project Option. Course Requirements 24 Credits. All courses must be at the 400-level or above, including at gordon least 4 500- or 600-level CS courses and psychology rieger n o more than 3 400-level CS courses (excluding CS 404 405).

Up to 4 500- or 600-level courses may come from allport theory outside the CS department. Students must take at least one course from three of the breadth groups. Only one CS 697R may be used. A CS 697R proposal form must be completed, signed and turned into Essay on The Internet: The World’s New Journal the Graduate Program Manager by the first day of classes in the semester/term you intend to take the course. 6 Credit hours of CS 699R Propose, Present, and Defend Thesis to gordon MS Committee.

Course Requirements 30 Credits. All courses must be at the 400-level or above, including at psychology rieger least 4 500- or 600-level CS courses and n o more than 3 400-level CS courses (excluding CS 404 405). Up to 4 500- or 600-level courses may come from outside the CS department. Gordon Allport Theory. Students must take at animal testing least one course from gordon theory three of the breadth groups. Only one CS 697R may be used. A CS 697R proposal form must be completed, signed and turned into the Graduate Program Manager by the first day of classes in the semester/term you intend to take the course. 3 Credit hours of CS 698R. Please note that this is a class.

It is in addition to the 30 credits of course requirements above. Animal Testing Essays. It will be offered for the first time Fall 2017. Gordon Theory. Present Project and Write-up (10 pages) to MS Committee. NOTE : This applies only to MS students accepted starting Spring 2016 or later. Group 1 - Networking, Security, and is Equally and Environment Parallel Processing. CS 460 - Computer Communications and Networking. CS 462 - Large-scale Distributed System Design.

CS 465 - Computer Security. CS 484 - Parallel Processing. CS 660 - Computer Networks. CS 665 - Advanced Computer Security. CS 684 - Big Data Systems. CS 450 - Introduction to Digital Signal and Image Processing. CS 455 - Computer Graphics.

CS 456 - Introduction to gordon allport User Interface Software. CS 557 - Computer Aided Geometric Design. CS 650 - Computer Vision. CS 655 - Advanced Computer Graphics. CS 656 - Interactive Software Systems. CS 470 - Introduction to Artificial Intelligence. CS 476 - Topics in Data Mining.

CS 478 - Introduction to Machine Learning and Data Mining. CS 670 - Multi-Agent Systems. CS 673 - Computational Creativity. CS 676 - Advanced Topics in Data Mining. CS 677 - Bayesian Methods in Computer Science. CS 678 - Advanced Neural Networks. CS 412 - Linear Programming and Convex Optimization. CS 428 - Software Engineering. CS 431 - Algorithmic Languages and Compilers. CS 452 - Database Modeling Concepts.

CS 453 - Fundamentals of Information Retrieval. CS 486 - Verification and Validation. CS 611 - Advanced Computer Theory. CS 613 - Robust Control. CS 653 - Information Retrieval. CS 686 - Advanced Model Checking. See the appendix for a list of courses and a tentative five year plan of course offerings. The progress of each MS student is reviewed two times each year during January and September.

Students will be notified in advance of each review and The World’s should create or update their online Graduate Profile prior to the review date. Allport. The student is expected to meet the Essay New Journal following requirements. Timely Completion of Background Courses. Students should complete complete background courses in the first year of the degree program. Early Submission of a Study List. A graduate student should submit a study list in their first semester of study and must submit a study list no later than the second week of the second semester after admittance. Program of Study Form.

Adequate GPA Achievement. Students must earn a B- or better in gordon theory each background course. Students must maintain a 3.0 GPA on all courses on the student's program of study. Limited Course Repeats. A student may have a total of two repeats, at Essay on The Internet: the most, during their graduate program. Only one of those repeats may be used for a background course. Steady Completion of Coursework. After being in the program for allport theory, one year, a graduate student must have successfully completed a minimum of 9 MS coursework credit hours (excluding thesis credit hours). Facebook, A Useful Of Socialization. This minimum enrollment of 9 coursework credit hours in the three semesters preceding the semester of gordon allport evaluation must be maintained throughout the graduate program (Spring/Summer together are considered to be one semester) until all coursework is complete.

This course-completion rate is a strict minimum. It is expected that most students will progress at a much faster rate. Timely Completion of Thesis Proposal. Graduate students who have chosen the Thesis Option must successfully pass their thesis proposal by the end of the fourth semester after admittance (i.e. Dickens Realism. within 16 months). Duration of gordon allport theory MS Degree Program. All students should complete the MS degree requirements (courses, thesis proposal, thesis/project, and thesis defense/project presentation) within three years from the time of animal admission.

If a graduate student fails to meet any of the above requirements, the student will be notified in writing of any action taken and of any action the gordon allport theory student should take. Genetics. The student will also be given a Warning, or be placed on theory, Marginal status. Failure to satisfactorily perform according to the written requests in a previous evaluation will result in a student being placed on Unsatisfactory status. Being placed on Unsatisfactory status means they will be dropped from the is Equally and Environment Essay program. Students may be dropped at any time as determined by their Committee, the Graduate Committee and gordon allport theory the Department Chair. Note that the CS 699R credits are a P/F sort of realism deal. Students are given a temporary grade of T until they successfully defend their thesis, at which point all of the T's are changed to P's. Students can take as many as they want in a semester, but they only need 6 total, and 2 of those need to be taken while defending their thesis.

With the help of the advisor, Thesis Option students select a faculty member to serve as 2nd member on the student's MS committee. Once that faculty member has agreed to gordon serve on the committee, the student should contact the Graduate Coordinator via email to ask the Graduate Coordinator to assign a faculty member to serve as the 3rd committee member. These three faculty members serve as the student's MS committee. For Project Option students, the 2 nd and of Socialization Essay 3 rd committee members are assigned by the Graduate Coordinator. Applications must be submitted to the Graduate Program Manag er by the university deadlines for graduate students. Please contact the Graduate Assistant with questions about these deadlines. You can apply online at the Graduate Studies website. Students cannot apply for gordon, MS graduation unless they have (a) completed all of their coursework with a cumulative GPA of 3.0 or higher, (b) successfully proposed their thesis, and psychology (c) have a current ecclesiastical endorsement. Students may not defer graduation.

If they did not successfully meet all the graduation requirements for the semester in which they applied to graduate, the student needs to allport contact the Graduate Program Manag er to have their name removed from the graduation queue. Essay On The New Journal. They will need to reapply for graduation at a later date. There is no fee for graduate students to gordon allport theory apply for graduation. The University requires all students to abnormal register for at least 2 credit hours during the semester in which they complete the submission of their electronic thesis (ETD) or project. If students miss the gordon allport graduation deadlines for Essay Internet: The World’s New Journal, any given semester they must register for at least 2 hours or pay the equivalent minimum registration fee and will graduate the gordon allport following semester. Following are details pertaining to each MS options.

Once a thesis topic has been firmly established, the The World’s New Journal student should submit a thesis proposal. The thesis proposal consists of gordon theory two components the thesis proposal document and the thesis proposal presentation. First, the student prepares the written thesis proposal document, as described below. Once the students first two committee members have approved the document, the charles realism student gives the proposal to the third committee member and theory schedules the time for the formal presentation of the thesis proposal. No completed thesis can be defended without first having the proposal presented and approved.

The thesis proposal document should be submitted to Facebook, a Useful Essay the committee as soon as possible and must be submitted by the end of the fourth semester after the allport theory student begins the program. The thesis cannot be defended before the thesis proposal has been presented and approved. The document must be at most 10 single-spaced pages, exclusive of title-and-abstract page and bibliography. The text must be single-spaced with 11 pt. Times Roman or LaTeX default (Computer Modern) font and have one-inch margins in animal testing persuasive essays a single-column format.

The following are best practices guidelines for the thesis proposal. Their purpose is to allport provide useful, detailed guidance to a Useful Means of Socialization students and gordon allport theory advisors on creating a successful proposal, while allowing flexibility to accommodate individual needs and preferences. After reading a thesis proposal, the intended audience (i.e., the Character is Equally and Environment Essay 2nd and 3rd committee members) should be able to answer the following questions as they relate to your proposed work: What problem do you want to solve? Who cares about gordon allport, this problem and a Useful of Socialization Essay why? What have others done to solve this problem and why is this inadequate? What is your proposed solution to this problem? How can you demonstrate that this is a good solution? The thesis proposal document contains the following:

Abstract: 1 to 2 paragraphs summarizing the proposal. Introduction: 1 to 2 pages answering questions 1 and 2 above. Related Work: 1 to 2 pages answering question 3 above. Thesis statement: 1 to 2 sentences stating what is to gordon be demonstrated in your thesis. Project Description: 3 to testing essays 5 pages answering question 4 above. Validation: 1/2 to 2 pages answering question 5 above. Thesis Schedule: ? to ? page specifying dates for completion of major milestones. Bibliography: 2 to 5 pages containing references for all work cited. The following discussion provides additional detail on the content of the gordon thesis proposal. Abstract - This section provides a short summary of the proposal.

As part of the thesis scheduling process, the Character is Equally Genetics Essay title and theory abstract need to be emailed to the Graduate Program Manager. Introduction - This section provides the reader with enough information to understand and appreciate the thesis statement. This includes giving the motivation, defining terms and formulating the problem. Often, subsections labeled Background and Motivation will be included in this section. This section typically provides answers to the questions What problem do you want to animal testing essays solve? and Who cares about this problem and why? Related Work This section contains a survey of the literature related to your thesis statement and should demonstrate to your readers that you understand the context of your work. This is a place for you to position your contribution relative to allport theory other work and to state how your work builds on other work. This section answers the question What have others done to solve the Facebook, Means Essay problem and theory why is Essay Internet: The World’s, this inadequate?

Thesis statement A clear and concise statement of what is to be demonstrated or developed in your thesis work. A good thesis statement makes a specific claim that your readers care about. Ideally, your introduction will give your readers the background they need to understand your thesis statement and to gordon allport theory conclude that it matters. The following are examples of good thesis statements from charles MS proposals in the BYU Computer Science department: A dynamic dead variable analysis will reduce the size of the hash table in explicit model checking by marking more variables dead compared to static dead variable analysis. Model checking with magnetic disk requires less time when using a chained partitioned hash table than when using an open address monolithic hash table because delayed duplicate detection time is reduced.

Given a set of precepts P and theory an associated training set Tr, a precept-driven learning algorithm (PDLA) can be designed which produces better results in a Useful generalization than when Tr alone is used. When trunk type, network traffic type, and allport theory customer characteristics are considered in setting overbooking factors, bandwidth can be used more efficiently and utilization can be predicted more accurately. Project Description This section describes your proposed solution and how you will carry out the work of realizing the rieger proposed solution. After reading this section, your readers should believe that, if you do what you say you will do here, you will be able to objectively and convincingly defend your thesis statement. This section answers the gordon theory question What is your proposed solution to this problem? Validation This section describes the methods you will use to validate your proposed solution.

This section answers the question How can you demonstrate that this is a good solution? Thesis Schedule This section contains a proposed schedule for the completion of your thesis work. The schedule should include deadlines for submission of the thesis to Essay your advisor, submission of the thesis to your committee members and the thesis defense. You may also include other research milestones that seem appropriate. The department requires that you allow at least three weeks between the theory time you schedule the defense and the time you actually defend the thesis. In order to schedule your final thesis defense, your first two committee members must have read and psychology rieger approved the thesis. Allport Theory. In order to allow sufficient time, you should plan on approximately seven weeks between the time you first give your completed thesis to your advisor and the time you make your final defense. This time is an approximate time; work with your advisor and committee to Internet: The World’s determine the actual amount of time that will be required. Bibliography This section contains references for cited work. References should be complete and allport theory written in Essay on The Internet: The World’s a uniform style, consistent with your particular sub-area of gordon computer science.

Proposal for Industry-Oriented Thesis : The motivation should provide necessary background and then argue that a significant piece of work (usually a piece of software) is needed. Animal Persuasive Essays. The thesis statement should concisely describe the work. The method section should describe the gordon allport expectations for the finished product and explain what will be done to Essay on The The World’s New Journal assure the quality of the work. The bibliography should convince the reader that the student is well acquainted with techniques needed to gordon allport theory do the work and with techniques others have used to solve similar problems. The contributions should reflect the importance of the work. Oral Presentation Audience : CS faculty members who may not be acquainted with the topic. A 12-15 minute oral presentation of the thesis proposal must be carefully organized and given to the members of the persuasive thesis committee and the invited public. During the gordon allport theory thesis proposal presentation, the student must answer committee member's questions on such areas as method, significance, organization, and literature search. After the presentation, the student and public leave the room while the committee comes to a decision on proposal acceptance.

The result will range from unqualified acceptance to unqualified rejection. General Comments : A simple restatement of the proposal document is not what is wanted. The central ideas of the document should be presented, but this should be augmented by examples and charles explanations. Allport Theory. Ideally, the presentation will have been practiced in charles dickens front of an audience that can help the student improve the presentation. Part of what should be learned is gordon allport, how to make good presentations. Thesis Proposal Scheduling Instructions. Create and write up the proposal under the supervision of your advisor. Get verbal agreement from testing persuasive your advisor and second committee member that the proposal is allport, now in final form.

Provide a copy of your final thesis proposal for your third committee member. Arrange for a date, time, and place to Internet: present your proposal. Make sure all three members of allport theory your committee can attend. The Graduate Program Manag er can help you schedule the CS Conference Room or the Character is Equally and Environment Gigapix Room. Reserve one hour for the proposal; your presentation should not extend beyond 15 minutes, but additional time will be needed for questions from the audience and your committee. Fill out the top part of the Thesis Proposal Scheduling Form and get committee signatures on the bottom part. (Take the form to gordon allport the Graduate Program Manag er to get the animal testing persuasive essays signature of the gordon Graduate Coordinator.) Give the dickens completed Dissertation Proposal Scheduling Form, as well as a copy of the abstract (formatted in Word), to the Graduate Program Manag er ( Obtain signatures of all members of your committee on the Thesis Proposal Approval Form. Leave a copy of the gordon proposal and the signed approval form with the Graduate Program Manag er . Animal Testing Persuasive Essays. The Graduate Coordinator will sign the form after it is turned in to the Graduate Program Manag er . The MS thesis should make a contribution to the field of Computer Science.

When completed, other computer scientists working in the same or related areas should find the thesis useful in solving problems they are working on. The thesis should demonstrate creativity and allport originality. It should require a thorough search of dickens existing literature in the student's area of research and exhibit the use of skills and techniques acquired during the theory student's Computer Science graduate education. When reasonable, it is recommended that the student make an effort to publish the charles dickens accomplished research in the Computer Science literature. Thesis Format : University guidelines specify the format of the title page, abstract page, acknowledgments page, and signature page (bound copies only). With consultation of the thesis chair, the rest of the thesis should be written in a style and form consistent with the Computer Science literature for allport theory, your research area. BYU requires a department to certify the testing persuasive consistency of theory format, captions, and references for all theses. The Audiolingual. Format and captions pose few, if any, difficulties, but citations are often inconsistent. (Typically, students copy citations from various places without reworking them into a consistent format.) To ensure consistency--and to avoid having to rework citations at department sign-off time-- follow the instructions in either (1) or (2) below. Use a top-tier journal (not a conference proceedings) in gordon allport your research area as a guide.

Follow the conventions as specified by abnormal psychology, the journal or exemplified in the papers. Gordon Allport. Be consistent and be as complete as possible: Use the same style for the same kind of publications throughout--italics, bold, quotes, punctuation, names (full names or initials), numbering, and the audiolingual method indentation. Include all components of a citation--all author or editor names and the title and year; and, as applicable, other components such as journal name, volume, number, pages, month, publisher, city, state or country, and institution for MS theses, PhD dissertations, or technical reports. Gordon Allport. Order the bibliography alphabetically by Internet: New Journal, last name of first author. The actual organization of a traditional thesis is flexible. A typical organization would be as follows. Chapter 1 - Introduces the thesis problem and motivates its importance. Chapter 2 - A careful overview of gordon related work, referencing similar research.

Chapter 3 . n-1 - A progressive presentation of the research effort, typically including chapters on: foundational material (terms, definitions, etc.) the actual innovations (algorithms, theorems, models, etc.) validation and analysis of results (proofs, simulations, complexity analysis, etc.). Chapter n - Overviews the contributions of the thesis and discusses possible directions for Character and Environment Essay, future work. Appendices - Contains extended results, code fragments, documentation, etc. Thesis Document -- Alternative Styles. In trying to modernize some ideas about theses and to tailor them more towards particular types of students and their needs, we also allow two alternative styles which may be used in place of a traditional thesis. We call one of the alternatives a paper thesis and the other an industry-oriented thesis. Both are roughly equivalent to each other and to the traditional model in amount of work. However, they differ in gordon allport theory the type of work and experience gained. Guidelines for method, the thesis document, the proposal document, and presentations for these two alternatives are provided below.

The main difference is in the audience being addressed in the thesis. For a traditional thesis, the audience is primarily the student's committee, broadened, at times, to additional faculty members who may be assigned to theory examine the on The Internet: The World’s New Journal student's work. In the alternatives, the audience addressed is different for the thesis than for the proposal and for theory, the presentations and the audiolingual is more appropriate for the objectives of the particular type of gordon theory thesis. Audience: Researchers well acquainted with the topic. Document: The thesis should be written as a paper for abnormal psychology, a journal. Except for formatting required by BYU such as double spacing and chapters instead of sections, the thesis should read exactly like a paper that can be submitted for publication.

Appendices may include additional material that would not be appropriate for allport theory, publication, but is pertinent to the student's work. Ideally, the quality of the Means of Socialization paper would be similar to papers found in allport theory top publications in the audiolingual method the research field of the thesis. Thesis Document -- Industry-Oriented Thesis. Audience: Industrial colleagues well acquainted with the topic. Document: The document should be written as an industrial technical report. The abstract should read like an executive summary.

The introduction should include necessary background and gordon introductory and overview material sufficient for industrial peers to the audiolingual method read the allport document on their own. Abnormal Psychology Rieger. The body should be appropriate for the type of work done and may include high-level and gordon low-level descriptions of software, test cases, user manuals, and data supporting arguments made in the document such as claims about time and space efficiency. Internet: The World’s New Journal. A conclusion should summarize the work. Ideally, the document would show that the work accomplished is topnotch, industrial-quality work. Industry-oriented means that the work done for a thesis should help prepare a student for theory, industry. It does NOT mean that the thesis is the result of animal testing persuasive essays doing a project in industry. Indeed, most projects that would be done in allport industry are likely to be unsuitable for Internet:, thesis topics either because there are employer expectations beyond what a thesis should entail or because there are too few expectations about the kind and quality of the work to be accomplished. Almost always, students doing industry-oriented theses will do projects connected with faculty research interests. It is just that the focus is not on creating new ideas and writing papers, but on doing a topnotch job with the work as would be expected in industry. We should not encourage students to seek projects in industry for theses, and if they bring such projects as suggestions for thesis topics, we should carefully scrutinize these projects, with the idea that nearly all of them should be rejected. There may be some that are appropriate, but the entanglements, expectations, and associated problems all have to be carefully dealt with before allowing a student to gordon proceed.

Oral Presentation Audience : CS faculty members who may not be acquainted with the animal persuasive topic. The presentation should be polished. Ideally, it will have been practiced in front of an audience that can help the gordon allport student improve the presentation. The defense of the thesis is open to the public. For the defense, a student must prepare and make a polished presentation, which should last about and Environment, 25 minutes. After a short introductory overview of the research for allport theory, the benefit of those not familiar with the work, the presentation should focus on the technical details of the research. At the conclusion of the presentation questions may be asked by the audience and a Useful of Socialization Essay committee relating to the methods and evaluation techniques used to complete the gordon theory thesis work; when complete the audience will be excused.

The committee may ask the student further questions. When the committee is satisfied, the student being examined will be asked to charles dickens leave the room. At this point the examining committee decides on a result. The possible results are: Pass with qualifications - Revision to thesis or strengthening of course knowledge are examples of gordon allport theory why this would be selected. Recess - Substantial revision of thesis and/or course knowledge preparation. A minimum of one month must pass before a subsequent defense can take place.

Fail - Fail the the audiolingual oral exam and be terminated from the graduate program. The Graduate Program Manag er will have given a packet of forms from the Office of Graduate Studies to gordon allport the student's advisor prior to the presentation. The advisor also serves as the examination chair. The examination chair manages the forms as follows: Report of Committee Action for Final Oral Examination - Conduct a vote, get signatures, and give the form to the Graduate Program Manag er . Committee Member Evaluation of Final Oral Examination - Each member of the examining committee fills out one of these forms regarding the the audiolingual method student's potential in allport theory a PhD program. Give these forms to the Graduate Program Manag er. Approval for Submission of Dissertation, Thesis, or Selected Project - Get appropriate signatures and then give this form to the student. Grade Change Authorization - All 699R hours must be changed from a T to a P. Have the student fill out the top portions of the form and have it signed by the Graduate Coordinator. In this case, the instructor name must be the Graduate Coordinator, not the chair advisor. For any questions about Essay on The Internet: The World’s New Journal, these forms, contact the allport theory Graduate Program Manag er . Create and write up the thesis under the supervision of your advisor. Get verbal agreement from your advisor that the thesis is in final form and give a copy to your second committee member.

The second committee member is very likely to suggest changes. Get verbal agreement from your advisor and second committee member that the thesis is now in final form. Apply for graduation. Be registered for at least 2 credit hours (either 2 hours of 699R or a class that is on your study list) Approximately 1 Month Prior to the Defense:

Obtain a copy of ADV Form 8c Departmental Scheduling of Character is Equally Genetics and Environment Essay Final Oral Examination online. Arrange for a date, time, and place to gordon allport present your defense. Make sure that all three members of your committee can attend and collect their signatures. Character Is Equally Genetics Essay. (Keep in mind that it may take more time than anticipated to gather the necessary signatures due to travel, illness or time off). The Graduate Program Manag er can help you schedule the CS Conference Room or the Gigapix Room. Reserve two hours for the defense. (As you complete these steps, fill out the corresponding parts of gordon form 8c.) No Later Than 3 Weeks Before the Defense (earlier is charles dickens realism, better): Email an electronic copy of your thesis (PDF) and your abstract (formatted in Word) to the Graduate Program Manager (

Submit the completed ADV Form 8c (with all of the signatures) to gordon allport the Graduate Program Manager . These steps must be finished 3 weeks (or more) before the actual day you defend. If you miss this deadline, you will need to select a new date to defend, that is at least 3 weeks out, and fill out a new ADV Form 8c (including all of the signatures). Provide a copy of your thesis for charles dickens, your third committee member. No Later Than 2 Weeks Prior to theory the Defense : After submitting your thesis, the Graduate Coordinator and Graduate Program Manag er will give feedback on any necessary changes to the formatting and references. If any revisions are necessary, you must make those changes and resubmit your thesis. Once the changes are made, the defense will be scheduled. Animal Persuasive. If the changes are not made at least 2 weeks prior to the defense date, a new defense date will need to be selected and the scheduling process will start over. Finish any required revisions of the thesis. Fill in gordon allport theory the ADV Form 10 (received at your defense) and gather the necessary signatures at the defense. Submit this to the Graduate Program Manag er immediately following the defense. Complete Form 8d Approval for Submission of Dissertation, Thesis, or Selected Project (received at your defense), and obtain the necessary signatures.

Unless technically or legally not possible, students must submit an electronic thesis. Once completed, Form 8d should be submitted by the student to Graduate Studies in the FPH. Students are expected to provide a bound copy of the thesis for Means Essay, their advisor. The thesis need to gordon theory be bound in a blue cover and testing sent to 3361 TMCB. When this have been paid for, an gordon allport theory electronic copy of the receipt should be forwarded to so that the requirement can be lifted in AIM. The student finds a mentor who agrees to work with him/her on a project not later than the end of his/her 3rd semester in the program.

The project may be initiated by the student or the mentor. Project Development and Completion. When the student is abnormal psychology rieger, ready to complete the project, the student signs up for CS 698R (add code should be obtained from the Graduate Program Manager). The student will be expected to put 125-150 hours of work into the project during that semester. CS 698R is gordon, a pass/fail class.

It is expected that students will only take this class once. The student prepares a short proposal and submits it to the graduate coordinator by the end of the first week of the semester. The proposal focuses on specific activities and clearly-defined deliverables, approved by the mentor and then by the graduate coordinator. The proposal should include a checklist of deliverables that will be demonstrated in the final presentation. The mentor and student meet at least weekly throughout the project so that the Essay Internet: The World’s New Journal student has a meaningful mentoring experience. Theory. The mentor must approve all revisions to the project deliverables checklist.

The student tracks hours worked on the project and keeps a week-by-week log of Facebook, of Socialization hours spent working on the project, split into theory categories such as design, coding, writing, etc. This 1) allows the mentor to make sure that expectations are met, 2) helps curb project creep, and 3) is common practice in industry (particularly if working for a company that handles multiple consulting/contracts/projects, where it is dickens, important to track to the fraction of an hour how long is spent on each). By the theory middle of the semester (by the end of the 9th week), the student produces a draft report, also focused on deliverables, a copy of which must be submitted to the Graduate Coordinator. An email will be sent to all faculty mentors and MS Project students by the end of 7th week of the persuasive essays semester as a reminder of this requirement. Allport Theory. The student and mentor discuss the draft report, review the time log, go over the write-up, and make scope adjustments if needed. This contributes to Facebook, of Socialization Essay the student having a meaningful and culminating writing experience. Gordon Theory. Additional reviewing iterations are recommended, but optional.

The student prepares a final written scientific project report, including at least an animal testing persuasive executive summary, an theory introduction, a project description, a validation section, and a conclusion. The project should be no shorter than 20 double-spaced pages, but no longer than 30 double-spaced pages. At the end of the semester, project presentations are held within a 3-hour block during finals week. Two members of the Graduate Committee, together with the mentor for each project, make up the student's committee. The Committee sits at dickens a desk with all the project reports in a binder in gordon order of student presentation. The students present for 15 minutes after which there are 5 minutes for questions and comments. The Committee reviews the time log, and checks off deliverables as the student presents. Charles Dickens Realism. If all deliverables are satisfactory, the student passes. If not, the gordon theory Committee may discuss and advise as to whether the student passes or fails. The MS project report document should be submitted to the committee at the end of the Facebook, a Useful Means semester in which the student takes CS 698R.

The document must be no shorter than 20 double-spaced pages, but no longer than 30 double-spaced pages . The project report should provide necessary background and then argue that a significant piece of work was needed. The contributions should reflect the importance of the allport theory work. Essay On The Internet: The World’s. A summary of the project's time log must also be included. Oral Presentation Audience : CS faculty members who may not be acquainted with the topic. A 12-15 minute oral presentation of the project must be carefully organized and gordon allport theory given to rieger the members of the MS committee and gordon theory the invited public. During the project report presentation, the student must answer committee member's questions on such areas as method, significance, organization, and literature search.

After the is Equally Essay presentation, the student and public leave the room while the committee comes to a decision on project report. At this point the examining committee decides on a result. The possible results are: Pass with qualifications - Revision to project is an allport example of why this would be selected. Fail - Fail the oral exam and be terminated from the graduate program.

The final CS 698R grade will be determined by the Advisor.

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A Few General Facts about How To Write 5 Paragraph Essay ? In general, the gordon allport 5-paragraph essay is regarded as the typical essay writing task. This type of essay is Character is Equally Essay utilized in theory the majority of well-established examinations, like TOEFL, IELTS or SAT. Seeing as in the majority of the audiolingual method such examinations you need to stick to a time limit when it comes to finishing the Writing part, its advisable to learn the structure of the gordon allport 5-paragraph essay by heart. This way, youll be able to complete the exam swiftly and efficiently. The best feature of this format is the abnormal psychology rieger fact that it can be used for a large variety of essays, such as Expository, Narrative, Persuasive, Cause and gordon theory, Effect or Persuasive essays.

5-Paragraph Essay Subject Examples. Here are a few of the most recurrent subjects on which students write 5-paragraph essays: Is an individual able to memorize a life lesson from an event they werent part of? Is one able to learn from the errors of realism other individuals? Is it moral to conduct experiments on animals? Should homosexual matrimony be legalized? Should the legislation on firearms become harsher? Should the capital punishment be fully eliminated?

Should cannabis become legal? Should all students benefit from free-of-charge education? No doubt, you can write 5-paragraph essays on many other topics in addition to gordon, these examples. The Structure of animal testing persuasive a 5-Paragraph Essay. The introduction is the section which lays down the outline of the entire essay. Gordon? The initial phase represents the HOOK sentence.

The Hook Sentence has the purpose of catching the readers interest. In general, the Hook Sentence is a rhetorical one. Additionally, it could also constitute a life example or an outstanding piece of Character is Equally and Environment Essay information. For instance: Lets say that your 5-paragraph essay approaches the topic of environment protection. In that case, you can come up with a sentence like: Is it normal to live in a world of barren lands and waste? The question above is a rhetorical one.

This means that no one expects a response, as the gordon answer is evident. Short Introduction of Substantiated Arguments (1 to 3) In this section, you should concisely present your substantiated arguments. The key is to avoid disclosing an excessive amount of information. As a piece of advice, picture this short introduction as the Essay Internet: The World’s New Journal trailer of gordon a film, meaning that it ought to a Useful Means of Socialization, be captivating, but it must not reveal the STORY. For instance: Environmental protection is essential to preserving the well-being of our planet. This is the theory most essential part of the rieger whole essay; it represents your argument. The argument will serve as the premise of the entire paper. Seeing as your essay deals with environmental conservation, your thesis could be something like: Environmental protection is essential to averting huge natural calamities. A small piece of advice: if you believe that the body paragraphs are not related to the thesis youve chosen, the best solution would be to modify the thesis. Gordon Theory? The Three Body Paragraphs: 5 to Essay Internet: The World’s, 7 Phrases. This represents the bulk of your paper. In this part, you need to justify the perspective youre supporting (Thesis Assertion). In general, the three body paragraphs have the following outline: Introductory Phrase (1), Substantiated Argument/Justification (3-5), Conclusion Phrase (1).

The Introductory Phrase must concisely present your argument. It shouldnt disclose too much. For instance, you could say something like: Disforestation and gordon, atmosphere contamination affect the characteristics of the atmosphere and intensify the probability of illness in addition to damaging our planet! Substantiated Argument and Justification: This section involves particularizing the subject, while still, most significantly, SUPPORTING THE THESIS! For instance: Materialism and Facebook, a Useful Means of Socialization, egoism represent important factors which harm our surroundings, as they are responsible for destroying our forests and theory, polluting our air. Abnormal Rieger? While initially a couple of gordon allport theory people may benefit from this, in the audiolingual method the long run, these factors are dangerous to the entire population. For instance, in Beijing, the atmosphere quality is gordon allport so low that people are obliged to use masks to be allowed to move around the city.

The Conclusion Phrase ought to represent the realism contrary of the gordon theory introductory one. Rather than presenting your argument, you should concisely conclude it, moving on to the subsequent one. For instance: To sum up, the deterioration of our natural assets, as well as the rieger quality of our atmosphere, does not only affect the Earths health but the entire humankind. KEEP IN MIND THAT ALL 3 BODY PARAGRAPHS MUST HAVE THE SAME STRUCTURE! The arguments you offer ought to gordon, be presented in the following order: The first body paragraph ought to include your second most powerful argument The second body paragraph ought to describe your poorest argument The third body paragraph ought to The World’s New Journal, present your most powerful argument. To have a better idea of the structure of gordon a 5-paragraph essay, take a look at the following table: Conclusion (3 to 5 Phrases): This must reflect your introduction. Reiterate Your Thesis (Phrase 1): You must reiterate your primary argument (thesis) in a straightforward manner. To demonstrate that your perspective is valid, you should show confidence when you rephrase the thesis. For instance: The security and endurance of our planet are highly reliant on the manner in which we choose to method, behave towards it, and the more attentively we stimulate the allport theory procedure, the realism more we will profit from it. Gordon Allport Theory? Providing conclusions for your substantiated arguments (1 to 3 Phrases): This part involves paraphrasing the Essay central ideas of your arguments in gordon allport theory a single phrase per paragraph. In case part of your substantiated arguments are alike, you can simply merge them into a single phrase.

This way, youll preserve an adequate organization. For instance, lets say that one of the arguments you provided deals with restricting the utilization of resources. In that case, you can write something like Restricting the psychology rieger utilization of our natural assets and enhancing their performance represent essential methods of strengthening the health of the Earth. Drafting a Conclusion for the Hook Phrase (Facultative) A great manner of finalizing a paper is by offering something unpredicted, which may amaze the reader. Gordon Theory? A great idea would be to devise a second hook, one which summarizes your essay in Character is Equally only a couple of words.

Ideally, create a rhetorical question. For instance: The soundness of the Earth is highly significant, and in the end, we don't want to turn our planet into a desert, dont we? This way, your essay will present a certain level of excitement towards the end, and the reader will ponder over your assertion. Different educational establishments from all over the globe utilize different rules. Nevertheless, one of the most well-established criteria types is the theory 5 point type. Abnormal Rieger? This involves five different sections, namely Focus, Organization, Conventions, Style and gordon allport, Content. Focus: Did the student take enough time to demonstrate their hypothesis? Did they meet this target? Organization: Did the abnormal psychology rieger essay have a fluent style? Did the student move from one paragraph to gordon allport, the other in a steady manner? Did they stick to the adequate structure without deviating from it?

Conventions: Was the paper written using good grammar? Were the phrases too long? Style: Did the student utilize high-quality lexicon? Did they repeat words too often? Were the phrase structures original enough? Content: Did the student succeed in Essay on The New Journal demonstrating their argument? Did they include coherent and accurate assertions? Did they come up with powerful arguments? How Do I Proceed If I Have No Idea How to Write the Paper? In case you still feel like your essay writing skills arent good enough, there is absolutely no reason to gordon allport theory, be scared!

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Free Information Technology essays. Over the past century, communication and communication systems have developed enormously. Gordon Theory. The massive growth in psychology rieger bandwidth demand has led to various technologies in communication facilities in todays network. One of the main factors for continuous research to create more efficient communication systems is the need to allport, send more data (information) through a communication medium (channel) [1], communication through fiber optic is one of them. Fiber optic communication is a communication method that uses light pulses to transmit information (data) from one point to another. Figure 1.1 represents a block diagram of optical communication system which consists of an optical transmitter, a communication channel, and an optical receiver. Essays. Optical communication system can be categorized to allport, guided and unguided syetem. In guided lightwave system, the transmitter emits optical beam through a fiber optic which in that case the beam remains spatially confined. Unguided ligtwave system is similar to the spreading of microwave system because the optical beam spreads in Internet: New Journal space but in theory forward direction because of its short wavelength.

Unguided optical systems are less proper for broadcasting applications than microwave systems because of charles dickens beam short wavelength they need very accurate pointing between the transmitter and gordon allport, receiver [2]. However, this thesis does not consider unguided optical communication system but will focus on the guided optical systems. Figure 1.1: a generic optical communication system [2]. A guided optical fiber is a cylindrical waveguide that made from low-loss materials, in general silicon dioxide. The waveguide core has a refractive index a little higher than that of the on The The World’s New Journal, outer medium (cladding), so that light pulses is directed along the theory, axis line of the fiber by total inside reflection. Animal Persuasive. Generally a guided fiber optic communication systems consist of an optical transmitter to gordon theory, change an electrical signal to an optical signal for animal persuasive transmission through inside the optical fiber, a cable has several bundles of optical fibers, optical amplifiers to amplify the power of the optical signal, and an optical receiver to reconvert the received optical signal back to the original electrical signal [3]. Figure 1.2: guided optical communication system [3]. Optical fiber technology development is considered as a major driver to theory, the revolution of the information technology and tremendous progress on telecommunication that has been seen in recent years. Moreover it the most adequate unique transmission medium for data signals, voice and video.

Indeed, at present optical fibers have entered virtually in all sectors of telecommunication networks [4]. By year 1930, Heinrich Lamm introduced one of the first attempts to psychology, use optical fiber to send image by using a short bundle of optical fiber for theory possible medical imaging. However, no additional works were done after the charles realism, demonstration phase, because the allport, technology for charles manufacturing low-loss fibers with acceptable light confinement was not yet done [5]. Further work and tests for gordon allport image transmission via fiber optic continued till 1960 when the attenuation of glass-clad degraded to about1 dB/m. Although this attenuation makes fibers to animal essays, be used for medical imaging, it is too high for communication until 1970 when it decreased less than 20 dB/km by using a novel fabrication technique. Gordon Allport. At the same period, GaAs semiconductor lasers, running continuously at room temperature, were revealed. Low loss (attenuation) optical fibers together with optical so- urces led the Character is Equally and Environment, efforts for enhancing the fiber-optic communication systems [6]. At that time it was revealed on the fabrication of first single-mode fiber with an attenuation of 0.017dB/m at allport theory the 633-nm helium-neon line and the audiolingual method, that declaration was considered a great breakthrough with many others developments which opened the gordon theory, door to animal, fiber optic communication. In the beginning of 1980, first terrestrial optical system became available commercially with less than 0.1 Gb/s as a data rate. Within period of less than quarter of a century the development has been rapid as by an increasing in the system capacity by a factor of allport theory 100,000 [6]. To increase the benefits of fiber optic many technologies have been developed to get more network capacity, reliability, scalability and animal, less cost and allport, one of the first technological advances was the capability to persuasive, carry multiple light channels through one fiber optic cable.

It achieves buy combining (multiplexing) different optical frequencies (wavelengths) onto a single fiber and that what is known Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) [7]. First WDM created in allport theory the late 1980s by using the Character is Equally and Environment Essay, two widely spaced wavelengths in the 850 nm and 1310 nm (or 1310 nm and 1550 nm) regions. The a second generation of WDM saw in early 1990s, occasionally called narrowband WDM, in which 2 to 8 channels were used. Gordon Allport Theory. These channels were now apart at is Equally and Environment Essay an interval of gordon allport theory about 400 GHz in the 1550-nm window. With 16 to animal persuasive, 40 channels and spacing from allport theory 100 to 200 GHz Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) systems were emerging in mid-1990s [8], since year 2000 when the number of wavelengths reached to over 100 per fiber and that number provides massive network capacity [7]. Currently, most of the audiolingual modern optical telecommunication networks composed of a plenty of various devices. Working such a network is a challenge task. It needs an accurate planning; taking into account all technological needs and offers of the optics, to end up with an operating network which provides the best return on the spent investments. Fiber optic has vast advantages over other transmission media because:

Unlike the copper that depletes the natural earth resources, it is made of cheapest resources in the earth (sand). The information travels with the speed of gordon allport theory light. Optical pulses are immune to the Radio frequency interface (RFI) and electromagnetic interface (EMI). It is not affected by atmospheric conditions. Very low Bit Error Rate (BER) 10^-11. The only limitation that limits the bandwidth of an optical fiber is method dependent on allport the equipment that creates the light in the fiber [9]. Optical Fiber Structure. In its simplest form an optical fiber consists of cladding that surrounds the cylindrical core that is made of Facebook, Essay silica glass. The core which is a central part of the fiber, has a refractive index (refractive index term refers to gordon theory, the change in Character Essay light speed in vacuum to its speed in other media) of gordon theory N1, is higher than refracting index N2 of cladding. So when the light beam enters the fiber, the cladding forces it to remain in the core, and the beam travels down the fiber because of internal reflection between of cladding and the core [10].

Figure 1.3: Optical Fiber Structure [10]. Optical signal can travel through the fiber in many ways and that corresponds to a particular mode. Each mode is determined by the angle of incident of the optical beam. Internal reflection can take place at any angle greater than the critical angle but optical light may not propagate through the is Equally Genetics Essay, fiber on all angles and that because some of incident angles result in destructive interference and that leads to prohibit light propagation, in contrast with other angles that cause constructive interferences which allows the light to propagate. The mode of the fiber is the number of allport theory paths for the light rays inside the cable and according to that numbers and structure, fiber cables can be classified as a single mode and Facebook, a Useful of Socialization Essay, multimode fiber. Single mode fiber permits propagation of light beam by no more one path and theory, its core size (diameter) is around 9-10 ??m. Multimode term refers to the matter of fact that many light beams (mode) are carried at abnormal psychology same time through the waveguide (over more than 100 modes at a time) with size of its core diameter around 50??m or 62.5??m. In general, the allport theory, diameter of the single mode is smaller than multimode diameter and because of that the number of reflections in charles realism single mode for a light passes inside the core is gordon allport theory lesser than in multimode. Such reasons leads to fact that optical pulses experience very low attenuation and makes the signal to travel further (long distance) and faster and higher bandwidth compared to multimode fiber that is used in testing essays short distance because of high dispersion and attenuation [2].

Figure 1.4: Single mode and multimode fiber optic. The main advantage of theory multimode fibers over is Equally Genetics, the single mode is that a light could be inserted simply on bigger core and allows lesser coupling loss for example, through an LED. But injecting the light in the single mode is allport difficult process because of thinner core diameter and that is dickens one of its drawbacks. Gordon Allport Theory. The one of the audiolingual method problems in allport multimode fiber is method intermodal dispersion. This is gordon due to rieger, the inequality in velocities of light for each incident angle. So instead of a sharp ray, multiple light beams are received at the far end, with separated in the time domain. This result increases with the distance between the two ends, therefore offering a lower bit rate. However dispersion problem can be lessen by decreasing the number of modes which can be reduced by diminishing the core radius, reducing numerical aperture, and increasing the light wavelength and that can be seen in the following equation: To find the number mode m in multimode fiber [11]:

Where V is the normalized frequency. Ko =2 ??/?? , and a is the core radius. ?? represents the wavelength of light in a vacuum. There are numerous impairments that affect signal propagation and shorten transmission distance in fibers. The major impairment that affects signal propagation is attenuation. It is a property of the fiber and it is a consequence of the several material, structural, and modular impairments in a fiber. It is given as a specification for gordon a particular fiber type. Attenuation means loos of abnormal rieger light energy (It is called optical loss) when the light pulses travel through fiber from allport theory one point to abnormal psychology rieger, the other point and it is directly proportional to the length of the cable [12]. An intrinsic fiber loss and extrinsic bending loss are two components that optical loss (fiber loss) consists of. Intrinsic loss can be characterized to [1] [13]:

Material absorption loss: it results of imperfection and theory, impurities in the fiber. Raleigh scattering loss: it is because of the collision of light quanta with silica molecules in the core and that causes a scattering in different directions. Extrinsic bending loss includes [1] [13]: Microbending loss: due to imperfection in the cylindrical geometry of fiber through the manufacturing cycles. Macrobending loss: bending of fiber (core and of Socialization, cladding) in small radius leads to certain modes not to be reflected and causes loss. Figure 1.5: Extrinsic bending losses type [13]. Attenuation factor ?? represents the loss in dB per fiber length in kilometer. Power attenuation can calculate by using [1]: dp/dz Represents the power change with respect to the length. So, if P1 is gordon theory considered input power and The World’s New Journal, L is the length of the fiber cable, the output power P2 can be calculated by using equation 1.4. ?? in dB/Km can be calculated by using equation 1.5. Typically ??0.25 dB/km for a single mode fiber in the 1550 nm band.

?? = 0.5 dB/km for allport a single mode fiber in the 1310 nm band. Attenuation was considered the biggest obstacle at beginning of optical communication technology. Abnormal. It was very high (was more than 1000 dB/km) in the glass optical fibers but new process was invented by using silica as the main material, reduced the attenuation to less than 20 dB/km at theory carrier wavelength about testing persuasive essays, 1??m. Progressing the optical fiber manufacturing technology decreased the attenuation quickly to the typical values that can be seen in theory the figure 1.6. The curve in the figure refers to the region around 1300nm and 1550nm where the method, attenuation at these region has minimum values whereas at region between 800nm and 900nm the gordon allport theory, attenuation at maximum value and that refers to the historical values before the development when the light source operated at the wavelengths from that region [14]. Figure 1.6: attenuation curve of a Useful of Socialization Essay silica based optical fiber [14]. Dispersion is another impairment that effects on the optical signal when travel through fiber optic cable. Each optical pulse has various spectral components or multiple frequencies and gordon allport, each of them has its own velocity that can pass through fiber cable in different paths.

Such reason leads each component to reach at the end of fiber in different interval time. Charles Dickens Realism. The time differences depend on different spectral components that lead to a longitudinal spreading of the pulse along the Z-direction (direction of propagation of the gordon allport theory, optical pulse) of the Essay on The Internet: The World’s New Journal, fiber (cylindrical waveguide). The optical spread amount depends on the length of fiber and the bite rate [1] Over adequately long fiber the dispersion may cause intersymbol interference (ISI) whereas in high bit rate, two consecutive pulses are adjacent to each other causing difficulty in detecting the pulses and that means increasing in bit error rate (BER).There are two dispersive effects affect the optical pulse in the fiber: intermodal dispersion and chromatic dispersion [12]. Intermodal dispersion: Takes place in gordon theory multimode fiber only since different modes have various group velocities. Chromatic dispersion: Is named group velocity dispersion (GVD) and occurs in single mode type because of frequency dependence of the group velocity. The sources of chromatic dispersion are [13]: 1- Material dispersion: Occurs because of charles variation on account of refractive index of gordon allport theory core as a function of wavelength and takes place even when different wavelengths pass at same path.

2- Waveguide dispersion: in general, any optical signal travels through the optical fiber; practically eighty percent of optical power is confined inside the Character Genetics and Environment, core and gordon, rest of the power into cladding. Absorption is other type of loss that may affect the light propagation. Is Equally Genetics Essay. This type comes when some molecule of the hydroxide anion OH. which is called hydrogen water molecules are combined in gordon allport silica fiber during manufacturing process. Because OH anion of Essay on The Internet: water can absorb light at 950nm, 1240nm and 1380nm but this absorption is gordon less at psychology rieger higher wavelength. Practically, it can be avoided by changing the transmitting wavelength to 1550nm because the theory, attenuation reduced from 0.5 dB/km at1300nm to 0.001db/km at the audiolingual method 1550nm [15]. Since fiber cable is considered practically as an imperfect cylinder and perfectly without constant physical dimensions, the lack resulting from the manufacturing process are the causes for the differences in the cylindrical geometry. This difference also leads to what is known birefringence whereby a fiber with birefringence causes a propagating pulse to lose the balance between the polarization components. This leads to a point where different polarization components pass at different velocities creating pulse-spread, and gordon allport theory, this spread is polarization mode dispersion PMD [1]. Generally, modern fiber-optic communication systems contain an optical transmitter, amplifiers, and receiver.

Transmitter is used to charles realism, convert an electrical signal into an optical signal to send into the optical fiber, and use multiple kinds of gordon amplifiers to recover and boost the weak optical signals that experience from different loses that mentioned before. At the end of optical fiber and before optical signals reach to the audiolingual, destination an optical receiver is used to detect and convert signal to an electrical signal. The information transmitted is typically digital information generated by theory, computers, telephone systems, and cable television companies. The most widely used optical transmitters are semiconductor devices like laser diodes and light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Method. The main difference between LEDs and laser diodes is that LEDs produce incoherent light output, whereas laser diodes produce directional coherent light output. When it in optical communication, it is necessary be efficient, supply high optical output power, compact, and reliable, when operating in an optimal wavelength range, directly modulated at high frequencies [16]. Commonly, optical communications LEDs are made from gallium arsenide (GaAs) or Indium gallium arsenide phosphide (InGaAsP). Since InGaAsP LEDs work at a longer wavelength than GaAs LEDs (1.3 micrometers vs. 0.81-0.87 micrometers), both output spectrum, while equivalent in energy is broader in wavelength terms by 1.7.

The spectrum width of LEDs is function to higher fiber dispersion, and that leads limit their bit rate-distance relationship. LEDs are used with local area network applications with bit rates of 10-100 Mbit/s and transmission distances of a few kilometers, local-area WDM (Wavelength-Division Multiplexing) networks with multimode fiber cable since this type of fiber accepts large angle light [15]. Laser diodes are frequently directly modulated because the allport, light output is controlled by a current applied to the device. A photodetector, typically is a semiconductor-based photodiode, is the main component in the optical receiver which uses photoelectric effect to rieger, convert light source into electrical signal. There are different types of photodetector, the first type was made from Indium gallium arsenide, then several type follows the first generation like p-n photodiodes, p-i-n photodiodes and allport, Metal-semiconductor-Metal (MSM) photodetectors which are used for circuit integration in generators and wavelength-division multiplex as a result of their stability [17].

A converters (Optical to electrical) are usually connected with a limiting amplifier and a transimpedance amplifier to produce a digital signal ( electrical domain) from the incoming optical signal, which may be attenuated and and Environment, distorted during travelling through the fiber optic cable. Before the data is passed on, additional signal processing applied like clock recovery from data (CDR) achieved by a phase-locked loop [17]. Because of the limitation of nonamplified fiber span to approximately 200 km for bit rate in the Gbs, using optical amplifiers in the optical networks are very important to work perfectly. Optical amplifier used in three different places along fiber transmission link. Amplifiers operating as power amplifier, their function are to amplify the power signal before it is theory launched on the line to extend the transmission distance before further amplification is required. As line amplifier are placed at particular points along the transmission link to restore the signal to its original power level. Finally, as a preamplifier, it increases the realism, signal level at the input of an optical receiver to improve the detection performance for the signal [12]. Optical amplifier has same functions of electrical amplifier or repeater. Optical Repeater is known 3R generator and that means it reshapes, reamplifys and retimes the optical signal but after O-E-O signal conversion. In contrast the optical amplifiers amplify data stream totally in the optical domain and gordon allport theory, that make them entirely transparent to signals and protocols [1].

There are three types of animal testing persuasive essays amplifier: Doped fiber amplifiers: they amplify light at specific wavelength and make use the gordon, cores of Essay on The Internet: fibers which are doped with elements. They amplify an allport, optical signal by a doped optical fiber as a gain medium. Doping fibers with the rare earth erbium are effective at wavelength range between 1520 and 1560 nm. Testing Persuasive. Erbium doped fiber amplifiers or EDFAs ( Figure 1.6) is common example for doped fiber amplifier and has gain up to 30 db and that means it outs 1000 photon for gordon each 1 photon in [16]. In past before EDFA deployment, individual wavelength through fiber had regenerated one time each 40 km long by using expensive electronic device and increased to 1500-2500 km long when use more recent EDFA system [7]. Figure 1.7: Erbium doped fiber amplifiers [1]. Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers: These types make use of an adapted semi-conductor laser. When photons of light pass through the active region some of extra energy of electrons loses in the form that more photons match the rieger, initial wavelength. So any optical signal travel through the gordon, active region is boosted as it can be seen in figure 1.7 [18].

Figure 1.8: Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers [18] Raman Amplifier: the amplification process is the audiolingual taken place by nonlinear interaction. between a pump laser and allport theory, the signal within an optical fiber. Abnormal Psychology. Two types Raman amplifier has: distributed Raman amplifier and allport theory, lumped Raman amplifier: A distributed type uses the transmission fiber as the gain medium by multiplexing a signal wavelength with a pump wavelength. Lumped Raman amplifiers use shorter, dedicated length of fiber for amplification process. The gain providing by Raman amplifier depends mainly on the optical frequencies, polarization and pump frequency. It is noticed from the figure 1.8 that maximum gain when pump-signal frequency difference 13.2 THz [12]. Figure 1.9: Raman Amplifier gain [12].

The main advantages of Raman amplifier are possibility to amplify variable wavelength and can be used to extend the Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers EDFAs and it is psychology rieger used with single mode fiber. But high pump power needs is the main disadvantage of Raman amplifier also the allport, need of complex gain control and Essay on The Internet: The World’s, noise are two points add to the disadvantages [19]. Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) Generally, multiplexing term refers to techniques which combine multiple signals for transmission over a scarce resource. The principle idea is to divide a shared resource into equal smaller parts to be used in parallel to achieve a specific task. In this method, the utilization of resource is multiplied without expanding the gordon allport theory, resource itself. Multiplexing technique is also applied in optical networks by combining many fibers into one cable. Animal Essays. TIME Division Multiplexing (TDM) is prominent example of that method [1]. Wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) is a method of theory multiplying the available optical fibers capacity by using parallel channels, each channel uses a dedicated wavelength of light as it cleared in figure 1.9. WDM and Frequency Division multiplexing ( FDM) both share same principles, where WDM relates to light wavelength in fiber cable FDM corresponds to analogue transmission but WDM is charles dickens realism more reliable than FDM since it is totally passive.

The main advantage of allport WDM is increasing a transmission speed without increasing the capacity of the connections, and that done by animal testing persuasive essays, dividing a high bandwidth bitstream into several time slots which each one carries traffic on a lower bitrate. In other words, upgrading to higher capacity does not need to change the backbone of gordon allport theory fiber optic network but just needs to implement WDM and on The Internet: The World’s New Journal, upgrade the transmitters and the receivers of the network. This technique allows new optical advance generation to be applied without laying new fiber [20]. Usually, WDM system based on light spectrum between 1460 nm to 1625 nm because optical signals experience relatively low attenuation at this region as shown in figure 1.1x. This region is theory divided into 3 regions: short band (S-band), congenital band (C-band), and Facebook, a Useful of Socialization Essay, long wavelength band (L-band). Most of WDM systems use C-band and extended to use L and S bands to increase capacity of gordon allport theory system [7].

Figure 1.1x WDM regin. Figure 1.10: Wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) Before proceeding to charles, examine different type of WDM, it will be necessary to summarize the theory, usage of WDM technology advantages: Upgrade the capacity of current fiber networks without adding new fibers. Add transparency feature to optical channels since they can transport any transmission format: analog, digital at different a synchronize bit rate.

Add scalability feature since any additional demand, it is required to buy and The World’s New Journal, install equipment at the fibers end. Use wavelengths for routing and switching and that adds another dimension to time and space. Depends on wavelength pattern, WDM is divided into two types: Dense WDM (DWDM): It is chosen for transporting very large amounts of data traffic over long distances in the telecommunication system. From the size of data that can carry it is considered an optimal way of combining advanced technology functionality with cost efficient transport. DWDM able to transport 76-96 lambdas (channels) in allport theory conventional band (C-band) in method the 1550nm region with 50 GHz spacing and supports 120-160 wavelengths (called ultra-dense WDM) in the L-band with 12.5 GHz spacing. In general, DWDM channels can carry data with 10-100 Gb/s as a bit rates and can reach to 3000km as maximum distance and in transoceanic system, transparent link can reach up to 20,000km.

Recently, commercial systems have ability to allport, transport accumulated traffic capacity in the range of 100 Tb/s [21]. The long distances that DWDM can reach comes from the advantage of the operating window of the EDFA Amplifier to boost the optical channels [22]. Coarse WDM (CWDM): it is similar to DWDM by using light wavelength to send signals over Essay on The, a single fiber. It uses 20nm wavelength spacing and gordon theory, it is wider than DWDM and realism, that is why CDWM is less costly than DWDM. In addition CDWM supplies only eight [23]or 16 out of theory 18 lambdas (in c- band) between any two CDWM multiplexers, which are usually passive, over a pair of a Useful Means of Socialization Essay single fiber. Wavelengths of CDWDM can carry payload 1.2, 25, 4, 5, or 10 Gb/s which [21]. The maximum distance link that CWDM supports is 100km and that because of gordon allport CWDM uses a specific wavelength range that cannot be amplified by EDFA amplifier . CWDM is suitable for low-latency and high bandwidth but it is low scalable, complex installation, cost, and operation than DWDM [23]. WDM enabling equipment. DWDM systems consist of several main components as show in figure : Figure 1.11 DWDM system structure.

Optical Transmitters and Transponders. To increase the number of wavelengths in testing persuasive essays 1550nm band and minimize the signal impairments effects like dispersion, the optical transmitter should be very high resolution, accuracy narrow-band lasers. Such lasers allow close channel spacing. The optical transmitter lessens loss of power and attenuation which to allow optical signal to pass long distances through fiber optic and a high level of signal integrity. Optical amplifiers can be used by these lasers to amplify the gordon allport theory, signal strength to extend the transmission distance [24] [14].

The design of the laser systems should be: Follow the ITU-T wavelength frequencies for interoperability and component selection issues [24]. Laser system should be tunable to control the emission wavelength on demand [9]. Some of DWDM systems use a component called a transponder, which uses optical-to electrical-to optical(O-E-O) conversion to convert a broadband optical signal to animal testing essays, specific wavelengths (1330nm or 15550nm to a precision narrow-band wavelength). This conversion is necessary for devices which are not equipped with precision narrowband lasers to multiplex onto a single fiber, like ATM switches, routers [24]. They used to amplify optical signals to decrease the effects of power loss and attenuation that coming from theory passing light pulses through optical fiber. Use the animal, optical amplifier or not in the DWDM depends on the optical transmitter technology and fiber optic long because not all DWDM network types need to boost the optical signals before sending since the gordon theory, signal reaches to fiber ends terminal at level which photodetector at receiving side can detect and recover. The Audiolingual Method. Additionally, optical amplifier technology is the key to achieving the high-volume transmission, DWDM high speed to occur [24]. Optical Multiplexers and Demultiplexers.

Optical multiplexers and demultiplexers are very important devices and they are considered a core of DWDM technology. Optical multiplexers are used to gordon theory, combine transmit optical signals that have different wavelengths into a composite signal which have boosts by optical amplifier if need to amplify before sending onto method single optical amplifier. Optical demultiplexrs have opposite function to multiplexer by splitting the gordon allport, composite optical signals into their component wavelengths at the receiving terminal [25]. The Audiolingual. [14] Typically, optical multiplexers are passive devices, and work like high precision prisms to split up the individual colors of the DWDM signal [24]. Optical receivers are used to detect arriving optical signals and gordon, convert them to a suitable signal for method processing by the receiving device [6]. Typically, optical receivers are passive wideband devices that have ability to detect light over wide range of wavelength between 1300 to gordon theory, 1550 nm region [24]. Remote Optical add/remove Dense multiplexer (ROADM) Remote Optical Add/Drop Multiplexers (ROADMs) are essential devices in a Useful of Socialization DWDM for adding or dropping specific wavelengths (channels) from a fiber that is dense wave division multiplexed and bypass other remaining wavelengths. Usually, they are installed in a multi wavelength fiber span [7]. ( Figure 1.12: Remote Optical add/remove Dense multiplexer (ROADM) [7]. Hierarchy of optical network. Geographically, optical networks are segmented into four tiers, each one depends on the number of users served, demand capacity, geographic area which the tier covers.

Figure 1.13 presents 4 tiers that optical network serves: metro access, metro-core, regional, and backbone tier [7]. Metro access partition is at the network edge where the end-users can exchange traffic (collects/distributes) with the network; it serves 10-100 users with few kilometers distance long. The main reason to build this network is to serve the end-user in direct way [26]. Moving up the allport, hierarchy, metro-core tier aggregates the animal, traffic from thousands of customers that relate to access networks and interconnects number of central offices of telecommunication or cable distribution head-end office by passing 10s to100s of kilometers. Jump to regional networks which interconnect multiple of metro-core networks, each network in this tier is responsible for carrying portion of traffic that passes several metro-core areas. The entire regional networks serve about100s to 1000s of users who cover hundred to allport, a thousand kilometers [7]. Last tier in the four-layer is Backbone (long-haul) networks which span 1000s of charles kilometers and share millions of users because of carrying the inter-regional networks traffic [27].

Figure 1.13: Hierarchy of allport optical network [7]. There is other network architecture based on three-layer as in persuasive essays figure 1.14. Gordon. Application layer is the psychology rieger, top of this model which contains voice, video, and data services. The next layer is called intermediate layer which based on allport theory electronic technology such as Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) switches, SONET/SDH switches, and charles, IP routers. These electronic devices pass their payloads to Optical layer (configurable WDM layer) to gordon allport, be carried into wavelengths and a Useful, routed dynamically through optical nodes by using WDM technology and gordon allport theory, optical switches [7]. Figure 1.14: three layer model [7]. According to [12], multiwave optical network can be divided into two layers: logical layer and physical layer and each layer is expanded to sub- layers as introduced in animal testing figure 1.15. Logical layers can be acted as a packet/cell-switched client logical network (LN) and all electronic components are contained in this layer, while physical layers contain optical components and acts as a server for only one logical network or more. The interface between two layers in gordon allport term of hardware can be noticed in figure 1.16 which is located at testing persuasive essays external port of Network Access Station (NAS). NAS is considered as a cut line between optical and electronic domain and each NAS connects to Optical Network Node (ONN) via one or more pairs of gordon allport theory fiber which is called access link. Physical layer is spitted to: Optical layer and Essay, Fiber layer.

Optical layer focuses on generation and transmission of optical connection, routing, and survivability and has four sub-layers: Optical/waveband path, ?? channel , Optical connection, and Transmission channel. Logical connection (LC) is established between external ports (electronic domain) of two NASs through optical nodes and gordon theory, carries logical signal in electronic format like IP packets, ATM cells, or analog video. Every LC is carried by what is called a Transmission channel that is used to convert logical signal in electronic domain (logical layer) to transmission signal (Optical domain) which is of Socialization Essay part of optical layer (figure 1.15). The conversion process usually happens in the transmission processor (TP) that exists in NAS with taking into account the requirements of the optical device that transports it for example the gordon theory, bandwidth of the psychology, optical transmitter (OT), optical receiver (OR), and gordon allport, spectrum channel. Optical connection (OC) is a connection established according to the organized actions between nodes (ONN) and stations (NAS).

It is used to tune the transceiver of NASs to the assigned wavelength of the ??-channel. Fiber layer encompassing the features of the supporting the infrastructure of Means Essay fiber. The fiber layer is subdivided further into the fiber link sublayer and fiber section sublayer. Virtual connection (VC) is gordon created between two end systems and based on logical path LC which is sublayer from logical layer. In this case Logical path has two logical connections (LC) terminated by Logical Switching Nod (LSN). Figure 1.15: Optical network layer [12]. Figure 1.16: Layered view of optical network connections [12]. Figure 1.17:Typical connection with multiple hope [12]. Optical network concepts. A network using fiber optic as a transmission medium provides a connections for users to enable communication between them by transporting data from a source to a destination. Essay On The Internet:. To perform this process, it requires an intermediate stage which data can be processed for control operation and follows the essentials of gordon allport theory optical networking functions.

For successful transportation of optical signals, it essentially follows the methodology of interconnection different optical devices altogether and operational procedures. The structure of simple optical network can be seen in the figure 1.18 which depicts number of the audiolingual interconnected nodes with link of optical fibers. Each optical node may act as a transceiver unit with multifunction. It can receive, transmit and processing/switching (if necessary) the gordon theory, traffic. Generally, the physical connections of optical fiber is point-to-point when connects nodes together. Such links are populated by one or more pairs of fiber and each fiber in pair carries traffic in one direction (unidirectional) or in both directions (bidirectional) and animal testing, last one is not common [7]. Logical link can be established by using fiber links when optical signal traverses through one or many nodes (uninterrupted optical signal) to reach the destination. Ideally, a single wavelength ?? is assigned to each channel (link) to theory, travel from source to destination across multiple optical nodes (uninterrupted link). Lightpath is a term used to refer to the signal carried on a specific wavelength, data can be transmitted over these lightpaths in a Useful time of the connections set up and apply controlling mechanism to validate the whole data transmission between each transmitting and gordon theory, receiving node [28].

As a result, optical transport networks are considered circuit-switched which preconfigure optical circuit path to the bitstreams directly from charles dickens realism source to destination between nodes. Bitrate of gordon allport any bitstream is determined by the transmitter and receiver devices. Although there are different devices operate on different bitrate available in the market such 2.5Gb/s or 10Gb/s, different bitrate circuits can be used with each other on the same WDM network because of Genetics its transparently for different bitrates. This important property of DWM is called grooming which means combining different lower bitrate bitstreams into gordon one with higher bitrate as a shared connection part [9]. Figure 1.18: Optical network structure [28]. Optical network node and switching elements. An optical node plays main role in the audiolingual WDM network since it achieves several tasks depending upon network requirements and its type.

Sending, receiving, resending or redirecting optical signals to nodes neighboring connected nodes are the main functions of optical node. It can also function as a router or a switch when resend or redirect optical signals to desired networking nodes, and as a router when directs an input signal wavelength to a specified output port [28]. When the gordon allport theory, desired signal can be isolated from an incoming multiplexed signal and psychology rieger, routed by the router to a specific port then it is called wavelength router. But if the allport theory, wavelength of the testing persuasive essays, isolated signal is changed before routing to the output port, then router is known wavelength converting router and in other case is allport wavelength routing switch( optical switch) in case of switching the wavelength to the complaint signal wavelength [29]. MEMS methods connecting arrays of micromirrors that can deflect an optical signal to the appropriate receiver. Search our thousands of essays:

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