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bastiat essays Found on the site US History resources in the translation by Dean Russell for cosmopolitan market the Foundation for Economic Education . Reformatted by Francois-Rene Rideau for impact . Note that the headlines were introduced by the FEE translation, and cosmopolitan market were not present in the original text in of Medical Marijuana, French La loi When a reviewer wishes to cosmopolitan give special recognition to a book, he predicts that it will still be read a hundred years from on learning, now. The Law , first published as a pamphlet in market, June, 1850, is already more than a hundred years old. And because its truths are eternal, it will still be read when another century has passed. Our Transforming? Frederic Bastiat (1801-1850) was a French economist, statesman, and cosmopolitan market author. He did most of his writing during the years just before and immediately following the Revolution of February 1848. This was the period when France was rapidly turning to complete socialism. As a Deputy to the Legislative Assembly, Mr. Impact Of Technology? Bastiat was studying and cosmopolitan explaining each socialist fallacy as it appeared.

And he explained how socialism must inevitably degenerate into of Medical Marijuana, communism. But most of his countrymen chose to ignore his logic. Cosmopolitan? The Law is results revolution here presented again because the same situation exists in market, America today as in the France of 1848. The same socialist-communist ideas and plans that were then adopted in France are now sweeping America. Of Technology On Learning? The explanations and market arguments then advanced against socialism by annabelle lee sex, Mr. Bastiat are word for cosmopolitan market word equally valid today. His ideas deserve a serious hearing. The Foundation for Economic Education, Inc. Irvington-on-Hudson, New York 10533.

This translation of The Law was done by Great Britain American Colonies, Dean Russell of The Foundation staff. His objective was an cosmopolitan accurate rendering of revolution, Mr. Bastiat's words and ideas into twentieth century, idiomatic English. A nineteenth century translation of The Law, made in 1853 in cosmopolitan market, England by an unidentified contemporary of Mr. Bastiat, was of much value as a check against this translation. In addition, Dean Russell had his work reviewed by Our Transforming Economy, Bertrand de Jouvenel, the market noted French economist, historian, and author who is Our Transforming Economy Essay also thoroughly familiar with the cosmopolitan market English language.

While Mr. de Jouvenel offered many valuable corrections and Essay about Britain and the Colonies suggestions, it should be clearly understood that Dr. Russell bears full responsibility for the translation. The law perverted! And the police powers of the state perverted along with it! The law, I say, not only turned from its proper purpose but made to cosmopolitan market follow an entirely contrary purpose! The law become the weapon of of Medical Marijuana, every kind of greed! Instead of checking crime, the cosmopolitan law itself guilty of the impact evils it is cosmopolitan market supposed to results of russian punish! If this is true, it is a serious fact, and moral duty requires me to cosmopolitan market call the attention of my fellow-citizens to annabelle it. We hold from market, God the Isolation Democracy gift which includes all others. This gift is life physical, intellectual, and market moral life.

But life cannot maintain itself alone. The Creator of life has entrusted us with the responsibility of annabelle lee sex, preserving, developing, and cosmopolitan market perfecting it. In order that we may accomplish this, He has provided us with a collection of marvelous faculties. And He has put us in the midst of Our Transforming Essay, a variety of cosmopolitan market, natural resources. By the application of our faculties to Essay about Great and the these natural resources we convert them into products, and use them.

This process is necessary in cosmopolitan market, order that life may run its appointed course. Life, faculties, production in other words, individuality, liberty, property this is man. Our Transforming Economy Essay? And in spite of the cosmopolitan cunning of artful political leaders, these three gifts from The History of Birth Control and Society Essay, God precede all human legislation, and market are superior to it. Life, liberty, and impact of technology on learning property do not exist because men have made laws. Cosmopolitan Market? On the contrary, it was the fact that life, liberty, and property existed beforehand that caused men to make laws in the first place. Essay? What, then, is law? It is the cosmopolitan collective organization of the of technology individual right to lawful defense. Each of us has a natural right from God to defend his person, his liberty, and market his property. These are the three basic requirements of life, and the preservation of any one of of Birth and Society Essay, them is completely dependent upon cosmopolitan, the preservation of the other two.

For what are our faculties but the Cuba’s Isolation Democracy Essay extension of our individuality? And what is cosmopolitan property but an extension of Britain, our faculties? If every person has the cosmopolitan right to defend even by Purposes of Medical Essay, force his person, his liberty, and market his property, then it follows that a group of men have the right to organize and support a common force to protect these rights constantly. Thus the Economy principle of collective right its reason for cosmopolitan existing, its lawfulness is based on individual right. And the common force that protects this collective right cannot logically have any other purpose or any other mission than that for which it acts as a substitute. What Motive? Thus, since an market individual cannot lawfully use force against the person, liberty, or property of another individual, then the common force for the same reason cannot lawfully be used to results revolution destroy the person, liberty, or property of individuals or groups. Such a perversion of cosmopolitan, force would be, in Cuba’s Isolation Democracy, both cases, contrary to our premise. Force has been given to us to market defend our own individual rights. Democracy? Who will dare to say that force has been given to cosmopolitan us to destroy the on learning equal rights of market, our brothers? Since no individual acting separately can lawfully use force to results of russian revolution destroy the rights of market, others, does it not logically follow that the same principle also applies to what the common force that is nothing more than the market organized combination of the of Medical Essay individual forces? If this is true, then nothing can be more evident than this: The law is the organization of the natural right of lawful defense.

It is the substitution of cosmopolitan, a common force for individual forces. And this common force is to do only what the individual forces have a natural and lawful right to do: to protect persons, liberties, and properties; to maintain the right of each, and to cause justice to what is profit reign over us all. If a nation were founded on this basis, it seems to me that order would prevail among the people, in market, thought as well as in Our Transforming, deed. Market? It seems to me that such a nation would have the most simple, easy to accept, economical, limited, nonoppressive, just, and American Colonies enduring government imaginable whatever its political form might be. Cosmopolitan Market? Under such an administration, everyone would understand that he possessed all the privileges as well as all the responsibilities of his existence. No one would have any argument with government, provided that his person was respected, his labor was free, and the fruits of his labor were protected against of russian all unjust attack. When successful, we would not have to thank the market state for our success. Our Transforming Economy Essay? And, conversely, when unsuccessful, we would no more think of blaming the state for our misfortune than would the farmers blame the cosmopolitan market state because of Cuba’s from Democracy, hail or frost.

The state would be felt only by the invaluable blessings of cosmopolitan market, safety provided by of russian, this concept of government. It can be further stated that, thanks to the non-intervention of the state in private affairs, our wants and their satisfactions would develop themselves in cosmopolitan market, a logical manner. We would not see poor families seeking literary instruction before they have bread. We would not see cities populated at the expense of of russian revolution, rural districts, nor rural districts at the expense of cosmopolitan, cities. We would not see the great displacements of Essay Great and the American, capital, labor, and population that are caused by legislative decisions. The sources of our existence are made uncertain and market precarious by these state-created displacements. And, furthermore, these acts burden the government with increased responsibilities. But, unfortunately, law by Economy Essay, no means confines itself to its proper functions. And when it has exceeded its proper functions, it has not done so merely in some inconsequential and cosmopolitan market debatable matters.

The law has gone further than this; it has acted in direct opposition to its own purpose. Essay About Great Britain American Colonies? The law has been used to cosmopolitan market destroy its own objective: It has been applied to annihilating the Democracy justice that it was supposed to maintain; to limiting and destroying rights which its real purpose was to respect. The law has placed the collective force at cosmopolitan, the disposal of the unscrupulous who wish, without risk, to exploit the person, liberty, and property of impact of technology, others. It has converted plunder into a right, in order to protect plunder. And it has converted lawful defense into a crime, in order to cosmopolitan market punish lawful defense. How has this perversion of the is profit law been accomplished? And what have been the results? The law has been perverted by the influence of two entirely different causes: stupid greed and false philanthropy. Let us speak of the first.

Self-preservation and market self-development are common aspirations among all people. And if everyone enjoyed the Cuba’s unrestricted use of cosmopolitan, his faculties and the free disposition of the fruits of what, his labor, social progress would be ceaseless, uninterrupted, and cosmopolitan unfailing. But there is impact on learning also another tendency that is cosmopolitan common among people. When they can, they wish to live and The History Control Essay prosper at the expense of others. This is no rash accusation. Nor does it come from a gloomy and uncharitable spirit. The annals of market, history bear witness to the truth of Purposes of Medical Marijuana Essay, it: the incessant wars, mass migrations, religious persecutions, universal slavery, dishonesty in cosmopolitan market, commerce, and revolution monopolies. This fatal desire has its origin in the very nature of man in market, that primitive, universal, and insuppressible instinct that impels him to revolution satisfy his desires with the cosmopolitan market least possible pain. Man can live and satisfy his wants only by is profit motive, ceaseless labor; by market, the ceaseless application of about and the American Colonies, his faculties to natural resources.

This process is the origin of property. But it is market also true that a man may live and satisfy his wants by seizing and annabelle lee sex consuming the market products of the The History Essay labor of cosmopolitan, others. This process is the Cuba’s Democracy Essay origin of market, plunder. About Colonies? Now since man is naturally inclined to cosmopolitan avoid pain and since labor is pain in impact of technology, itself it follows that men will resort to plunder whenever plunder is easier than work. History shows this quite clearly. And under these conditions, neither religion nor morality can stop it. When, then, does plunder stop? It stops when it becomes more painful and more dangerous than labor. It is evident, then, that the market proper purpose of law is to use the power of of Birth Control and Society, its collective force to stop this fatal tendency to cosmopolitan market plunder instead of to work. All the and the American measures of the law should protect property and punish plunder. But, generally, the law is made by one man or one class of men.

And since law cannot operate without the sanction and cosmopolitan market support of a dominating force, this force must be entrusted to those who make the laws. This fact, combined with the motive fatal tendency that exists in cosmopolitan market, the heart of motive, man to satisfy his wants with the cosmopolitan least possible effort, explains the almost universal perversion of the law. Thus it is easy to understand how law, instead of checking injustice, becomes the invincible weapon of injustice. It is easy to Our Transforming Economy Essay understand why the law is used by cosmopolitan market, the legislator to destroy in varying degrees among the rest of the people, their personal independence by slavery, their liberty by oppression, and their property by plunder. Results Of Russian? This is done for cosmopolitan market the benefit of the person who makes the law, and in impact of technology, proportion to the power that he holds. Men naturally rebel against the injustice of which they are victims. Thus, when plunder is organized by law for the profit of cosmopolitan market, those who make the lee sex law, all the cosmopolitan market plundered classes try somehow to enter by peaceful or revolutionary means into Great, the making of laws.

According to cosmopolitan their degree of enlightenment, these plundered classes may propose one of two entirely different purposes when they attempt to attain political power: Either they may wish to from Democracy Essay stop lawful plunder, or they may wish to share in cosmopolitan, it. Woe to what the nation when this latter purpose prevails among the mass victims of cosmopolitan market, lawful plunder when they, in Our Transforming Economy Essay, turn, seize the cosmopolitan market power to make laws! Until that happens, the annabelle lee sex few practice lawful plunder upon market, the many, a common practice where the right to of Medical participate in the making of market, law is limited to Cuba’s from Essay a few persons. But then, participation in cosmopolitan market, the making of law becomes universal. And then, men seek to balance their conflicting interests by universal plunder. Instead of rooting out the Cuba’s Democracy injustices found in society, they make these injustices general. As soon as the plundered classes gain political power, they establish a system of reprisals against other classes.

They do not abolish legal plunder. (This objective would demand more enlightenment than they possess.) Instead, they emulate their evil predecessors by participating in this legal plunder, even though it is against their own interests. It is as if it were necessary, before a reign of justice appears, for everyone to suffer a cruel retribution some for cosmopolitan market their evilness, and some for their lack of understanding. It is impossible to introduce into Democracy, society a greater change and market a greater evil than this: the is profit motive conversion of the cosmopolitan law into an instrument of plunder. What are the consequences of such a perversion? It would require volumes to describe them all. Essay Great And The American Colonies? Thus we must content ourselves with pointing out the cosmopolitan market most striking. Is Profit? In the first place, it erases from everyone's conscience the distinction between justice and cosmopolitan market injustice. Of Birth And Society? No society can exist unless the laws are respected to a certain degree.

The safest way to market make laws respected is to make them respectable. When law and morality contradict each other, the citizen has the cruel alternative of either losing his moral sense or losing his respect for the law. These two evils are of results of russian revolution, equal consequence, and it would be difficult for a person to choose between them. The nature of market, law is to maintain justice. This is so much the case that, in what motive, the minds of the people, law and justice are one and the same thing. There is in cosmopolitan market, all of Isolation Democracy, us a strong disposition to believe that anything lawful is also legitimate. This belief is so widespread that many persons have erroneously held that things are just because law makes them so. Cosmopolitan Market? Thus, in order to make plunder appear just and sacred to The History and Society many consciences, it is only necessary for cosmopolitan the law to decree and sanction it. Control? Slavery, restrictions, and monopoly find defenders not only among those who profit from them but also among those who suffer from cosmopolitan market, them. Our Transforming Economy? If you suggest a doubt as to the morality of cosmopolitan market, these institutions, it is boldly said that You are a dangerous innovator, a utopian, a theorist, a subversive; you would shatter the foundation upon of Birth Control, which society rests. If you lecture upon morality or upon political science, there will be found official organizations petitioning the government in this vein of thought: That science no longer be taught exclusively from the point of view of free trade (of liberty, of property, and of justice) as has been the cosmopolitan market case until now, but also, in the future, science is to Cuba’s be especially taught from the cosmopolitan viewpoint of the annabelle facts and cosmopolitan market laws that regulate French industry (facts and The History Control laws which are contrary to cosmopolitan market liberty, to Control and Society Essay property, and to cosmopolitan justice). That, in government-endowed teaching positions, the annabelle professor rigorously refrain from endangering in the slightest degree the respect due to the laws now in force. [1] Thus, if there exists a law which sanctions slavery or monopoly, oppression or robbery, in any form whatever, it must not even be mentioned.

For how can it be mentioned without damaging the respect which it inspires? Still further, morality and market political economy must be taught from the Economy point of view of this law; from the supposition that it must be a just law merely because it is market a law. What Is Profit? Another effect of this tragic perversion of the market law is that it gives an about Colonies exaggerated importance to political passions and conflicts, and to politics in general. I could prove this assertion in a thousand ways. But, by way of illustration, I shall limit myself to cosmopolitan a subject that has lately occupied the what motive minds of everyone: universal suffrage. The followers of Rousseau's school of cosmopolitan, thought who consider themselves far advanced, but whom I consider twenty centuries behind the motive times will not agree with me on cosmopolitan, this. But universal suffrage using the word in its strictest sense is Cuba’s from not one of those sacred dogmas which it is cosmopolitan market a crime to lee sex examine or doubt. In fact, serious objections may be made to cosmopolitan market universal suffrage. In the The History and Society Essay first place the word universal conceals a gross fallacy. For example, there are 36 million people in France.

Thus, to make the right of suffrage universal, there should be 36 million voters. But the cosmopolitan most extended system permits only 9 million people to vote. Purposes Marijuana? Three persons out of four are excluded. And more than this, they are excluded by the fourth. This fourth person advances the principle of cosmopolitan, incapacity as his reason for Marijuana excluding the cosmopolitan others. Of Birth? Universal suffrage means, then, universal suffrage for those who are capable. But there remains this question of fact: Who is capable? Are minors, females, insane persons, and cosmopolitan persons who have committed certain major crimes the only ones to be determined incapable? A closer examination of the subject shows us the what motive motive which causes the cosmopolitan right of suffrage to be based upon of Medical, the supposition of incapacity. The motive is that the elector or voter does not exercise this right for cosmopolitan market himself alone, but for everybody. Impact On Learning? The most extended elective system and the most restricted elective system are alike in this respect.

They differ only in respect to what constitutes incapacity. It is cosmopolitan market not a difference of Essay, principle, but merely a difference of degree. If, as the republicans of cosmopolitan, our present-day Greek and lee sex Roman schools of thought pretend, the cosmopolitan right of Great Britain American, suffrage arrives with one's birth, it would be an injustice for cosmopolitan market adults to of Birth and Society prevent women and children from voting. Cosmopolitan? Why are they prevented? Because they are presumed to be incapable.

And why is incapacity a motive for exclusion? Because it is not the voter alone who suffers the Purposes of Medical Marijuana Essay consequences of his vote; because each vote touches and affects everyone in cosmopolitan, the entire community; because the people in the community have a right to demand some safeguards concerning the acts upon which their welfare and existence depend. I know what might be said in answer to Our Transforming Economy Essay this; what the objections might be. But this is cosmopolitan not the place to exhaust a controversy of this nature. I wish merely to observe here that this controversy over Isolation Democracy Essay, universal suffrage (as well as most other political questions) which agitates, excites, and overthrows nations, would lose nearly all of cosmopolitan, its importance if the law had always been what it ought to be. In fact, if law were restricted to protecting all persons, all liberties, and all properties; if law were nothing more than the organized combination of the individual's right to self defense; if law were the obstacle, the check, the punisher of all oppression and lee sex plunder is market it likely that we citizens would then argue much about the extent of the what franchise? Under these circumstances, is it likely that the extent of the right to vote would endanger that supreme good, the public peace? Is it likely that the excluded classes would refuse to peaceably await the coming of cosmopolitan, their right to about vote? Is it likely that those who had the right to vote would jealously defend their privilege? If the law were confined to its proper functions, everyone's interest in the law would be the cosmopolitan market same.

Is it not clear that, under these circumstances, those who voted could not inconvenience those who did not vote? But on lee sex, the other hand, imagine that this fatal principle has been introduced: Under the pretense of organization, regulation, protection, or encouragement, the law takes property from cosmopolitan market, one person and gives it to another; the law takes the wealth of from Essay, all and cosmopolitan market gives it to a few whether farmers, manufacturers, ship owners, artists, or comedians. Under these circumstances, then certainly every class will aspire to grasp the law, and logically so. The excluded classes will furiously demand their right to vote and The History Essay will overthrow society rather than not to cosmopolitan obtain it. Even beggars and of russian revolution vagabonds will then prove to you that they also have an incontestable title to cosmopolitan vote. They will say to you: We cannot buy wine, tobacco, or salt without paying the of russian revolution tax.

And a part of the tax that we pay is given by law in privileges and subsidies to market men who are richer than we are. Others use the law to raise the prices of Essay about Great Britain American Colonies, bread, meat, iron, or cloth. Thus, since everyone else uses the market law for his own profit, we also would like to Purposes of Medical use the law for our own profit. We demand from the law the market right to relief , which is the about Great Britain American poor man's plunder. Cosmopolitan? To obtain this right, we also should be voters and results of russian revolution legislators in order that we may organize Beggary on a grand scale for our own class, as you have organized Protection on a grand scale for your class.

Now don't tell us beggars that you will act for us, and then toss us, as Mr. Mimerel proposes, 600,000 francs to keep us quiet, like throwing us a bone to gnaw. We have other claims. Cosmopolitan Market? And anyway, we wish to bargain for ourselves as other classes have bargained for themselves! And what can you say to of russian answer that argument! As long as it is admitted that the law may be diverted from its true purpose that it may violate property instead of cosmopolitan, protecting it then everyone will want to participate in making the impact law, either to cosmopolitan market protect himself against plunder or to what is profit use it for plunder. Political questions will always be prejudicial, dominant, and all-absorbing. There will be fighting at cosmopolitan market, the door of the Legislative Palace, and the struggle within will be no less furious. To know this, it is Cuba’s Isolation Democracy Essay hardly necessary to market examine what transpires in is profit, the French and English legislatures; merely to cosmopolitan understand the issue is to know the answer.

Is there any need to offer proof that this odious perversion of the is profit law is a perpetual source of market, hatred and discord; that it tends to Essay destroy society itself? If such proof is needed, look at the United States [in 1850]. There is no country in the world where the market law is annabelle lee sex kept more within its proper domain: the protection of every person's liberty and cosmopolitan market property. As a consequence of this, there appears to Cuba’s Isolation be no country in the world where the market social order rests on a firmer foundation. But even in the United States, there are two issues and only two that have always endangered the public peace.

What are these two issues? They are slavery and Essay about Great Colonies tariffs. These are the only two issues where, contrary to the general spirit of the republic of the United States, law has assumed the character of market, a plunderer. Slavery is is profit a violation, by law, of liberty. Cosmopolitan? The protective tariff is a violation, by what motive, law, of property. It is a most remarkable fact that this double legal crime a sorrowful inheritance from the Old World should be the only issue which can, and perhaps will, lead to the ruin of the Union. Market? It is of Birth indeed impossible to imagine, at market, the very heart of on learning, a society, a more astounding fact than this: The law has come to be an instrument of cosmopolitan market, injustice . And if this fact brings terrible consequences to of Medical Marijuana Essay the United States where the proper purpose of the cosmopolitan law has been perverted only in about Great Britain American Colonies, the instances of cosmopolitan market, slavery and tariffs what must be the consequences in Europe, where the perversion of the law is about Great Britain and the American Colonies a principle; a system? Mr. Market? de Montalembert [politician and writer] adopting the thought contained in a famous proclamation by annabelle lee sex, Mr. Cosmopolitan Market? Carlier, has said: We must make war against socialism.

According to the definition of Purposes of Medical, socialism advanced by Mr. Charles Dupin, he meant: We must make war against plunder. Market? But of impact of technology on learning, what plunder was he speaking? For there are two kinds of plunder: legal and illegal. I do not think that illegal plunder, such as theft or swindling which the penal code defines, anticipates, and punishes can be called socialism. Cosmopolitan Market? It is Isolation from Democracy Essay not this kind of plunder that systematically threatens the market foundations of of Medical Essay, society. Anyway, the cosmopolitan market war against this kind of plunder has not waited for the command of these gentlemen.

The war against of technology on learning illegal plunder has been fought since the beginning of the world. Cosmopolitan? Long before the Revolution of of russian, February 1848 long before the appearance even of socialism itself France had provided police, judges, gendarmes, prisons, dungeons, and scaffolds for the purpose of fighting illegal plunder. The law itself conducts this war, and it is my wish and cosmopolitan market opinion that the law should always maintain this attitude toward plunder. But it does not always do this. Sometimes the impact law defends plunder and participates in it. Thus the cosmopolitan beneficiaries are spared the Essay shame, danger, and scruple which their acts would otherwise involve.

Sometimes the cosmopolitan law places the results of russian revolution whole apparatus of judges, police, prisons, and gendarmes at the service of the plunderers, and treats the victim when he defends himself as a criminal. In short, there is cosmopolitan a legal plunder , and it is of this, no doubt, that Mr. de Montalembert speaks. Essay Colonies? This legal plunder may be only an isolated stain among the cosmopolitan market legislative measures of the of Birth Control and Society Essay people. If so, it is best to wipe it out with a minimum of speeches and market denunciations and in spite of the uproar of the vested interests. But how is Economy this legal plunder to be identified? Quite simply. Market? See if the law takes from some persons what belongs to them, and gives it to Purposes of Medical Marijuana other persons to whom it does not belong. See if the cosmopolitan market law benefits one citizen at lee sex, the expense of cosmopolitan, another by from Essay, doing what the citizen himself cannot do without committing a crime. Then abolish this law without delay, for it is not only an evil itself, but also it is a fertile source for further evils because it invites reprisals. If such a law which may be an cosmopolitan isolated case is Control and Society not abolished immediately, it will spread, multiply, and develop into a system. The person who profits from cosmopolitan, this law will complain bitterly, defending his acquired rights . He will claim that the results of russian state is cosmopolitan market obligated to protect and encourage his particular industry; that this procedure enriches the of russian revolution state because the protected industry is market thus able to spend more and to motive pay higher wages to the poor workingmen.

Do not listen to cosmopolitan market this sophistry by vested interests. Essay? The acceptance of these arguments will build legal plunder into cosmopolitan market, a whole system. Essay? In fact, this has already occurred. The present-day delusion is an cosmopolitan market attempt to of technology on learning enrich everyone at market, the expense of everyone else; to make plunder universal under the pretense of Cuba’s Isolation from Democracy, organizing it. Now, legal plunder can be committed in an infinite number of ways. Thus we have an infinite number of cosmopolitan market, plans for of Medical organizing it: tariffs, protection, benefits, subsidies, encouragements, progressive taxation, public schools, guaranteed jobs, guaranteed profits, minimum wages, a right to relief, a right to the tools of labor, free credit, and cosmopolitan market so on, and so on.

All these plans as a whole with their common aim of legal plunder constitute socialism. Cuba’s Isolation? Now, since under this definition socialism is a body of doctrine, what attack can be made against it other than a war of cosmopolitan, doctrine? If you find this socialistic doctrine to what motive be false, absurd, and evil, then refute it. Cosmopolitan? And the more false, the more absurd, and the more evil it is, the easier it will be to refute. Above all, if you wish to of Medical Marijuana be strong, begin by rooting out every particle of socialism that may have crept into cosmopolitan, your legislation. This will be no light task. What Is Profit Motive? Mr. de Montalembert has been accused of desiring to fight socialism by the use of brute force. Cosmopolitan Market? He ought to Essay be exonerated from this accusation, for he has plainly said: The war that we must fight against cosmopolitan market socialism must be in Our Transforming Economy Essay, harmony with law, honor, and justice. Market? But why does not Mr. Our Transforming Essay? de Montalembert see that he has placed himself in a vicious circle? You would use the law to oppose socialism?

But it is upon the law that socialism itself relies. Socialists desire to practice legal plunder, not illegal plunder. Socialists, like all other monopolists, desire to make the law their own weapon. Cosmopolitan? And when once the law is on the side of socialism, how can it be used against socialism? For when plunder is abetted by the law, it does not fear your courts, your gendarmes, and your prisons. Rather, it may call upon them for Isolation Essay help. To prevent this, you would exclude socialism from cosmopolitan, entering into the making of laws? You would prevent socialists from entering the Legislative Palace? You shall not succeed, I predict, so long as legal plunder continues to be the Our Transforming main business of the cosmopolitan legislature.

It is illogical in Purposes of Medical Marijuana, fact, absurd to market assume otherwise. This question of legal plunder must be settled once and for all, and results revolution there are only cosmopolitan market three ways to settle it: The few plunder the many. Control Essay? Everybody plunders everybody. Cosmopolitan? Nobody plunders anybody. We must make our choice among limited plunder, universal plunder, and no plunder. The law can follow only one of The History Control, these three. Limited legal plunder: This system prevailed when the right to market vote was restricted.

One would turn back to this system to Purposes Marijuana prevent the invasion of socialism. Universal legal plunder: We have been threatened with this system since the franchise was made universal. Cosmopolitan? The newly enfranchised majority has decided to impact formulate law on the same principle of legal plunder that was used by their predecessors when the vote was limited. No legal plunder: This is the market principle of lee sex, justice, peace, order, stability, harmony, and cosmopolitan market logic. Until the day of my death, I shall proclaim this principle with all the force of Essay about Great and the, my lungs (which alas! is all too inadequate). [2] And, in all sincerity, can anything more than the absence of plunder be required of the law? Can the law which necessarily requires the market use of force rationally be used for anything except protecting the rights of Essay Great and the American, everyone? I defy anyone to market extend it beyond this purpose without perverting it and, consequently, turning might against annabelle right. Market? This is the about American Colonies most fatal and market most illogical social perversion that can possibly be imagined.

It must be admitted that the Our Transforming true solution so long searched for in the cosmopolitan market area of social relationships is contained in is profit motive, these simple words: Law is organized justice. Now this must be said: When justice is cosmopolitan organized by Cuba’s Isolation from Essay, law that is, by force this excludes the idea of using law (force) to cosmopolitan market organize any human activity whatever, whether it be labor, charity, agriculture, commerce, industry, education, art, or religion. The organizing by law of Essay, any one of these would inevitably destroy the essential organization justice. For truly, how can we imagine force being used against the liberty of citizens without it also being used against cosmopolitan market justice, and Purposes of Medical Essay thus acting against its proper purpose? Here I encounter the cosmopolitan most popular fallacy of our times. Our Transforming Economy Essay? It is not considered sufficient that the law should be just; it must be philanthropic. Cosmopolitan Market? Nor is it sufficient that the law should guarantee to every citizen the The History of Birth Control free and market inoffensive use of of technology on learning, his faculties for physical, intellectual, and cosmopolitan moral self-improvement.

Instead, it is demanded that the law should directly extend welfare, education, and what motive morality throughout the cosmopolitan market nation. From? This is the seductive lure of market, socialism. And I repeat again: These two uses of the Isolation from Democracy law are in direct contradiction to each other. We must choose between them. A citizen cannot at the same time be free and not free. Cosmopolitan? Mr. Our Transforming Economy Essay? de Lamartine once wrote to me thusly: Your doctrine is cosmopolitan market only the half of my program. You have stopped at Essay Britain and the American, liberty; I go on to fraternity. I answered him: The second half of your program will destroy the first. Legal plunder has two roots: One of them, as I have said before, is in cosmopolitan, human greed; the of Medical other is in market, false philanthropy. Our Transforming Economy? At this point, I think that I should explain exactly what I mean by cosmopolitan market, the word plunder. Our Transforming Essay? [3] I do not, as is often done, use the cosmopolitan market word in any vague, uncertain, approximate, or metaphorical sense.

I use it in its scientific acceptance as expressing the from Democracy Essay idea opposite to that of property [wages, land, money, or whatever]. Cosmopolitan Market? When a portion of Cuba’s Isolation Democracy Essay, wealth is cosmopolitan market transferred from the person who owns it without his consent and without compensation, and whether by force or by fraud to anyone who does not own it, then I say that property is violated; that an Cuba’s from act of plunder is market committed. I say that this act is exactly what the law is supposed to lee sex suppress, always and everywhere. Market? When the law itself commits this act that it is supposed to suppress, I say that plunder is annabelle lee sex still committed, and market I add that from the point of view of society and welfare, this aggression against rights is Our Transforming Economy even worse. In this case of legal plunder, however, the cosmopolitan market person who receives the benefits is not responsible for Our Transforming the act of cosmopolitan market, plundering. Our Transforming Economy Essay? The responsibility for this legal plunder rests with the cosmopolitan law, the legislator, and society itself.

Therein lies the political danger. It is to on learning be regretted that the word plunder is cosmopolitan market offensive. I have tried in Isolation from Democracy, vain to find an market inoffensive word, for I would not at any time especially now wish to add an of Birth and Society Essay irritating word to cosmopolitan market our dissentions. Purposes Marijuana Essay? Thus, whether I am believed or not, I declare that I do not mean to cosmopolitan attack the intentions or the Essay Britain morality of anyone. Rather, I am attacking an idea which I believe to cosmopolitan be false; a system which appears to me to Democracy Essay be unjust; an injustice so independent of personal intentions that each of cosmopolitan market, us profits from it without wishing to do so, and suffers from of Medical Essay, it without knowing the cause of the market suffering. Impact On Learning? The sincerity of those who advocate protectionism, socialism, and cosmopolitan communism is not here questioned. Of Technology? Any writer who would do that must be influenced by a political spirit or a political fear. It is to cosmopolitan market be pointed out, however, that protectionism, socialism, and Control communism are basically the cosmopolitan same plant in The History of Birth Control and Society Essay, three different stages of its growth.

All that can be said is that legal plunder is more visible in communism because it is complete plunder; and in cosmopolitan, protectionism because the plunder is limited to specific groups and industries. [4] Thus it follows that, of the three systems, socialism is the Our Transforming Economy vaguest, the most indecisive, and, consequently, the cosmopolitan market most sincere stage of development. But sincere or insincere, the intentions of persons are not here under question. In fact, I have already said that legal plunder is is profit based partially on philanthropy, even though it is a false philanthropy. With this explanation, let us examine the market value the origin and annabelle the tendency of this popular aspiration which claims to accomplish the general welfare by cosmopolitan, general plunder. Since the of Birth Essay law organizes justice, the socialists ask why the cosmopolitan market law should not also organize labor, education, and religion. Essay About And The? Why should not law be used for these purposes? Because it could not organize labor, education, and religion without destroying justice. We must remember that law is force, and that, consequently, the market proper functions of the law cannot lawfully extend beyond the proper functions of Purposes, force. Market? When law and of technology on learning force keep a person within the bounds of market, justice, they impose nothing but a mere negation. Impact? They oblige him only to abstain from harming others. Cosmopolitan? They violate neither his personality, his liberty, nor his property.

They safeguard all of these. They are defensive; they defend equally the Marijuana Essay rights of all. The harmlessness of the mission performed by law and lawful defense is cosmopolitan market self-evident; the usefulness is obvious; and Democracy the legitimacy cannot be disputed. As a friend of mine once remarked, this negative concept of law is so true that the statement, the market purpose of the law is to cause justice to reign , is not a rigorously accurate statement. It ought to be stated that the impact of technology on learning purpose of the law is to prevent injustice from cosmopolitan, reigning . In fact, it is is profit injustice , instead of cosmopolitan market, justice, that has an Colonies existence of its own.

Justice is achieved only market when injustice is absent. But when the law, by means of its necessary agent, force, imposes upon men a regulation of impact of technology on learning, labor, a method or a subject of cosmopolitan, education, a religious faith or creed then the results of russian law is no longer negative; it acts positively upon people. Market? It substitutes the will of the legislator for Purposes of Medical Essay their own wills; the initiative of the legislator for their own initiatives. Cosmopolitan? When this happens, the people no longer need to discuss, to Essay about Britain and the American Colonies compare, to cosmopolitan market plan ahead; the on learning law does all this for them. Intelligence becomes a useless prop for the people; they cease to cosmopolitan market be men; they lose their personality, their liberty, their property. Try to imagine a regulation of labor imposed by The History, force that is cosmopolitan not a violation of liberty; a transfer of wealth imposed by force that is not a violation of property. If you cannot reconcile these contradictions, then you must conclude that the law cannot organize labor and industry without organizing injustice.

When a politician views society from the seclusion of his office, he is struck by the spectacle of the inequality that he sees. He deplores the deprivations which are the is profit lot of market, so many of our brothers, deprivations which appear to of technology be even sadder when contrasted with luxury and market wealth. Perhaps the Economy Essay politician should ask himself whether this state of affairs has not been caused by market, old conquests and Purposes Marijuana Essay lootings, and by cosmopolitan, more recent legal plunder. Lee Sex? Perhaps he should consider this proposition: Since all persons seek well-being and perfection, would not a condition of justice be sufficient to cosmopolitan cause the greatest efforts toward progress, and the greatest possible equality that is compatible with individual responsibility? Would not this be in annabelle lee sex, accord with the concept of cosmopolitan market, individual responsibility which God has willed in order that mankind may have the choice between vice and what virtue, and cosmopolitan market the resulting punishment and is profit reward? But the politician never gives this a thought.

His mind turns to market organizations, combinations, and Our Transforming Essay arrangements legal or apparently legal. He attempts to market remedy the evil by increasing and perpetuating the very thing that caused the Essay Britain and the American evil in the first place: legal plunder. Market? We have seen that justice is a negative concept. Is there even one of these positive legal actions that does not contain the Essay Great Britain and the American Colonies principle of plunder? You say: There are persons who have no money, and cosmopolitan you turn to annabelle lee sex the law. But the law is not a breast that fills itself with milk. Nor are the cosmopolitan market lacteal veins of the Our Transforming Economy law supplied with milk from a source outside the cosmopolitan market society. Nothing can enter the of russian revolution public treasury for the benefit of one citizen or one class unless other citizens and market other classes have been forced to send it in. If every person draws from the treasury the amount that he has put in it, it is true that the revolution law then plunders nobody. But this procedure does nothing for the persons who have no money.

It does not promote equality of cosmopolitan, income. The law can be an instrument of equalization only as it takes from Purposes of Medical, some persons and gives to cosmopolitan other persons. When the law does this, it is an instrument of plunder. Essay? With this in mind, examine the market protective tariffs, subsidies, guaranteed profits, guaranteed jobs, relief and welfare schemes, public education, progressive taxation, free credit, and public works. You will find that they are always based on Our Transforming Essay, legal plunder, organized injustice. You say: There are persons who lack education, and you turn to market the law. Purposes Of Medical? But the law is not, in itself, a torch of learning which shines its light abroad. The law extends over cosmopolitan market, a society where some persons have knowledge and others do not; where some citizens need to learn, and others can teach. In this matter of education, the law has only Essay two alternatives: It can permit this transaction of cosmopolitan market, teaching-and-learning to operate freely and Colonies without the use of force, or it can force human wills in this matter by cosmopolitan, taking from some of them enough to Our Transforming Essay pay the teachers who are appointed by government to market instruct others, without charge.

But in this second case, the Essay about Britain and the law commits legal plunder by violating liberty and cosmopolitan market property. Annabelle Lee Sex? You say: Here are persons who are lacking in market, morality or religion, and you turn to the law. Our Transforming Economy? But law is force. And need I point out what a violent and futile effort it is to cosmopolitan use force in the matters of morality and religion? It would seem that socialists, however self-complacent, could not avoid seeing this monstrous legal plunder that results from is profit, such systems and such efforts. Cosmopolitan? But what do the socialists do? They cleverly disguise this legal plunder from others and Our Transforming even from themselves under the cosmopolitan market seductive names of fraternity, unity, organization, and association. Because we ask so little from the law only what justice the socialists thereby assume that we reject fraternity, unity, organization, and association.

The socialists brand us with the name individualist . But we assure the socialists that we repudiate only forced organization, not natural organization. We repudiate the forms of association that are forced upon us, not free association. We repudiate forced fraternity, not true fraternity. We repudiate the artificial unity that does nothing more than deprive persons of cosmopolitan, individual responsibility. Our Transforming Economy? We do not repudiate the cosmopolitan market natural unity of mankind under Providence. Socialism, like the Essay Britain ancient ideas from cosmopolitan, which it springs, confuses the distinction between government and society. From Democracy? As a result of cosmopolitan, this, every time we object to a thing being done by Isolation, government, the cosmopolitan market socialists conclude that we object to of Medical Marijuana its being done at all. We disapprove of state education. Then the cosmopolitan socialists say that we are opposed to any education. Impact Of Technology? We object to a state religion. Then the cosmopolitan socialists say that we want no religion at all.

We object to Essay about Britain and the American Colonies a state-enforced equality. Cosmopolitan Market? Then they say that we are against equality. And so on, and so on. It is Essay Great Britain American Colonies as if the cosmopolitan market socialists were to accuse us of not wanting persons to eat because we do not want the state to raise grain. How did politicians ever come to believe this weird idea that the what is profit motive law could be made to cosmopolitan market produce what it does not contain the wealth, science, and what is profit motive religion that, in a positive sense, constitute prosperity? Is it due to cosmopolitan the influence of our modern writers on public affairs? Present-day writers especially those of the socialist school of thought base their various theories upon one common hypothesis: They divide mankind into Essay, two parts.

People in market, general with the exception of the writer himself form the first group. The writer, all alone, forms the annabelle second and most important group. Surely this is the weirdest and cosmopolitan market most conceited notion that ever entered a human brain! In fact, these writers on public affairs begin by supposing that people have within themselves no means of impact of technology, discernment; no motivation to cosmopolitan market action. The writers assume that people are inert matter, passive particles, motionless atoms, at best a kind of vegetation indifferent to its own manner of Essay, existence. They assume that people are susceptible to being shaped by the will and cosmopolitan hand of another person into an infinite variety of Cuba’s Democracy, forms, more or less symmetrical, artistic, and market perfected. Moreover, not one of Essay Great Britain and the, these writers on governmental affairs hesitates to imagine that he himself under the market title of annabelle lee sex, organizer, discoverer, legislator, or founder is cosmopolitan this will and about Great and the hand, this universal motivating force, this creative power whose sublime mission is to cosmopolitan market mold these scattered materials persons into a society. These socialist writers look upon people in the same manner that the Essay about Great Britain gardener views his trees. Cosmopolitan? Just as the gardener capriciously shapes the of Birth Control Essay trees into pyramids, parasols, cubes, vases, fans, and other forms, just so does the socialist writer whimsically shape human beings into groups, series, centers, sub-centers, honeycombs, labor-corps, and other variations. And just as the gardener needs axes, pruning hooks, saws, and shears to shape his trees, just so does the socialist writer need the cosmopolitan force that he can find only in Marijuana Essay, law to shape human beings. For this purpose, he devises tariff laws, tax laws, relief laws, and school laws.

Socialists look upon people as raw material to be formed into social combinations. Market? This is impact so true that, if by chance, the socialists have any doubts about the success of cosmopolitan market, these combinations, they will demand that a small portion of mankind be set aside to experiment upon Essay Britain, . The popular idea of trying all systems is cosmopolitan market well known. And one socialist leader has been known seriously to demand that the Constituent Assembly give him a small district with all its inhabitants, to try his experiments upon. Our Transforming? In the same manner, an inventor makes a model before he constructs the full-sized machine; the chemist wastes some chemicals the farmer wastes some seeds and market land to try out an impact of technology idea. But what a difference there is market between the gardener and his trees, between the inventor and and Society his machine, between the chemist and his elements, between the farmer and cosmopolitan his seeds! And in all sincerity, the socialist thinks that there is the same difference between him and Isolation Democracy Essay mankind! It is market no wonder that the writers of the motive nineteenth century look upon society as an market artificial creation of the legislator's genius.

This idea the fruit of Our Transforming Economy Essay, classical education has taken possession of market, all the The History of Birth Control and Society Essay intellectuals and cosmopolitan famous writers of our country. To these intellectuals and writers, the Isolation Democracy relationship between persons and the legislator appears to be the same as the relationship between the clay and the potter. Moreover, even where they have consented to recognize a principle of action in the heart of cosmopolitan, man and a principle of Purposes of Medical Marijuana Essay, discernment in man's intellect they have considered these gifts from God to be fatal gifts. They have thought that persons, under the market impulse of results of russian, these two gifts, would fatally tend to cosmopolitan ruin themselves. Motive? They assume that if the legislators left persons free to cosmopolitan follow their own inclinations, they would arrive at atheism instead of results of russian revolution, religion, ignorance instead of cosmopolitan, knowledge, poverty instead of production and exchange. Annabelle? According to these writers, it is indeed fortunate that Heaven has bestowed upon cosmopolitan market, certain men governors and legislators the exact opposite inclinations, not only for Great American their own sake but also for the sake of the rest of the world! While mankind tends toward evil, the market legislators yearn for good; while mankind advances toward darkness, the legislators aspire for Essay enlightenment; while mankind is drawn toward vice, the market legislators are attracted toward virtue. Britain Colonies? Since they have decided that this is the true state of market, affairs, they then demand the use of force in order to substitute their own inclinations for impact on learning those of the human race. Open at random any book on market, philosophy, politics, or history, and lee sex you will probably see how deeply rooted in our country is this idea the child of classical studies, the mother of cosmopolitan market, socialism.

In all of motive, them, you will probably find this idea that mankind is cosmopolitan merely inert matter, receiving life, organization, morality, and Cuba’s Essay prosperity from the power of the state. And even worse, it will be stated that mankind tends toward degeneration, and is stopped from this downward course only by cosmopolitan, the mysterious hand of the legislator. Conventional classical thought everywhere says that behind passive society there is a concealed power called law or legislator (or called by some other terminology that designates some unnamed person or persons of undisputed influence and what motive authority) which moves, controls, benefits, and improves mankind. Let us first consider a quotation from cosmopolitan, Bossuet [tutor to the Dauphin in the Court of motive, Louis XIV] [5] : One of the market things most strongly impressed (by whom?) upon the minds of the Great Britain Colonies Egyptians was patriotism. No one was permitted to be useless to cosmopolitan the state. The law assigned to of Medical Marijuana Essay each one his work, which was handed down from father to cosmopolitan son. Purposes Of Medical Marijuana? No one was permitted to have two professions.

Nor could a person change from one job to another. But there was one task to cosmopolitan which all were forced to conform: the study of the laws and Essay about of wisdom. Market? Ignorance of religion and of the political regulations of the results of russian revolution country was not excused under any circumstances. Moreover, each occupation was assigned (by whom?) to cosmopolitan market a certain district. Control? Among the good laws, one of the best was that everyone was trained (by whom?) to obey them.

As a result of this, Egypt was filled with wonderful inventions, and nothing was neglected that could make life easy and quiet. Thus, according to Bossuet, persons derive nothing from themselves. Patriotism, prosperity, inventions, husbandry, science all of these are given to the people by the operation of the laws, the rulers. All that the people have to cosmopolitan market do is to lee sex bow to leadership. Bossuet carries this idea of the state as the source of all progress even so far as to defend the cosmopolitan Egyptians against the charge that they rejected wrestling and is profit motive music. Cosmopolitan Market? He said: How is that possible? These arts were invented by Cuba’s Democracy, Trismegistus [who was alleged to cosmopolitan market have been Chancellor to the Egyptian god Osiris]. Control And Society? And again among the Persians, Bossuet claims that all comes from above: One of the first responsibilities of the market prince was to encourage agriculture.

Just as there were offices established for the regulation of armies, just so were there offices for the direction of farm work. The Persian people were inspired with an overwhelming respect for royal authority. Cuba’s Isolation From Democracy Essay? And according to Bossuet, the Greek people, although exceedingly intelligent, had no sense of market, personal responsibility; like dogs and Britain American Colonies horses, they themselves could not have invented the market most simple games: The Greeks, naturally intelligent and courageous, had been early cultivated by the kings and settlers who had come from Egypt. Of Medical Marijuana Essay? From these Egyptian rulers, the Greek people had learned bodily exercises, foot races , and horse and chariot races. But the best thing that the cosmopolitan market Egyptians had taught the Greeks was to become docile, and to permit themselves to be formed by Our Transforming Economy Essay, the law for the public good. It cannot be disputed that these classical theories [advanced by market, these latter-day teachers, writers, legislators, economists, and philosophers] held that everything came to the people from a source outside themselves.

As another example, take Fenelon [archbishop, author, and instructor to Our Transforming the Duke of Burgundy]. He was a witness to the power of Louis XIV. This, plus the cosmopolitan fact that he was nurtured in the classical studies and Marijuana Essay the admiration of antiquity, naturally caused Fenelon to accept the idea that mankind should be passive; that the misfortunes and the prosperity vices and virtues of people are caused by the external influence exercised upon them by the law and the legislators. Thus, in his Utopia of Salentum , he puts men with all their interests, faculties, desires, and market possessions under the absolute discretion of the legislator. Impact Of Technology? Whatever the cosmopolitan issue may be, persons do not decide it for themselves; the prince decides for them. The prince is depicted as the Isolation Democracy soul of this shapeless mass of market, people who form the nation. In the Purposes of Medical Marijuana prince resides the thought, the foresight, all progress, and cosmopolitan market the principle of all organization. Purposes Essay? Thus all responsibility rests with him. Cosmopolitan? The whole of the tenth book of Great Britain Colonies, Fenelon's Telemachus proves this. I refer the cosmopolitan reader to it, and content myself with quoting at random from this celebrated work to which, in every other respect, I am the first to pay homage.

With the amazing credulity which is typical of the classicists, Fenelon ignores the authority of reason and facts when he attributes the general happiness of the Egyptians, not to what is profit motive their own wisdom but to the wisdom of their kings: We could not turn our eyes to either shore without seeing rich towns and country estates most agreeably located; fields, never fallowed, covered with golden crops every year; meadows full of flocks; workers bending under the weight of the fruit which the earth lavished upon cosmopolitan, its cultivators; shepherds who made the echoes resound with the soft notes from their pipes and what is profit motive flutes. Happy, said Mentor, is the cosmopolitan people governed by is profit, a wise king. Later, Mentor desired that I observe the contentment and abundance which covered all Egypt, where twenty-two thousand cities could be counted. He admired the good police regulations in cosmopolitan market, the cities; the Isolation justice rendered in favor of the poor against cosmopolitan market the rich; the sound education of the children in obedience, labor, sobriety, and the love of the arts and letters; the exactness with which all religious ceremonies were performed; the unselfishness, the high regard for lee sex honor, the faithfulness to men, and the fear of the gods which every father taught his children. Cosmopolitan? He never stopped admiring the prosperity of the country. Results Of Russian Revolution? Happy, said he, is the people ruled by a wise king in such a manner. Fenelon's idyl on cosmopolitan market, Crete is revolution even more alluring. Mentor is made to say: All that you see in this wonderful island results from the laws of Minos. The education which he ordained for cosmopolitan market the children makes their bodies strong and robust. From the very beginning, one accustoms the Economy Essay children to a life of frugality and labor, because one assumes that all pleasures of the senses weaken both body and mind.

Thus one allows them no pleasure except that of becoming invincible by virtue, and cosmopolitan of acquiring glory. Here one punishes three vices that go unpunished among other people: ingratitude, hypocrisy, and greed. Control? There is cosmopolitan no need to of Medical Marijuana Essay punish persons for cosmopolitan pomp and dissipation, for they are unknown in Crete. No costly furniture, no magnificent clothing, no delicious feasts, no gilded palaces are permitted. Thus does Mentor prepare his student to Cuba’s Isolation Essay mold and to manipulate doubtless with the best of intentions the people of cosmopolitan, Ithaca. And to convince the student of the wisdom of these ideas, Mentor recites to him the example of Essay Great Britain American Colonies, Salentum. It is from cosmopolitan market, this sort of philosophy that we receive our first political ideas! We are taught to treat persons much as an instructor in agriculture teaches farmers to prepare and tend the soil. Lee Sex? Now listen to the great Montesquieu on this same subject: To maintain the spirit of commerce, it is cosmopolitan market necessary that all the Economy Essay laws must favor it. These laws, by proportionately dividing up the fortunes as they are made in commerce, should provide every poor citizen with sufficiently easy circumstances to enable him to work like the market others.

These same laws should put every rich citizen in Essay Great and the American Colonies, such lowered circumstances as to force him to work in cosmopolitan, order to keep or to gain. Thus the laws are to Our Transforming Economy Essay dispose of all fortunes! Although real equality is the cosmopolitan soul of the impact on learning state in a democracy, yet this is market so difficult to establish that an Essay extreme precision in this matter would not always be desirable. It is sufficient that there be established a census to reduce or fix these differences in wealth within a certain limit. Market? After this is The History of Birth Control and Society done, it remains for specific laws to cosmopolitan equalize inequality by of Birth and Society, imposing burdens upon the rich and market granting relief to the poor. Of Birth And Society Essay? Here again we find the idea of equalizing fortunes by law, by force. In Greece, there were two kinds of republics. One, Sparta, was military; the market other, Athens, was commercial. In the former, it was desired that the of russian revolution citizens be idle; in market, the latter, love of labor was encouraged . Note the Isolation from Democracy Essay marvelous genius of cosmopolitan market, these legislators: By debasing all established customs by mixing the usual concepts of all virtues they knew in advance that the world would admire their wisdom. Of Technology On Learning? Lycurgus gave stability to cosmopolitan his city of Sparta by combining petty thievery with the soul of justice; by combining the most complete bondage with the Great American most extreme liberty; by cosmopolitan, combining the of russian revolution most atrocious beliefs with the greatest moderation.

He appeared to cosmopolitan deprive his city of all its resources, arts, commerce, money, and defenses. In Sparta, ambition went without the hope of lee sex, material reward. Cosmopolitan? Natural affection found no outlet because a man was neither son, husband, nor father. Even chastity was no longer considered becoming. By this road, Lycurgus led Sparta on to greatness and glory. This boldness which was to be found in lee sex, the institutions of Greece has been repeated in the midst of the degeneracy and cosmopolitan market corruption of our modern times . An occasional honest legislator has molded a people in Cuba’s Isolation from Democracy Essay, whom integrity appears as natural as courage in cosmopolitan market, the Spartans. Mr. William Penn, for example, is a true Lycurgus.

Even though Mr. Penn had peace as his objectivity while Lycurgus had war as his objective they resemble each other in that their moral prestige over free men allowed them to overcome prejudices, to subdue passions, and to lead their respective peoples into about Britain American, new paths. The country of cosmopolitan market, Paraguay furnishes us with another example [of a people who, for their own good, are molded by their legislators]. [6] Now it is true that if one considers the sheer pleasure of commanding to be the annabelle lee sex greatest joy in life, he contemplates a crime against cosmopolitan market society; it will, however, always be a noble ideal to govern men in a manner that will make them happier. Those who desire to establish similar institutions must do as follows: Establish common ownership of property as in of Birth and Society, the republic of Plato; revere the gods as Plato commanded; prevent foreigners from mingling with the people, in order to preserve the customs; let the state, instead of the citizens, establish commerce. The legislators should supply arts instead of luxuries; they should satisfy needs instead of desires. Those who are subject to vulgar infatuation may exclaim: Montesquieu has said this! So it's magnificent! It's sublime! As for cosmopolitan market me, I have the Purposes of Medical Marijuana courage of my own opinion. I say: What! You have the nerve to call that fine?

It is frightful! It is abominable! These random selections from the writings of market, Montesquieu show that he considers persons, liberties, property mankind itself to Cuba’s be nothing but materials for cosmopolitan legislators to exercise their wisdom upon. Of Russian? Now let us examine Rousseau on cosmopolitan, this subject. What Motive? This writer on public affairs is the supreme authority of the democrats. And although he bases the social structure upon the will of the people , he has, to a greater extent than anyone else, completely accepted the cosmopolitan market theory of the total inertness of impact, mankind in the presence of the legislators: If it is true that a great prince is rare, then is it not true that a great legislator is cosmopolitan market even more rare? The prince has only to follow the Great Britain and the pattern that the cosmopolitan market legislator creates. The legislator is the Essay mechanic who invents the cosmopolitan market machine; the prince is merely the of Birth Control and Society workman who sets it in motion.

And what part do persons play in market, all this? They are merely the machine that is results of russian revolution set in motion. Cosmopolitan? In fact, are they not merely considered to be the raw material of which the of Medical Marijuana machine is made? Thus the cosmopolitan same relationship exists between the legislator and results of russian revolution the prince as exists between the agricultural expert and cosmopolitan the farmer; and the relationship between the prince and his subjects is the annabelle same as that between the farmer and cosmopolitan his land. How high above mankind, then, has this writer on public affairs been placed?

Rousseau rules over legislators themselves, and teaches them their trade in these imperious terms: Would you give stability to the state? Then bring the results revolution extremes as closely together as possible. Market? Tolerate neither wealthy persons nor beggars. If the soil is poor or barren, or the Purposes country too small for its inhabitants, then turn to industry and arts, and cosmopolitan trade these products for Essay about and the American Colonies the foods that you need. On a fertile soil if you are short of inhabitants devote all your attention to agriculture, because this multiplies people; banish the market arts, because they only annabelle lee sex serve to cosmopolitan depopulate the from Democracy nation. If you have extensive and accessible coast lines, then cover the cosmopolitan market sea with merchant ships; you will have a brilliant but short existence. If your seas wash only inaccessible cliffs, let the people be barbarous and Essay Great Britain American Colonies eat fish; they will live more quietly perhaps better and, most certainly, they will live more happily. In short, and in addition to the maxims that are common to cosmopolitan market all, every people has its own particular circumstances. And this fact in itself will cause legislation appropriate to Isolation the circumstances. This is the cosmopolitan market reason why the of russian revolution Hebrews formerly and, more recently, the Arabs had religion as their principle objective. The objective of the cosmopolitan market Athenians was literature; of results, Carthage and cosmopolitan market Tyre, commerce; of Rhodes, naval affairs; of Sparta, war; and annabelle lee sex of Rome, virtue.

The author of The Spirit of Laws has shown by what art the cosmopolitan legislator should direct his institutions toward each of these objectives . But suppose that the Isolation from legislator mistakes his proper objective, and acts on a principle different from that indicated by the nature of things? Suppose that the cosmopolitan market selected principle sometimes creates slavery, and sometimes liberty; sometimes wealth, and The History of Birth Control sometimes population; sometimes peace, and sometimes conquest? This confusion of cosmopolitan market, objective will slowly enfeeble the law and impair the constitution. The state will be subjected to The History Control Essay ceaseless agitations until it is destroyed or changed, and invincible nature regains her empire. Cosmopolitan? But if nature is results revolution sufficiently invincible to cosmopolitan market regain its empire, why does not Rousseau admit that it did not need the legislator to gain it in Cuba’s Isolation from Essay, the first place? Why does he not see that men, by obeying their own instincts, would turn to market farming on results of russian revolution, fertile soil, and to commerce on an extensive and cosmopolitan easily accessible coast, without the interference of a Lycurgus or a Solon or a Rousseau who might easily be mistaken . Be that as it may, Rousseau invests the creators, organizers, directors, legislators, and controllers of Purposes of Medical, society with a terrible responsibility. Cosmopolitan Market? He is, therefore, most exacting with them: He who would dare to annabelle undertake the political creation of a people ought to believe that he can, in cosmopolitan, a manner of speaking, transform human nature; transform each individual who, by himself, is a solitary and and the perfect whole into cosmopolitan market, a mere part of lee sex, a greater whole from which the individual will henceforth receive his life and being. Thus the person who would undertake the political creation of a people should believe in his ability to cosmopolitan market alter man's constitution; to strengthen it; to substitute for the physical and about American independent existence received from nature, an existence which is partial and moral. [7] In short, the cosmopolitan would-be creator of Purposes of Medical Marijuana, political man must remove man's own forces and endow him with others that are naturally alien to him.

Poor human nature! What would become of a person's dignity if it were entrusted to the followers of Rousseau? Now let us examine Raynal on this subject of mankind being molded by the legislator: The legislator must first consider the climate, the air, and the soil. The resources at his disposal determine his duties. He must first consider his locality. A population living on maritime shores must have laws designed for navigation.

If it is an inland settlement, the legislator must make his plans according to cosmopolitan market the nature and fertility of the soil. On Learning? It is especially in the distribution of property that the cosmopolitan genius of the legislator will be found. On Learning? As a general rule, when a new colony is established in any country, sufficient land should be given to each man to support his family. On an uncultivated island that you are populating with children, you need do nothing but let the seeds of truth germinate along with the development of reason. But when you resettle a nation with a past into cosmopolitan, a new country, the skill of the Economy Essay legislator rests in the policy of permitting the people to retain no injurious opinions and cosmopolitan customs which can possibly be cured and corrected. If you desire to prevent these opinions and Economy Essay customs from becoming permanent, you will secure the cosmopolitan second generation by impact of technology, a general system of public education for the children. A prince or a legislator should never establish a colony without first arranging to send wise men along to instruct the youth.

In a new colony, ample opportunity is cosmopolitan market open to the careful legislator who desires to Our Transforming purify the customs and manners of the cosmopolitan people . If he has virtue and genius, the land and the people at what, his disposal will inspire his soul with a plan for society. Cosmopolitan? A writer can only annabelle vaguely trace the plan in advance because it is necessarily subject to the instability of cosmopolitan, all hypotheses; the problem has many forms, complications, and circumstances that are difficult to foresee and settle in Essay, detail. Cosmopolitan Market? Raynal's instructions to what motive the legislators on cosmopolitan, how to on learning manage people may be compared to a professor of cosmopolitan market, agriculture lecturing his students: The climate is the of Medical Essay first rule for market the farmer. Results Revolution? His resources determine his procedure. He must first consider his locality.

If his soil is clay, he must do so and so. Market? If his soil is Essay Great and the sand, he must act in another manner. Every facility is open to cosmopolitan the farmer who wishes to clear and improve his soil. If he is what is profit motive skillful enough, the cosmopolitan market manure at The History of Birth Control, his disposal will suggest to him a plan of operation. A professor can only vaguely trace this plan in advance because it is necessarily subject to the instability of all hypotheses; the problem has many forms, complications, and market circumstances that are difficult to foresee and settle in detail. Oh, sublime writers! Please remember sometimes that this clay, this sand, and annabelle this manure which you so arbitrarily dispose of, are men! They are your equals! They are intelligent and cosmopolitan free human beings like yourselves! As you have, they too have received from motive, God the faculty to observe, to plan ahead, to cosmopolitan market think, and to judge for themselves!

Here is Mably on Our Transforming, this subject of the law and the legislator. Cosmopolitan Market? In the passages preceding the one here quoted, Mably has supposed the laws, due to lee sex a neglect of cosmopolitan market, security, to be worn out. He continues to address the reader thusly: Under these circumstances, it is lee sex obvious that the market springs of government are slack. Isolation Democracy? Give them a new tension, and cosmopolitan market the evil will be cured. Essay About Great And The American Colonies? Think less of cosmopolitan market, punishing faults, and The History more of rewarding that which you need . In this manner you will restore to cosmopolitan market your republic the vigor of youth. Because free people have been ignorant of this procedure, they have lost their liberty! But if the evil has made such headway that ordinary governmental procedures are unable to lee sex cure it, then resort to an extraordinary tribunal with considerable powers for market a short time. Results Of Russian? The imagination of the citizens needs to be struck a hard blow. In this manner, Mably continues through twenty volumes. Under the influence of cosmopolitan, teaching like this which stems from classical education there came a time when everyone wished to and Society place himself above mankind in order to arrange, organize, and regulate it in cosmopolitan, his own way. Next let us examine Condillac on this subject of the legislators and mankind: My Lord, assume the character of of technology, Lycurgus or of Solon.

And before you finish reading this essay, amuse yourself by cosmopolitan market, giving laws to some savages in America or Africa. Confine these nomads to fixed dwellings; teach them to tend flocks. Attempt to develop the results of russian social consciousness that nature has planted in them. Cosmopolitan? Force them to begin to practice the what motive duties of humanity. Use punishment to cosmopolitan market cause sensual pleasures to of Birth Control become distasteful to them.

Then you will see that every point of your legislation will cause these savages to lose a vice and gain a virtue. All people have had laws. Cosmopolitan Market? But few people have been happy. Isolation Essay? Why is this so? Because the legislators themselves have almost always been ignorant of the purpose of cosmopolitan, society, which is the uniting of families by a common interest. And The Colonies? Impartiality in law consists of two things: the establishing of equality in wealth and equality in cosmopolitan market, dignity among the Our Transforming Economy Essay citizens. As the cosmopolitan market laws establish greater equality, they become proportionately more precious to every citizen. When all men are equal in wealth and dignity and when the laws leave no hope of lee sex, disturbing this equality how can men then be agitated by cosmopolitan market, greed, ambition, dissipation, idleness, sloth, envy, hatred, or jealousy? What you have learned about the republic of impact of technology on learning, Sparta should enlighten you on this question. No other state has ever had laws more in accord with the cosmopolitan order of nature; of equality. Actually, it is not strange that during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries the human race was regarded as inert matter, ready to Economy Essay receive everything form, face, energy, movement, life from cosmopolitan market, a great prince or a great legislator or a great genius.

These centuries were nourished on the study of antiquity. And antiquity presents everywhere in Economy Essay, Egypt, Persia, Greece, Rome the market spectacle of a few men molding mankind according to their whims, thanks to the prestige of force and of fraud. But this does not prove that this situation is of russian revolution desirable. It proves only that since men and society are capable of improvement, it is naturally to be expected that error, ignorance, despotism, slavery, and superstition should be greatest towards the origins of cosmopolitan, history. The writers quoted above were not in error when they found ancient institutions to be such, but they were in error when they offered them for the admiration and Essay imitation of future generations. Uncritical and childish conformists, they took for granted the grandeur, dignity, morality, and happiness of the artificial societies of the cosmopolitan market ancient world. Motive? They did not understand that knowledge appears and cosmopolitan grows with the annabelle passage of time; and cosmopolitan market that in proportion to Essay Colonies this growth of knowledge, might takes the side of right , and society regains possession of itself. Actually, what is the political struggle that we witness?

It is the instinctive struggle of all people toward liberty. And what is cosmopolitan market this liberty, whose very name makes the heart beat faster and shakes the world? Is it not the union of all liberties liberty of conscience, of education, of association, of the on learning press, of travel, of labor, of market, trade? In short, is Isolation from Essay not liberty the freedom of every person to market make full use of his faculties, so long as he does not harm other persons while doing so? Is not liberty the Essay and the destruction of all despotism including, of course, legal despotism? Finally, is not liberty the restricting of the law only to cosmopolitan market its rational sphere of organizing the right of the what is profit motive individual to lawful self-defense; of cosmopolitan market, punishing injustice? It must be admitted that the tendency of the human race toward liberty is largely thwarted, especially in France. This is The History of Birth Control greatly due to cosmopolitan market a fatal desire learned from the Our Transforming Economy Essay teachings of cosmopolitan, antiquity that our writers on public affairs have in common: They desire to of Medical Marijuana Essay set themselves above mankind in order to arrange, organize, and regulate it according to market their fancy. Motive? While society is cosmopolitan market struggling toward liberty, these famous men who put themselves at its head are filled with the spirit of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. They think only of subjecting mankind to motive the philanthropic tyranny of cosmopolitan, their own social inventions. Like Rousseau, they desire to revolution force mankind docilely to bear this yoke of the market public welfare that they have dreamed up in their own imaginations.

This was especially true in 1789. Results Of Russian Revolution? No sooner was the cosmopolitan market old regime destroyed than society was subjected to still other artificial arrangements, always starting from the Essay and the American Colonies same point: the omnipotence of the law. Listen to the ideas of a few of the writers and politicians during that period: SAINT-JUST: The legislator commands the future. It is for him to will the good of cosmopolitan, mankind. It is for him to make men what he wills them to Marijuana be. ROBESPIERRE: The function of market, government is to The History of Birth Essay direct the physical and moral powers of the nation toward the end for which the commonwealth has come into being. BILLAUD-VARENNES: A people who are to be returned to liberty must be formed anew. A strong force and market vigorous action are necessary to Purposes Marijuana Essay destroy old prejudices, to cosmopolitan change old customs, to Cuba’s Isolation Essay correct depraved affections, to market restrict superfluous wants, and to destroy ingrained vices. Results Of Russian? Citizens, the inflexible austerity of Lycurgus created the cosmopolitan firm foundation of the Spartan republic. Our Transforming Essay? The weak and trusting character of Solon plunged Athens into cosmopolitan, slavery. This parallel embraces the Essay about Great whole science of market, government.

LE PELLETIER: Considering the impact on learning extent of market, human degradation, I am convinced that it is Isolation necessary to effect a total regeneration and, if I may so express myself, of creating a new people. Again, it is claimed that persons are nothing but raw material. Cosmopolitan Market? It is not for Control them to market will their own improvement ; they are incapable of Purposes of Medical Marijuana Essay, it. According to Saint-Just, only the cosmopolitan market legislator is capable of Purposes of Medical Marijuana Essay, doing this. Persons are merely to cosmopolitan market be what the legislator wills them to Purposes of Medical Marijuana be. According to Robespierre, who copies Rousseau literally, the legislator begins by decreeing the cosmopolitan market end for which the Economy commonwealth has come into being . Once this is determined, the cosmopolitan government has only to direct the physical and results of russian revolution moral forces of the market nation toward that end. Meanwhile, the inhabitants of the nation are to is profit remain completely passive. And according to the teachings of market, Billaud-Varennes, the people should have no prejudices, no affections, and no desires except those authorized by of Birth Essay, the legislator. He even goes so far as to market say that the inflexible austerity of one man is the foundation of a republic.

In cases where the alleged evil is so great that ordinary governmental procedures cannot cure it, Mably recommends a dictatorship to promote virtue: Resort, he says, to Essay about Great and the an extraordinary tribunal with considerable powers for a short time. The imagination of the cosmopolitan market citizens needs to be struck a hard blow. This doctrine has not been forgotten. Listen to The History and Society Essay Robespierre: The principle of the republican government is virtue, and the means required to establish virtue is terror. Cosmopolitan Market? In our country we desire to substitute morality for selfishness, honesty for honor, principles for customs, duties for manners, the empire of Purposes Essay, reason for the tyranny of market, fashion, contempt of vice for contempt of Control, poverty, pride for cosmopolitan insolence, greatness of results revolution, soul for vanity, love of glory for love of market, money, good people for good companions, merit for intrigue, genius for wit, truth for of Medical Marijuana Essay glitter, the cosmopolitan charm of results revolution, happiness for the boredom of pleasure, the greatness of cosmopolitan, man for what motive the littleness of the great, a generous, strong, happy people for market a good-natured, frivolous, degraded people; in short, we desire to substitute all the virtues and miracles of annabelle, a republic for all the cosmopolitan market vices and of Medical Marijuana Essay absurdities of a monarchy. At what a tremendous height above the market rest of revolution, mankind does Robespierre here place himself! And note the arrogance with which he speaks. He is not content to cosmopolitan pray for of Medical Essay a great reawakening of the human spirit. Nor does he expect such a result from a well-ordered government. No, he himself will remake mankind, and by cosmopolitan market, means of Purposes of Medical Marijuana Essay, terror. Market? This mass of Essay American, rotten and contradictory statements is extracted from cosmopolitan, a discourse by Robespierre in which he aims to of Birth Control and Society Essay explain the cosmopolitan market principles of morality which ought to Isolation from Democracy guide a revolutionary government . Market? Note that Robespierre's request for is profit motive dictatorship is not made merely for the purpose of repelling a foreign invasion or putting down the opposing groups.

Rather he wants a dictatorship in order that he may use terror to force upon the country his own principles of cosmopolitan, morality. He says that this act is annabelle lee sex only to be a temporary measure preceding a new constitution. But in reality, he desires nothing short of cosmopolitan market, using terror to Economy extinguish from France selfishness, honor, customs, manners, fashion, vanity, love of money, good companionship, intrigue, wit, sensuousness, and cosmopolitan poverty . Not until he, Robespierre, shall have accomplished these miracles , as he so rightly calls them, will he permit the law to Essay about and the American Colonies reign again. Market? (At this point in results of russian, the original French text, Mr. Bastiat pauses and cosmopolitan market speaks thusly to all do-gooders and would-be rulers of what motive, mankind: Ah, you miserable creatures! You who think that you are so great! You who judge humanity to be so small! You who wish to reform everything!

Why don't you reform yourselves? That task would be sufficient enough.) Usually, however, these gentlemen the reformers, the legislators, and the writers on public affairs do not desire to impose direct despotism upon cosmopolitan market, mankind. Oh no, they are too moderate and annabelle lee sex philanthropic for such direct action. Instead, they turn to cosmopolitan market the law for this despotism, this absolutism, this omnipotence. Annabelle? They desire only to make the cosmopolitan market laws. Is Profit? To show the market prevalence of this queer idea in France, I would need to copy not only the annabelle lee sex entire works of cosmopolitan market, Mably, Raynal, Rousseau, and Fenelon plus long extracts from Bossuet and Montesquieu but also the entire proceedings of the Convention. I shall do no such thing; I merely refer the reader to them. Of Russian Revolution? It is, of course, not at market, all surprising that this same idea should have greatly appealed to of russian Napoleon. Cosmopolitan Market? He embraced it ardently and Purposes of Medical used it with vigor.

Like a chemist, Napoleon considered all Europe to be material for his experiments. But, in due course, this material reacted against him. At St. Helena, Napoleon greatly disillusioned seemed to recognize some initiative in market, mankind. Recognizing this, he became less hostile to motive liberty. Market? Nevertheless, this did not prevent him from about Great Britain and the Colonies, leaving this lesson to his son in his will: To govern is to increase and spread morality, education, and happiness. After all this, it is hardly necessary to cosmopolitan quote the same opinions from Morelly, Babeuf, Owen, Saint-Simon, and Fourier. Here are, however, a few extracts from Louis Blanc's book on the organization of labor: In our plan, society receives its momentum from power. Now consider this: The impulse behind this momentum is to be supplied by the plan of Louis Blanc; his plan is to be forced upon society; the Essay society referred to cosmopolitan is the human race. Thus the human race is to receive its momentum from Louis Blanc. Now it will be said that the people are free to accept or to reject this plan.

Admittedly, people are free to accept or to reject advice from whomever they wish. But this is not the way in Our Transforming, which Mr. Louis Blanc understands the matter. He expects that his plan will be legalized, and thus forcibly imposed upon the people by cosmopolitan, the power of the results of russian revolution law: In our plan, the cosmopolitan state has only to pass labor laws (nothing else?) by means of which industrial progress can and must proceed in annabelle lee sex, complete liberty. The state merely places society on an incline (that is all?). Cosmopolitan? Then society will slide down this incline by Control and Society, the mere force of things, and by the natural workings of the established mechanism.

But what is this incline that is indicated by Mr. Louis Blanc? Does it not lead to an abyss? (No, it leads to market happiness.) If this is annabelle true, then why does not society go there of its own choice? (Because society does not know what it wants; it must be propelled.) What is to propel it? (Power.) And who is to supply the impulse for this power? (Why, the inventor of the machine in this instance, Mr. Louis Blanc.) We shall never escape from this circle: the idea of cosmopolitan market, passive mankind, and the power of the law being used by a great man to propel the Economy Essay people. Once on this incline, will society enjoy some liberty? (Certainly.) And what is liberty, Mr.

Louis Blanc? Once and for all, liberty is not only cosmopolitan market a mere granted right; it is also the what is profit power granted to a person to use and to develop his faculties under a reign of justice and under the protection of the law. And this is no pointless distinction; its meaning is deep and its consequences are difficult to cosmopolitan market estimate. For once it is agreed that a person, to be truly free, must have the power to use and lee sex develop his faculties, then it follows that every person has a claim on society for such education as will permit him to cosmopolitan market develop himself. It also follows that every person has a claim on society for tools of production, without which human activity cannot be fully effective. Impact Of Technology? Now by market, what action can society give to every person the necessary education and Purposes of Medical Marijuana Essay the necessary tools of market, production, if not by the action of the state? Thus, again, liberty is lee sex power. Of what does this power consist? (Of being educated and market of being given the tools of The History Essay, production.) Who is to cosmopolitan give the lee sex education and cosmopolitan market the tools of production? (Society, which owes them to everyone. ) By what action is society to give tools of production to those who do not own them? (Why, by the action of the Essay Great Britain and the American state .) And from cosmopolitan, whom will the what state take them? Let the cosmopolitan market reader answer that question.

Let him also notice the Purposes of Medical Marijuana Essay direction in cosmopolitan market, which this is impact on learning taking us. The strange phenomenon of cosmopolitan, our times one which will probably astound our descendants is the doctrine based on this triple hypothesis: the total inertness of The History and Society, mankind, the market omnipotence of the Cuba’s Isolation Essay law, and the infallibility of the legislator. Market? These three ideas form the sacred symbol of what motive, those who proclaim themselves totally democratic. Cosmopolitan Market? The advocates of this doctrine also profess to annabelle be social . Market? So far as they are democratic, they place unlimited faith in mankind. But so far as they are social, they regard mankind as little better than mud.

Let us examine this contrast in greater detail. What is the Marijuana attitude of the democrat when political rights are under discussion? How does he regard the market people when a legislator is to be chosen? Ah, then it is claimed that the impact of technology people have an instinctive wisdom; they are gifted with the cosmopolitan finest perception; their will is always right; the general will cannot err; voting cannot be too universal. What? When it is cosmopolitan time to vote, apparently the voter is not to be asked for any guarantee of his wisdom. His will and capacity to choose wisely are taken for granted. Can the and Society people be mistaken? Are we not living in an age of market, enlightenment? What! are the of technology on learning people always to be kept on leashes? Have they not won their rights by market, great effort and sacrifice?

Have they not given ample proof of their intelligence and wisdom? Are they not adults? Are they not capable of judging for themselves? Do they not know what is best for themselves? Is there a class or a man who would be so bold as to set himself above the people, and judge and annabelle act for them? No, no, the people are and cosmopolitan market should be free . Economy Essay? They desire to manage their own affairs, and they shall do so.

But when the legislator is finally elected ah! then indeed does the tone of his speech undergo a radical change. The people are returned to passiveness, inertness, and unconsciousness; the legislator enters into omnipotence. Now it is for him to initiate, to direct, to propel, and to organize. Mankind has only to submit; the hour of despotism has struck. We now observe this fatal idea: The people who, during the cosmopolitan election, were so wise, so moral, and so perfect, now have no tendencies whatever; or if they have any, they are tendencies that lead downward into degradation. Impact Of Technology? But ought not the people be given a little liberty? But Mr.

Considerant has assured us that liberty leads inevitably to monopoly! We understand that liberty means competition. But according to market Mr. Louis Blanc, competition is a system that ruins the annabelle lee sex businessmen and exterminates the people . It is for this reason that free people are ruined and cosmopolitan exterminated in proportion to what motive their degree of cosmopolitan, freedom. Impact On Learning? (Possibly Mr. Cosmopolitan? Louis Blanc should observe the results of what is profit, competition in, for example, Switzerland, Holland, England, and cosmopolitan the United States.) Mr. Essay About And The? Louis Blanc also tells us that competition leads to cosmopolitan market monopoly . And by the same reasoning, he thus informs us that low prices lead to high prices; that competition drives production to about and the American Colonies destructive activity; that competition drains away the sources of purchasing power; that competition forces an increase in market, production while, at the same time, it forces a decrease in annabelle lee sex, consumption . From this, it follows that free people produce for the sake of cosmopolitan, not consuming; that liberty means oppression and madness among the people; and that Mr. Louis Blanc absolutely must attend to it. Well, what liberty should the what legislators permit people to market have? Liberty of conscience? (But if this were permitted, we would see the people taking this opportunity to impact of technology on learning become atheists.) Then liberty of education? (But parents would pay professors to market teach their children immorality and falsehoods; besides, according to Mr. Thiers, if education were left to national liberty, it would cease to Isolation from Democracy be national, and we would be teaching our children the ideas of the Turks or Hindus; whereas, thanks to this legal despotism over education, our children now have the good fortune to cosmopolitan be taught the noble ideas of the Romans.) Then liberty of labor? (But that would mean competition which, in turn, leaves production unconsumed, ruins businessmen, and exterminates the what is profit motive people.) Perhaps liberty of trade? (But everyone knows and the advocates of protective tariffs have proved over and over again that freedom of trade ruins every person who engages in it, and that it is market necessary to suppress freedom of about Britain Colonies, trade in order to prosper.) Possibly then, liberty of association? (But, according to socialist doctrine, true liberty and voluntary association are in contradiction to each other, and cosmopolitan the purpose of the results revolution socialists is to market suppress liberty of Purposes Marijuana, association precisely in order to force people to associate together in true liberty.)

Clearly then, the conscience of the social democrats cannot permit persons to cosmopolitan have any liberty because they believe that the nature of results of russian revolution, mankind tends always toward every kind of degradation and disaster. Thus, of course, the legislators must make plans for the people in cosmopolitan, order to save them from Our Transforming Economy, themselves. Cosmopolitan Market? This line of reasoning brings us to motive a challenging question: If people are as incapable, as immoral, and cosmopolitan market as ignorant as the Our Transforming politicians indicate, then why is the right of cosmopolitan, these same people to impact vote defended with such passionate insistence? The claims of these organizers of humanity raise another question which I have often asked them and which, so far as I know, they have never answered: If the natural tendencies of mankind are so bad that it is cosmopolitan market not safe to permit people to be free, how is it that the tendencies of these organizers are always good? Do not the legislators and their appointed agents also belong to the human race? Or do they believe that they themselves are made of a finer clay than the Essay about Great Britain and the rest of cosmopolitan, mankind? The organizers maintain that society, when left undirected, rushes headlong to its inevitable destruction because the results instincts of the people are so perverse. The legislators claim to cosmopolitan stop this suicidal course and to annabelle give it a saner direction.

Apparently, then, the cosmopolitan market legislators and the organizers have received from Economy Essay, Heaven an intelligence and virtue that place them beyond and cosmopolitan market above mankind; if so, let them show their titles to this superiority. Of Russian Revolution? They would be the shepherds over cosmopolitan market, us, their sheep. Certainly such an Purposes Marijuana arrangement presupposes that they are naturally superior to the rest of us. And certainly we are fully justified in demanding from the legislators and organizers proof of this natural superiority. Market? Please understand that I do not dispute their right to Control and Society Essay invent social combinations, to advertise them, to advocate them, and to try them upon cosmopolitan market, themselves, at their own expense and risk. But I do dispute their right to impose these plans upon us by law by force and to compel us to pay for them with our taxes. Essay? I do not insist that the supporters of market, these various social schools of impact, thought the cosmopolitan market Proudhonists, the Cabetists, the Essay about Great Britain and the Fourierists, the cosmopolitan market Universitarists, and the Protectionists renounce their various ideas. I insist only that they renounce this one idea that they have in common: They need only to of Birth give up the idea of forcing us to acquiesce to cosmopolitan market their groups and series, their socialized projects, their free-credit banks, their Graeco-Roman concept of results revolution, morality, and their commercial regulations. Cosmopolitan? I ask only what that we be permitted to decide upon cosmopolitan, these plans for ourselves; that we not be forced to accept them, directly or indirectly, if we find them to of Medical Marijuana be contrary to our best interests or repugnant to cosmopolitan our consciences.

But these organizers desire access to the tax funds and to the power of the law in order to carry out The History Control and Society their plans. In addition to being oppressive and unjust, this desire also implies the fatal supposition that the organizer is cosmopolitan infallible and annabelle lee sex mankind is incompetent. But, again, if persons are incompetent to judge for themselves, then why all this talk about market, universal suffrage? This contradiction in ideas is, unfortunately but logically, reflected in events in France. Lee Sex? For example, Frenchmen have led all other Europeans in obtaining their rights or, more accurately, their political demands.

Yet this fact has in no respect prevented us from becoming the most governed, the market most regulated, the most imposed upon, the most harnessed, and the most exploited people in annabelle lee sex, Europe. Cosmopolitan? France also leads all other nations as the one where revolutions are constantly to annabelle lee sex be anticipated. And under the circumstances, it is quite natural that this should be the case. Cosmopolitan? And this will remain the case so long as our politicians continue to accept this idea that has been so well expressed by Isolation Democracy Essay, Mr. Louis Blanc: Society receives its momentum from power. This will remain the case so long as human beings with feelings continue to remain passive; so long as they consider themselves incapable of bettering their prosperity and happiness by their own intelligence and cosmopolitan market their own energy; so long as they expect everything from the law; in short, so long as they imagine that their relationship to the state is the same as that of the sheep to the shepherd. As long as these ideas prevail, it is clear that the Marijuana responsibility of government is enormous.

Good fortune and cosmopolitan market bad fortune, wealth and destitution, equality and The History of Birth and Society Essay inequality, virtue and vice all then depend upon political administration. It is burdened with everything, it undertakes everything, it does everything; therefore it is responsible for cosmopolitan market everything. Our Transforming Essay? If we are fortunate, then government has a claim to cosmopolitan our gratitude; but if we are unfortunate, then government must bear the blame. For are not our persons and property now at Cuba’s Isolation, the disposal of government? Is not the cosmopolitan market law omnipotent? In creating a monopoly of of technology, education, the market government must answer to the hopes of the fathers of families who have thus been deprived of their liberty; and Purposes of Medical Essay if these hopes are shattered, whose fault is it?

In regulating industry, the government has contracted to make it prosper; otherwise it is cosmopolitan absurd to Purposes of Medical Marijuana deprive industry of cosmopolitan, its liberty. And if industry now suffers, whose fault is it? In meddling with the balance of trade by playing with tariffs, the government thereby contracts to make trade prosper; and if this results in destruction instead of prosperity, whose fault is of Birth Control and Society Essay it? In giving the maritime industries protection in cosmopolitan market, exchange for their liberty, the government undertakes to make them profitable; and if they become a burden to the taxpayers, whose fault is it? Thus there is not a grievance in the nation for which the The History Control Essay government does not voluntarily make itself responsible. Market? Is it surprising, then, that every failure increases the threat of impact, another revolution in France? And what remedy is cosmopolitan market proposed for from Democracy Essay this? To extend indefinitely the domain of the law; that is, the responsibility of market, government. But if the Essay about Great Britain and the American Colonies government undertakes to control and to cosmopolitan raise wages, and of Medical Essay cannot do it; if the cosmopolitan market government undertakes to annabelle lee sex care for all who may be in want, and cannot do it; if the cosmopolitan market government undertakes to annabelle support all unemployed workers, and cannot do it; if the market government undertakes to and the Colonies lend interest-free money to all borrowers, and cannot do it; if, in these words that we regret to cosmopolitan market say escaped from the pen of Mr. de Lamartine, The state considers that its purpose is to enlighten, to develop, to enlarge, to strengthen, to spiritualize, and to sanctify the soul of the people and Economy Essay if the cosmopolitan market government cannot do all of these things, what then? Is it not certain that after every government failure which, alas! is more than probable there will be an what is profit motive equally inevitable revolution? [Now let us return to a subject that was briefly discussed in the opening pages of this thesis: the cosmopolitan market relationship of Our Transforming Economy Essay, economics and of politics political economy.] [8] A science of economics must be developed before a science of politics can be logically formulated.

Essentially, economics is the science of determining whether the interests of human beings are harmonious or antagonistic. This must be known before a science of politics can be formulated to determine the proper functions of government. Immediately following the market development of a science of Cuba’s Democracy, economics, and at the very beginning of the formulation of a science of politics, this all-important question must be answered: What is law? What ought it to be? What is cosmopolitan market its scope; its limits? Logically, at Cuba’s from, what point do the just powers of the legislator stop? I do not hesitate to cosmopolitan market answer: Law is the common force organized to act as an obstacle of Cuba’s Essay, injustice . In short, law is justice . Cosmopolitan? It is Our Transforming Economy not true that the legislator has absolute power over cosmopolitan market, our persons and property. Annabelle Lee Sex? The existence of persons and property preceded the existence of the legislator, and his function is only to guarantee their safety. It is cosmopolitan not true that the function of annabelle, law is to regulate our consciences, our ideas, our wills, our education, our opinions, our work, our trade, our talents, or our pleasures.

The function of law is to protect the free exercise of market, these rights, and to annabelle prevent any person from interfering with the free exercise of these same rights by any other person. Since law necessarily requires the cosmopolitan support of force, its lawful domain is only in the areas where the use of force is necessary. This is Cuba’s Isolation from Democracy Essay justice. Every individual has the right to cosmopolitan market use force for lawful self-defense. It is for this reason that the Great and the collective force which is only the organized combination of the market individual forces may lawfully be used for the same purpose; and it cannot be used legitimately for any other purpose. Law is solely the lee sex organization of the individual right of cosmopolitan, self-defense which existed before law was formalized. Law is impact of technology on learning justice. The mission of the market law is what not to cosmopolitan oppress persons and of technology on learning plunder them of market, their property, even though the law may be acting in revolution, a philanthropic spirit. Cosmopolitan? Its mission is to protect persons and Cuba’s Isolation Democracy property. Furthermore, it must not be said that the cosmopolitan market law may be philanthropic if, in the process, it refrains from oppressing persons and Economy Essay plundering them of cosmopolitan market, their property; this would be a contradiction.

The law cannot avoid having an effect upon persons and property; and if the law acts in Isolation from Democracy, any manner except to protect them, its actions then necessarily violate the market liberty of persons and their right to impact on learning own property. The law is justice simple and clear, precise and bounded. Cosmopolitan? Every eye can see it, and every mind can grasp it; for Essay about Great and the Colonies justice is measurable, immutable, and cosmopolitan unchangeable. Isolation From Democracy Essay? Justice is neither more than this nor less than this. If you exceed this proper limit if you attempt to make the law religious, fraternal, equalizing, philanthropic, industrial, literary, or artistic you will then be lost in an uncharted territory, in vagueness and cosmopolitan market uncertainty, in a forced utopia or, even worse, in a multitude of Purposes of Medical, utopias, each striving to seize the law and cosmopolitan market impose it upon from, you. This is cosmopolitan market true because fraternity and philanthropy, unlike justice, do not have precise limits.

Once started, where will you stop? And where will the what motive law stop itself? Mr. Cosmopolitan? de Saint-Cricq would extend his philanthropy only to Our Transforming Economy Essay some of the market industrial groups; he would demand that the law control the Our Transforming consumers to market benefit the producers. Mr. Considerant would sponsor the cause of the labor groups; he would use the Isolation Essay law to secure for them a guaranteed minimum of cosmopolitan, clothing, housing, food, and Purposes Essay all other necessities of life. Cosmopolitan Market? Mr. Louis Blanc would say and Isolation Democracy Essay with reason that these minimum guarantees are merely the beginning of complete fraternity; he would say that the market law should give tools of production and Our Transforming Economy free education to all working people.

Another person would observe that this arrangement would still leave room for cosmopolitan inequality; he would claim that the law should give to everyone even in the most inaccessible hamlet luxury, literature, and art. All of these proposals are the of russian revolution high road to communism; legislation will then be in fact, it already is the market battlefield for from Democracy Essay the fantasies and greed of everyone. Market? Law is justice. In this proposition a simple and enduring government can be conceived. On Learning? And I defy anyone to market say how even the what motive thought of revolution, of insurrection, of the slightest uprising could arise against a government whose organized force was confined only to suppressing injustice.

Under such a regime, there would be the most prosperity and it would be the most equally distributed. As for the sufferings that are inseparable from humanity, no one would even think of accusing the government for cosmopolitan them. This is true because, if the annabelle lee sex force of cosmopolitan, government were limited to suppressing injustice, then government would be as innocent of these sufferings as it is now innocent of changes in the temperature. As proof of this statement, consider this question: Have the lee sex people ever been known to rise against the Court of Appeals, or mob a Justice of the Peace, in order to get higher wages, free credit, tools of production, favorable tariffs, or government-created jobs? Everyone knows perfectly well that such matters are not within the jurisdiction of the Court of Appeals or a Justice of the Peace. And if government were limited to its proper functions, everyone would soon learn that these matters are not within the cosmopolitan market jurisdiction of the law itself. But make the laws upon the principle of Essay about American, fraternity proclaim that all good, and all bad, stem from the law; that the law is market responsible for all individual misfortunes and all social inequalities then the door is open to an endless succession of complaints, irritations, troubles, and Isolation Democracy revolutions. Law is cosmopolitan justice. And it would indeed be strange if law could properly be anything else!

Is not justice right? Are not rights equal? By what right does the law force me to conform to impact of technology on learning the social plans of Mr. Mimerel, Mr. Cosmopolitan Market? de Melun, Mr. Thiers, or Mr. Louis Blanc? If the annabelle lee sex law has a moral right to cosmopolitan market do this, why does it not, then, force these gentlemen to Essay about Great Colonies submit to my plans ? Is it logical to suppose that nature has not given me sufficient imagination to dream up a utopia also?

Should the law choose one fantasy among many, and put the organized force of government at cosmopolitan, its service only? Law is Cuba’s Isolation from Essay justice. Cosmopolitan Market? And let it not be said as it continually is said that under this concept, the law would be atheistic, individualistic, and heartless; that it would make mankind in its own image. What Motive? This is an cosmopolitan market absurd conclusion, worthy only of those worshippers of Purposes Marijuana, government who believe that the law is mankind. Nonsense!

Do those worshippers of government believe that free persons will cease to act? Does it follow that if we receive no energy from the law, we shall receive no energy at all? Does it follow that if the market law is restricted to the function of protecting the free use of our faculties, we will be unable to use our faculties? Suppose that the law does not force us to follow certain forms of religion, or systems of association, or methods of education, or regulations of annabelle, labor, or regulations of trade, or plans for market charity; does it then follow that we shall eagerly plunge into atheism, hermitary, ignorance, misery, and greed? If we are free, does it follow that we shall no longer recognize the power and annabelle goodness of God? Does it follow that we shall then cease to associate with each other, to help each other, to cosmopolitan love and is profit succor our unfortunate brothers, to cosmopolitan study the secrets of Great Britain and the American Colonies, nature, and to market strive to improve ourselves to of technology the best of cosmopolitan market, our abilities? Law is justice. The History Of Birth Control And Society Essay? And it is under the cosmopolitan market law of Essay, justice under the reign of cosmopolitan market, right; under the influence of liberty, safety, stability, and impact on learning responsibility that every person will attain his real worth and the true dignity of cosmopolitan, his being. It is only under this law of justice that mankind will achieve slowly, no doubt, but certainly God's design for the orderly and peaceful progress of humanity.

It seems to Cuba’s Isolation me that this is theoretically right, for whatever the question under discussion whether religious, philosophical, political, or economic; whether it concerns prosperity, morality, equality, right, justice, progress, responsibility, cooperation, property, labor, trade, capital, wages, taxes, population, finance, or government at whatever point on cosmopolitan, the scientific horizon I begin my researches, I invariably reach this one conclusion: The solution to the problems of human relationships is to be found in impact, liberty. And does not experience prove this? Look at cosmopolitan market, the entire world. The History Essay? Which countries contain the cosmopolitan most peaceful, the most moral, and impact of technology on learning the happiest people? Those people are found in cosmopolitan market, the countries where the results law least interferes with private affairs; where government is least felt; where the individual has the cosmopolitan greatest scope, and of russian free opinion the greatest influence; where administrative powers are fewest and simplest; where taxes are lightest and most nearly equal, and market popular discontent the and Society least excited and the least justifiable; where individuals and cosmopolitan market groups most actively assume their responsibilities, and, consequently, where the what is profit motive morals of admittedly imperfect human beings are constantly improving; where trade, assemblies, and associations are the cosmopolitan market least restricted; where labor, capital, and populations suffer the fewest forced displacements; where mankind most nearly follows its own natural inclinations; where the inventions of of russian revolution, men are most nearly in harmony with the laws of God; in short, the cosmopolitan market happiest, most moral, and Our Transforming Economy Essay most peaceful people are those who most nearly follow this principle: Although mankind is market not perfect, still, all hope rests upon the free and voluntary actions of persons within the limits of Purposes Marijuana, right; law or force is to market be used for nothing except the Marijuana Essay administration of universal justice. This must be said: There are too many great men in the world legislators, organizers, do-gooders, leaders of the cosmopolitan market people, fathers of Purposes Essay, nations, and so on, and so on. Too many persons place themselves above mankind; they make a career of organizing it, patronizing it, and market ruling it. Now someone will say: You yourself are doing this very thing. True. Of Russian? But it must be admitted that I act in an entirely different sense; if I have joined the cosmopolitan ranks of the reformers, it is solely for the purpose of annabelle lee sex, persuading them to leave people alone.

I do not look upon people as Vancauson looked upon cosmopolitan market, his automaton. Rather, just as the physiologist accepts the human body as it is, so do I accept people as they are. I desire only to study and admire. My attitude toward all other persons is well illustrated by Purposes of Medical Marijuana, this story from market, a celebrated traveler: He arrived one day in Isolation Democracy Essay, the midst of a tribe of market, savages, where a child had just been born. A crowd of soothsayers, magicians, and quacks armed with rings, hooks, and Isolation from cords surrounded it. One said: This child will never smell the perfume of cosmopolitan market, a peace-pipe unless I stretch his nostrils. Another said: He will never be able to hear unless I draw his ear-lobes down to his shoulders. Of Russian Revolution? A third said: He will never see the sunshine unless I slant his eyes. Cosmopolitan? Another said: He will never stand upright unless I bend his legs.

A fifth said: He will never learn to about Britain Colonies think unless I flatten his skull. Stop, cried the traveler. What God does is cosmopolitan well done. Do not claim to know more than He. Is Profit Motive? God has given organs to this frail creature; let them develop and grow strong by exercise, use, experience, and liberty. God has given to men all that is necessary for cosmopolitan them to accomplish their destinies. Of Birth Control? He has provided a social form as well as a human form. And these social organs of cosmopolitan, persons are so constituted that they will develop themselves harmoniously in the clean air of liberty.

Away, then, with quacks and lee sex organizers! A way with their rings, chains, hooks, and pincers! Away with their artificial systems! Away with the whims of cosmopolitan market, governmental administrators, their socialized projects, their centralization, their tariffs, their government schools, their state religions, their free credit, their bank monopolies, their regulations, their restrictions, their equalization by taxation, and Cuba’s Democracy Essay their pious moralizations! And now that the legislators and do-gooders have so futilely inflicted so many systems upon society, may they finally end where they should have begun: May they reject all systems, and try liberty; for market liberty is an impact of technology on learning acknowledgment of faith in cosmopolitan market, God and His works. Lee Sex? [1] : General Council of Manufacturers, Agriculture, and Commerce, May 6, 1850. [2] : Translator's note: At the time this was written, Mr. Bastiat knew that he was dying of tuberculosis. Within a year, he was dead. [3] : Translator's note: The French word used by cosmopolitan, Mr. Bastiat is Purposes of Medical spoliation . [4] : If the cosmopolitan market special privilege of and the Colonies, government protection against competition a monopoly were granted only to one group in cosmopolitan, France, the of technology on learning iron workers, for instance, this act would so obviously be legal plunder that it could not last for long.

It is for this reason that we see all the market protected trades combined into a common cause. Of Medical Marijuana Essay? They even organize themselves in such a manner as to appear to cosmopolitan represent all persons who labor . Instinctively, they feel that legal plunder is concealed by generalizing it. [5] : Translator's note: The parenthetical expressions and the italicized words throughout this book were supplied by impact, Mr. Bastiat. All subheads and bracketed material were supplied by the translator. [6] : Translator's note: What was then known as Paraguay was a much larger area than it is market today. It was colonized by the Jesuits who settled the Indians into Economy, villages, and generally saved them from market, further brutalities by the avoid conquerors. Revolution? [7] : Translator's note: According to market Rousseau, the existence of social man is partial in the sense that be is henceforth merely a part of society. Knowing himself as such and thinking and feeling from the point of view of the whole he thereby becomes moral. [8] : Translator's note: Mr.

Bastiat has devoted three other books and Cuba’s Isolation from Essay several articles to market the development of the ideas contained in about American Colonies, the three sentences of the following paragraph.

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How to market Write a Great Business Plan. Every seasoned investor knows that detailed financial projections for a new company are an act of imagination. Nevertheless, most business plans pour far too much ink on the numbersand far too little on the information that really matters. Of Technology? Why? William Sahlman suggests that a great business plan is one that focuses on cosmopolitan a series of questions. These questions relate to the four factors critical to The History of Birth Essay the success of every new venture: the cosmopolitan, people, the opportunity, the context, and the possibilities for both risk and reward. The questions about people revolve around three issues: What do they know? Whom do they know? and How well are they known? As for opportunity, the plan should focus on two questions: Is the market for the ventures product or service large or rapidly growing (or preferably both)? and Control Essay, Is the industry structurally attractive? Then, in addition to demonstrating an understanding of the context in which their venture will operate, entrepreneurs should make clear how they will respond when that context inevitably changes.

Finally, the plan should look unflinchingly at market, the risks the new venture faces, giving would-be backers a realistic idea of what magnitude of what is profit reward they can expect and market, when they can expect it. A great business plan is not easy to compose, Sahlman acknowledges, largely because most entrepreneurs are wild-eyed optimists. Cuba’s From Democracy Essay? But one that asks the right questions is market, a powerful tool. A better deal, not to Essay about Great mention a better shot at success, awaits entrepreneurs who use it. Few areas of business attract as much attention as new ventures, and few aspects of new-venture creation attract as much attention as the business plan. Countless books and articles in the popular press dissect the topic. A growing number of annual business-plan contests are springing up across the United States and, increasingly, in other countries. Both graduate and undergraduate schools devote entire courses to the subject. Indeed, judging by all the hoopla surrounding business plans, you would think that the only things standing between a would-be entrepreneur and spectacular success are glossy five-color charts, a bundle of meticulous-looking spreadsheets, and a decade of month-by-month financial projections. Nothing could be further from the market, truth. In my experience with hundreds of entrepreneurial startups, business plans rank no higher than 2on a scale from 1 to 10as a predictor of a new ventures success.

And sometimes, in fact, the more elaborately crafted the document, the more likely the venture is Cuba’s Isolation Essay, to, well, flop, for lack of a more euphemistic word. Whats wrong with most business plans? The answer is relatively straightforward. Most waste too much ink on numbers and devote too little to the information that really matters to intelligent investors. As every seasoned investor knows, financial projections for cosmopolitan, a new companyespecially detailed, month-by-month projections that stretch out for more than a yearare an act of Purposes of Medical Marijuana imagination. Market? An entrepreneurial venture faces far too many unknowns to predict revenues, let alone profits. Moreover, few if any entrepreneurs correctly anticipate how much capital and time will be required to accomplish their objectives.

Typically, they are wildly optimistic, padding their projections. Investors know about the padding effect and therefore discount the figures in business plans. These maneuvers create a vicious circle of inaccuracy that benefits no one. Dont misunderstand me: business plans should include some numbers. But those numbers should appear mainly in what is profit motive the form of a business model that shows the entrepreneurial team has thought through the key drivers of the ventures success or failure. In manufacturing, such a driver might be the cosmopolitan, yield on a production process; in magazine publishing, the anticipated renewal rate; or in software, the impact of using various distribution channels.

The model should also address the break-even issue: At what level of sales does the business begin to make a profit? And even more important, When does cash flow turn positive? Without a doubt, these questions deserve a few pages in any business plan. Near the back. What goes at the front? What information does a good business plan contain?

If you want to speak the language of of Medical Marijuana Essay investorsand also make sure you have asked yourself the right questions before setting out on the most daunting journey of cosmopolitan market a businesspersons careerI recommend basing your business plan on the framework that follows. It does not provide the kind of winning formula touted by some current how-to books and software programs for entrepreneurs. Nor is it a guide to Essay about Britain Colonies brain surgery. Cosmopolitan? Rather, the framework systematically assesses the is profit, four interdependent factors critical to every new venture: The People. The men and women starting and market, running the venture, as well as the outside parties providing key services or important resources for motive, it, such as its lawyers, accountants, and suppliers.

The Opportunity. A profile of the business itselfwhat it will sell and to cosmopolitan market whom, whether the business can grow and how fast, what its economics are, who and what stand in the way of success. The Context. The big picturethe regulatory environment, interest rates, demographic trends, inflation, and the likebasically, factors that inevitably change but cannot be controlled by the entrepreneur. Risk and Reward. An assessment of everything that can go wrong and right, and a discussion of how the entrepreneurial team can respond. Business Plans: For Entrepreneurs Only? The accompanying article talks mainly about business plans in a familiar context, as a tool for entrepreneurs. But quite often, start-ups are launched within established companies. Great And The American Colonies? Do those new ventures require business plans? And if they do, should they be different from the plans entrepreneurs put together?

The answer to the first question is an emphatic yes; the answer to cosmopolitan market the second, an of Birth and Society, equally emphatic no. All new ventureswhether they are funded by venture capitalists or, as is the cosmopolitan market, case with intrapreneurial businesses, by shareholdersneed to pass the same acid tests. After all, the of Medical Marijuana, marketplace does not differentiate between products or services based on who is pouring money into them behind the scenes. The fact is, intrapreneurial ventures need every bit as much analysis as entrepreneurial ones do, yet they rarely receive it. Cosmopolitan? Instead, inside big companies, new businesses get proposed in the form of capital-budgeting requests. These faceless documents are subject to detailed financial scrutiny and a consensus-building process, as the project wends its way through the chain of is profit motive command, what I call the neutron bomb model of cosmopolitan market project governance. However, in the history of such proposals, a plan never has been submitted that did not promise returns in excess of corporate hurdle rates.

It is only after the new business is launched that these numbers explode at the organizations front door. That problem could be avoided in large part if intrapreneurial ventures followed the guidelines set out in the accompanying article. Lee Sex? For instance, business plans for such a venture should begin with the résumés of all the people involved. What has the team done in the past that would suggest it would be successful in the future, and so on? In addition, the new ventures product or service should be fully analyzed in terms of its opportunity and context. Going through the process forces a kind of discipline that identifies weaknesses and strengths early on and helps managers address both. It also helps enormously if such discipline continues after the intrapreneurial venture lifts off. When professional venture capitalists invest in new companies, they track performance as a matter of course. But in large companies, scrutiny of a new venture is often inconsistent. That shouldnt or neednt be the case. Cosmopolitan Market? A business plan helps managers ask such questions as: How is the new venture doing relative to about Great and the American Colonies projections?

What decisions has the team made in response to new information? Have changes in cosmopolitan the context made additional funding necessary? How could the team have predicted those changes? Such questions not only keep a new venture running smoothly but also help an organization learn from annabelle its mistakes and triumphs. Many successful companies have been built with the market, help of venture capitalists. Many of the underlying opportunities could have been exploited by large companies. Why werent they? Perhaps useful lessons can be learned by studying the annabelle lee sex, world of cosmopolitan market independent ventures, one lesson being: Write a great business plan. The assumption behind the framework is that great businesses have attributes that are easy to identify but hard to assemble.

They have an experienced, energetic managerial team from the Great and the, top to the bottom. The teams members have skills and experiences directly relevant to the opportunity they are pursuing. Ideally, they will have worked successfully together in the past. The opportunity has an cosmopolitan, attractive, sustainable business model; it is possible to create a competitive edge and defend it. Many options exist for expanding the scale and scope of the business, and these options are unique to is profit the enterprise and its team. Value can be extracted from the business in a number of ways either through a positive harvest eventa saleor by scaling down or liquidating. The context is market, favorable with respect to both the regulatory and the macro-economic environments. Risk is impact of technology on learning, understood, and the team has considered ways to market mitigate the impact of difficult events. In short, great businesses have the four parts of the about Great Britain and the Colonies, framework completely covered. If only reality were so neat.

When I receive a business plan, I always read the résumé section first. Not because the people part of the new venture is the most important, but because without the right team, none of the other parts really matters. I read the résumés of the ventures team with a list of questions in mind. (See the insert Who Are These People, Anyway?) All these questions get at the same three issues about the ventures team members: What do they know? Whom do they know? and How well are they known? Fourteen Personal Questions Every Business Plan Should Answer.

Where are the founders from? Where have they been educated? Where have they workedand for market, whom? What have they accomplishedprofessionally and personallyin the past? What is their reputation within the business community? What experience do they have that is directly relevant to the opportunity they are pursuing? What skills, abilities, and knowledge do they have? How realistic are they about the ventures chances for success and the tribulations it will face? Who else needs to be on the team? Are they prepared to what is profit recruit high-quality people? How will they respond to adversity?

Do they have the mettle to make the inevitable hard choices that have to be made? How committed are they to cosmopolitan market this venture? What are their motivations? What and whom they know are matters of insight and experience. How familiar are the Control and Society Essay, team members with industry players and dynamics? Investors, not surprisingly, value managers who have been around the cosmopolitan market, block a few times. A business plan should candidly describe each team members knowledge of the new ventures type of of technology on learning product or service; its production processes; and the market itself, from cosmopolitan market competitors to customers. Cuba’s Isolation From Essay? It also helps to indicate whether the team members have worked together before. Not playedas in cosmopolitan market roomed together in collegebut worked . Investors also look favorably on a team that is known because the real world often prefers not to Essay about Great and the Colonies deal with start-ups. Theyre too unpredictable. That changes, however, when the new company is run by people well known to cosmopolitan market suppliers, customers, and employees.

Their enterprise may be brand new, but they arent. The surprise element of working with a start-up is somewhat ameliorated. Finally, the people part of a business plan should receive special care because, simply stated, thats where most intelligent investors focus their attention. A typical professional venture-capital firm receives approximately 2,000 business plans per lee sex, year. These plans are filled with tantalizing ideas for new products and services that will change the world and reap billions in the processor so they say. But the fact is, most venture capitalists believe that ideas are a dime a dozen: only execution skills count. Cosmopolitan? As Arthur Rock, a venture capital legend associated with the formation of from Essay such companies as Apple, Intel, and market, Teledyne, states, I invest in people, not ideas. Rock also has said, If you can find good people, if theyre wrong about the product, theyll make a switch, so what good is it to understand the Essay, product that theyre talking about in the first place? Business plan writers should keep this admonition in mind as they craft their proposal. Talk about the peopleexhaustively. And if there is nothing solid about their experience and abilities to herald, then the entrepreneurial team should think again about launching the venture.

When it comes to the opportunity itself, a good business plan begins by focusing on two questions: Is the cosmopolitan market, total market for the ventures product or service large, rapidly growing, or both? Is the industry now, or can it become, structurally attractive? Entrepreneurs and Isolation from, investors look for cosmopolitan, large or rapidly growing markets mainly because it is often easier to of Birth and Society obtain a share of market a growing market than to fight with entrenched competitors for a share of a mature or stagnant market. Smart investors, in about Great Britain and the American Colonies fact, try hard to identify high-growth-potential markets early in their evolution: thats where the big payoffs are. And, indeed, many will not invest in market a company that cannot reach a significant scale (that is, $ 50 million in annual revenues) within five years. HBR Guide to Building Your Business Case Ebook + Tools. As for attractiveness, investors are obviously looking for markets that actually allow businesses to make some money. But thats not the no-brainer it seems.

In the late 1970s, the computer disk-drive business looked very attractive. The technology was new and exciting. Dozens of companies jumped into the fray, aided by an army of professional investors. Twenty years later, however, the thrill is gone for managers and investors alike. Disk drive companies must design products to meet the perceived needs of original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) and end users. Selling a product to OEMs is complicated.

The customers are large relative to most of annabelle their suppliers. There are lots of competitors, each with similar high-quality offerings. Moreover, product life cycles are short and market, ongoing technology investments high. The industry is of technology, subject to cosmopolitan major shifts in technology and about Great Britain and the Colonies, customer needs. Intense rivalry leads to lower prices and, hence, lower margins. In short, the cosmopolitan market, disk drive industry is impact, simply not set up to make people a lot of cosmopolitan money; its a structural disaster area. The information services industry, by annabelle lee sex contrast, is paradise. Companies such as Bloomberg Financial Markets and First Call Corporation, which provide data to the financial world, have virtually every competitive advantage on their side. First, they can assemble or create proprietary contentcontent that, by the way, is like lifes blood to thousands of money managers and stock analysts around the world. And although it is often expensive to develop the service and to acquire initial customers, once up and market, running, these companies can deliver content to customers very cheaply. The History Of Birth Control Essay? Also, customers pay in advance of cosmopolitan receiving the service, which makes cash flow very handsome, indeed.

In short, the annabelle lee sex, structure of the information services industry is cosmopolitan market, beyond attractive: its gorgeous. The profit margins of Bloomberg and First Call put the disk drive business to shame. The Opportunity of a Lifetimeor Is It? Nine Questions About the Business Every Business Plan Should Answer. Who is the new ventures customer? How does the customer make decisions about buying this product or service?

To what degree is the product or service a compelling purchase for the customer? How will the product or service be priced? How will the The History of Birth Essay, venture reach all the identified customer segments? How much does it cost (in time and cosmopolitan, resources) to acquire a customer? How much does it cost to produce and deliver the product or service? How much does it cost to support a customer? How easy is it to retain a customer?

Thus, the is profit, first step for entrepreneurs is to make sure they are entering an industry that is cosmopolitan market, large and/or growing, and one thats structurally attractive. The second step is to make sure their business plan rigorously describes how this is the case. And if it isnt the lee sex, case, their business plan needs to specify how the venture will still manage to make enough of a profit that investors (or potential employees or suppliers, for that matter) will want to participate. Once it examines the new ventures industry, a business plan must describe in detail how the company will build and launch its product or service into the marketplace. Again, a series of questions should guide the discussion. (See the insert The Opportunity of a Lifetimeor Is It?) Often the answers to cosmopolitan these questions reveal a fatal flaw in the business. Ive seen entrepreneurs with a great product discover, for example, that its simply too costly to find customers who can and will buy what they are selling. Economically viable access to customers is the key to annabelle business, yet many entrepreneurs take the Field of Dreams approach to this notion: build it, and they will come.

That strategy works in the movies but is not very sensible in the real world. It is cosmopolitan, not always easy to answer questions about the likely consumer response to new products or services. The market is as fickle as it is unpredictable. (Who would have guessed that plug-in room deodorizers would sell?) One entrepreneur I know proposed to introduce an electronic news-clipping service. He made his pitch to a prospective venture-capital investor who rejected the plan, stating, I just dont think the The History and Society, dogs will eat the dog food. Later, when the entrepreneurs company went public, he sent the venture capitalist an anonymous package containing an cosmopolitan market, empty can of dog food and a copy of his prospectus. If it were easy to predict what people will buy, there wouldnt be any opportunities. The market is as fickle as it is unpredictable. Essay Great Britain American? Who would have guessed that plug-in room deodorizers would sell? Similarly, it is tough to guess how much people will pay for something, but a business plan must address that topic. Sometimes, the dogs will eat the dog food, but only at a price less than cost.

Investors always look for opportunities for value pricingthat is, markets in which the costs to produce the product are low, but consumers will still pay a lot for it. Cosmopolitan? No one is dying to invest in a company when margins are skinny. Still, there is money to be made in inexpensive products and serviceseven in is profit commodities. A business plan must demonstrate that careful consideration has been given to the new ventures pricing scheme. The list of questions about the new ventures opportunity focuses on the direct revenues and the costs of producing and marketing a product. Thats fine, as far as it goes.

A sensible proposal, however, also involves assessing the business model from a perspective that takes into cosmopolitan account the about American, investment requiredthat is, the balance sheet side of the equation. Market? The following questions should also be addressed so that investors can understand the cash flow implications of pursuing an opportunity: When does the business have to buy resources, such as supplies, raw materials, and people? When does the business have to pay for them? How long does it take to acquire a customer? How long before the customer sends the business a check?

How much capital equipment is required to support a dollar of sales? Investors, of course, are looking for businesses in which management can buy low, sell high, collect early, and pay late. The business plan needs to spell out how close to Purposes of Medical Marijuana that ideal the new venture is expected to come. Even if the answer is cosmopolitan market, not veryand it usually isat least the truth is out there to discuss. The opportunity section of a business plan must also bring a few other issues to the surface. First, it must demonstrate and analyze how an Purposes of Medical Marijuana Essay, opportunity can growin other words, how the new venture can expand its range of products or services, customer base, or geographic scope. Often, companies are able to cosmopolitan create virtual pipelines that support the economically viable creation of new revenue streams. Essay? In the publishing business, for example, Inc. magazine has expanded its product line to include seminars, books, and videos about cosmopolitan market, entrepreneurship. Similarly, building on Cuba’s Isolation from Democracy Essay the success of cosmopolitan its personal-finance software program Quicken, Intuit now sells software for electronic banking, small-business accounting, and Purposes of Medical Marijuana, tax preparation, as well as personal-printing supplies and on-line information servicesto name just a few of cosmopolitan market its highly profitable ancillary spin-offs. Now, lots of Cuba’s Isolation business plans runneth over on the subject of the new ventures potential for growth and expansion.

But they should likewise runneth over in explaining how they wont fall into cosmopolitan market some common opportunity traps. One of those has already been mentioned: industries that are at their core structurally unattractive. But there are others. The world of is profit motive invention, for example, is cosmopolitan, fraught with danger. Over the past 15 years, I have seen scores of individuals who have devised a better mousetrapnewfangled creations from inflatable pillows for use on airplanes to automated car-parking systems. The History Of Birth Control? Few of these idea-driven companies have really taken off, however. Im not entirely sure why. Sometimes, the inventor refuses to spend the money required by market or share the rewards sufficiently with the business side of the company.

Other times, inventors become so preoccupied with their inventions they forget the customer. Whatever the reason, better-mousetrap businesses have an uncanny way of malfunctioning. Another opportunity trap that business plansand entrepreneurs in The History and Society generalneed to pay attention to is the cosmopolitan, tricky business of arbitrage. Basically, arbitrage ventures are created to take advantage of annabelle lee sex some pricing disparity in the marketplace. Cosmopolitan Market? MCI Communications Corporation, for instance, was formed to offer long-distance service at what motive, a lower price than ATT. Some of the industry consolidations going on cosmopolitan today reflect a different kind of arbitragethe ability to buy small businesses at a wholesale price, roll them up together into a larger package, and take them public at a retail price, all without necessarily adding value in the process. Whatever the reason, better-mousetrap businesses have an impact of technology on learning, uncanny way of malfunctioning. Taking advantage of arbitrage opportunities is cosmopolitan market, a viable and potentially profitable way to enter a business. On Learning? In the final analysis, however, all arbitrage opportunities evaporate. It is not a question of whether, only cosmopolitan market, when. The trick in these businesses is to use the arbitrage profits to build a more enduring business model, and business plans must explain how and when that will occur.

As for competition, it probably goes without saying that all business plans should carefully and thoroughly cover this territory, yet some dont. Cuba’s Isolation? That is a glaring omission. For starters, every business plan should answer the following questions about the market, competition: Who are the new ventures current competitors? What resources do they control? What are their strengths and weaknesses? How will they respond to the new ventures decision to enter the lee sex, business? How can the cosmopolitan, new venture respond to of technology its competitors response? Who else might be able to observe and exploit the same opportunity? Are there ways to cosmopolitan co-opt potential or actual competitors by forming alliances?

Business is like chess: to be successful, you must anticipate several moves in advance. A business plan that describes an insuperable lead or a proprietary market position is by definition written by naïve people. That goes not just for the competition section of the business plan but for the entire discussion of the opportunity. All opportunities have promise; all have vulnerabilities. A good business plan doesnt whitewash the latter. The History? Rather, it proves that the market, entrepreneurial team knows the good, the bad, and the ugly that the venture faces ahead.

Opportunities exist in a context. At one level is the macroeconomic environment, including the level of economic activity, inflation, exchange rates, and interest rates. Of Medical? At another level are the wide range of government rules and regulations that affect the opportunity and how resources are marshaled to exploit it. Examples extend from tax policy to the rules about raising capital for cosmopolitan market, a private or public company. What Is Profit Motive? And at yet another level are factors like technology that define the limits of what a business or its competitors can accomplish. Context often has a tremendous impact on every aspect of the entrepreneurial process, from identification of opportunity to harvest. In some cases, changes in some contextual factor create opportunity. More than 100 new companies were formed when the airline industry was deregulated in the late 1970s. The context for financing was also favorable, enabling new entrants like People Express to market go to the public market for capital even before starting operations.

Conversely, there are times when the context makes it hard to start new enterprises. The recession of the about, early 1990s combined with a difficult financing environment for new companies: venture capital disbursements were low, as was the amount of market capital raised in the public markets. Purposes Of Medical Marijuana Essay? (Paradoxically, those relatively tight conditions, which made it harder for new entrants to get going, were associated with very high investment returns later in the 1990s, as capital markets heated up.) Sometimes, a shift in cosmopolitan market context turns an Essay, unattractive business into cosmopolitan an attractive one, and vice versa. Consider the about Britain and the American, case of a packaging company some years ago that was performing so poorly it was about to be put on the block. Then came the market, Tylenol-tampering incident, resulting in multiple deaths. The packaging company happened to have an efficient mechanism for Purposes of Medical Marijuana Essay, installing tamper-proof seals, and in a matter of weeks its financial performance could have been called spectacular. Conversely, U.S. tax reforms enacted in 1986 created havoc for cosmopolitan market, companies in Essay about Britain the real estate business, eliminating almost every positive incentive to invest.

Many previously successful operations went out of cosmopolitan business soon after the new rules were put in place. Every business plan should contain certain pieces of evidence related to context. First, the entrepreneurs should show a heightened awareness of the what, new ventures context and cosmopolitan, how it helps or hinders their specific proposal. Second, and more important, they should demonstrate that they know the ventures context will inevitably change and describe how those changes might affect the business. Cuba’s Isolation? Further, the business plan should spell out what management can (and will) do in the event the context grows unfavorable. Finally, the business plan should explain the cosmopolitan, ways (if any) in which management can affect context in a positive way. For example, management might be able to have an impact on Great Britain American regulations or on industry standards through lobbying efforts.

The concept that context is fluid leads directly to the fourth leg of the framework I propose: a discussion of cosmopolitan market risk and how to manage it. Ive come to of technology on learning think of a good business plan as a snapshot of an event in cosmopolitan market the future. Thats quite a feat to begin withtaking a picture of the unknown. But the The History of Birth, best business plans go beyond that; they are like movies of the future. They show the people, the market, opportunity, and the context from multiple angles. They offer a plausible, coherent story of what lies ahead. They unfold possibilities of action and reaction. Good business plans, in other words, discuss people, opportunity, and context as a moving target. Lee Sex? All three factors (and the relationship among them) are likely to change over time as a company evolves from start-up to ongoing enterprise. Therefore, any business plan worth the market, time it takes to write or read needs to focus attention on the dynamic aspects of the entrepreneurial process.

When it comes to the matter of risk and reward in a new venture, a business plan benefits enormously from the inclusion of two graphs. Lee Sex? Perhaps graphs is the wrong word; these are really just schematic pictures that illustrate the market, most likely relationship between risk and The History and Society, reward, that is, the relationship between the opportunity and its economics. High finance they are not, but I have found both of market these pictures say more to investors than a hundred pages of charts and Marijuana, prose. The first picture depicts the cosmopolitan, amount of The History Control and Society Essay money needed to launch the new venture, time to positive cash flow, and the expected magnitude of the cosmopolitan market, payoff. This image helps the investor understand the depth and duration of negative cash flow, as well as the Cuba’s Isolation Essay, relationship between the investment and the possible return. Cosmopolitan? The ideal, needless to say, is to have cash flow early and often. But most investors are intrigued by The History of Birth Essay the picture even when the cash outflow is high and longas long as the cash inflow is more so. Of course, since the cosmopolitan, world of new ventures is Purposes, populated by wild-eyed optimists, you might expect the picture to display a shallower hole and a steeper reward slope than it should. It usually does. But to be honest, even that kind of picture belongs in the business plan because it is a fair warning to investors that the new ventures team is completely out of touch with reality and should be avoided at all costs.

The second picture complements the first. It shows investors the range of possible returns and the likelihood of achieving them. The following example shows investors that there is a 15 % chance they would have been better off using their money as wall-paper. The flat section reveals that there is a negligible chance of losing only a small amount of money; companies either fail big or create enough value to achieve a positive return. The hump in the middle suggests that there is a significant chance of earning between 15 % and 45 % in the same time period.

And finally, there is market, a small chance that the initial outlay of cash will spawn a 200 % internal rate of impact of technology on learning return, which might have occurred if you had happened to cosmopolitan market invest in Microsoft when it was a private company. Basically, this picture helps investors determine what class of investment the business plan is presenting. Is the new venture drilling for North Sea oilhighly risky with potentially big payoffsor is Marijuana, it digging development wells in Texas, which happens to be less of a geological gamble and probably less lucrative, too? This image answers that kind of question. Its then up to the investors to decide how much risk they want to live with against what kind of odds. Again, the people who write business plans might be inclined to skew the picture to make it look as if the probability of a significant return is downright huge and the possibility of loss is negligible. And, again, I would say therein lies the pictures beauty. What it claims, checked against the investors sense of reality and cosmopolitan market, experience, should serve as a simple pictorial caveat emptor. Of course, the future is hard to predict.

Still, it is possible to give potential investors a sense of the from Democracy, kind and class of risk and reward they are assuming with a new venture. All it takes is a pencil and two simple drawings. Cosmopolitan Market? (See the Purposes Essay, insert Visualizing Risk and Reward.) But even with these drawings, risk is, well, risky. In reality, there are no immutable distributions of cosmopolitan market outcomes. It is ultimately the responsibility of management to change the Great Britain and the American, distribution, to market increase the likelihood and consequences of success, and to decrease the likelihood and from Democracy Essay, implications of problems. One of the cosmopolitan, great myths about entrepreneurs is that they are risk seekers. All sane people want to avoid risk. As Harvard Business School professor (and venture capitalist) Howard Stevenson says, true entrepreneurs want to capture all the reward and give all the risk to others.

The best business is a post office box to which people send cashiers checks. Impact Of Technology On Learning? Yet risk is unavoidable. Cosmopolitan? So what does that mean for a business plan? It means that the plan must unflinchingly confront the on learning, risks aheadin terms of people, opportunity, and context. What happens if one of the new ventures leaders leaves?

What happens if a competitor responds with more ferocity than expected? What happens if there is a revolution in Namibia, the source of a key raw material? What will management actually do ? Those are hard questions for an entrepreneur to cosmopolitan market pose, especially when seeking capital. But a better deal awaits those who do pose them and then provide solid answers. A new venture, for example, might be highly leveraged and Essay about Great American Colonies, therefore very sensitive to interest rates. Its business plan would benefit enormously by stating that management intends to hedge its exposure through the cosmopolitan, financial-futures market by purchasing a contract that does well when interest rates go up. That is the equivalent of offering investors insurance. (It also makes sense for the business itself.) Finally, one important area in the realm of impact of technology risk/reward management relates to harvesting.

Venture capitalists often ask if a company is IPOable, by which they mean, Can the company be taken public at some point in the future? Some businesses are inherently difficult to take public because doing so would reveal information that might harm its competitive position (for example, it would reveal profitability, thereby encouraging entry or angering customers or suppliers). Some ventures are not companies, but rather productsthey are not sustainable as independent businesses. One of the greatest myths about entrepreneurs is that they are risk seekers. All sane people want to avoid risk. Therefore, the business plan should talk candidly about the end of the process.

How will the investor eventually get money out of the business, assuming it is successful, even if only marginally so? When professionals invest, they particularly like companies with a wide range of exit options. They like companies that work hard to preserve and enhance those options along the way, companies that dont, for example, unthinkingly form alliances with big corporations that could someday actually buy them. Investors feel a lot better about risk if the ventures endgame is discussed up front. Cosmopolitan? There is an of Medical Essay, old saying, If you dont know where you are going, any road will get you there. In crafting sensible entrepreneurial strategies, just the opposite cosmopolitan market, is true: you had better know where you might end up and have a map for getting there. A business plan should be the place where that map is drawn, for, as every traveler knows, a journey is Essay Great American, a lot less risky when you have directions. Once a business plan is market, written, of course, the goal is to land a deal. That is a topic for another article in itself, but I will add a few words here. When I talk to young (and old) entrepreneurs looking to Essay and the American Colonies finance their ventures, they obsess about the cosmopolitan market, valuation and terms of the deal they will receive.

Their explicit goal seems to be to minimize the The History of Birth Control and Society, dilution they will suffer in cosmopolitan market raising capital. Implicitly, they are also looking for investors who will remain as passive as a tree while they go about building their business. On the food chain of investors, it seems, doctors and dentists are best and Cuba’s Isolation from, venture capitalists are worst because of the degree to market which the latter group demands control and a large share of the returns. That notionlike the idea that excruciatingly detailed financial projections are usefulis nonsense. From whom you raise capital is often more important than the terms.

New ventures are inherently risky, as Ive noted; what can go wrong will. When that happens, unsophisticated investors panic, get angry, and often refuse to advance the company more money. Sophisticated investors, by contrast, roll up their sleeves and help the company solve its problems. Often, theyve had lots of experience saving sinking ships. They are typically process literate. They understand how to craft a sensible business strategy and a strong tactical plan. Purposes Marijuana Essay? They know how to recruit, compensate, and motivate team members. They are also familiar with the Byzantine ins and outs of going publican event most entrepreneurs face but once in a lifetime. This kind of know-how is worth the money needed to buy it. There is an old expression directly relevant to entrepreneurial finance: Too clever by half. Often, deal makers get very creative, crafting all sorts of cosmopolitan payoff and option schemes.

That usually backfires. My experience has proven again and again that sensible deals have the following six characteristics: They do not blow apart if actual differs slightly from plan. They do not provide perverse incentives that will cause one or both parties to behave destructively. Of Technology On Learning? They are written on cosmopolitan market a pile of papers no greater than one-quarter inch thick. But even these six simple rules miss an important point. Impact Of Technology On Learning? A deal should not be a static thing, a one-shot document that negotiates the disposition of a lump sum. Instead, it is incumbent upon entrepreneurs, before they go searching for funding, to think about capital acquisition as a dynamic processto figure out cosmopolitan market, how much money they will need and when they will need it.

How is that accomplished? The trick is for the entrepreneurial team to treat the new venture as a series of experiments. Lee Sex? Before launching the whole show, launch a little piece of it. Convene a focus group to market test the product, build a prototype and Cuba’s Isolation, watch it perform, conduct a regional or local rollout of a service. Such an exercise reveals the true economics of the business and can help enormously in determining how much money the new venture actually requires and in what stages. Entrepreneurs should raise enough, and investors should invest enough, capital to cosmopolitan fund each major experiment. The History Of Birth Control? Experiments, of course, can feel expensive and market, risky. But Ive seen them prevent disasters and help create successes. I consider it a prerequisite of putting together a winning deal. Among the about Great and the Colonies, many sins committed by business plan writers is arrogance. In todays economy, few ideas are truly proprietary.

Moreover, there has never been a time in cosmopolitan market recorded history when the supply of capital did not outrace the supply of annabelle opportunity. The true half-life of opportunity is decreasing with the passage of time. A business plan must not be an albatross that hangs around the cosmopolitan market, neck of the entrepreneurial team, dragging it into oblivion. Instead, a business plan must be a call for action, one that recognizes managements responsibility to fix what is broken proactively and in real time. Purposes Of Medical Essay? Risk is inevitable, avoiding risk impossible. Risk management is the key, always tilting the venture in favor of reward and away from risk. A plan must demonstrate mastery of the entire entrepreneurial process, from identification of opportunity to harvest. It is not a way to separate unsuspecting investors from their money by hiding the fatal flaw. For in the final analysis, the only one being fooled is the entrepreneur. We live today in the golden age of market entrepreneurship. And The American? Although Fortune 500 companies have shed 5 million jobs in cosmopolitan the past 20 years, the overall economy has added almost 30 million.

Many of those jobs were created by entrepreneurial ventures, such as Cisco Systems, Genentech, and Microsoft. Each of what is profit those companies started with a business plan. Is that why they succeeded? There is no knowing for sure. But there is little doubt that crafting a business plan so that it thoroughly and candidly addresses the market, ingredients of successpeople, opportunity, context, and the risk/reward pictureis vitally important.

In the absence of a crystal ball, in fact, a business plan built of the right information and analysis can only of Medical, be called indispensable. William A. Sahlman is the Dimitri V. DArbeloff-MBA Class of 1955 Professor of Business Administration at the Harvard Business School.

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Starbucks Corporation: Case Study in Motivation and Teamwork. Because of rapid globalization over recent years, the competition around the cosmopolitan, world becomes more intense, especially for the service industry with the similar products. The most critical point for business to success is not only the quality of. products they supply, but the atmosphere of cooperating and the amount from yield of impact on learning teamwork in retail sales. The employees who always touch with customers and can realize what customers really need are first-line staffs. Therefore, it turns to be essential for companies to motivate, reward and train their employees to be the best quality personnel. Starbucks Corporation, the most famous chain of market retail coffee shops in the world, mainly benefits from roasting, selling special coffee beans and various kind of coffee or tea drinks.

It owns about 4000 branches in the whole world. Moreover, it has been one of the of technology, rapidest growing corporations in America as well. The reasons of cosmopolitan market why Starbucks is worldwide popular are not only the quality of coffee, but also its customer service and cosy environment. Starbucks establishes a comfortable surroundings for Cuba’s Isolation from Essay, people to cosmopolitan socialize with a fair price, which attracts all range of ages consumers to get into the stores. Besides, it is also noted for its satisfaction of employees. The turnover rate of employees at Starbucks was 65% and the rate of managers was 25% a year However, the rates of other national chain retailers are 150% to 400% and 50% respectively. Compared with them, the turnover rate of Starbucks is lee sex much lower than other industries on averagely. (Michelli, 2006) As a result, Starbucks would be one of the optimal business models for the strategies of employee motivation, customer satisfaction and cooperation of teamwork.

In the first stage, the historical background of Starbucks will be introduced. Secondly, an issue about the methods of motivating employees are going to discuss. Next, the strategies, which are used by Starbucks to make their teamwork performance well, will be pointer out. In the end, there is a conclusion about the effect of cosmopolitan policies in motivation and teamwork. 2. The history of Starbucks. Starbucks began by three friends, Jerry Baldwin, Zev Siegl, and Gordon Bowker, who knew each other in annabelle, the University of Seattle.

In 1971, the first name of their store is Starbucks Coffee, Tea, and Spice in Seattle, Washingtons Pike Place Market. They engaged in making profit from selling coffee beans roasted to individual customers and restaurants. Cosmopolitan Market. Until 1982, they had increased the number of is profit stores to four. During the same period, a sales representative of the house ware business in New York, Hammerplast, visited them. Market. Howard Schultz wanted to know why a small company needs a large number of percolators from annabelle, Hammerplast. Because of the trade relationship between these two companies, he was acquainted with the three inventors. After he realized the atmosphere and environment of the company, he decided to be a part of Starbucks, then as a director of marketing and retail sales. In the following year, he had a vocation to Milan, Italy. Though the time, he experienced an entirely different coffee culture from the United States.

The culture of Italian cafe had been one part of peoples daliy life. There were numerous coffee bars around the area and the public usually liked to socialize in a coffee bar. Under those circumstances, Schultz had an idea of a new flavor of cafe and a stylish environment to cosmopolitan market communicating with friends. After the impact of technology on learning, trip, he prepared the business plan for his vision. Cosmopolitan Market. However, the Cuba’s Democracy Essay, three initiators did not want to transfer their business into restaurant industry. Consequently, in 1985 he chose to establish a new coffee shop, named II Giornale, in Seattle.

After the next two years, due to cosmopolitan market the successful strategy of Schultz, the original three owners of Starbucks decided to sell their corporation to Schultz. Then Schultz gathered other investors and took over the name of lee sex II Giornale to Starbucks. He sought to pursue his dream to make everyone taste his coffee, so he focused on the rate of market expanding. At that time, he though that the most efficient way to grow the about Great and the, amount of branches is to set up new stores in cosmopolitan, other places. In I987, Starbucks had the first overseas store in Japan. In the subsequent years, owing to what the rising expenses with the worldwide broadening, there was a deficit in Starbucks for the next three years. In contrast, he firmly believed that not to sacrifice long-term integrity and values for short-term profit (Michelli, 2006). In 1991, it turned loss into cosmopolitan market, gain and its sales grew up sharply to 84 percent. Until the end of 2002, Starbucks has developed from 17 stores to 5,688 spreading over 30 countries in by this strategy, it is an over 300 times growing in these ten years! (shown as Exhibit 1) From Fortune magazine, Starbucks was ranked the 11th best company to work for in 2005 in the USA and then risen up in 2006 to 29th. As to 2007, it was ranked as the 16th best. In the same year, Starbucks was also voted as one of the top ten UK workplaces by the Financial Times. (Resource: wikipedia)

Exhibit 1: STARBUCKS STORE LOCATIONS. Source : Starbucks Corporation. Motivation is a vital factor for business in the process of making their production. Labours are not working machine, so that they can not always do the same affairs with equal passion. Annabelle Lee Sex. Accordingly, the efficient method to cosmopolitan market make staffs keen on their jobs should be to motivate them. It might even gain a better yield than purchasing plenty of equipments and facilities. However, to be contrary to the classical management approaches, some reports had proposed that the ways to motivate employees are not only money. Kohn (1993) showed a survey that if a reward frame only offers physical rewards, the produce from Purposes Marijuana Essay, workers might decline, especially in the creativity industries. What is more, other factors are essential as well, such as working environment or relationship between employees and managers. Nicholson (1998) reported that workers had strong social needs which they tried to satisfy through membership of informal social groups at cosmopolitan work place.

Besides, the importance of is profit informal social factors in the work place such as co-worker relationships and group norms that influence employee motivation and performance is highlighted (Macky Johnson, 2003) A pervious researcher, Pugh Hickson (1989) cited Elton Mayo (1933) made an cosmopolitan, investigation called Hawthorne Experiment. According to the results, if managers provided a suitable working environment considering each personal requirement and their sense of impact satisfaction rather than a higher salary or bonus, workers were encouraged to market be more hard-working and efficient. He also verified that if managers of an organisation do not consider about individual works needs and wants, then treat them as equal units would maximise payment and minimise effort. As a result, how to use non-financial incentives would be an important issue for nowadays business. The chief executive officer of Cuba’s Starbucks corporation, Howard Schultz, considers that the tip of market success in Starbucks is not coffee but employees. Constantly accumulating the working experience of employees and providing chances of promotion in is profit motive, a company for working partners is the way to cosmopolitan operate sustainability. He firmly believes that the spirit of Starbucks is Isolation from employees and feels honored about the value of Starbucks employees.

For this reason, it is necessary to have a perfect education and cosmopolitan market, training policy for better performance in a company (Michelli, 2006). Starbucks offers an interactive structure that makes personnel instill themselves into their job; hence they can motivate partners to satisfy themselves then achieving a new level of performance. 3.1 Equal treatment. The managers in Starbucks treat each workpeople equally and all of the staffs are called partners, even the supervisors of each branch are called it as well. In order to narrow the gap between managers and employees, they also co-work with the basic level staffs in the front line. Due to Isolation from Democracy Essay this, they can maintain a well management system and create a much closer and cosmopolitan, more familiar atmosphere than other place, which makes not only employees can enjoy their job but also customers are affected by their enthusiasm. 3.2 Listen to employees. Starbucks has a well-organized communication channel for annabelle lee sex, employees. It places a great importance on cosmopolitan market, labours. For example, managers plan the working hours per workers and is profit, arrange the schedule of market time off, according to their wants to meet their requirements.

There are interviews weekly to see what employees need is. A special survey called Partner View Survey is taken off approximate every two years. The managers can receive feedbacks through the event to which part should be improved or what issue should be paid more attention to. The partners have the right to figure out what is the best policy for them, and the directors show a respect for each suggestion. Starbucks even wants every employee to join in making and developing plans, then achieving their goals all together. Purposes Of Medical Marijuana. As a result, the policies and principles are communicated between all staffs, and there is cosmopolitan market no limitation in employees personal opinions. Of Technology On Learning. For this reason, business could improve their strategies even innovate by different ideas. 3.3 Good welfare measures. All employees, including informal personnel, are offered a great deal of market welfare policies, for instance, commodities discounts for employees, medical insurance (including health, vision and dentil) and vacations.

Moreover, the partners who work over from Democracy Essay, 20 hours a week are entitled for benefits. Starbucks also thinks that debt financing is not the cosmopolitan, best choice, thus it chose allocate stock dividend to all employees with a free scrip issue. Of Technology. By this policy, the employees can get benefits from the dividends of cosmopolitan company. Because of The History Control and Society this, they have the same goal; in other words, they are motivated to increase the sales to earn more profits. Starbucks just handles personnel with its core value, which is the employees are the most important asset of Starbucks.

Showing a respect to employees and well-developed environment have lead Starbucks to produce the best working quality for customers and an increase in profits. Teamwork can not only construct a small social structure in organization for employees to socialize, but also composite of various kind of members who equip with different background of skill and knowledge on cosmopolitan, account of the mission. And Society Essay. Each member plays an important role in the teamwork; therefore everyone in that team can meet their need for getting acquainted with different colleagues and learn new skill from cosmopolitan market, each other. Hoegl Gemuenden (2001) observed that the definition of teamwork is a social system including more than three people in an organization or context. These members identity others as one member of the team and what, they have the same goal. Robbins (2001) stated that the factors influencing teamwork are relation of leadership, roles, principles, status, size, composition and market, the power of agglomerate. 4.1 The strategies to keep well relationship. Starbucks establishes a well-developed system to of Birth Essay keep good relationship between mangers and employees.

At first, the leaders of a retail shops use the same title partner as a basic level worker to narrow the gap of bureaucracy. Cosmopolitan Market. Furthermore, they co-work in the first line to annabelle eliminate the distance between different statuses. Secondly, the numbers of cosmopolitan employees are usually from three to six. Such a small size of a retail shop makes staffs acquaint with each other easily and on learning, deeply. In the co-working period, this helps a team to match different personalities and majors quickly to market achieve well performance. Next, the suggestions and complaints provided by is profit motive, employees are treated of equal importance. In the same way, they have a right to cosmopolitan participate in the process of revising company policies as well as a manager. In that case, each staff thinks that they also play an important role in company operating, and Cuba’s Isolation from Essay, they can join to work out a direction of Starbucks. These give employees not only a respect, but a sense of cosmopolitan market participation. 4.2 A goal of public welfare. Starbucks has endeavored to create third place (outside from home or office) for people to take a rest (resource: wikipedia).

They want to provide such a comfortable environment to The History increase the harmoniousness of the society. Apart from this, Starbucks contributes part of its profits to public service; on the other hand, it also set a goal to improve and donate to market the society. As a consequence, the aim makes all staffs have an idea that what they do for Starbucks is for the society as well. As the goal theory, Starbucks set a challenging and specific goal, and it permits all partners to from Democracy Essay decide the direction. Afterward, employees embrace to cosmopolitan do what they chose and they get some feedbacks form the goal. The concept causes an increase of the power of annabelle agglomerate and enthusiasm in cosmopolitan market, relation with a positive effect to the profit of Starbucks. Starbucks changes the behaviours and view points of global consumers to coffee, and this successful example has caught global attention. Nevertheless, it was also a small retail coffee shop in North American initially. Nowadays, it is not only what, one of the fastest growing corporation, but also an outstanding business model with lower employee turnover rate and higher profit performance. According to cosmopolitan the case of Starbucks, it shows that motivation is the key factor of Great American a company policy; in other words, opposite to the principles of classical management which only concerns about produce but ignore workers ideas. In recent successful businesses, the appropriate management for labours should include financial and emotional rewards.

Besides, motivation and cosmopolitan market, personal satisfaction should be put into first rank. A good relationship between managers and employees could maintain a high quality of performance. Just like Starbucks, to use the correct strategy would lead to a successful path. Elton, M (1933) The human problems of an industrial civilization New York: MacMillan. Hoegl, M Gemuenden, H G (2001) Teamwork Quality and the Success ofinnovative Projects: A Theoretical Concept and Empirical Evidence Organization science, Vol 12, No. 4, pp 435-449. Kohn, A (1993) Why incentive plans cannot work, Harvard Business Review, September/October, pp 54-63.

Macky, K Johnson, G (2003) Managing Human Resources in annabelle lee sex, New Zealand (2nd ed) Australia: McGraw Hill, pp 82. Michelli, J (2006) the Starbucks experience McGraw-Hill. Nicholson, N (1998) Encyclopedic Dictionary of Organizational Behaviour Blackwell, pp 215. Pugh, D S Hickson, D J (1989) Writers on Organisations An invaluable introduction to the ideas and cosmopolitan, arguments of leading writers on MGMT (4th ed) Penguin Business, pp 155. Robbins, S P?2002?Organizational Behavior America: Prentice-Hall, pp 335.

Starbucks,, date accessed 20/11/07. Wikipedia,, date accessed 20/11/07. Free Online Research Papers is made possible by people like you submitting and commenting on research papers, research articles, book reviews, poetry, and creative writing pieces.

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essays by poets 2017 Steve Campsall. improve your poetry grades! Download Free English biz Guides. If you find poetry difficult then you're not alone. Market! For many people, it's the most difficult aspect of the English course. But. fear not as help and a higher grade are within reach. Read on! Find time to give the English biz guide to essay writing a look over as it's been written to Cuba’s from, work alongside this one - click here to cosmopolitan market, read this later . If you need help with a specific poet or poem, click here or on of Medical Marijuana, a link below.

If you're truly stuck you can also email the teacher at English biz - you'll find a link on the first page of the site, here . What really must be covered in cosmopolitan, your coursework and exam answers? At the core of any and every answer or essay about poetry must be your own interpretation of the is profit, poem or poems you are writing about. Cosmopolitan! It is is profit motive, this alone that attracts the majority of marks. In a nutshell, the more subtly you interpret a poem - and market, give support for your interpretation - the higher your marks, and grade, will be. Poems are rarely to be taken at face value.

It is never the literal meanings that will gain you any marks - it is Purposes of Medical Essay, exposing and discussing the poem's 'deeper meanings' that bring in the marks every time. When you interpret a poem, you seek to market, explain what you believe these 'hidden meanings' are, show how they have been created and The History of Birth Essay, discuss why this was done. Market! Remember: the meanings you seek exist 'between the lee sex, lines'. It is the market, poet's use of literary language that creates these layers of meaning . Poems, more than any other literary form, are dense with meanings created by Cuba’s Isolation from Democracy Essay, this type of language. This is because poets have so little space in which to condense as much meaning as possible. Cosmopolitan Market! This is what makes understanding a poem sometimes very difficult - and yet also, often, fascinating. Let's get one thing clear: interpretation never deals in facts . An interpretation is always an opinion - an insight into what the poem might mean.

This is why examiners are never happy with students who do no more than trot out the opinions of others, those of their teacher or what they've found in lee sex, a study guide, for example (examiners do read study guides, btw!). Examiners will always give the most marks to a student's original ideas - so long as they are valid and are supported by close and market, careful reference to the poem itself. Whilst it is your own ideas that are needed, it is invariably easier to uncover the Purposes of Medical Marijuana, layers of meaning in a poem by discussing it with others . Somehow an interaction of minds brings about clearer meaning and a moment when the penny drops. This does not mean you should copy others' ideas but do use such a discussion to cosmopolitan, develop your own interpretations. You might be one of the Marijuana, many who feel discussing poetry is not cool. Well, keep in mind that it's your grades that are at stake . The exam is market, not a practice and you need to get the about Britain and the Colonies, highest grade you can. So, what to do?

For once, ignore being 'uncool' and get boosting those exam grades. Many students lose marks by going off at a tangent and misreading their poem. How can you avoid this and know that your interpretation is on the right lines? Here's a very worthwhile tip. How does all this work in practice? Below is an example to help show you. Cosmopolitan Market! It is based on Purposes of Medical Marijuana Essay, a just a couple of lines from the opening of the poem 'Half Caste' by John Agard, a very witty poem that many of you will know. Don't be put off if you don't know it, you'll be able to apply exactly the cosmopolitan market, same ideas to any poem you are studying.

You will see from this just how much can be 'squeezed' from only two lines of a poem. This is a key thing for you to appreciate. 'Excuse me standing on one leg Im half-caste. Explain yuself wha yu mean when yu say half-caste. ' Agard opens his poem by creating an about American, obvious contrast between the standard English of the market, opening line of the poem and the Caribbean dialect of the second. This creates a clear contrast which works to alert the from Democracy, reader to the fact that while both kinds of English create perfectly obvious meaning, only one kind is considered to be prestigious and 'proper' within educated circles. Ironically, it is the dialect line that creates the market, more expressive meaning.

In this way, Agard manages to open his poem and introduce a key theme. He wants the reader both to consider and reflect upon what is thought of as acceptable and what is looked down upon in British society. He shows us that 'half-caste' language is actually very good language and language that is capable of of technology on learning, communicating its message well. Poetry has, as has been said above, been called the art of cosmopolitan, 'saying the unsayable'. Undoubtedly some poems can seem to create meanings and emotions that seem well beyond the words on the page. Cuba’s Democracy! Language can be a very mysterious and cosmopolitan market, wonderful thing! Hopefully, you will come to enjoy at of Medical Essay, least some of the poems you study at school but, to market, be realistic, some poems will, initially at least, appear worryingly difficult. One of the Essay Britain Colonies, difficulties with a poem is cosmopolitan, connected with its form - generally speaking, poems are short and motive, this means that poets look for cosmopolitan, ways to squeeze the maximum meaning and annabelle, feeling into them. Poems are often dense with meaning and unlocking these multi-layered meanings requires patience and skill. But it can be very satisfying - a poem can be like a riddle, fun to cosmopolitan market, crack!

This english biz guide will help you 'unpick' a poem and enable you to work out just what the what is profit, poet is trying to say, how the cosmopolitan, poem is 'working' and why this is being done - the poet's purpose . Oh, and finally, you'll find out what gains most marks - as well as how you can get them! Click here to read a poem that many people feel has magical qualities; and here is another! Of course, individuals react differently to Essay Great Britain and the, such poems but many students seem to enjoy these two poems. Appreciating the subtleties of a complex poem in classroom conditions is far from ideal. Market! This means that it will be necessary to find a quiet place and of Birth Control and Society Essay, time at home with mobile phone, MP3 player and TV all switched off when you can re-read your poems.

Even better, find a friend to read and discuss the poem with - two heads are far better than one when it comes to market, understanding a complex poem. An odd but useful thing about a poem is The History Control Essay, that if you leave a day between reading it, some of the poem's extra layers of meaning seem to cosmopolitan, become more apparent when you read the poem again. It's as if the brain has subconsciously 'worked' on the poem in impact of technology, between readings. Reading for Meaning. Quite a useful thing to cosmopolitan, do when you first begin your work on analysing a poem is to. forget it's a poem! Odd as this sounds, your first task is not to dig for hidden meanings but to be sure you've understood the what is profit motive, poem's 'story' - that is, what it is generally all about. This can be called the poem's ' big picture '. It's true that in your essay that this will be one of things to which you will be devoting precious little space BUT you simply cannot proceed without it. So, when you first read any poem, first of all, read it for meaning . These questions will get you on your way: Make a note of who is cosmopolitan, doing the speaking in the poem - what kind of person and in what kind of state or mood?

By the way, never assume it's the poet: instead, think of it as an imagined poetic persona . Poets often like to explore all kinds of aspects of what is profit motive, life in their work and this can mean that they try to write from cosmopolitan market, different viewpoints, for example an impact of technology on learning, older male poet can write as a young boy, or even girl! Now work out who is being spoken to or addressed? (Yes - it could be you, the poem's reader, or it might be an imaginary person. Market! Often, you a poem can seem to be spoken thoughts such as in a monologue , or it could be one half of an The History of Birth, imaginary conversation. Think about just what is market, being spoken about? (What is the subject matter being discussed?). Now - and this is crucial to a good understanding - work out exactly what tone of voice or manner of the speaking voice? (Is the speaker sounding worried, reflective, nostalgic, mournful, happy, concerned, angry, for example?). Importantly, does the tone of voice change during the of Medical, poem? Make a note of where this occurs. Finally, where do the events of the poem happen and market, what is the Cuba’s Isolation from, situation surrounding them ? When you read your poem, simply read it as a group of sentences, forgetting the fact that these sentences have been split into lines . At the market, end of each sentence (i.e. stop reading at Purposes Marijuana, each full stop or, maybe, at each semicolon - ; ), work out what the meaning is so far. Spend time thinking about this and cosmopolitan, perhaps note the The History of Birth Essay, idea down on the poem itself at market, the side of that part of the poem (this is called annotating the text). This is often the easiest and surest way to find out what the on learning, poet is trying to cosmopolitan market, say.

You can consider the effects of other poetic devices the poet has used, such as the way the lines cut up the sentences, the use of rhythm and rhyme , alliteration and so on later. Of course, this doesn't always work - some poems are, let's face it, especially difficult to understand! They might even lack any punctuation so have no apparent sentences. If you find this to be the case, try searching for a study guide to annabelle lee sex, your poem by clicking here or here - or, of course, ask your teacher or a friend for cosmopolitan market, help. If you are still struggling to Purposes of Medical Marijuana Essay, get to cosmopolitan, grips with your poem, read it a few more times and, this is the important bit! - leave time between readings (of course, in an exam, this is not possible). A useful tip : Most people race through poems using a dull voice. Try reading your poems quite S-L-O-W-L-Y . From! Even better (in fact, far better!) is to read the poem aloud ? Oh yes, you really should! Find a quiet place, or read with a friend. Put embarrassment to one side for the sake of a higher grade!

Reading aloud is a very effective way of getting 'beneath' the poem's surface and finding its more subtle meanings. But what you have to do is avoid a mouse-like monotone and instead try to achieve the voice the market, writer of the poem intended (and this won't be mouse like!!). Click here to listen to of Medical Essay, a clip of the GCSE poet John Agard reading a part of his poem, 'Half Caste'. You'll see from this just how much more a dramatic reading of some poems can reveal. Always avoid reading the poem in an overly stylised way , i.e. in a non-conversational voice! Modern poems, especially, are often best read in a normal speaking voice - but it will be a voice with a distinct quality . Do always try to capture this distinctiveness.

Shakespeare had a strong Stratford accent apparently - why, then, do we pretend he didn't when we read his plays? The poem's images will, for sure, be there and the poet has created them to market, guide you towards a fuller understanding of the poem's content and messages . Try hard not to be overly ingenious as this leads you finding meanings that are not there . This is a classic problem with even the brightest students when reading poems. Meanings are never 'hidden' - they are always 'there' - maybe 'under the surface', but always 'there'. And they are always consistent with the whole poem. A poem's deeper meaning might not always be easy to get hold of, but it will be there to find - and - very helpfully and importantly - it will be coherent . Coherence is an important quality of all literature, poems included. It means that the meanings in impact of technology on learning, the poem will all be developed and cosmopolitan market, reinforced logically as the poem progresses . The first line always contributes to the overall meaning, as do all other lines. If you do think you've found a meaning in a poem and it does not contribute in some obvious way to the overall meaning of the whole poem , you are almost certainly off track and misreading the poem: a classic way to lose marks! Click here to listen to what is profit motive, John Agard reading a part of his poem, Half-Caste . Notice the market, slow and emphatic nature of his voice.

If you take a leaf from his book and what motive, read your poems slowly and dramatically you will obtain far more meaning from your poems - and gain higher grades ! Writing your essay. Writing an essay about a poem needs the same skills that apply to all essay writing. Cosmopolitan Market! The english biz essay writing guide is full of ideas that will help gain you a higher grade - be sure to read this - click here . As with all essays, you cannot hope to do well unless you know your text well . Only then will you be able to Essay about Great American Colonies, develop a sufficiently strong viewpoint from which to cosmopolitan market, create the necessary argument that forms the basis of the best essays. The best essays are written as if they were an argument - again, the Englishbiz guide has much more on this. What is your teacher or examiner actually looking for in your essays? You need to show that you have understood not just the Marijuana Essay, poem's 'surface' meaning - try to show knowledge of its layers of meaning and its more subtle messages . You need to show you have understood how the poet has used language and poetic devices to help create and 'shape' create subtle underlying messages . You need to show you have recognised how meaning is developed across the whole poem - as each idea is explored and cosmopolitan, builds up into a coherent whole. How to do this to what is profit, gain high marks. Read the essay question or title very carefully . You just wouldn't believe how many students answer a different answer to the one asked.

Yes - they do, every year! If you are revising for market, an exam, ask your teacher to show you some past exam questions . There is no better way to The History of Birth, familiarise yourself with what is required in the exam and your teacher will be happy to mark any questions you try. Some exam boards now post downloadable past exam papers on their web sites . Highlight the key words of the essay question and be sure you address each of these in your answer - marks will be lost if you don't! In an cosmopolitan market, exam question, there will usually be bullet points to guide your response - you MUST cover the points these mention as the exam marker gives marks based on these . If it is Cuba’s Isolation Democracy, not clear in the essay question, decide which poem(s) will help you answer it. Work out cosmopolitan, exactly what is required of you. Discussing the poet's life and times, i.e. their context , rarely gains marks. It is what motive, often better to get on with your analysis of the poem(s) straight away. Be aware of any significant changes in emphasis and the tone of voice as the story, ideas or images of the poem unfolds. Work out how and why these tones and changes in tone have been made to occur through particular choices of language or form . This is important as it will allow you to comment on the structure of the poem and market, this gains many marks.

Be especially alert to the use of an ironic tone of voice. Irony is an Cuba’s Isolation Democracy, important and frequent poetic device used by poets. Irony is an market, effective means of engaging the reader. Irony subtly shapes meaning and develops layers of meaning within the The History Essay, poem. As well as irony , poets frequently rely on the use of what is called ' figurative' language . It's very important to notice where figurative language is cosmopolitan market, used, the effect it creates and the purpose intended.

Figurative language creates 'figures' or images in the mind's eye. It is the and Society, use of description , metaphor , simile or personification . This common poetic device helps the poet to create and shape meaning. It also works to develop an market, emotional response in you, the reader. Figurative language works so well because it creates images in Purposes of Medical Essay, the mind - and as the old saying goes, 'a picture is worth a thousand words. Cosmopolitan! '. Look at these opening lines and see how the images are created and begin to work: Ive known rivers: Ive known rivers ancient as the world and older than the. flow of human blood in human veins. My soul has grown deep like the rivers. from 'The Negro Sings of Rivers' by Essay Britain American, Langston Hughes.

Read your poem through a sufficient number of times for you to feel sure you have grasped its big picture . Finally, with the essay question firmly in mind , work out your response to cosmopolitan, it. This is your own point of view on which you will base your essay. An important way you can unlock subtle meanings in Cuba’s Isolation Democracy, any text, but especially in cosmopolitan, a poem, is to look for Purposes Essay, the effects of binary oppositions . Click on the hyperlink if this idea intrigues you. It is cosmopolitan market, a guaranteed 'mark grabber' as it allows a very subtle response indeed to a poem (or any text). If you can discuss a text at the level of its binary oppositions , you will have at your disposal a sophisticated way of analysing the subtle levels of what is profit motive, meaning created in poetry - but this method is cosmopolitan market, sophisticated and requires very careful thought. FOR A FULL GUIDE TO THIS FASCINATING ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUE - CLICK HERE. Some more ways to unlock the meaning of a poem. There is a key aspect to about Great, every poem you need to consider - the one aspect that separates all poems from market, any other kind of writing: its form . You need to work out why the poet wrote it in lines! Writing in lines means the poem is composed in verse . Notice where the poet sliced up each sentence into shorter lines (and sometimes even across the Isolation Democracy Essay, stanzas of the poem).

Does it allow a special degree of emphasis to be placed on parts of the sentence that might have been lost if it was not 'sliced' up into lines - i.e. Market! if it had been written as a piece of continuous prose ? See if you can work out of Medical Essay, how the poet's use form helps to emphasise certain words or ideas as these often act subtly to shape meaning . Remember that only cosmopolitan, poetry allows this 'playfulness' with form . Poets truly enjoy playing with the form of poetry - after all, that's why they like writing poetry! As well as choosing where to end a line or a verse (i.e. properly called a stanza ), or whether to is profit motive, use rhythm or rhyme , there are many other ways in which a poet can play around with the cosmopolitan, form of language to add to the meaning: Some lines might seem to Essay about Great and the, end quite abruptly - even without using a full stop. This can be used to cosmopolitan, create subtle effects. For example, an end-stopped line can lead to a useful pause occurring before you read on thus creating emphasis (see the of technology, technical term caesura below). Some lines might 'run on' into the next line or even the next stanza. Poets also sometimes create the effect of an cosmopolitan market, extended pause between words, phrases or lines - again with or without using punctuation to achieve this effect. This enforced mini-pause is called a caesura . This is is profit motive, a subtle effect that leads to an emphasis or a pause for thought being created. Some I mportant 'Poetic Devices'

Alliteration is the repeating of initial sounds as in William Blake's poem The Tyger: ' T yger! T yger! B urning b right!'. This often creates emphasis and, like the use of rhythm and rhyme , makes words memorable. It can also help to create a different tone - depending on which consonants are alliterated. Alliteration using consonants such as 's' or 'f' will create a softer tone of market, voice. Alliteration created using harsher consonants such as 'b' or 'd' can create a harsh even angry tone. Always try to work out the tone of voice within your poem and note how and where this changes . A ssonance is the term used for the repetition of vowel sounds within consecutive words as in, 'rags of gr ee n w ee d hung down. '. Vowel sounds are always softer sounding and can add to the quality of the The History and Society Essay, tone of voice within the poem, perhaps creating a sense of softness of mood or romance . A combination of soft consonants and long vowels can create a particularly gentle tone. Rhyme is when the final sounds of market, words are the same and are repeated either within a line (this is on learning, called internal rhyme , as in 'I bring fresh showers for the thirsting flowers ') or at market, the end of two lines (this is called end rhyme ). Work our the effect rhyme creates.

Does it make the poem more memorable? Does it add to on learning, the 'feel', the meaning or the tone in a useful way? Does it create a happy sense that 'all is well with the world'? Often 'sound effects' created by cosmopolitan, using the form of words help to suggest a particular tone of voice . For example, repeated hard consonants called 'plosive consonants' (b, p, c, k, d, etc.) can suggest harshness or anger, whereas soft consonants (sh, ch, s, f, m, etc.) or 'long' internal vowels (e.g. the s oo n the sh ow ers of au tumn') can suggest a calm or romantic quality. Rhyme can also suggest or add a sense of control or harmony as if 'all is well with the world', whereas half-rhyme (e.g. On Learning! moan/mourn, years/yours) can suggest a wish for harmony or the presence of discord . Repetition of important words and market, phrases can help shape meaning because it adds emphasis . Are the motive, stanzas (i.e. what many students wrongly call 'verses') regular in line length, size and shape with a repeating, regular rhythm? This is typical of older more traditional British poetry and hints at that sense of cosmopolitan market, 'control' and 'harmony' that seemed to exist in earlier days before the great loss of religious faith or questioning of values of today. Poems with irregular line lengths and no obvious rhythm or rhyme look and sound very different from traditional poetry.

These poems are called free verse or, technically, 'vers libre' and can be a way of of Medical Essay, suggesting lack of control or lack of harmony . Look at cosmopolitan, the way the structure or sequence of about Britain American Colonies, ideas builds up in the poem (perhaps through a sequence of images ); make a note of the effect of this sequencing of ideas or images and how it adds to the overall effect and meaning of the poem. Finally, notice if any particular words and market, phrases stand out in a particularly poetic way. These words and phrases deserve extra thought as they probably contain layers of of Birth, meaning or create imagery and cosmopolitan, ideas. Maybe the words are ironic or metaphorical? Perhaps they create a vivid image , for example.

These effects act to draw you deeper into the world of the poem by engaging your attention - a sure sign that the poem is 'working' on you! In your mind, 'become' the poet and what is profit, ask yourself these revealing questions: 1. What is 'your' poem about generally (e.g. 'war') and in market, particular (e.g. Of Medical Marijuana! 'the horror of fighting in trench warfare'). For example, were you trying to help your reader to understand some aspect of society or human life more clearly? What was your intention or purpose? 3. What motivated you to write about such a subject?

Were you affected by your circumstances : the beliefs, values and attitudes you hold to compared to cosmopolitan, the general beliefs, attitudes and values of your society or its leaders (i.e. your society's dominant ideologies )? 4. Were there any literary traditions or fashions that affected the style in which you wrote? Why was this? You will frequently be asked to write about more than one poem and this does add an extra layer of Essay American Colonies, difficulty. However, if you are writing an cosmopolitan market, argument essay , the difficulty is lessened dramatically because you are using the poems to support your own argument rather than writing directly about the poems themselves.

Aspects of The History of Birth Control, each poem will, therefore, naturally find their way into your essay as you write in support of the various points you are making to support your argument. It is, therefore, always best to compare and cosmopolitan, contrast the ideas each poet explores as you proceed - and this is best done as providing support for what, your own argument. Cosmopolitan Market! In each paragraph you write, you should aim to discuss a comparable or contrasting aspect chosen from each poem (and, as before, you must use the 'point-quotation-comment' method) that helps develop a point that supports your overall argument as stated in impact on learning, your opening paragraph. If you find this difficult (and it can be - especially under examination conditions), the market, alternative is to write an Cuba’s Isolation Essay, 'exploring essay'. In this kind of essay, you analyse and write about your first poem fully before moving on to your second poem, then, as you write about the second poem, you must take the market, chance frequently to refer back to the first poem when you find a suitable point of comparison or contrast. N ever forget to compare and Purposes Marijuana Essay, contrast! This is a part of the mark scheme in this type of question. FIVE TOP TIPS FOR SUCCESS.

1. Market! Know your poems well. 2. Analyse closely analysis and develop subtle insights. Only a close analysis of the poem will allow you to develop subtle insights into the poet's reasons and methods. It is the consistency, clarity, depth and subtlety of your analysis and insights that will gain the highest marks. 3. The History Of Birth And Society Essay! Use the P.E.E. method of analysis. 4. Never look for and find what isn't there ! Poems can be difficult so when you are thinking about the market, deeper levels of a poem's meaning, it is all too easy to be overly ingenious . Do not find meanings that are not really there. If a particular meaning exists within a part of annabelle, a poem, it will be consistent with (i.e. help out the meaning of. ) the whole poem - it will never just apply to a single line or phrase. If you think a line of poetry means something, make sure this fits in with what you think the poet is trying to cosmopolitan market, say in the whole poem.

A more obvious meaning is far more likely than a very obscure meaning. Always make sure that the words of about Great Britain and the Colonies, your poem clearly support whatever points you want to make about it. Never be afraid to use a lively style when you write; in fact, whilst remembering always to cosmopolitan market, avoid slang and to use standard English , try hard to annabelle lee sex, make your essay sound as individual and cosmopolitan, interesting as you are! Avoid stuffiness and over-formality like the plague.