Date: 9.13.2017 / Article Rating: 4 / Votes: 3273
Aji.buyessayonline.cloudns.cx #Bob from the outsiders

Recent Posts

Home >> Uncategorized >> Bob from the outsiders














Best Essay Writers Here - bob from the outsiders

Nov/Sat/2017 | Uncategorized


Do My English Essay - Bob Sheldon in The Outsiders - Shmoop

Nov 18, 2017 Bob from the outsiders,

Order Paper Writing Help 24/7 - Bob Sheldon in The Outsiders - Shmoop

barbara boxer resume Mike Ludwig of the outsiders, Truthout: Trump's nominee to wedding symbolism head the EPA's clean air program has represented industry groups opposed to bob from the outsiders new standards meant to protect workers from cancerous dust. Trump's Quest to problems Enrich the Richest: An Interview With Noam Chomsky. The Trump administration's policies at bob from the outsiders, home and wedding symbolism, abroad represent the current form of the Republican Party: a wrecking ball wielded by the powerful. Bob From The Outsiders. Five Major Accomplishments Barbara Boxer Achieved During Her Tenure. This week, Barbara Boxer, one of the which is an example of passive transport, best-known senators in bob from the outsiders the United States, announced that she will not seek reelection when her term comes to an end in 2016. Having served in Congress since 1983, Boxer has built quite a resume as a public official. In honor of teenage problems, her political career winding down, let’s look at the outsiders, some of her biggest accomplishments. 1. Development Life Cycle. Taking Care of Young People Who Need Extra Support. Though Boxer certainly didn’t invent the concept of afterschool programs, in bob from the outsiders 2001, she definitely ensured their survival, particularly in which is an example of passive across underserved areas that normally lack the funds to the outsiders give children proper care. Her legislation now secures more than a billion dollars in types of plcs federal funds to provide safe, stimulating care for bob from children whose parents are still at work when the Essay on Language of Culture, school bell rings.

Additionally, she looked out for the outsiders young adults when she penned the Fostering Connections to Success and american define, Increasing Adoptions Act. Instead of forcing foster kids to exit the system as soon as they turn 18, her law provides extra services (and necessary support) for these young adults until the age of 21. In 2010, following a period of corporation-brewed economic turmoil, Congress looked to pass some sensible legislation in order to prevent a similar situation from bob from the outsiders, happening again in is an example a cell the future. Hoping to the outsiders push the laws even further, Boxer offered up an which example across, important amendment to the outsiders the bill: a ban on using taxpayer money to bail out failing banks. “If there’s one thing we should all be able to american dream define agree on, it is bob from, this: The American taxpayers should never again have to bail out Wall Street firms that gambled away our savings and wreaked havoc on on Language in Communication, our economy,” said Boxer. Bob From The Outsiders. While this single amendment may not have come close to of Culture in Communication ending Wall Street and the outsiders, the government’s unhealthy codependency at teenage problems, the expense of the the outsiders, average citizen, at least there are more obstacles in types of plcs place to prevent Uncle Sam from throwing money at corporations it declares “too big to the outsiders fail.” 3. Increasing Public Safety. So many of Boxer’s victories are smaller efforts that benefit people in american define ways they don’t even realize. Amongst the safeguards that Boxer played a large role in bob from the outsiders making or keeping legal are: Forbidding lead (even trace amounts) from being permitted in drinking water Defending an attack on existing mercury standards Putting choking warnings more clearly visible on wedding ring symbolism, toy packages Improving federal authorities’ ability to bob from the outsiders investigate child trafficking Blocking pesticide use near places where children learn and types of plcs, play. 4. Standing Up for Our Service Women and bob from, Men. Boxer has taken a particular interest in life cycle the military, including the bob from the outsiders, ongoing concern over sexual assault. Two years ago, she succeeded at stopping anyone who has been convicted of all the men summary, sexual assault from joining the military, a type of the outsiders, felony that was typically “waived” by which is an of passive transport across, the military prior to the outsiders this law.

Later in the year, she also introduced a subsequently approved amendment that blocked military bigwigs from punishing/intimidating soldiers who report sexual assault as was pretty much the protocol up until that point. American Define. 5. Bob From. Creating the Climate Action Task Force. Of System. Even out of bob from, office, Boxer’s legacy will live on in the form of the Climate Action Task Force she created with fellow senator Sheldon Whitehouse — yes, that’s his real name. Is An Example Of Passive Transport A Cell. “The goal is to wake up Congress,” Boxer said, listing the group’s goals as putting a price on carbon emissions and bob from, building a coalition of the 60 Senate votes necessary to ensure the define, passage of bob from, meaningful climate change legislation. Given how critical addressing man-made climate change is for the future of human survival, the of Culture in Communication, further development of the outsiders, this task force may be one of the country’s most important tools in tackling the problems at hand. Kevin Mathews is a contributor to Essay of Culture Care2.com. The Outsiders. Study Shows Kids' Test Scores Drop When Their Food Stamps Run Out.

States and Local Advocates Lead the Way for shoeless joe summary Criminal Legal System Reform. University of New Haven and Saudi Police: Big Money Makes Strange Bedfellows. Puerto Ricans Protest Trump's Visit, Denounce Militarization Amid Lack of Aid Distribution. They Don't Care Who the Guns Go To: Experts Warn Trump Administration Plans to Widen US Weapons Exports. The Outsiders. Five Major Accomplishments Barbara Boxer Achieved During Her Tenure. Which Of Passive Transport Across. This week, Barbara Boxer, one of the best-known senators in the outsiders the United States, announced that she will not seek reelection when her term comes to an end in 2016. All The King's. Having served in Congress since 1983, Boxer has built quite a resume as a public official. In honor of her political career winding down, let’s look at the outsiders, some of Essay, her biggest accomplishments.

1. Taking Care of Young People Who Need Extra Support. Though Boxer certainly didn’t invent the the outsiders, concept of afterschool programs, in 2001, she definitely ensured their survival, particularly in underserved areas that normally lack the funds to symbolism give children proper care. The Outsiders. Her legislation now secures more than a billion dollars in federal funds to provide safe, stimulating care for all the king's men summary children whose parents are still at bob from the outsiders, work when the symbolism, school bell rings. Additionally, she looked out for bob from young adults when she penned the types of plcs, Fostering Connections to bob from the outsiders Success and types of plcs, Increasing Adoptions Act. Instead of forcing foster kids to the outsiders exit the system as soon as they turn 18, her law provides extra services (and necessary support) for is an example across these young adults until the age of 21. Bob From The Outsiders. In 2010, following a period of is an example transport across a cell membrane?, corporation-brewed economic turmoil, Congress looked to bob from the outsiders pass some sensible legislation in american dream order to prevent a similar situation from bob from, happening again in Essay on Language the future. Hoping to push the laws even further, Boxer offered up an important amendment to the outsiders the bill: a ban on using taxpayer money to bail out Essay on Language in Communication failing banks. “If there’s one thing we should all be able to agree on, it is the outsiders, this: The American taxpayers should never again have to bail out Wall Street firms that gambled away our savings and wreaked havoc on Essay of Culture in Communication, our economy,” said Boxer. While this single amendment may not have come close to ending Wall Street and the government’s unhealthy codependency at bob from, the expense of the average citizen, at least there are more obstacles in place to prevent Uncle Sam from throwing money at corporations it declares “too big to types of plcs fail.” 3. Bob From. Increasing Public Safety. Type Development Cycle. So many of the outsiders, Boxer’s victories are smaller efforts that benefit people in problems ways they don’t even realize.

Amongst the bob from, safeguards that Boxer played a large role in making or keeping legal are: Forbidding lead (even trace amounts) from being permitted in drinking water Defending an attack on type of system life cycle, existing mercury standards Putting choking warnings more clearly visible on bob from the outsiders, toy packages Improving federal authorities’ ability to which is an of passive investigate child trafficking Blocking pesticide use near places where children learn and the outsiders, play. 4. Standing Up for american dream define Our Service Women and Men. Boxer has taken a particular interest in the outsiders the military, including the wedding, ongoing concern over the outsiders sexual assault. Two years ago, she succeeded at stopping anyone who has been convicted of sexual assault from Essay on Language, joining the military, a type of felony that was typically “waived” by bob from the outsiders, the military prior to teenage this law. Later in the year, she also introduced a subsequently approved amendment that blocked military bigwigs from punishing/intimidating soldiers who report sexual assault as was pretty much the protocol up until that point. 5. Creating the Climate Action Task Force.

Even out of bob from, office, Boxer’s legacy will live on in the of passive transport across membrane?, form of the the outsiders, Climate Action Task Force she created with fellow senator Sheldon Whitehouse — yes, that’s his real name. Life Cycle. “The goal is to wake up Congress,” Boxer said, listing the group’s goals as putting a price on carbon emissions and bob from the outsiders, building a coalition of the shoeless, 60 Senate votes necessary to the outsiders ensure the in Communication, passage of the outsiders, meaningful climate change legislation. Ring. Given how critical addressing man-made climate change is for the future of human survival, the further development of the outsiders, this task force may be one of the shoeless joe summary, country’s most important tools in tackling the the outsiders, problems at hand.

Order Essay - Bob Sheldon - Cliffs Notes

Bob from the outsiders

Buy Personal Narrative Essay - The Outsiders (1983) - Full Cast & Crew - IMDb

Nov 18, 2017 Bob from the outsiders,

Buy Local Essay - Images for Bob from the outsiders

Is The Bible Worth Reading? And Other Essays. If man wishes to learn about the earth or the bob from the outsiders heavens; about life or the animal kingdom, he has no need to study the Bible. If he is desirous of reading the best poetry or the most entertaining literature he will not find it in types of plcs, the Bible. If he wants to read to store his mind with facts, the Bible is the bob from last book for him to open, for types of plcs never yet was a volume written that contained fewer facts than this book. If he is anxious to get some information that will help him earn an the outsiders honest living he does not want to types of plcs, spend his time reading Genesis, Exodus, Numbers, Kings, Psalms, or the the outsiders Gospels. If he wants to read just for Essay in Communication the fun of bob from, reading, to kill time, or to see how much nonsensical writing there is in one book, let him read the Bible. I have not said that there are not wise sayings in the Bible, or a few dramatic incidents, but there are just as wise sayings, and wiser ones, too, out of the book, and there are dramas of human life that surpass in interest anything contained in the Old or New Testament. No person can make a decent excuse for dream reading the Bible more than once.

To do such a thing would be a foolish waste of time. But our stoutest objection to reading this book is, not that it contains nothing particularly good, but that it contains so much that is positively bad. To read this book is to get false ideas, absurd ideas, bad ideas. The injury to the human mind that reads the Bible as a reliable book is beyond repair. I do not think that this book should be read by bob from the outsiders, children, by any human being less than twenty years of age, and it would be better for mankind if not a man or woman read a line of it until he or she was fifty years old. What I want to say is this, that there is which is an nothing in the Bible that is of the least consequence to bob from, the people of the twentieth century.

English literature is richer a thousand fold than this so- called sacred volume. We have books of more information and of more inspiration than the Bible. As the relic of a barbarous and superstitious people, it should have a place in teenage, our libraries, but it is not a work of bob from, any value to this age. Types Of Plcs? I pity men who stand in pulpits and call this book the word of bob from, God. I wish they had brains enough to earn their living without having to repeat this foolish falsehood. The day will come when this book will be estimated for what it is worth, and when that day comes, the Bible will no longer be called the word of God, but the work of ignorant, superstitious men. The cross everywhere is a dagger in the heart of liberty. A miracle is not an explanation of what we cannot comprehend. The statue of liberty that will endure on this continent is not the one made of granite or bronze, but the one made of love of freedom. Take away every achievement of the world and leave man freedom, and the earth would again bloom with every glory of attainment; but take away liberty and everything useful and beautiful would vanish. This is to me the highest, purest, holiest act of humanity.

All others, when weighed with this unselfish consecration to duty, seem small and insignificant. There is, in a mother's life, no counting of cost, no calculation of reward. Wedding? It is enough that a duty is to be done; that a service is to be rendered; that a sacrifice is the outsiders called for. The true mother gives herself to the offices of love without hope, expectation, or wish of recompense. A mother's love for her children cannot be determined by any earthly measure, by any material standard. It outshines all glory, and is the last gleam of men summary, light in the human heart. A mother's love walks in a thousand Gethsemanes, endures a thousand Calvaries, and the outsiders, has a thousand agonies that the wedding symbolism dying of Jesus upon a cross cannot symbolize. This maternal sacrifice is the bob from the outsiders greater that it is made cheerfully, without a murmur, and even with joy. If it is not sought; it is never pushed aside.

A mother's sacrifice for her family makes a chapter of suffering, of patient toil and men summary, strife, of heroic endurance and forbearance, that religion is not yet high enough to appreciate; and this sublime devotion is not in bob from the outsiders, one home, but in hundreds of thousands in every land everywhere on earth, and it is real, true, heart-born, and the utmost of renunciation that human life has revealed. The brief martyrdom of Jesus was not voluntary, was not lasting in its pain or in its service to types of plcs, mankind. His death was cruel, his suffering and agony terrible to think of, but it was all soon over. A few hours of torture make up the tragedy of the cross. But the story of this crucifixion may be fictitious, imaginary; most likely is such.

Perhaps no such man died such a death in any such way. Then how vain and foolish to waste our sympathy on a fanciful sufferer, an bob from imaginary martyr, who never existed outside of the brain of the writer of the story, while there are actual, real beings living who are making a greater sacrifice, doing a holier duty, within our reach! We need not go to a Bible to find those who deserve our tears, or who have earned our admiration. The bravest heart that ever author wrote into being, fails to come up to the lofty height of example of passive a cell, endurance, of a life inspired by love, of heroic sacrifice, that can be found in bob from the outsiders, hundreds of homes in our land. Far be it from wedding ring, my intention to paint less any deed of mortal that has brightened the lot of man, or to throw discredit upon aught that is the outsiders worthy of human gratitude and praise. I yield most ready sympathy and men summary, most willing admiration to every noble soul that has lived or died to make earth better and bob from, happier, but I do not believe that greatness, goodness and american dream define, love are all dead, and that our whole duty is to stand and weep around a tomb. I believe in living men and women, in bob from, living hearts and souls, in living greatness and goodness and love, and I tell you all that the earth never bore more loving, more humane, tenderer, braver, or truer hearts than beat today in the living breasts of mankind. And I place above all that is brave and true, great and good, in the past or present, the mothers of our age. -- What man cannot see that silent, patient mother in her home, the victim of a multitude of teenage, trials, crosses, annoyances, day after day and week after week, meeting all, bearing all, with a saint's look and manner; and what man, seeing her there, at the side of the sick, worn out with watching and waiting, and then at the bed of death, faithful and bob from, true to the last, though wounded in of Culture, heart and spirit never faltering in the way of duty, that would not say if there be one sacrifice that is above, and greater than, all others, it is that of a mother's love? One human being in the outsiders, the great world of man, and in the greater world of Nature, plays but a small part. Of but little account is a human life in the vast, limitless universe.

A man fills but a little space while alive, and touches but a few hearts when he dies. Men Summary? We are fortunate if we make during life, one true, loyal friend who stands by us while that life lasts. We reckon this, after all, the bob from grandest triumph of the human soul. It is not difficult to gather dollars -- quite a number, at least, -- nor to win a measure of fame, but to live, to problems, be, to act, in such way as to bind one true heart to ours, is a victory which we may be proud of. Some lives have larger circumferences than others, radiate farther, influence more, but none can win the bob from the outsiders rare tribute of types of plcs, perfect friendship from more than one or two. Yes! man plays but a small part in the great drama of life. He is on the stage but a few short hours, and most men are but poor or indifferent actors at best. Who cares when a man dies?

Not the sun, for it shines just as gaily when he closes his eyes to its golden light; not the birds, for bob from the outsiders they chatter and sing over define his coffin, and bob from, hop and sing on wedding ring symbolism, his grave; not the brook, for the outsiders it runs laughing on and never stops its gambols and song; not any of the example transport across a cell things of earth, but man. When man dies, a few say, Is he gone? and then forget that he ever lived; a few go to help carry his dead body to the grave, and then turn away to join the business and the outsiders, pleasure of life, and forget that they have buried a man; a few, some days after, call at the house where he lived and drop a tear of sympathy for the weeping widow and tearful children, and then forget that the husband and problems, father is no more. But does no one care? Perhaps a wife, who will carry his dead image in her heart as long as it beats; perhaps a daughter, who will remember him a year or two, or a little longer, who will miss his happy greeting, his loving kiss, his proud, kind look as he lifts the heart's dearest idol to his knee; and this is all. And this is enough. We care for only a few; and why should many care for us? Though life is short and not always heroic; and though, when it ends, the world goes on just the same, we love life and bob from the outsiders, it is sweet while it lasts. Though we travel quickly over the road, we enjoy for types of plcs the most part, the journey of life. We have pain, it is true; we learn of sorrow and bob from the outsiders, grief; we feel the pang of parting and weep on the white face of some loved one, and teenage, yet, we find happiness, we enjoy living, and we regret when the curtain is rung down and bob from, our part is types of plcs played and the lights turned out. When we strike the the outsiders balance between pleasure and pain, joy and sorrow, happiness and example membrane?, misery, most find that life is worth living.

A dogma will thrive in soil where the the outsiders truth could not get root. The measure of liberty which man enjoys determines the civilization of the age in which he lives. The person who can make a loaf of bread is more to the world than the person who could perform a miracle. The indifference to Christianity may well alarm the men who live on types of plcs, the credulity that gives it the show of life, but to those who delight in actions of sincerity, it affords the greatest encouragement, for it promises to the world a day when intelligence and integrity will be respected more than ignorance and hypocrisy. It is just the same in the animal world.

An immense quantity of useless beings go about on two and four legs or on none at all. The only excuse for the snake is that he was made to eat the bob from the outsiders toad; for the toad, that he was made to eat insects; for the insects -- well, nobody has yet made a wholesome excuse for their existence, anyway. It looks as though one being in Nature was made simply to kill another being, and the last-made being, man, is the supreme killer of the whole lot. Take the whole range of wild beasts, and find, if you can, aught but malice in their creation, if they were created. No plague ever destroyed hyenas and types of plcs, jackals. No one ever found a sick rattlesnake or an invalid hornet. The fittest survive?. Bob From? The fittest for of passive transport across a cell membrane? what? To worry man, to make life miserable. Mosquitoes, wasps, fleas, reptiles and wild beasts, poisonous vines and shrubs, noxious blossoms whose perfume is the kiss of death, weeds that push and crowd decent plants until they die in utter despair -- these are the sturdiest triumphs of the creative art.

We cannot help wishing that the Lord-God had not rested on the seventh day, but instead, had gone around and destroyed about seven-eighths of what he had created. We might then have had quite a decent world to live in. Man builds a home for the outsiders her he loves, he plants beside it all that will make it beautiful to the eyes of problems, his wife. He works and brings what is fair to adorn it, and makes every room a casket to hold the jewel of love. He looks at the outsiders his home with pride, and feels that it is the dearest spot on earth, a refuge safe and transport across a cell membrane?, secure. The cyclone comes and in bob from the outsiders, a moment all is king's swept away. Man cannot trust the God of the winds. There is no more terrible calamity that afflicts our globe at the present time than an earthquake.

It comes without warning, by day or night, when man is at bob from his place of business or when he is at rest. There is no way of preventing it, no way of preparing for it. It may wait a hundred, a thousand, years before it works its deadly ruin. But when it comes, havoc is ring left. Bob From The Outsiders? An earthquake may be good for the earth, but it is almighty discouraging to king's, the people that live on it. It may seek a beneficent end, but it goes to work in a cruel manner to the outsiders, accomplish it. Teenage Problems? Human life counts no more than the life of rats when an earthquake gets started. This infernal visitor does not seek a spot where its malevolence can be wrecked upon the rocks and hills. Oftener it goes to the thickly populated city or town and topples over houses and swallows up dwellings, with men, women and the outsiders, children. Does God send the earthquake? If he does, where is the evidence of his love for american dream define man?

If He does not, who does? It is pretty tough business to try to reconcile Nature with the idea of bob from the outsiders, God's watchful care over man. If the which is an example of passive a cell membrane? winds did not turn to hurricanes; if the bob from sunshine did not make drought; if the rain never became a flood; if the sea never grew angry and sunk the ship; if the clouds always dissolved in gentle rain or in dew; if there were no wild beasts; no venomous snakes; no poisonous vines or flowers; if there were only types of plcs, what is the outsiders bright and fair and good on earth and all the king's men summary, nothing that was dark and the outsiders, cold and repulsive, we might believe that a heavenly father had made the earth for a dwelling- place for man. But as it is, we have to think as well of Nature as possible and dodge her lightning, run from her water-spouts, keep out all the men summary, of the way of cyclones and shift for ourselves while here. What follows nobody knows. It may be better for us beyond this life; we hope it is no worse. Bob From? And it may be only sleep, sleep with no dreams and types of plcs, no awakening. We should dislike to die on this side of the grave with the fear that we should come out on the other only to meet a hurricane in the teeth, or find an earthquake had been put under us to give us a shaking up the first thing on that shining shore, or to the outsiders, be caught in a furious torrent that poured down the sides of some heavenly mountain. Earth is a pretty good place when the conditions are all favorable, but if we are to have another life it ought to be a better one or else we should be saved the is an transport across trouble of dying. The feet of progress have always been shod by doubt.

A true man will not join anything that in any way abridges his freedom or robs him of his rights. There is just as much nonsense connected with the use of this phrase the infinite purpose as there is with special Providence or Divine love, or any other religious expression which expresses nothing unless you are religious. Where this purpose makes for righteousness, as Matthew Arnold delighted to believe, we are willing to catch on to it, but where it is going in the other direction we prefer to go our own way. This notion of uniting the finite with the infinite purpose is all right, providing the latter does not conflict with the former, but we have serious objection to the outsiders, doing anything that will interfere with the highest development of which across membrane?, our humanity. The purpose which is at work in the world does not make for health any more than for disease. It seems to carry a tubercle with as much satisfaction as a ray of sunshine, and lends all its forces to assist the highwayman with no more charge than it makes to the law-abiding citizen. It seems to us that it is necessary to divorce the bob from infinite purpose from types of plcs, a lot of intentions that do not work for human interests, before it will be desirable to assume intimate relations with this purpose. We do not want to get into touch with what is not going our way; that is, the way of health, of prosperity, of happiness. We do not deny that we need to give a higher direction to human thought. Bob From The Outsiders? We affirm this fact as positively as our most Christian contemporary.

But before we advise mankind to harness its wagon to the infinite purpose we want to be sure where it is teenage going. Man has to go to mill and market as well as to meeting, and there is just as good a purpose manifested in the outsiders, getting the most wholesome food for our stomachs as there is in getting the safest creed for our souls. We are loth to on Language, trust any religious purpose as opposed to bob from the outsiders, a human one. We believe in man first, last, and wedding ring symbolism, all the time. Now, let us admit that humanity needs a wiser purpose to guide it, but let us also admit that it can be found in a wiser human head and human heart. If what is called the infinite purpose is working for the highest end of human life, there is no evidence of the bob from fact. If there is anything better than human energy back of a good human thought that will help this world, we do not know what it is.

The man who accepts the types of plcs faith of Calvin is bob from miserable in proportion to the extent he carries it out. Whatever tends to prolong the dream define existence of ignorance or to prevent the recognition of knowledge is dangerous to bob from the outsiders, the well-being of the human race. A higher respect for man has been one of the teenage chief promoters of civilization. Advancement has always been toward right and truth when the ranks were imbued with a proper regard for human hearts and human happiness. Say nothing about others that you would not have others say about you. Be severe toward yourself; be kind to your fellow-man. Do not give advice that you cannot follow. The Outsiders? Do not thank God for what man does. Wedding Ring? Serve neither God nor Mammon, but humanity alone.

Do not try to be perfect as a Father in heaven, but try to be better than you yourself are. Seek first to improve the earth, and heaven will be of bob from, less consequence. King's? Let us not forget that men speak according to the measure of their knowledge and light, and that a superior enlightenment is a higher authority. Bob From? History shows that there is Essay on Language nothing so easy to the outsiders, enslave and nothing so hard to Essay on Language, emancipate as ignorance, hence it becomes the double enemy of civilization. Bob From The Outsiders? By its servility it is the prey of tyranny, and by dream define, its credulity it is the foe of enlightenment. It is pleasant and bob from the outsiders, comforting to believe that one is watched over by a superior power which at any moment of peril or temptation is ready to stretch forth its hand and rescue from teenage problems, danger and death, and it is on account of the wonderful seductiveness of bob from, this faith that it has lasted so long and of Culture, has been so hard to overcome. But what we are interested in is, whether or not such a belief has any foundation in fact or in human experience. When Jesus bid his followers to bob from, cease giving thought to what they should eat and drink and wear, telling them that their heavenly Father fed the fowls of the air, and that they were better than such fowls, thus implying that their heavenly Father would take proportionately better care of problems, them, was there any ground for any such teaching, and is there any ground for this faith today? We claim that the heavenly Father referred to by Jesus never fed anything, neither fowl nor man; and that no human being was ever taken care of by any superior power or snatched by it from danger or death.

Such a faith is the veriest delusion, and it could lodge and take root only in the childish mind. Jesus also taught that the Father which is in heaven would give good things to them that ask him. Is there any ground for this rainbow religion? Is there any evidence that there is a Father in heaven who has good things to give to those who ask for them? We presume that this faith led men to give up work and to trust to begging for a living. But the question is, which got the most good things, -- those who studied the laws of Nature and of life and bob from, worked in harmony with them, or those who prayed for good things? How is it today? What good things can be had by praying?

Who has any good thing that he received by asking his Father in heaven for it? The asking business has been carried on for hundreds of years, and all that has been asked of God has had to be given by man or has not been given at all. Has it ever been true that Christians had any immunity from danger that others did not have, or that they could live in defiance of the laws of Nature? Jesus told his followers that in Essay on Language in Communication, his name they shall cast out devils, they shall take up serpents, and if they drink any deadly thing it shall not hurt them and they shall have the power to cure the sick by laying their hands upon bob from the outsiders, them. Have men, who professed to follow Jesus, ever done the things which he said they shall do? Is there any man today who can do these things?

Is there any evidence that Christians are treated by any power of the universe differently from what others are treated? And is there any evidence that they possess any gift that is not shared by others? As far as we can see Christians are subject to types of plcs, the same laws of Nature that all others must obey, and they cannot either defy those laws or act independently of them. If they fool with deadly serpents they will get bitten and bob from the outsiders, probably die just the same as would an infidel; if they drink a cup of poison, they will suffer and perhaps die just the same as an unbeliever; if they have any sickness, they do not trust to the laying-on of hands by a fellow-Christian, but send for a doctor the same as a freethinker. The fact is, the world has learned better than to put faith in these teachings of Jesus. The Christian faith belonged to the childhood of the race, and ought no longer to be preached to man. No one attempts to put this faith into practice, to carry into american define life the teachings of Jesus. And why not? Simply because it is known to be false. Christianity is bob from the outsiders a rainbow religion, a representation of things for which there is no warrant in Essay on Language of Culture in Communication, Nature; a picture painted in false colors; a view of life copied from bob from the outsiders, a diseased imagination; a falsehood fed by priests upon which they live. There is not an intelligent man or woman living today who has any faith in the rainbow religion taught by Jesus; not an intelligent man or woman who believes that a heavenly Father or a God will provide food or drink or clothes for a human being; nor an intelligent man or woman who has faith that he or she can get good things by american dream define, asking a Father in heaven for them and bob from the outsiders, not an define intelligent man or woman who cares or dares to put the declaration of Jesus to the test; that those who have faith in bob from the outsiders, him can play with serpents without danger, and drink deadly poison with no more harm than attends quaffing a glass of water.

We are then to conclude that Christianity is held only by the ignorant. There is greater argument in one fact than in teenage, all the bob from creeds. It is easier to believe that a man is honest who says the Bible is the word of God than to types of plcs, believe that he is bright. The influence of cruel sentiments on the mind is greater with the young than with adults. Some hymns sung in Christian churches are positively brutal in tone. Bob From? Think of human beings singing the following verse: -- On rebels who refuse His grace; Who God's eternal Son despise, The hottest hell shall be their place.

Here is the Christian notion of father and son: -- To drive me down to endless pain! But the great Son propos'd his blood, And heavenly wrath grew mild again. The following description of the Christian God was probably written by one of his adorers: -- Is a consuming fire! His jealous eyes with wrath inflame,

And raise His vengeance higher. Almighty vengeance, how it burns, How bright His fury glows! Vast magazines of plagues and storms. Lie treasured for His foes. Those heaps of wrath, by slow degrees, Are force into a flame: But kindled, Oh! how fierce they blaze!

And rend all nature's frame. At His approach the mountains flee, And seek a watery grave; The frighted sea makes haste away, And shrinks up every wave. Through the types of plcs wide air the weighty rocks. Are swift as hailstones hurled; Who dares engage His fiery rage, That shakes the solid world? Thy hand shall on rebellious kings.

A fiery tempest pour, While we, beneath Thy sheltering wings, Thy just revenge adore. The Christian church, down through the ages, has been like the God it worshiped -- full of hate, malice and cruelty. The world has grown kind and humane just in proportion as it has given up worship of this divine monster. We judge gods as we judge men, and we can respect and love only what is worthy of respect and bob from, love from a human point of view. If there is such a God as is painted in Christian literature he deserves, not to be worshipped, but to be ignored. The Bible upon which Christianity is founded does not say what Christianity is, what a Christian is, nor what we must do in order to king's, be a Christian. A large number believe that Jesus was a man and nothing more; a good man, but still human. They look upon him as a product of human nature. The Outsiders? He is allowed a human father and mother, although the gospels, in which is found the story of his life, hardly warrant so much earthly parentage.

He is regarded as a part of humanity, and his extraordinary deeds merely as exaggerated performances of transport across a cell membrane?, heart and hand of man. The people that look upon Jesus as a man have a superstitious reverence for his humanity. He is called the one perfect man, the pattern of the race, etc. Though human, they will have him every inch a man. Yet others see nothing remarkable in the career of Jesus; nothing which marks him for universal emulation; nothing which compels praise and admiration.

They think he was a sort of mild lunatic, possessed of the idea that he was the Messiah of the outsiders, his people, and that in endeavoring to further his scheme he antagonized the all the men summary existing authority and met the just punishment of his ambition. But it is bob from the outsiders neither as God nor as a man that Jesus must be regarded, but as a myth. No such person ever lived either as a human or divine existence. He is simply a creature of fancy, the fruit of the imagination. He is a character of the brain, the creation of religious genius. There is Essay on Language in Communication no justifiable Christianity in this age. Bob From The Outsiders? A dogma is the hand of the dead on the throat of the living. The progress of the world depends upon freedom of thought and freedom of utterance. If you can forgive the king's men summary man who wronged you, the bob from neighbor who slandered you and wedding, help the poor about you, you need not be particular about making any professions of righteousness. When we do not love man as we ought, we hate ourselves. The way to get heaven for ourselves is to give it to others.

The way to be happy is to make others happy. Selfishness kills every noble feeling and bob from, defeats every good desire. We cannot have peace when we give pain to others. Our deeds reward us. Wedding Ring Symbolism? What wrongs man is bob from wrong for man to do. Problems? We should live so as not to regret the past nor fear the future.

We set too great a value upon earthly possessions, and spend our lives in gaining what we cannot hold. We best enjoy the things of earth when we give up wanting them wholly for ourselves. The best part of bob from, our happiness is having someone to share it. To know more is what we need. Let us look into example transport across membrane? things and find out what the bob from world means. If this universe is only an illuminated deception, the man who discovers the fact will be a public benefactor. Which Is An Of Passive Transport A Cell Membrane?? If things which exist around us are lying to us, -- if the bob from the outsiders stars that shine out through the which across membrane? deep space above us are only fire-flies of the night, let us know it.

Knowledge will not hurt us so much as ignorance and deception. If the flowers that uncover their beauty for bob from our delight have but a phantom loveliness, and nought is real in define, the enchanting world about us, then let us be told the truth. Bob From The Outsiders? The soul can bear it better than to be deceived. All The Men Summary? We may be trusted with the knowledge of good and the outsiders, evil and of right and wrong, ye God of Genesis! and praise be to the first-created man for breaking the command to remain in ignorance and taking the first step toward solving the riddle of life! We learn everything by living. The truth is not revealed to us: we must discover it.

It is seen when we climb high enough to see it, or live wise enough to feel it, or act true enough to utter it. When we hear the truth, we hear only the echo of the universe. The last thing that we have to fear is the truth and the consequences of knowing it. Let us not fear to speak it or to hear it. And let us go with it whenever found. They who are keeping the world from the knowledge of good and evil, who are trying to Essay on Language in Communication, discourage the preaching of truth, are the enemies of bob from, mankind. If man had no knowledge except what he has got out of the Bible he would not know enough to make a shoe.

The great work of man has ever been to rescue the present from the past; to turn the problems mind from what it has left behind to the opportunities and duties which are around it. For this has genius toiled down the ages, sung its song of love, carved its dream of beauty and whispered to the outsiders, the world's dull ear its bright message of hope. Resurrections have never been successful. When the inhabitants of wedding ring symbolism, graves have come out of their abodes it has been only to walk the streets for a brief period, and then to return again to silence and rest. The stories of ghosts, when considered true, are always short. These visitants never stop long or do anything that is of any worth to the world. When the grave is bob from once made over the dead it is Essay best to let it alone.

There is the outsiders nothing in cemeteries to aid progress or civilization. We do not need the revival of old customs or of old faiths. To endeavor to rehabilitate the sabbath of which example of passive across a cell membrane?, our forefathers is as foolish as to bob from the outsiders, try to make people go back into log houses and king's, cook in a fire-place. Some persons can never realize that the world grows; that what was a help to one age becomes a hindrance to another; that time corrects the mistakes of men and that respect and reverence for our ancestors does not necessarily require us to adopt their clothes or their habits. Men and bob from, women are made fossils by their religion. The people who are trying today to resurrect the puritan sabbath are people who have got religion, but not much of anything else. A man who allows religion to dominate all his thoughts, all his efforts, all his acts, usually is a nuisance, if nothing worse. A day of rest once a week is wedding ring symbolism a good thing in itself, but it is a bad thing when controlled by religion. We are in favor of Sunday as a day when man can lay aside his business, his care, his tools, and enjoy himself, but we want everybody to take their hands off of it. Sunday is not a day for religion alone.

If certain people wish to the outsiders, go to church on Sunday, let them go; but when these people, who go to church on types of plcs, Sunday, wish to compel everyone else to do the same, they need to be informed that liberty on Sunday is just as much a human right as liberty on Monday. There are better things that man has found than religion. Liberty is better, truth is better, happiness is better. We would like to see an American Sunday on this continent, a Sunday in harmony with the principles upon which our government was founded, a Sunday which was not run by religion, a Sunday for man and bob from, not for the church. Such a day would not be a sabbath, but it would be a free day, a happy day. The notion of Sunday as a holy day is american dream define too absurd, too ridiculous to deserve respectful attention.

No man can have fifty-two holy days in a year. The minister must take his pious grasp off of the throat of Sunday. A true man is not troubled by anything but his own acts. The true man walks the earth as the stars walk the heavens, grandly obedient to those laws which are implanted in his nature. A great many people are afraid of knowledge, but we have seen hundreds of people that we thought would be improved if they knew more, but we have never seen one that we thought would be better if he knew less. What hypocrites Christians are! What a farce it is for men and women to call Jesus lord and the outsiders, master! They do not obey his slightest command, and they ignore his teachings as undeserving their regard.

There is not a precept, that the Christian church teaches came from the lips of Jesus, that Christians honor by practice, not one. Never did a lord receive so little honest respect from all the king's men summary, his vessels; never a master so little true obedience from his servants. Men and women are not sincere when they profess to accept Jesus as their lord and master. They doubtless feel grateful to him for saving them from the fires of hell hereafter, but they look upon him as a mighty poor example for them to follow here. As everybody knows, the church does not require that its members shall practice the the outsiders precepts given by Jesus.

If she did demand this of men and women her membership would speedily be reduced to zero. We do not regard a man as honest, or worthy of respect, who calls Jesus his lord and master and turns his back in contempt upon the precepts he gave his disciples to practice. You cannot stuff your minds with the lives of saints and grow good on the stuffing. Teenage? Some persons are remembered solely for their virtues and others solely for their faults. This is why we have a Jesus and a Judas. We are forced to doubt the sanity or sincerity of the outsiders, people who profess to wedding, believe in the doctrine of the trinity, in a begotten Son of God, in miraculous conception, in the resurrection of the the outsiders body, in the Bible as the word of God, in miracles, and in problems, heaven and hell. We ask ourselves: -- Are men intelligent who believe these things, or do they merely profess to believe them, and are dishonest? We cannot reconcile faith in the Christian superstitions with mental soundness and good sense. What is bob from the outsiders there in Nature to suggest any of the Christian doctrines? Does not everything we know, everything we have seen, everything we have experienced, deny and disprove the Christian superstitions? Why, then, do people accept them?

We find no one that acts as though Christianity were true, no one who lives as though hell were under his feet and liable at any moment to pull him down to eternal damnation. We find men spending all their energies in trying to symbolism, get the good things of earth, just as though they were told to do so by God, instead of commanded not to bob from the outsiders, lay up treasures upon earth, etc. It is one of the serious problems of the age to know how to deal with Christians. They are, as a rule, respectable and decent; they have good manners generally, and types of plcs, they eat and drink, dress and talk, live and die very much as other people, and yet they profess a faith that is absurd and foolish and that has no foundation in fact or philosophy. We like to think well of our fellow-beings, and we would like to think well of Christians, but we cannot do so as long as they pretend to believe what a person of bob from the outsiders, intelligence, of good sense, cannot believe. Types Of Plcs? Are Christians honest? Perhaps they think so, but have they ever really examined their belief in the light of the knowledge of the twentieth century?

If they will do this, we do not see how they can longer profess to be Christians, if they are honest. When men are hungry roast mutton is better than the lamb that taketh away wrath. If a man can look in the mirror of his own soul without shame, he can look the whole world in bob from the outsiders, the face without a blush. The main question that is decided by an election in our country is, which political party shall have the privilege of dispensing the offices of Government? There is a desire on the part of certain persons to obtain office, for either personal or party advantage, and this desire is wedding symbolism oftentimes so fierce that it will betray the honor of citizenship.

Where this is bob from the outsiders done, or attempted, lies the danger of the ballot. If men voted only as their political convictions dictated, we should have a higher party morality and purer officers, but we must face the facts even though the duty is not an agreeable one. Which Is An Example Of Passive A Cell Membrane?? Politics has degenerated to bob from the outsiders, a dirty business and political trickery and bribery secure victory where honor, integrity and principle suffer defeat. The plain truth is, we have a large class of voters who make merchandise of their right of suffrage, and a set of demagogues whose business it is to bribe or coerce voters for the advancement of which example transport across a cell, selfish ends. The honest, virtuous, intelligent, independent vote is the noblest power of a freeman, but the purchasable vote, the ignorant vote, the vicious and servile vote, is the opportunity of the the outsiders knave and the scoundrel.

The purity of the ballot is the only safety of a Republic, and no greater danger threatens this nation today than that which arises from the corruption of the suffrage. A ballot should be the honest declaration of men summary, our principles, the expression of our own opinions, the badge of our manhood; but when it is held in the hand that has sold it for a price, or will deposit it at the dictation of another, it is the prostitute of greed and the outsiders, the hired assassin of the despot. Every man should select his own ballot and vote to problems, please himself, and any person that would interfere with his right and bob from, duty to do this, should be disfranchised forever. The individual who does not know enough to select his own ballot has no right to vote in this country. There have been too many voters led to the polls, and used as party troops. There are still slaves on election day who are afraid of the crack of the whip. There ought to be permitted in this nation no political or religious disability on account of the honest exercise of the right of suffrage. All The Men Summary? A man should be protected from the politician and the priest. When a man votes as he thinks, he has discharged the highest duty of citizenship, but when he votes through bribe or fear, he forfeits the privilege of the ballot. The polls are more sacred to man than the altar.

Religion might die and man could still have every blessing of earth, but when liberty is killed, the noblest blessing of earth has departed. The petty salvation offered by Christianity is not much sought after today, while the world is bending its mighty energies in the direction of the outsiders, knowledge as never before, and the glory of the electric light, the song of the steam-whistle, the music of the telegraph, the teenage chorus of machinery and the grand anthem of countless enterprises tell of a bright and golden future time when man will master the the outsiders elements of Nature and guide his life through its course of years in perfect safety and security and step down at the end of it, -- Like one who wraps the drapery of his couch about him and lies down to king's men summary, pleasant dreams. That there is such a discrepancy in the accounts of this alleged event does not so much indicate that one is the outsiders right and the others wrong in regard to the carrying of the cross as that none is wedding symbolism right. To our mind this disagreement of the gospels is an bob from the outsiders indication that no such event as the carrying of a cross upon which to crucify Jesus ever occurred. Christians put forth the Bible as a work which in some way came from God; as a book which is reliable in its statements, and correct in its narrative of events. Now, it is patent to wedding symbolism, everyone that in bob from, the gospels there are two distinct accounts of the carrying of the symbolism cross. How can Christians reconcile this fact with their theory that God is the author of the bob from the outsiders Bible? It must be admitted by all that one mind could not have written or inspired both of american dream define, these stories, and it must also be admitted that if one is true the other is false. What is the natural conclusion that an unprejudiced mind would arrive at after reading the account of the carrying of the cross for the crucifixion of Jesus in bob from the outsiders, the four gospels? is it not that no such cross was ever carried for any such purpose? There are too many gospels, too many stories of teenage, Jesus. It would have been better for Christianity had all but one of these narratives been destroyed.

They contradict each other in bob from the outsiders, so many essential points as to make them totally unreliable as records of facts. It is plain that not one of the writers of the four gospels knew of what he was writing. We must in honesty say that no one knows who carried the cross on which is an of passive transport across membrane?, which Jesus was crucified, and no one knows whether Jesus was crucified or not, and no one knows whether any such person as Jesus ever lived, to be crucified. Civilization has come about by bob from, going to school more than to church. Wedding Symbolism? Nature is the bob from the outsiders volume from which all of our knowledge has been translated. And if we can credit the story of the types of plcs gospels, Jesus charged his disciples to be and bob from, do pretty much as he himself was and wedding symbolism, did.

He said to them: Heal the sick, cleanse the lepers, raise the dead, cast out devils; . Bob From? Provide neither gold nor silver, nor brass in your purses, nor scrip for american define your journey, neither two coats, neither shoes, nor yet staves, for the workman is worthy of his meat . It is enough for the disciple that he be as his master. Whether or not the ancient disciples heeded these words of bob from the outsiders, their master, and carried out his instructions, we do not know, but there is abundant evidence that his modern disciples do not pay his commands the compliment of obedience. If there is american dream one item that the clergyman of the outsiders, today looks after it is his salary. Problems? He deliberately disobeys all of the injunctions of the outsiders, Jesus to dream define, his disciples, and thinks he is doing his duty to do so. This is the funny part of his discipleship to us. He does not consider the charge of Jesus worthy of being heeded. When we point to the commands of Jesus, and the outsiders, ask some Christian minister why he does not obey them, he coolly informs us that it would be the height of folly in this age to attempt to do as Jesus commanded his first disciples.

In other words the Christian clergyman acts upon the ground that the orders of Jesus to his apostles are incompatible with personal dignity and decent living, and that only a person utterly devoid of all sense of fitness and social responsibility would undertake to follow his directions. We agree with the action of the modern disciple of Jesus in regarding his commands as foolish and unfit to be obeyed, but we want him to take an honest stand before the of Culture in Communication world and say so like a man. Now he is bob from the outsiders a hypocrite, when he assumes a place in problems, the Christian ranks but refuses to obey the orders of bob from the outsiders, his master. The modem disciple of Jesus is more concerned about putting money in a bank or investing it in real estate than he is about laying up treasures in problems, heaven. If there is one person who believes thoroughly in looking after himself and his in bob from, the world, and getting all the good things out of it, it is the Christian minister. He is american dream well housed, well fed, well dressed, and, as a rule, has a comfortable income. How he must laugh when he reads the New Testament!

He probably regards Jesus as a chump to tell men and women to the outsiders, take no thought for types of plcs what they shall eat and drink and wear, and not to lay up a few dollars for bob from the outsiders a rainy day. He has to make believe honor the king's poor, unsophisticated peasant of bob from the outsiders, Galilee, in order to get his fat living. Essay? He has to bob from, fool the fools that support him in luxury, but all the reverence he has for Jesus you could put in your eye. If it paid better to tell the truth and to take an honest position in the world, we presume that most ministers would quit playing the of Culture hypocrite, but as long as Christianity pays its preachers more than they can get from any other source, we may expect them to profess to follow Jesus and bob from, then do as they please. Every fact is backed up by all the, the whole universe. Christianity is a black spot on the page of civilization. The church is a bank that is continually receiving deposits but never pays a dividend. It is a singular thing that while silks despise rags, rags respect silks. The poor Christians ought to glory in their poverty, ought to the outsiders, be proud of their patches.

They should have utter contempt for good clothes, and go to the church of Jesus with a feeling of pride that they honor him by being poor, as he was. Velvet, satin and broadcloth are insults to him whose ragged royalty they profess to reverence. If the poor were not as big hypocrites as the rich, they would drive the richly-dressed worshipers out of the church dedicated to the poverty-stricken Nazarene, who has been elected to the office of savior. A person has not very much Christianity when his religion is ashamed of his old clothes. Profession is demanded of him who would join the ranks of the problems pious. Profession is required of the man or woman who belongs to the church. The performance of every duty, the practice of every virtue, is not a sufficient recommendation to bob from the outsiders, popular favor. It is teenage a fact that profession with out practice is accepted in preference to practice without profession. The man who gives his life to man without thought or care about God is considered a bad man, while he who gives his life to God without thought or care about bob from the outsiders, man is regarded as holy and saintly. Nobody can do God any good or any harm, and transport across a cell membrane?, all the the outsiders worship that is offered him is waste of time.

The man who stands up in public and asks God in prayer to help the on Language of Culture in Communication poor, to bless the suffering, is looked upon as a good man, while he who does not pray nor ask God to do anything, but helps his needy brothers and sisters, is pronounced wicked and sinful. Values have become strangely mixed in the eyes of mankind. Religion is considered as worth more than morality; worship more than work; prayer more than performance and bob from, profession more than practice. Dream? This is wrong, false and foolish. Profession is a mighty poor jewel, a cheap and flashy substitute for bob from the diamond of practice. It is a confession of fraud; a mask for a face; a coward's excuse; a hypocrite's wile. Honesty need not profess to be honest. When a minister says that God will help you, ask him to put up the collateral.

The church spends thousands of dollars to save a dogma, where it spends a cent to find a truth. Man has searched for define truth in books, but has not found it there. He has invented words to conceal his disappointment, such as God, heaven, providence, etc. Nature contains all the truth, and the outsiders, so far as men have read Nature aright they have learned what is problems true, but we cannot catch and hold Nature in our philosophies. She breaks through all the finely-woven theories we put about her, and bob from the outsiders, man, in american dream, his attempt to bind Nature with his thoughts, binds only himself. Men in all ages have tried to read the secret of the bob from universe.

We have been told that God directs it, that a divine mind planned it and keeps it in motion. Why not let the universe explain itself? Why not read it by its own light? Why not confess our ignorance? God is types of plcs a figure of bob from the outsiders, speech, but Nature is a reality. Let us trust what we know. Nature is never capricious. Fire will always burn, water will always drown, frost will always freeze.

Though we have confidence in Nature, let us acknowledge that we do not yet comprehend the meaning of things. The old habit of inventing words to which is an example a cell, hide our ignorance has been adopted by bob from the outsiders, silence as well as by religion. Evolution does not reduce the mystery of existence to a simple problem. What we call truth is more than we have yet found. The unknown is still provocative of investigation, and the only prayer of the mind is, more light. We must beware of accepting dogmas, whether of science or religion. No statement is the last word of truth.

Doubt is the first step of progress, and inquiry is the way to knowledge. There is nothing that stands more in the way of human advancement than the authority of opinions. Some dragon of assertion ever disputes our right to the golden fleece of truth. If we ask for proof of God's existence or man's immortality, we are answered with a text, but a text is only the dead opinion of a dead man. Problems? This age demands truth, not the belief of a person who lived centuries ago. Because superstition holds the contents of a book sacred we are not to enslave reason to its statements. We will not be bound by the opinions of others, neither must we bind others to our opinions. We must make freedom sacred, and cease condemning men for disbelief or unbelief. The bondage of faith is the slavery of the soul.

It makes man unjust, unwise and unkind. Allegiance to a creed makes us ill use a man simply because he does not believe as we do. No church has all the truth, and no school either. So-called religion merely shows where the search after truth ended. But truth is the infinite reality,, and it will always be for man to find.

Christianity is the outsiders like a slow clock -- always being moved ahead. The day of the Bible is passed. Books have taken its place. Better be late to church Sunday morning than late at home Saturday night. Man today has more and better ways of getting, a living than at any time in the history of the race. In order to develop an independent spirit in man it is necessary to increase his responsibility.

Man must be taught to rely upon his own strength, upon his own body and mind. He must learn his relations to Nature and abide by the laws of his being. He must know this: if he would have anything he must deserve it. Wedding Ring Symbolism? Human destiny follows human conduct. The old notion that man is responsible to God cannot be proved. There are no facts that corroborate that notion. Man is responsible to himself. It is this truth that is calculated to elevate and ennoble human life. Let human beings understand that there is that within themselves that is to be respected, and the outsiders, that they are responsible to themselves for all they do, and example across membrane?, they will be more worthy of respect and live more worthy lives. Children should be taught to drive dirt out of the house as they would a mad dog.

Dirt is the food of disease. It is the enemy of health and happiness. Abolish dirt. If God exists, what objection can he have to saying so? When we have nothing to bob from, give a beggar, we can at which is an across least tell him so kindly. We should watch the man who stands up in public and says: I am moral. We should say to him: It is not necessary for you to proclaim your morality; your daily life will show how moral you are.

The world is becoming suspicious of him who stands up in bob from, public and says: I am religious. A great many people seem to Essay of Culture in Communication, think if they profess to love God it is not necessary for them to love man. We are not denying that a great many good men and bob from the outsiders, women are religious; that a great many good men and women go to church and prayer-meeting. We do not deny that a great many moral men and of Culture in Communication, women profess faith in total depravity, in vicarious atonement, but we do not see how their faith has anything to do with their morality. There is no particular necessity for Christians to be good. The Outsiders? Their faith saves them, not their conduct. Religion is not doing, it is believing, or pretending to. There is a big opportunity to types of plcs, lie in religion. You cannot tell when a person says he believes in God whether he is the outsiders telling the truth or not. Problems? It is mighty easy to be religious.

But the moral man has no such chance. Bob From The Outsiders? He is not judged by his professions, but by his actions. Religion makes hypocrisy easy, but morality offers the hypocrite no show whatever. Never forget the good deeds that others do to you, nor remember those that you do to others. He lived a very narrow life, and types of plcs, his brief career cannot be stretched to cover the limits of bob from, our earthly existence.

He is held up for us to imitate, as though he had left a pattern for every hour of our lives, and a model for every day from the cradle to the grave. Teenage Problems? This is simply nonsense. Bob From? This model business has been overworked. In Communication? Jesus had a great many crude, foolish ideas, and did a great many deeds that are not worth repeating. As a model of what is best in bob from, this age he is a wretched failure. It is a mistake to look upon Jesus as a fit person to lead our century to king's, a higher life. There is nothing to live for in the past. Bob From? We must condemn christianity, not christians; strike the church, but spare the heart. Music is a wonderful power, a wonderful educator of the feelings and emotions. It is essential, therefore, that music be inspired by what is true, by what is good, by what is right. Truth should be set to music and the lips taught to sing what science has discovered, what art has done, what the universe reveals, what the world is living for.

The common Christian music is a wail of teenage problems, despair, a cry of sorrow, a shriek of fear. It is composed of bob from, false conceptions of Nature, of humanity, of life. King's? It is bob from a doleful sound. The triumph of faith which it celebrates is not a full, round, complete joy. The Church does not know the music of laughter, the wedding music of the heart.

Its song seems always to hover on the brink of fear. It is not the glad note of natural freedom, but the uncertain joy of the escaped convict. The free song must come from the free heart, must denote the free thought. Let life that is healthy, happy and human be set to the outsiders, music. Let us sing as we live, as we think, as we feel. Wedding? The music of the hand, the mind, the bob from the outsiders heart, should be on types of plcs, the lips. If we could only sing what sings through us, the the outsiders world would listen with rapture. We do not want harmonious madness nor harmonious idiocy. Pious music is stupid, false. It is inspired by the sickness of the world. Essay? We need a stronger note, a sturdier song.

Lies enough have been sung. The Outsiders? Let truth now fill the king's air. Out of the great hope of the bob from race let new songs come. We are beginning to live for life on is an, earth, for happiness here, for love here, for bob from the outsiders victory here. Let the hands and feet, the brains and hearts of men and Essay of Culture in Communication, women move to the music of truth. There is not a village where poverty does not pinch the stomach or starve the mind, where misery does not need charity and where wealth could not bless. Piety could do nothing better than imitate morality. Graveyards are just as deceptive as are the homes of the bob from living. A fine house is not proof of the moral, the manly or womanly worth of its occupant.

Saints do not sleep beneath the gilded roof any more than under a leaky thatch. So also the wise, the good, the true, are not the ones over all the king's men summary whose ashes rises the chiseled stone. The dead may deserve monuments that the living are not able to bob from, buy. A graveyard might be called a library of lies. Epitaphs are to be read, and believed, if you can believe them. We have found as big falsehoods in cemeteries as in Essay on Language in Communication, newspapers. Say nothing bad of the dead is kindly counsel, but, say nothing of the the outsiders dead on a tombstone, is wiser. We have seen a towering stone covered with words of men summary, praise over the ashes of a man, who, while living, was simply a lover of money. We have seen the sunken grave of the outsiders, a woman, with no marble to adorn it, who lived a heroic life of love and is an transport across, duty beyond words to tell.

If virtues bore monuments one would rise over the neglected grave of that saintly woman that would reach the clouds, and that other grave would be stripped of its marble and left to oblivion. Though a cemetery is more or less a museum of vanity and pride, there is at the bottom of the costly display of granite and marble a tender feeling, a commendable virtue. There may be as much love and bob from the outsiders, respect for types of plcs those in unmarked graves as for bob from those who sleep in costly masonry or beneath sculptured stone. In walking through a graveyard, if our steps should go to teenage, the places where no monument invited the eye, they would be more likely to walk over the dust of bob from the outsiders, those who did life's duty well, than if they paused only before the imposing shaft or read the marble tale of virtue that never was told in deeds. God never helps those who need the help of men and women.

No man ever knew Providence to symbolism, interpose when his neighbor's hens are scratching up his garden. We wish to say that we have never had any dealings with God, to our knowledge. If we have seen him, we did not know it. If he has spoken to us, we were not aware of the fact. If he has been in the outsiders, our presence at any time, we were not conscious of wedding ring, it. We do not know that we have ever wronged God or that God has ever wronged us. We do not say that some word or act of ours may not have injured God. All we can say is that we have no way of finding out whether such is the bob from fact or not. Of course, we could not take the word of a priest or minister on this point. We want God's own assurance in the matter.

Up to wedding ring, this time God has made no complaint to us that we have wronged him, or that we need to make our peace with him, and bob from, until we hear from his own lips that we owe him an apology, we do not intend to make one. God is just as good to us as though he was dead. All The King's? He does not cross our path, stand in our light, dog our steps, or interfere with what we are doing. He does not get in our way any more than if he lived in the outsiders, the planet Jupiter. So we do not see that we need to make our peace with him. We do not comprehend how there can be any collision between us.

Priests will pardon thieves but not philosophers. Priest and God have formed some of the worst combinations in history. Too long has this world been at the feet of the priest. Man is never in that position for his own benefit, but for the benefit of the priest. When a man gets the types of plcs idea that his soul must be saved, and goes to work to save it, the things that he will do in order to insure its salvation tend to the outsiders, lessen its value; and by the time he thinks his soul is saved it is generally not worth saving. The more willing we are to be lost, the example of passive transport membrane? more chance there is that we will not be.

The cheapest method of saving one's soul is by believing something. This requires but little effort and no brains. Bob From? Christianity is organized gullibility. It tells people to believe what it teaches and it will save their souls. It remains to be seen whether Christianity fulfills its part of the contract. It occurs to us that before we try to save our soul we ought to know that we have a soul and that it needs saving. All The King's Men Summary? We fail to see any necessity for anxiety on account of our soul. We do not care to go into the salvation business and let the priest get all the dividends. Any person who can seriously talk about saving his soul ought to bob from the outsiders, have a guardian. We look at the earth and its inhabitants, and while we see much which calls for admiration, we find nothing to worship. The mountain impresses us with its towering grandeur, the ocean with its vast extent and terrible power, but we cannot get on our knees to rocks, no matter how high they are piled; nor pray to water, no matter how much there is types of plcs of it.

The flower elicits our wondering delight, but we cannot adore a rose, a sunflower or a daisy, We own the bob from the outsiders marvelous beauty of the animal form, but we cannot worship a horse, a tiger or a dog. We hear the wedding ring symbolism gladness and madness of melody which comes from the throat of the bird, but sweet and entrancing as it is, we cannot adore a skylark, a nightingale or a thrush. We see man, the fairest form that walks the earth, the most marvelous piece of work that Nature reveals to our senses, but we cannot worship our own image. Beyond earth the eye looks, and cloud, black or bright, is seen and the endless blue beyond the cloud, but man cannot get on the outsiders, his knees to vapor or pray to the sky. In the daytime the sun is seen, and at night the moon and countless stars, but man cannot worship a ball of fire nor a dying planet, or adore a point of light. We can find nothing on the earth or in the heavens that we can worship. Is there something not on the earth or in the heavens?

If so, what is types of plcs it and where is it? What do men and women kneel to? Nothing. What do men and women pray to? Nothing. What do men and women worship?, Nothing. Coals out of the ashes of love will never light the bob from the outsiders fires of friendship. The names of most men live on account of the, falsehoods told about them. We should scorn the person who would be mean enough to which is an example transport, allow his fellow-being to be punished for his deeds. Bob From The Outsiders? Yet we have a religion in our midst that is founded on this kind of meanness. SOME QUESTIONS FOR CHRISTIANS TO ANSWER.

If man makes anything in his image we know how this thing looks, but when God creates something in his image we are at a loss to comprehend what is teenage meant unless God has the likeness of man. In ancient times there is no doubt but what the assertion that God created man in bob from, his own image was accepted literally, that the people looked upon Essay on Language of Culture in Communication, God as a big man. Bob From The Outsiders? Latter they came to look upon man as a little god. But we are dealing with the brain of the twentieth century, with the common sense of a scientific age, when it is no longer believed that God created man at is an example of passive transport across all. To-day the image of bob from the outsiders, God is a puzzle. If God created man in his own image, in american, whose image did he create the elephant, the lion, the bear, the bob from ox, the goat, the snake, the beetle, the bee, the fly, the is an example gnat? These could not all have been created in the divine image, unless the divine image is bob from a multitudinous likeness. Is it not about wedding, time that a few literary murders were committed, that some one went through our literature and killed off a lot of nonsensical expressions that, if they ever meant anything, are meaningless today? If there was more honesty in the pulpit a great many Bible expressions would go out of fashion. Bob From? One of the first that needs to die or be killed is this foolish expression, the image of God. It may be religious, but it lacks sense.

It means nothing in this age. God is types of plcs a term that eludes definition. It is a survival of an age of ignorance. A man may be a fool and not know it, but he cannot be a fool without others knowing it. There is a pious regard for certain men and women who have in past ages been, as it were, the bob from world's salvation.

We would honor these men wherever piety offers her praise, but we would not, like piety, forbid man the right to excel them. We all know how much easier it is to be saved by is an example transport a cell, another than to save ourselves, but it cannot be denied that there is a certain respect, a feeling of admiration, a thrill of reverence for the man who says: I am a free moral being and scorn to allow another to suffer for bob from the outsiders my sins. The one particular enemy of every religion is science. With merciless labor her votaries have dethroned one after another idol of man. Science has no creed, no dogmas. Types Of Plcs? Her search is for the outsiders facts, and on these she stands. Of Culture? If what is discovered by bob from, lovers of truth is american define contrary to the tenets of religion, such tenets must be abandoned, for what is scientifically false cannot be religiously true.

The Christian church is built upon a lot of divine say-soes. Science has found that these say-soes are not so. The only honest thing for Christians to bob from the outsiders, do is to give up the book of Genesis as a reliable record. What men have said that God has said is not necessarily sacred. Men may have lied, and symbolism, lies are not holy. Christianity has been afraid of the divine name. What it has found in the name of God it has blindly worshiped as the word of God. This stupid action has been a prolific source of bob from the outsiders, mischief. Faith has carried on its innocent back a thousand impositions through fear to doubt. Science has not found the name of God in the earth or in the heavens. It has ignored the guide-board which the priest of religion nailed to the Bible, this book shows the way to truth, and has studied the volume of Essay on Language of Culture, Nature instead.

Whatever it has found has been told. What may be honestly inferred from the bob from the outsiders facts of science is that all religions are humbugs, and that Christianity is a fraud. The only way to a better life is by living better. The person who tells a lie does not know what he will have to do next. A great many persons have the idea that the problems universe would run off the track but for them. Have a good time, make life cheerful and bright, dance if you want to, sing if you can, play as long as you live and leave the world with a smile. The Bible's divinity rests upon the mental and moral corruption of the young. Were children not taught that this book was sacred, men and women would look upon the outsiders, it as unholy. Do people realize what harm they are doing to all the king's, the mind of the the outsiders child when they teach it to accept the Bible as God's word? They are telling the child that falsehood is sacred; that ignorance is holy; that foul stories are pure; that vile words are clean, in the mouth of God.

Fathers and mothers would not tell their children what they, and what priests and ministers, tell them God wrote or inspired man to write. What is needed today is to tell the truth about the Bible. Tell men and women that ignorant, uncultured, unrefined men wrote it hundreds of years ago, and that it is unfit in its present shape to put into the hands of a child that a mother wishes to grow up honest, true and is an example transport a cell, pure. Liberals should not allow their children to touch the bob from Bible. They should keep it from them until they are old enough to know that no book was ever written by a God, and ring symbolism, then, if they read the Bible, they would see its true character. We must guard the minds of our children from Christian influences. Bob From? We pity the child that is taught that the all the Bible is the word of God, but we despise the man that teaches this falsehood.

Most men would kill the truth if truth would kill their religion. Bob From? The truths which God revealed have been overthrown by the truths which man has discovered. People used to think that to american dream, mix religion with business spoiled the religion, now they think it spoils the business. When death comes, then the hand of avarice must open. Nothing can be carried through the grave. So the old man must at last release his hold upon his gains.

He must leave his loved dollars to somebody. Bob From The Outsiders? He had gathered them for himself, not for others. He had thought only problems, of himself when he gathered them, and now, when he was to part with them, he did not know what disposition to the outsiders, make of them. The lawyer was present at his bedside; the minister was also with him. The will had been drawn. Which Is An Of Passive Across A Cell Membrane?? He had bequeathed certain sums to public charities and remembered the the outsiders church. Life was almost gone. He hesitated yet to give up the control of his money to others. The pen was placed in his dying fingers for him to affix his name to the will. All The King's? But he had waited too long. He died with the name unwritten, the pen unused in his dead hand.

Not voluntarily did he part with a cent of bob from, his fortune. Types Of Plcs? His millions will now be divided by the law. Is there in the outsiders, the bare possession of money the happiness that men desire, that men dream of, that men want? Is a dollar the highest goal of human effort, the crown of human endeavor? Is this dollar, the insignia of fortune, the true sign of good fortune? We believe not. The man who works for this and nothing else, is the slave of avarice; as hard, as cruel, as merciless a tyrant as ever cursed the earth. Let every man strive for independence. Let man be rewarded well for his labor.

Let every hand keep busy, but let there be a desire higher than money, a dream nobler than of gain, a want above the which example across possession of bob from, riches. There is a better charity than that unwilling gift which death compels us to make; it is to help the world while we live. There are two ways of american dream, doing this: by giving back a part of what we take, -- that is one way and a good way -- and by taking less from others, that is another way and a better way. The help that men need today is justice. Bob From The Outsiders? Thousands are poor that one may be rich.

Thousands toil that one may live in idleness. Thousands are in want that one may live in luxury. Teenage Problems? Thousands have not a dollar that one may have millions. This is not right, not fair, not just. Men must take less while they go through life.

It is not enough that a man on his deathbed give a college a million, a public library a million, a public park a million. The Outsiders? He should have no millions to give. He should live a more just life and help others by trying to get less for himself. The public bequest is the popular atonement for large fortunes, but such atonement does not efface the sufferings of poverty and want they entail. We say to the rich, do not wait until you die before you try to help your fellow-men.

Help them while you are living. Teenage Problems? When a man has made money he should make a noble use of it, or he wrongs himself and the world. Where the bob from cross has been planted only superstitions have grown. Religion is no more the parent of morality than an incubator is the mother of a chicken. Wedding Symbolism? Unless some people change their habits before they die, there will be a lot of dirty angels in the next world, if there is any next world.

Prayer is begging from a pauper. The egg of prayer never yet became a chicken. Prayer is like a pump in an empty well, it makes lots of noise, but brings no water. Bob From The Outsiders? A great many people who worship Jesus would not let him come in at the back door. The church condemns freethought, because freethought cannot be bound by its chain of dogma. There is no place in the Christian church for the exercise of liberty. If the mind finds a new truth that contradicts the old dogma, the truth must be strangled that the dogma may hold its power over the thoughts and deeds of men.

To be a Christian is to surrender to which example transport across membrane?, the priest or minister in the name of Christ. It is to be a monkey on the end of an ecclesiastical string to get pennies for his master. The Outsiders? It is to crawl at the feet of superstition. To be a freethinker is to search for truth without fear. Where there is love of freedom there is no reverence for authority.

There is no faith in problems, God as sacred as love of man. There may be lots of Providence in the world, but no man seems to know just where it can be found. There was another sentiment not less true or beautiful but more revolutionary, which about the same time began to assume likeness in human affairs, which must be considered of larger importance in the new social movement, which, during the first century of the so-called Christian era, commenced to be felt. The declaration of the bob from sovereignty of in Communication, man was more prophetic of the outsiders, change in government and society than the doctrine of the brotherhood of man. Essay On Language? No government taught that man ought to judge for himself what is right, and no church preached that man should love his neighbor as himself. Political and the outsiders, religious organizations then as now were arrayed against individual rights. The state and the church controlled the person. Man was crucified between these two thieves. One robbed him of his body, the other of his soul. Our history assigns the origin of these two great principles -- man's right to judge for himself and his duty to which example of passive transport, help his fellow-being -- to Christianity. But one was born before the bob from beginning of the Christian era and the other long after the Christian church was established.

One represents man as opposed to problems, authority; the other the soul resisting tradition. There is more or less talk about the freedom and brotherhood of man, but they exist as ideas yet more than as facts. It is true that man enjoys a certain measure of liberty in many directions, but the victory of bob from, freedom has not yet been won. So too is types of plcs there a kind of human sympathy in society, but the broad and magnificent destiny which dwells in the bosom of human brotherhood is more a dream than a reality. There has been too much time wasted in disputing who was the human author of these great and sublime conceptions, and too little expended in trying to plant them in human hearts and cultivate them in human lives. It is unimportant who first stood against the world of tyranny and demanded his right of independence, or who first felt indignation for the wrongs inflicted upon his race and bob from the outsiders, pity for the victims of cruelty, and american dream, pleaded for more humanity towards man. The Outsiders? The secret can never be wrested from the silent past, and we can gain nothing by fighting over types of plcs graves. The world seems nearer the full realization of human freedom and brotherhood than ever before. Bob From? What is needed now to hasten the types of plcs fruition of the glad promise of a better destiny for the world is to take authority from the priest and selfishness from man.

Prayer is a hook that never caught any fish. It is a gun that never brought down any game. No man ever got an answer to prayer that he could show to another person. The saying that whatever is is right, is a dogma of the philosophy of indifference. To anyone who works for the right and suffers wrong, such a dogma is impertinent. Is the deed that sinks a man to the realm of brutes, and the deed that lifts him to the outsiders, heights where virtue in her high estate dwells alone, both right? The worst light for Essay on Language of Culture a human soul is that light in the outsiders, which a bad act looks like a good one. Essay On Language Of Culture In Communication? We cannot afford to trifle with things pure and true. To succeed grandly in life we must side with what is right. There is a class of people that hold a don't-care philosophy.

These people don't care what they say or do; they don't care what takes place in the world or what the world suffers or endures. The tent in bob from, which they dwell is types of plcs pitched above the plane of human wants and sufferings. They look from their serene abode upon the troubled elements below, and, in contemplation of what is bob from beneath them, pronounce with pious gravity the highest text of their system of philosophy: Whatever is king's is right. To those who have never seen the bitter tear start under the infliction of injury; to those who have never heard the sigh that disappointment and deception have wrung from a breaking heart; to those who have never witnessed the sufferings which tyranny imposes upon its victims; to bob from, those who have never felt the miseries which selfishness heaps upon human beings, this doctrine may seem true; but to those who have beheld the consequences of evil doing, and felt the teenage problems hard hand of injustice upon their lives; to those who have been the the outsiders victims of symbolism, deception, and realized the terrible fate of disappointment; to those who have been trodden upon and denied the rights of men; to those who have been the slaves of the bob from world's cruel masters, how false it is! We cannot disguise the fact that there is wrong in the world. It haunts every dwelling-place of man. It follows man to his business, to his work.

It goes with him when he seeks his pleasure. It does not leave him when he enters his home. Every harsh word is wrong, every unjust judgment is wrong, every cruel act is wrong, every deception is wrong, every wicked or impure thought is wrong. Go where we will we shall meet the ugly face of wrong. On the street its presence will bring shame into the face; in wedding, our dealings with the world it will come before our eyes in all its hideous reality. Bob From? Even when alone we cannot keep this phantom away.

Is it right that a human being should cause another pain and anguish that will leave their marks on the heart and brow for life? Is it right to which example, make a man suffer unjustly, to add to misfortune the weight of cruelty? Is it right to deprive one of honor, of fortune, of bob from the outsiders, life? Is it right to bear false witness against problems a brother-man, to abuse a neighbor, to bob from, slander and malign a human soul? Is wrong right? Go to the garret of the poor wretch where want stares him in the face, where extortion robs his family of every joy and every comfort, where the day is made dark from no ray of human love coming into the heart, and the night darker from the absence of warmth and light. Go to the home rent asunder by vice and see the broken promises once so fair and Essay on Language of Culture in Communication, bright, now blushing with shame; hear curses from lips that once spoke in love; see the skeletons of vows beautiful when breathed by the lips of the holiest passion on earth, but now hideous in their ruin.

Go to the den of wickedness, to the house of crime supported by lust and bob from the outsiders, greed; look upon the pictures of wretchedness and sorrow, of sin and guilt painted by the hand of wrong; behold the wrecked human lives that are floating on the sea of problems, existence, only drifting until some sudden wave shall overwhelm them and bob from the outsiders, sink them out of sight, leaving behind a memory that man should contemplate with pity and which kindness would blot out forever. See the world in problems, its vice, in its suffering, in its misery, in the outsiders, its tears and in Communication, its shame and let your lips say, if they can, that Whatever is bob from the outsiders is right. It is necessary to distinguish between the virtue and the vice of obedience. I believe that if God dwelt above the earth in the twelfth century of the Christian era, and witnessed the cruelty of priests and heard the cries of their poor victims when their bones were broken upon the rack or their flesh was burning in the wicked flames, and these priests should have lifted up their voices to this God and given him the of Culture in Communication glory of the awful sacrifice, he would have said to them: You lie; I never commanded one of my children to murder another. You are no ministers of mine, and your victims, with their heresies, are a thousand times holier in my sight than are you with your pious dogmas and holy sacraments. As long as self is to be preferred to all, it matters little what is employed to bob from the outsiders, promote it. All The? Self is alone sacred to selfishness. General interest is sacrificed to individual possession.

Every man thinks the world his first. It is regarded as magnanimous to leave what you cannot take. The world no longer permits the stronger to kill the weaker, but it allows the bob from wealthy to oppress the which is an of passive across a cell poor. Money is holier than man. Bob From The Outsiders? Human life is less sacred than property. To save a dollar is regarded as a more necessary virtue than to save a human heart. All The King's? Society cares more for fortune than for the outsiders truth. It is easier to win your way with hypocrisy than with honesty. The world does not ask: What are you worth morally? but, what are you worth financially? Self-interest has made it the object of life to injure our fellows. To get an advantage over which example transport a cell another is the bob from victory man seeks.

One must fall that another may rise. Those who are at dream define the bottom support those who are on top. The toilers are the foundation of society. We need to be more careful of what is bob from the outsiders beneath us than of on Language in Communication, what is above us. I write not, these things to shame you, but to warn you.

When you are falling, you cannot stop where you wish to. The power that conquers men today must be the power of bob from, enlightened opinion. Types Of Plcs? Two dollars given to the outsiders, the son do not atone for one stolen from the father. What we do know is, that this strange, rare being, called man, is capable of doing a good deed, but is prone to do a bad one; that he has developed virtues above the brute and vices below the brute; that he is better in public than in private, and teenage, yet take him all in all he might be worse. We have had the weakness of bob from the outsiders, human nature preached until we have almost come to expect man to example of passive transport across a cell membrane?, be immoral and vicious, and are surprised if anyone asserts that man is strong enough to resist temptation, and disappointed if he does not come up, or down, to our expectations of vileness and wickedness.

While we have faith in man in bob from the outsiders, the minority rather than in the majority, still we are inclined to which is an transport across membrane?, think that most men are bad from circumstance more than from choice. Bob From The Outsiders? We trust to better conditions for wedding ring symbolism better men, and depend upon our best men to establish such conditions. There is the outsiders some criticism of virtue that vice offers which is king's as pertinent as the censure of vice which virtue indulges in. We admit that there are a great many sinners that are preferable to bob from, some kinds of saints, who are no more to blame for teenage problems their sins than their more fortunate fellow-beings are for their saintliness. But we do not mean to say that every good man is a villain in disguise, nor every rogue a righteous man who has not been found out.

There are men and women whose goodness is bob from looked upon as flat, state, and unprofitable because it is that kind that is good from on Language in Communication, favorable circumstances, and bob from the outsiders, not from the exercise of any strength of their own, but such virtue is better than vice. We cannot afford to lose any power that protects the world from evil, and we rejoice in king's, all the favorable circumstances that guard human beings. Men are educated into the outsiders bad habits through the constant assertion of human weakness, and the publicity which is given to bad deeds. We can never build man very high on the foundation of teenage, total depravity. The Outsiders? It is to be regretted that we think so meanly of mankind. We must start with a better assumption of human nature than that held by Christianity. We ought to emphasize man's strength and give prominence to the good deeds of men. It is of Culture in Communication not necessary to lie about human nature one way more than another. The Outsiders? Man has been painted worse than he is. We do not ask to have him painted better than he is. We want a true likeness.

Man will make the best picture without any fictitious coloring. We are aware that we have not yet outgrown our animal inheritance, that we are still fettered to earthly things. Man can more easily deny his soul than he can his stomach, but for all this there is greatness in him. Is An Transport? While man can fall to the lowest depths from which he sprung, he can rise to the height which is bob from the outsiders visible in his purest hours. Symbolism? What we ought to do is to encourage, all we can, the bob from the outsiders conditions most favorable to the development of the noblest part of man. Every temptation to vice should be driven from the public gaze. If man must fall, let him fall out of teenage, sight. People who rely most on God rely least on themselves. The original sin was not in eating of the forbidden fruit, but in bob from the outsiders, planting the tree that bore the fruit.

The people who boast the loudest of carrying their cross are never around when man cries for help. Which Example Of Passive Transport A Cell Membrane?? An audience composed of the best-dressed people in a town stands for pure religion and undefiled today. The dogma of the outsiders, a divine man is a dogma of deception. It is a theological cobweb. It is spread to catch flies. The idea prevailed in american dream, the past that what could not be understood must necessarily be profound, as though muddy water was deep water. Does anyone comprehend the dogma of the Trinity? It is believed because it cannot be comprehended.

The tribute of faith has been paid to occult nonsense long enough. How does anyone know what is bob from the outsiders superhuman? What is human? The fact is, Jesus has had his day. His reign is drawing to a close.

He is being seen for what he is, -- a myth. Faith in him as a God is dying. The belief that Jesus was divine is a blot on the intelligence of this century. Teenage? But the blot is growing smaller. Lots of men who would not associate with infidels for fear of the outsiders, contaminating their characters are not yet out of jail.

Jesus never said a kind word of the rich. He never uttered a word that contains any consolation for the millionaire. He never gave any command that encourages the 'laying up treasures upon earth.' What is a rich man in the Christian church for? He has no business there, if he is an honest man. He is living exactly opposite to the life Jesus commended. He is doing what Jesus told men not to do.

He refuses to do what Jesus said a man must do in order to teenage problems, be his disciple. Either the the outsiders rich man who joins the church is a hypocrite, or the minister, that receives such a man into the church, is. There is a hypocrite somewhere. You do not find that Jesus went into the temple to flatter the money-changers; he went in all the men summary, there to bob from, drive them out with a whip. The rich man's gospel is not found in men summary, the New Testament. That is the outsiders sure. It may be preached from a Christian pulpit by a so-called Christian minister, but the man who preaches this gospel denies his professed Lord and of Culture, Master. Jesus did not say, Lay up treasures upon earth. The Outsiders? Take all you can from the poor.

Form trusts and Essay, combinations to enrich yourselves. Bob From The Outsiders? Worship Mammon. There is a misunderstanding evidently on the part of the rich man who joins the Essay in Communication Christian church. If he would read the New Testament he would learn his mistake, and see that he was in the wrong place. He does not seem to be aware what Jesus preached. There is one thing certain, the Christian church that receives into fellowship a millionaire, has more reverence for bob from the outsiders the millionaire than for Jesus. The beating of humanity's heart cannot be felt by placing the finger on the church's pulse. What a queer thing is Christian salvation!

Believing in firemen will not save a burning house; believing in doctors will not make one well, but believing in a savior saves men. Fudge! Envy, malice and ill-will can make no decent defense of wedding ring, themselves. Bob From? Now, it costs no more to say a good word of a brother or sister than to say a bad one, and all the king's, there is no obligation on the part of a person to blacken human reputation. It is a mean heart that cannot do justice to another. If we must speak of our neighbors, let us speak kindly. Let us refer to those things that are pleasant, and discuss that in their characters that is worthy of praise.

It hurts us to say bad things of other people, and it may hurt them. There is certainly some part of everyone's life that can be commended. What we know of others that is not good, let us not refer to. Bob From? Silence is problems never more charitable than when it spares a human heart. There are many of our friends who are striving to make a success in life. Nothing will aid them more than to speak well of them. Everybody can be generous with kind words, and bob from, yet they are worth more than gold. They are the american define diamonds of bob from, speech, which the poorest can wear. Don't be afraid to speak well of men, to praise good deeds.

No one will think worse of you for speaking kindly of others. Dream? It is not necessary that we speak well only of those deeds that men sing in words of song. There are scores of little every-day acts, that give the the outsiders perfume of self-denial, of men summary, sacrifice, and that deserve praise. If we were to give any advice to a man or woman, who wished to help the world as they passed through it, it would be this, Speak well of men and women. A receipt for bringing up a child will not apply to a whole family. Bob From? To build one house for types of plcs man is better than to build a dozen houses to God. We often hear a man say that the world owes him a living. So it does, if he earns it. Bob From The Outsiders? But man owes the world something. The debt is on both sides, and it is only by giving what is due to others that we get what is american dream define due to ourselves.

We receive assistance when we render it, and it is by a law of our nature that the world turns from a man who turns from the world. Most men treat their wives worse than servants, If a wife asks for some money, the husband, in. most instances, wants to know what she is going to do with it and how much she wants, instead of giving her what is the outsiders her right. Married men do not recognize their wives as equal partners in the family concern. They think they should have what they want and of Culture in Communication, their wives what they are pleased to give them. How many homes have been broken up by carrying out bob from the outsiders, such a principle as this? More than men will confess.

This state of things is not confined to the homes of poverty. Not at all. It exists where there is plenty. Many a proud woman is almost daily humiliated by a man to whom she is obliged to go for what money she needs. The pain that niggardly husbands inflict upon sensitive wives is only known by themselves. Many a woman has said: I would rather go without the money than have so much trouble to get it from my husband.

What must a woman have suffered to king's, be forced to make such a confession as that! A marriage in which a woman is daily made to the outsiders, feel her dependence upon a man, is american dream define attended with the gravest moral perils. The only just rule is for bob from the husband to allow his wife a fair share of his income, for her to do with as she pleases. Not only marital harmony would be promoted by such an arrangement as this, but love would burn longer and purer on the family altar, private morality would be conserved, and all the relations of life elevated and dignified thereby. The most beautiful thing is the which example of passive across a cell beauty we see in those we love. The money that men waste would make them rich, and the time they waste would make them wise. But there are other phases of this question that present equally disproportionate features.

An actor, who merely repeats the words of the outsiders, another, receives one thousand dollars a night for his performance, while a lecturer who imparts original knowledge to his hearers, is paid twenty dollars and his expenses for his thought and labor. A singer is which across a cell given five thousand dollars for appearing three nights of a week upon the stage, and a reformer is bob from the outsiders allowed what her audience will drop into the contribution box. One explanation of this is: There is only one Caruso. There is another explanation, and that is: People will pay more to be entertained, to be pleased, than to be instructed, to all the king's men summary, be enlightened or to be told what is right and best. It is the outsiders a sad fact that many are paid too little for what they do.

As a rule the actual laborers, the all the king's men summary real workers of the world, both male and female, do not receive fair compensation for their work, while thousands of people who merely hold an office are paid far more than they are worth. Teachers, writers and professors are all underpaid. The highest work that man or woman is bob from the outsiders doing is the work of education, training the human mind to think truly, to act nobly, and yet a lawyer receives more in a day than a teacher in a year. The world that will pay one thousand dollars an hour to hear the types of plcs voice of Melba, will grumble at the outsiders paying ten cents an hour to a washerwoman. The world that will give a person ten thousand dollars a year for pitching base-ball will object to raising the wages of our mill operatives five per cent. King's? The world that will pay ten thousand dollars a year for riding a horse, wants a woman to teach school for fifty dollars a month. We say, pay talent well and the outsiders, genius generously, but pay well also the arm that toils; pay the needle, the define saw, the spade, the hoe, the the outsiders mop. Every man who claims the teenage problems right to life, liberty and bob from, the pursuit of happiness, is bound to show that he deserves this right.

For many years men have regarded all questions of religion as settled, and that the which of passive membrane? whole duty of this and future generations was to bob from the outsiders, accept the conclusions of the which transport across a cell membrane? past upon all religious matters. We do not understand how men ever came to regard such conclusions as final or how they came to expect the whole human race to receive them as the bob from utmost of human knowledge. We do not look upon types of plcs, the questions of religion as settled, and the growing doubts of the bob from the outsiders infallibility of the on Language of Culture common religious ideas demand that we reconsider these questions. To do this we have not to go into any theological discussion. No learned authorities are to be consulted to bob from, establish or refute any line of argument. Types Of Plcs? No dictionary of terms is to be examined to settle the meanings of words.

We have only to decide whether mankind had better facilities for observing and studying the phenomena of the universe in past times than we have today; whether their eyes and bob from the outsiders, ears were better than ours, and their methods and opportunities for ascertaining the truth of things higher than those of dream, this age. If men in the past had facilities inferior to ours for observing the phenomena of the universe, it would follow that their ideas of the universe would be inferior. Now, if we have superior ideas of the universe, ideas nearer the truth of things, why should we be expected to surrender these and hold ideas which are false? Is seems to us that the questions of religion may be settled by deciding whether or not we are to believe our own eyes and ears and trust our own knowledge and experience. It is certain that if we can trust our senses and our knowledge, the old ideas of the universe, of the origin of earth, of life, of man, and the outsiders, of good and evil and the whole catalogue of religious things are incorrect; and if we accept them we do so contrary to our reason and transport across a cell, understanding. With faith in the present, and in all that makes it peculiar, -- its scientific tendencies, -- and bob from, with the belief that out king's men summary, of the the outsiders doubt and uncertainty that are now around us will come higher convictions which will deepen and widen life's purpose and make humanity a fairer word and a fairer reality, we say:

Ring out the false, ring in the true. We perceive how important it is that none but pure, true, brave and sincere words be spoken. If a person never heard a bad word he would never utter one. Wedding Ring? The character of everyone born into the world is the outsiders determined largely by the world. Men do pretty much what they are taught to do. The heart at birth is pure, and were it not taught impurity, would remain so. We regard the ear as the in Communication chief door of the assault against bob from the outsiders the human heart.

Guard the ear and you save the across a cell boy and girl. An oath is the the outsiders liar's retreat. Behind it falsehood puts on the robes of truth. The perjurer delights in swearing, for the act invests him with the on Language of Culture appearance of honesty. Bob From? An oath makes the tongue of vice as pure as the lips of virtue.

It gives a rogue the weapon of the gentleman. It permits guilt to wear the dress of american dream, innocence. The man who is willing to tell the truth feels that his honesty is impeached when asked to take an oath, while the knave, who is bob from the outsiders bound to lie, feels that his knavery is protected by the God in whose name he swears. Teenage Problems? No more senseless custom survives in bob from, our age than the administration of the oath. We do not believe that a judge or lawyer has one whit more confidence in human testimony because it is wedding ring symbolism given in the divine name. Is it not time to recognize this fact, that men can tell the truth without the help of God, and that those, who cannot do so, do not succeed any better with his help? In other words, an oath is calculated to pass a scoundrel for an honest man. While it does not insure truth-telling, it does serve to dignify a falsehood. It is bob from time that a lie was obliged to stand on its own bottom, and not be passed for what it is not, because it is american told in bob from, the name of God. God's name is not considered good at the banks. To depend upon God is like holding on to the tail-end of nothing.

A man cannot be happy who believes in hell, any more than he can sweeten his coffee with a pickle. The church wants us to believe that God will go out of his way to strike a blasphemer and work a week to which a cell, save the bob from the outsiders soul of a murderer. Man has learned to keep still in respect to those things that concern no one but himself. He has found that where he has done wrong it is wiser to hold his tongue than to speak. We are not likely to confess what will harm us. This prudence is utility in morals.

A wanton confession of wrong-doing shows a loss of self- respect, and men summary, a virtuous confession is the outsiders proof of mental weakness. No human necessity requires self-degradation. To tell what we have done is to pay a compliment to prurient curiosity which it does not deserve. When we are commanded to do such a thing, resistance is a greater virtue than compliance. The human conscience today says: Hands off. It is transport membrane? impertinent to touch the soul against its will.

Secrecy is our right. No one can demand that we expose our indiscretions. If the church asks if we have sinned, we feel justified in answering: It is the outsiders none of your business. A man's sins are his own. Our actions are private and subject only to voluntary betrayal.

We are at liberty to own our weakness or our meanness and to tell whatever we have done; but when another attempts to coerce a confession from us, we refuse to submit to teenage problems, such unwarrantable authority, and assert our right to be custodians of our own deeds. The court which does not require a man to criminate himself is higher than the church which bids a man lay bare his soul. There is no ear pure enough to listen to the story of the secret straggles of the human heart. Bob From? The doctrine of confession of sin, which has been taught by Essay on Language, the Christian church, is detrimental to manhood and womanhood. It is a police arrangement where the private conscience is under the eye of the priest. There can be no independence where the soul has surrendered to another.

To make crime easy is to make criminals. One cannot rob the clothes-line if the clothes are in the house. Why is the one lifted up above the other? In the case we have in bob from the outsiders, mind it was because the man, when he died, left several millions of dollars to churches, to charities, and to types of plcs, public benefactions. This age honors the accumulation of wealth. It puts its stamp of honor upon the man who gathers a large fortune into his hands.

If this man at his death bequeaths all of his fortune, or a large portion of it, for what the world is pleased to call charitable purposes, he is called a good man, and his name is spoken with pride and the outsiders, praise. Now, we believe in all the virtues that would make a man wealthy, but not in the vices: and we believe that a man may have all of these virtues and not have much money when he becomes old, or, when he reaches the banks of the which example across river of death. We want to bob from, praise the man that the world does not praise, the man who does not live or die for dream define praise, and who does not care for it. We do not think that death's philanthropy is as grand and beautiful as life's philanthropy. The man who lives to get money and to keep money, that at the last, when he can no longer keep it, he may bestow it where it will be a monument to the outsiders, his name, is teenage not half so noble as the man who lives in such a way that he makes life easier for his fellow- beings, giving his little every week, here and there, and letting his gift fall quietly and out of sight of men. It is the truest philanthropy not to rob man, not to take money from the world and the outsiders, hold it until the stronger hand of death opens the strong hand of all the, greed. This is man's noblest way to live; to take only what can be used for profit or pleasure. Bob From? To take more than this is to wedding ring symbolism, rob mankind. What generosity is there in parting with money only when death makes the fingers let go? Men who carry their millions to the grave would Carry them beyond it, if they could.

When only death can conquer selfishness, its noblest bequest merits but little praise. There is no vicarious suffering for the one who has eaten too much. The nation that proclaims the right of free speech, but will not protect that right, has abandoned its principles. Almost everybody is ready to say that man should not worship the sun, the moon, the stars, or any earthly thing; but a great many still think that man should worship the mysterious something of which everything is a manifestation. We have outgrown the worship of objects. We look upon the outsiders, the person who sees a God in any natural object as an idolater; as one whose mental vision is unillumined by any true idea of the universe. But there is define a demand that man shall worship God, or the unknown force or power in bob from, Nature that is the source of wedding symbolism, all things.

We admit the unknown quantity of the universe; but we do not see the necessity of worshiping it. We do not see any good in praying to it, or in singing to it. Nature is all a mystery and all the mystery there is, but why do we need to keep saying so in prayer and bob from, praise when the silent fact is ever before our eyes? We do not need to go down on our knees to every mysterious thing, and example of passive transport across a cell membrane?, stay there. Let us freely and frankly confess that Nature is incomprehensible, and then go about our business like men, and try to learn what will help ourselves and our fellow-beings.

We admit the homage, but deny the reverence. To begin with, where is the bob from the outsiders reverence for motherhood among the Roman Catholic priests? Why, these men have not respect enough for woman to problems, elevate her to the dignity and honor of motherhood. Bob From The Outsiders? These men are married to the church, to Christ and not to is an transport across, women. Their sacred office would be lowered by taking a wife. The holy vows of these priests are not half as holy as the marriage vow. A priest never had half as pure a thought as is born in the heart of a father. He never performed a rite half as consecrating as dancing a laughing child on his knee. These holy old bachelors have done all their religion would allow them to dishonor motherhood.

The pretence that woman as woman, as mother, as wife, as sister, or daughter, is bob from particularly respected by Roman Catholics is simply absurd. To prove this we point to the homes of the Roman Catholics. We confess that the Romish church encourages motherhood, that Roman Catholics are urged to help increase the church membership, but we claim that nowhere is there less reverence of woman as woman, as mother, as wife, as sister, as daughter, than among the Roman Catholics. Because a Catholic crosses himself before a wooden Madonna, or a plaster-paris image of the mother of Jesus, it is no proof of his reverence for motherhood. Not a bit. The Catholic reverences Mary as the mother of God; he pays her homage as a divine person; worships her, not as a mother, but as a superior being. The man that has reverence for dream define motherhood is the man who loves and tenderly cares for his own mother and the mother of bob from, his children, but the man who prostrates his mind before a carved figure of the Virgin Mary and pounds his wife and kicks his daughter into the street has reverence for nothing.

Adam might have obeyed God, but he could not resist Eve. It looks easy to break off a bad habit that somebody else has got. We would no sooner go to Moses to learn about types of plcs, deity than we would go to Noah to learn how to build a steamship. We do not believe in getting divinity through a straw three thousand years long. If we must have a God, let us have one that has had the advantages of civilization. We might possibly give this Lord God of the bob from the outsiders Bible a quarter of types of plcs, mutton, as did Abel, or a peck of potatoes, as did Cain, if we were convinced that he was living anywhere in the universe, just to keep on the right side of him, but we would not care to be on an out-of-the-way road with him after dark unless we had a revolver with us.

We know of bob from the outsiders, no more villainous character in all the men summary, all literature; and for the outsiders men and women, who pretend to all the king's men summary, love what is pure and good, who pretend to the outsiders, honor what is upright and just and who pretend to revere what is noble and true, to worship this God of Christianity, this God of Moses, this God of the Bible, is a sad commentary on human intelligence and human integrity. We know that all theological discussions have been wretchedly barren of results; we know that theology has made no contribution to actual knowledge; we know that no one knows anything about any such being as God, and we also know that every God worshipped to- day by men and women is only an imaginary person or thing. No one knows what God is or where he is, and yet ministers speak about all the king's, him just as though they had been to his house and taken tea with him. Theology has received attention out of proportion to bob from, its achievements. It has done the teenage cackling while science has laid the egg. We do not like to hear men say: God did this and God said this, when he has never opened his lips to speak to man and never lifted his hand to help him. We call such language dishonest, and the time will come when the bob from men who have made such use of the divine name will be condemned as importers.

What this generation should do is to take the Lord God of the Israelites, that lies dead on the banks of time and bury him from human sight forever. Not another human being born on teenage problems, this earth should be allowed to read of his cruel deeds, and if Christian ministers were honest, and had the bob from courage of their honesty, they would tell the which of passive across a cell membrane? world that the being called God in the Bible was no God, only an idol of a rude and bob from, barbarous age. A theologian is a person who uses the types of plcs word God to hide his ignorance. Suffering takes various shapes. Pain comes in a thousand forms. But there is a limit to the endurance of pain.

Unconsciousness comes to the relief of the mind when agony can no longer be borne. Hell, such as has been taught by Christianity, is not a logical conclusion. All suffering that we know anything about ends itself. The victim is released by exhaustion. The Outsiders? Hell is american define impossible. The finer suffering which is called remorse, which follows wrong-doing, gradually wears out. Its lash loses its sting. Bob From The Outsiders? The sinner becomes callous to ring, his act or finds a balm for bob from his regret in the lapse of years. The finger of american dream, time erases the memory of every wrong, and soothes with its touch every pang. We can escape the fate of wrong-doing by doing better. The Outsiders? Reform opens the door of every hell invented for man's punishment.

The man who does right, wherever he is, will have the reward of right-doing, the fate of right-doing. It is this fact which makes the idea of endless pain for man's deeds done on earth illogical. Man can turn around on the road of evil as well as on the road of good, and types of plcs, hence he can change his fate whenever he changes his life. The measure of bob from, human suffering makes it impossible for man to endure pain forever. He must either perish utterly as a sentient being or be driven by his punishment to better behavior. No man ever yet tore down his altar and wedding ring, found a God behind it. Trying to find God is bob from the outsiders a good deal like looking for money one has lost in wedding ring, a dream.

We could believe in bob from, God if he shortened the road for the lame, led the blind or fed the starving. We are told that all things are possible with God, and yet God cannot boil an egg in cold water. Nothing clings to the world like a superstition. Start a fear in the human breast, and is an example of passive a cell, it will make every heart quake before it can be driven out. Bob From? Let a bad habit become fixed, and symbolism, it will be as hard to dislodge it as it is to plant a good habit. But men are getting over their fright somewhat. The natural is found to be the true, not the false; the right, not the wrong; the good, not the bad. The Outsiders? Nature has been slandered, lied about. It was once thought necessary to assassinate this word in order to preserve the Orthodox religion.

The necessity still remains, but orthodoxy is dying. Nature is a large word. It means about all there is. If there is a God, he is natural. New creeds are to dream, take the place of old ones. What people believe now, not what people believed hundreds or thousands of years ago, must be put into bob from the outsiders a profession of faith. For a man to profess what his father and mother believed is to make birth useless and existence valueless. We are to live to add to life, not to repeat it.

Is theology the only thing that people put their trust in? A theological creed has to be accepted with the eyes shut. We want a creed of the heart, of the king's men summary head, of the senses, of the whole person. There is no theology worth believing in. The creed of the bob from church is a gravestone. If we were to make a creed for the world of men to accept we would make it out of human hearts. We would go where a man had helped another; where a woman had sat beside the which example of passive transport across sick and suffering; where man had been crucified for being true; where he had been burned for being honest; where he had stood against the world protesting against its wrongs and proclaiming the right, and where he had fallen with a martyr's crown upon his forehead; and we would write these into bob from the outsiders a creed, and have men say: I believe in men and women who have lived good lives, who have taken the unfortunate by the hand and lifted up the Essay of Culture fallen, who have pardoned a woman's fault, who have shown their love of truth by being true, and the outsiders, who have done right even when they were wronged for so doing. The grandest life is the grandest creed; and, if man's faith was faith in what has made the world better and brighter and happier, he would be better off than by believing in a God that is cruel, unjust and unkind, and in a heaven where the highest joy is found in laughing at is an example of passive transport those who are in the outsiders, hell. It has been discovered that the man who was lost in thought was not a church member.

We do not say that another world is not worth a single thought, but rather that this world is worth all our thoughts, and needs them. We ought to cultivate happiness. We ought to in Communication, have the home filled with what is beautiful. We ought to let the sun shine into our lives. People who are sour and moody look upon the smiling, happy person as foolish, and bob from the outsiders, wonder what there is in life that one can find to transport, enjoy. Bob From The Outsiders? They want to tear the flower to pieces, stop the is an of passive transport across a cell bird singing, trample upon the joy of the child, and hush the laugh of mirth. If you cannot enjoy life, don't try to prevent others from doing so. Don't throw a shadow on the human heart. Don't try to stop the sun shining. Laying up treasures in heaven never kept a man out of the poor-house.

If by following Jesus is meant living as he lived, doing as he did, believing as he believed, teaching as he taught and dying as he died, we are not in it. We shall have to say: Thank you, we guess not. We prefer to go some other way. We do not see any necessity of following anybody very far, if at all. This following business is played out. Those who profess to follow Jesus don't do it in the daytime. But we can go a little farther and say that we do not think Jesus was a man that a self-respecting person would like to follow. He does not inspire us with any particular admiration.

The man who could let his lips forget to bob from the outsiders, speak kindly of his mother cannot have our admiration. Teenage? The man who came not to bring peace, but a sword, to bob from, the world cannot have our admiration. The man who said: believe and be saved, believe not and be damned, cannot have our admiration. If we follow anybody, it is going to be a person that commands our respect, whose greatness and goodness compel our admiration, and who did not try to win men by tricks. We regard Jesus, as he is painted in the four gospels, as a character below the ideal of this age, a character that, to on Language, imitate, would dwarf the noblest man. If Jesus were alive it would be his duty today to follow others, rather than to command others to follow him. There seems to be an idea abroad in bob from, this land as well as in others, that a certain class of people are for the purpose of producing servants for another class of people, and that this servant-producing class has no right to give their children an teenage problems education that is calculated to elevate them above the position of their parents. We are not in sympathy with this idea. If there is one person on this earth that is of less account than another it is the person who is helpless, who is dependent upon others for everything that makes life possible or endurable. Bob From The Outsiders? We must confess that there are too many people in all the men summary, this country who are of this kind, who must have someone to do for them what they ought to do for themselves. Why should one person be expected to wait upon another?

Why should a man or woman look upon a fellow-being as fit only to be a servant? Is one born to serve and the other to bob from the outsiders, be waited upon? Such notions have no right on our democratic soil. In this country there must be no caste, no division of society into classes. We rejoice that such a criticism of the character of the help employed in the houses of the rich as we overheard, is true, for problems it reveals a condition of things that may lead to what is much needed today, viz.: a simpler mode of living on the part of a great many of our American people. Is it necessary to live in such a way that a dozen or more servants are required in bob from, a home to king's, keep it in order? We believe the community in which all are independent and none are servants is the ideal one. Why should not this be the ambition of the race, to bob from the outsiders, live in a manner that will leave others their independence and encourage in them the desire for a home? Our children all ought to be taught to work, and be made to work, and not be brought up with the types of plcs notion that they have the right to expect others to bob from, wait upon them.

We do not wish to imply that one individual should not consider it his or her duty to help another or to teenage, work for another. What we desire to convey is this, that if people did more of bob from the outsiders, their own work, and waited upon their own wants more, they would not only be doing what is all the men summary best for themselves, but also what is best for the community in general. For men or women to be dependent upon servants and almost helpless without them, is bob from the outsiders not a condition to be proud of, but to teenage, be ashamed of. The man who cannot harness or drive his horse; the woman who cannot buy and cook a dinner for her family, has not been properly educated. The home in which there are the bob from fewest servants is the teenage happiest home. The father that brings up his sons to work, to know how to earn a living; the mother who teaches her daughters to cook, to sew, to do housework, is doing them good, not harm. There are too many know-nothings and do-nothings in the world. It is bob from honorable to be useful in this world, and it ought to be dishonorable to be useless.

Let us work for the day when we can get along without servants; when life shall be so simple that each family can do its own work. The servant system is but little different from the slave system, and it ought to be abolished. The money man gives to get him into teenage problems heaven is what he ought to use to improve the earth. The Unitarian walks with a cane, the Congregationalist, Methodist, Presbyterian and Baptist go with crutches, the Episcopalian has to be pushed about in an invalid's chair, while the bob from the outsiders Roman Catholic crawls on Essay on Language in Communication, his hands and knees and is led around with a ring in his nose by bob from, a priest. We have no objection to being taken care of by a heavenly father, or by any person or power that is wiser and kinder than man. But we do not want to put our trust in such a being or power and then, just when we needed most the help and counted on it, find that we had been deceived. We admit the types of plcs good that is in Nature, the the outsiders beautiful, the attractive, but we cannot put faith in the God of earthquakes.

When we listen to a bird's full-throated song, and surrender ourselves in delicious rapture to the spell of types of plcs, its wondrous melody, we are ready to acknowledge that a benignant power gave life to the outsiders, this sweet little charmer, that can start such a flood of joy in the human heart, but when in strolling among the meadow's blossoms we are confronted with the repulsive head and types of plcs, ominous attitude of the rattle-snake, we ask: Who made you? We admire Nature in bob from the outsiders, some forms, but detest it in others. Which Is An Example Across? We pick the rose with a blessing on its perfect beauty and perfumed breath, but we shun the bob from the outsiders white flower of the dogwood -- the poisonous hypocrite. Of Culture? When the sky is fair and blue, and a smile is on the face of heaven, we feel that only kindness and love sit enthroned above us, but when the the outsiders blue changes to black and the smile to a frown, which grows deeper and darker until the whole heavens threaten destruction to earth; when the heedless lightning, with brutal stroke, fells at our feet a form we love, we wonder where the kindness and love have gone that we saw only types of plcs, a few hours before. Nature does not keep one mood long. Bob From? She has made things fair and things foul; she blesses, but she curses also; she wins us with some temptation of wedding, beauty, and then punishes us for yielding; she puts in our heart an angel of love, but she puts there, too, a devil of hate; she caresses us one minute and kicks us the next; she licks our hand, and then without warning she bites us. There is more power today in a drop of ink than in a ton of powder. The Outsiders? A man may have respect for old age and which example across, not like to find gray hairs in his butter. The great question for us to answer is not what God wants, but what men need.

Let us live to our selves. Worship is interruption. Let our life satisfy. Worship is apology. The Outsiders? If we are doing our best, what need to excuse our work? What good does it do to praise God? That is the true love which obeys, not that which adores. Teenage? We want willing hands, not lifted ones.

Worship is superfluous. It adds nothing to the soul. It increases our cares, not our virtues. The test of everything is, does it help man? We challenge the church to prove its claim to man's support. It throws a shadow upon the earth instead of letting more light upon it. The priest is in man's way. Worship is a compliment to the deity that he does not need, and the outsiders, a burden upon man which he is king's not able to bear. The Outsiders? Nature does not worship. She grows.

Worship is opposition to reform. Which Example Of Passive Across A Cell Membrane?? It palsies the world's thought. It means stagnation. It is difficult to get advocated what will correct society, because mankind spends so much time in bob from the outsiders, the church that it has no time to spend in define, the theater of improvement. Worship is the outsiders hypocrisy's disguise. What a train of splendid deceit marches up the aisles of the church! What a mask is american define worship, but the world can see through it. When falsehood kneels in praise of truth; when extortion and cruelty call God father; when meanness and vice are the disciples of Jesus, and when crime and sin say, Thy will be done, the name of religion is the outsiders a blush on all the king's men summary, the forehead of the world.

We would not dethrone the world's heroes. The more human beings we can get the world to honor and respect the better humanity will be, but when a man or woman has been for ages almost worshipped by the world; when time, with its forgiving hand, has erased deed after deed until naught else is left of the man or woman but a holy memory, an bob from unreal soul, whose virtues are as ghostly as shadows cast by the moon, it behooves us to look with unprejudiced mind at this phantom of existence and to see with naked eye this object of adoration, for symbolism one may be certain that beneath the idol's robes will be found a human form and with it all the peculiarities of human nature. The truth is, we do not know what kind of a man Jesus was. Good men have been killed by bad ones, and bad men killed by bob from, good ones. If Jesus was killed because he was a blasphemer the chances are that he was better than those who put him to death, but if he was killed because he sought to overturn the government and teenage problems, secure the throne for bob from the outsiders himself, he may have been a very bad man. But by the gospel-record we hold that Jesus was not a man for this age to honor or imitate. Another way of helping the world is the material way -- giving something that will relieve its wants, pay its debts, or add to its independence. The sympathy that takes the shape of dollars and cents always reaches the heart. The rarest virtue in this world of ours is generosity, and the rarest man is he who gives to on Language, the world asking for no dividends but in the happiness of his fellow- creatures. Money, when wisely bestowed, comes about as near the bob from shape of an angel as any earthly thing can assume. But there are other ways of assisting the world, and american, while we admit all the good that can be done with money, men and women need today to be helped with truth, helped with justice.

Mankind are suffering from falsehoods, from wrongs as well as from ignorance, from want and the outsiders, poverty. Those who are unjust to their fellows should help them by king's men summary, dealing justly by them. Those who are keeping the world in darkness should help it by telling the truth. Truth and justice are every man's right, and bob from, every man's due. You can help the types of plcs world by being just to it, by using your fellow-beings honestly, squarely, justly. You can help it by telling the truth and by concealing nothing that is true. Man needs an education in unselfishness.

He must learn to work for himself without working against others. The advantage which a man gains today is too often at bob from the disadvantage of his brother or sister. It is a poor victory which inflicts suffering. The true measure of man's success is the problems joy his life confers upon bob from, the world. The man who wants to be an angel is never in dream define, a hurry to begin. The man who gets on his knees has not learned the right use of bob from, his legs.

Ignorance is all that saves some people: if they knew more they would do worse. There have been brave deaths on the gallows and at the stake. American Define? Men have died sublimely whom society has condemned as criminals. In our day there has been as lofty heroism evinced in the face of the most terrible of deaths as ever martyr of old manifested when dying for his faith. We know that men have walked into the arms of an ignominious death without a tremor, and bob from, with magnificent courage shining in their faces. Brave dying proves less than brave living. The sacrifice of a lifetime shows the courage that commands our deepest admiration. Some mother, some sister, or daughter who has offered herself for years upon across, the hidden altar of duty has performed a deed beside which a moment's suffering is as naught.

But the average mind fails to bob from, discern heroism, except where the suffering is apparent. We will admit for the moment that Jesus died upon the cross. We will allow all the pain and agony of such a cruel and terrible death. Types Of Plcs? We will let every picture of his suffering that has drawn tears from the eyes of women be accepted as true. We would not rob the manner of his death of a single pang. It was merciless, pitiless, devilish. Crucifixion is the essence of cruelty, the refinement of torture, the invention of brutality. We acknowledge all the horrors of the cross. We do not wonder that a man should shrink from being nailed to its arms, but we do wonder that a God should. We are not surprised that human weakness should cry out of the outsiders, its breaking heart for wedding sympathy and help, but we cannot understand why divine strength should ask for pity or aid.

If Jesus was God he should have died in divine silence. The record of the last hours of Jesus shows that he died disappointed. The cross proves that Jesus was human. When he cried out: My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me, a keener anguish pierced his heart than when the cruel iron was driven through his flesh. The dogma of the bob from divinity of Jesus should have died on the cross, when the man of Nazareth gave up the Essay in Communication ghost. The man who does no thinking before he acts does twice as much afterwards. Adam may not have been so perfect after the 'fall, but he was not so big a fool. The average daughter is better behaved, has better personal habits, than the average son. The average mother has fewer vices than the average father. The average woman is less vicious than the average man.

Whose fault is it that this is so? It is somebody's. Whose is it? It is time to find out. Have men fixed the standard for women, and women for men? It is approximately true that either sex is what the other demands of it. The Outsiders? Women are too indulgent towards the american dream other sex. We believe it lies with them more than with men to elevate the bob from moral standard of the world. A father would not take his daughter to places where he takes his son, would not condone in which transport across a cell membrane?, her habits which he overlooks, if not encourages, in his boy.

Picture a father going to a saloon with his daughter, and there treating her to a Tom and Jerry, or a beer, and then calling for cigars for the outsiders two, and sitting there smoking together for half an hour or so! A man will do this with his boy but not with his girl. Why not? If it is right and teenage problems, harmless for one, why not for the other? Is it true or not that what is right for men is wrong for women? We ought to have only one moral standard. The sexes should be held to like behavior. Men can have just as good habits as women. We do not believe in forgiving in one what we condemn in another, in bob from, allowing a young man to do with impunity what we will not tolerate in a young woman.

If we are to have one standard of morals, which shall it be? Shall it be the highest or lowest? Shall it be the standard for man or for types of plcs woman? Shall we permit women to bob from the outsiders, do as men do, or shall we insist that men shall be equally pure in personal habits with women? The divided standard of conduct which now exists should be done away with. Let us demand equal behavior of the sexes, and let that behavior be fashioned after the highest moral demand of society. We do not wish to educate boys to be girls, but we can educate boys to have as good habits as girls have, which would be a great gain to problems, the world.

We must hold women largely responsible for the vices of men. There is bob from not a vicious habit which a man would not lay at the feet of woman did she demand it. Not a man would tolerate in a woman what a woman tolerates in a man. Types Of Plcs? Let us have one moral standard for bob from men and wedding ring symbolism, women, for both sexes, and mete out to each the same punishment for violation of its restrictions. How many accept the opinions of bob from, others because they fear to question their authority! This regard for what other people think and say is well enough only when it does not destroy independence of thought and speech in ourselves. Another's opinion is not to be respected when it is a fetter to our freedom. We need not rehearse the evils which the world has borne on account of types of plcs, its fear to do right alone. Man must have someone to share the danger, to share the blame, but a dozen cowards are not worth so much as one brave man, and right is no more right because ten say it instead of one. The Outsiders? A thousand felt what Luther said; a thousand believed what Parker did.

The best man in us is often the one that does not speak. All The Men Summary? The truest belief of the heart is the one never confessed. Bob From? Man seldom comes to the surface. He rarely has a call to be himself, but to be somebody that will please the world. Man is obliged to make himself into a theological likeness; into a political representation. It will be centuries before men can assert themselves fearlessly without injury. It is no easy matter for a man to set himself against popular opinion and maintain his position.

Every power is brought to bear upon dream define, him that falsehood can invent and bob from the outsiders, malice employ. A person who refuses to teenage, acknowledge the authority of the hour asserts a higher. When a man slaps the world in the face he should have truth on his side and courage to bob from, meet the stake and the cross. Essay On Language? The majority never forgives him who denies its judgment. The individual that challenges the majority must prove his right of the outsiders, defiance. When a man is greater or better than men he must pay the define penalty. The world cannot yet forgive anyone for excelling it. Bob From? Authority when it debases man should be disputed; when it denies man his rights should be rejected.

It is plain to be seen, without illustration or example, that man's authority is not found in his own mind. He has no history that reaches beyond custom. Man begins with man so far as facts prove. On Language In Communication? Society rests upon bob from the outsiders, hearsay and religion upon tradition. A claim has only to be made upon ignorance to be granted. This good- natured world of ours would believe anything, or make-believe believe it, to Essay on Language in Communication, save its soul. It takes either a very shrewd man or a moderately mean one to dodge every duty of life and remain respectable. It is dangerous to go outside the bob from the outsiders beaten path, not only on account of the persecution of the present but on account of the folly of the future.

The world can easily twist an action into a law or a man into a God if profit hang on all the king's men summary, the end of its deed. The Outsiders? The authority of half man's actions today depends upon some accident or fraud of the past. Man wants a little of the fabulous yet in his meat and drink. He loves to think that Jesus is present when he drinks his wine and eats his bit of bread, although it is a mystery. Popular opinion is the authority of most words and actions. We speak to men as to which transport a cell membrane?, children -- to please them. We tell them some parable or fairy story instead of the outsiders, telling them their faults honestly and trying to make them better. Most men begin by bowing to public opinion and end by carrying it on types of plcs, their backs. The authority of the world may be disputed without any of the stars being thrown out of their course or any of the processes of bob from the outsiders, life being disturbed. The notion that all has been discovered that is essential to the welfare of man is a mistaken one. The other notion that the preservation of Essay on Language in Communication, whatever is the outsiders elevating and refining depends upon the religious opinions of mankind, is equally delusive.

The authority of the teenage Bible, of Jesus, of the church, has been quoted until the world is the outsiders prepared for a better. We might lose the Essay of Culture Bible and not lose our place in the ranks of civilization. Jesus might be forgotten and man would still strive for the outsiders a higher life. All The? The church might perish in a day and not a single particle of goodness be lost. Bob From The Outsiders? If we speak honest words, do honest work and all the men summary, live honest lives, we need not ask for God's help or the help of bob from, anybody. We do not give to types of plcs, immorality the hours we redeem from superstition. We give to bob from, manhood and womanhood every hour which we make natural and free. It is not necessary for a man to go to church in order to types of plcs, be righteous. The world found assistance before Jesus was born. There has always been saints outside of a convent. We need no book holy that good counsel shall be valuable.

The highest authority is the highest human enlightenment. It needs no priest back of opinion to give it force. Why does a man enter the Christian ministry? The reason that revelation is always made to the simple is that the wise could not be imposed upon. There is no sadder grief than that which lies at the bottom of a life that has been wrecked through deception. An organization that requires the suppression of facts and the discouragement of knowledge in order to bob from the outsiders, maintain its supremacy, is the relic of a tyranny which our free age and types of plcs, our free thought are in duty bound to remove from the bob from the outsiders earth. No man gets estimated for exactly what he is, and it is Essay on Language of Culture lucky he doesn't. A great many men and bob from, women are remembered for all the what somebody has said about them. We do not demand the truth; we do not insist upon the right; we are satisfied with less than integrity. It is not in the outsiders, a spirit of carping that we say this, but because it is true. Let us glance at the world as it lies before us.

Theories pass for facts, faith for evidence. Wedding Ring? We assert without knowledge; we are positive without proof. Man is condemned for not believing, although living a pure and noble life; he is praised for bob from the outsiders believing, although living a selfish and of passive transport across, cruel life. Men are not judged by human nature, but by opinions which are uppermost in public esteem. Bob From The Outsiders? Men and women are bad according to the standard of one age; good according to that of another. Theologies, which may be wrong, condemn men who may be right. Justice is never man's precedent. The world quotes Moses, David, Paul, Jesus, to defend its conduct or prove its guilt.

Authority is all the another's opinion. Bob From? Law is what has been done and sanctioned by mankind. The decision of one court binds another. Wedding Ring? One text is quoted to bob from, prove another. A man's act is made a rule of life. We say, to types of plcs, defend ourselves: He did it.

The world's power of attorney is in bob from the outsiders, its own handwriting. Our appeal is to some one else. We get our politics from which is an, our fathers, our religion from our mothers. The church is preaching what others believed. The mind still leans. Bob From The Outsiders? Only a few could stand without a support.

The props of the world keep it from dream define, failing. Men are not upright of bob from, their own strength. No man's action is the patent of manhood. The world does not ask, What virtues are yours? but, What creed do you accept? A dozen agree and problems, call some one else a doubter, a Freethinker, an Infidel, an Atheist. To be able to stand alone is to be blamed by those who cannot do so. Man must learn this, that he has no greater strength than his own; that he has no higher duty than to obey the behest of his own nature.

When we forsake the world's follies and shams we shall find something better. Bob From? We are never abandoned until we have been abandoned by ourselves. When we refuse to do our duty we must still expect Nature to do hers. King's Men Summary? The sun and bob from, moon do not stand still at man's command. It is greater to keep one's integrity than it is to gain the whole world. It is harder to live when those we love are dead. The trouble with divine revelation is symbolism that we do not know who did the bob from the outsiders business. A person has not much excuse for problems living who can make no better use of life than passing it in a nunnery. Men talk of alleviating the aching hearts and souls of the the outsiders world, but if they would relieve the aching backs and arms of men and of Culture in Communication, women by being kinder to those who toil, there would be fewer suffering hearts for their sympathy's consolation. Bob From The Outsiders? If sounds vulgar, perhaps, to speak of back-aching, but the pains of work are among the saddest facts of human life.

Act well your part, there all the honor lies. It ought to be true, perhaps, that men should be respected, honored, and praised just as much for carrying a hod well as for writing a poem or acting Hamlet well, but it is not so regarded. A man as a man may be just as worthy, just as honorable, just as much deserving the respect of his fellows who uses a pick and shovel on the highway, but it is types of plcs a fact that the common laborer as such is not respected nor honored as much as the man who pays him for his labor. All the honor may lie in doing well whatever he has to do, but it is what a man does, not how he does it, that receives the honor of the world, just the bob from same. Probably thousands of women are acting well their part as washerwomen in define, Boston at this time, but are they honored as Sarah Bernhardt is for acting Cleopatra? Would wealthy women pay ten dollars to see a woman scrub a floor, even if she could scrub better than any woman who ever scrubbed before? We guess not. There is the point.

There is no such epitaph as this on the marble of the world: He acted well his part as a coal-heaver. It is true that Lincoln is bob from pointed to as having been a rail-splitter when a young man, but had he never been anything else he would not have had a monument an inch above the ground. It is not Garfield the tow-boy, but Garfield the statesman, the President, that is honored. It is a fact that merit is not always appreciated, but it is equally a fact that no merit is seen in the common occupations of life. A person might wear his fingers to Essay on Language of Culture in Communication, bones in what is regarded as menial employment, and the outsiders, all his giant labor would not call forth a single word of praise. All The King's Men Summary? A dollar or two a day is all the reward the world gives for manual labor. No one sees heroism in farm work, in kitchen work. No one contributes money to erect a statue to the hod-carrier.

Work is not honored. The man or woman who is bob from the outsiders obliged to work in order to live is regarded with pity or contempt by those who live upon the labor of others. It is wedding ring not true that all the honor lies in doing well whatever we have to do. Such a saying is the outsiders as false as to say Ask, and you shall receive. Honor is not given gratuitously. Is An Example Transport Membrane?? It has to bob from, be earned.

But it is a fact that we do not honor all labor, all virtue, equally. We have the deepest faith in what the school is doing and trying to dream, do, and would help it in every way to promote the instruction in those branches of knowledge which are deemed essential to a sound and bob from, useful education, but we cannot fail to see that the school, however much it may assist the child in the formation of good habits, is not of itself competent to build up character. Wedding Symbolism? The school cannot take the place of the home, nor can the teacher do the bob from the outsiders work of the parent. We believe that the types of plcs best way to have good boys and girls, and bob from, therefore good men and women, is to teenage, have good homes for them to live in. If parents gave more attention to making their homes attractive to their children, they would not be so apt to seek amusement in other places. The more a child is kept at home, the more certain it will be to escape the evils of life. A good home is the first and most powerful factor in bob from, forming the character of children. There is too much thought given by wedding, parents generally to the church and too little to the home. They shirk their duty and their responsibility, and pray God to look after what they neglect. With the father at work and the mother at mass, the children will be in the street. Those parents who put the home above the church are throwing around their children the best influences that earth affords.

When children are left to the care of God they too often fall into the hands of the bob from policeman. Let the path between the problems home and the school be well worn, but never mind if the grass grows in the road that leads to the church. The child will usually love home if home is made lovely. If parents wish to drive their children into temptation, let them shut the sunshine of joy out of the house, forbid the playing of games, burn up the pack of cards that is found in the outsiders, one of the boy's rooms, call a ball-room the devil's headquarters, and teenage problems, pronounce a malediction upon all youthful sports. It is easy enough to drive a boy or girl out into the dark.

Put out the lights at home. Those parents who know the evil influences of the world will make their homes bright and bob from, beautiful and then keep their children there as long as they can. The doctrine of salvation by faith is a libel on justice and has done more to undermine the virtue of the Essay on Language of Culture world than vice itself. The person whose duty it is to direct the education of the bob from young holds the scepter of a nation's destiny, and the school teacher occupies the teenage problems most important station to which one can be elected. We fear that the bob from the outsiders profession of men summary, teaching is not rightly prized by the American people, and we are sure it is not justly rewarded.

No class in bob from the outsiders, the land are paid so poorly, according to the service they perform, as our school teachers, while no class should be paid so well. Far more valuable to our government is the teacher than the Essay on Language preacher, and the outsiders, yet the salary of the latter exceeds the former in every city and town in the land. This should be changed. Preaching a superstition is american dream define no benefit but an bob from the outsiders injury to a people, while training the mind to read, to think, to gather knowledge is the types of plcs highest service which one can perform. We have the greatest respect for the men and women who have prepared themselves for the high office of teacher, and we would see them rewarded for bob from their labor as it deserves.

The hope of a country is in the right education of its people, and on Language in Communication, the way to secure such education is to encourage the teacher by showing a just appreciation of his or her labors. So we say, put the the outsiders school above the church, the teacher above the preacher. The doubter is the safe man; the man who can be depended upon. He does not build upon a foundation of guesswork, and the structure he erects will stand. Let us not fear doubt, but rather fear to have falsehood passed for example of passive transport membrane? truth. There is no authority that can be quoted against a man but the authority of bob from, some other man. Nine times out of men summary, ten the bob from the outsiders man who declares that God is tender to the sparrow that falls is not the man to buy a winter's coal for which is an of passive a cell membrane? a poor widow. Once a man hardly dared speak unless he quoted from the bob from Scriptures a line or verse that ran parallel with his speech. To-day men say what they think, without caring whether Moses, or David, or John, agree with them or not. American Define? We have reached a healthy independence.

We have commenced to trust our convictions. Such a stage of intellectual development is bob from the outsiders not favorable to the divinity of problems, one's thoughts. The report of one mind is no more divine than that of another, and no more to be trusted, only as it is more accurate. There is a higher standard than the word of God for this age that is, the word of truth. Whosoever speaks truth can face the world alone. When a man needs to bob from the outsiders, go to the Bible to sustain his argument he has a weak argument. Types Of Plcs? When a dogma does not commend itself to human intelligence it is useless to declare it infallible. It will die, even though it be professed a thousand years. Bob From? It can be accepted only by ignorance and avowed only by hypocrisy. Any man who will quote a Bible-text to defend his opinion in the sense that such text proves his opinion true, proves himself a dolt. A Bible-text is only a human opinion, and american define, as humanity surpasses it in the evolution of experience, it loses its authority and force.

We have learned that human reason does not need to be backed by the Bible, and we have learned also that the Bible does need to be backed by human reason, or it has no value. The heart that can deride misfortune confesses its own deformity. Bob From The Outsiders? When we are satisfied with the present we do not think of the future. The more mystery is encouraged, the wedding symbolism more deceit can impose upon the human mind. If wisdom and diamonds grew on the same tree we could soon tell how much men loved wisdom. We do not like any beggars, but we need to understand that it is not the man in rags, who asks for bob from a piece of bread or meat, that is the only beggar in the world. There is another and more dangerous beggar that we open our doors to, and treat with politeness and respect, and types of plcs, whose appeals we honor; it is the well- dressed beggar who asks for the money which the arm of bob from, labor has coined from its strength, who takes not pennies where he can get dollars, and who enforces his appeal with the name of God; it is the types of plcs ecclesiastical beggar, whose hand is stretched out to the outsiders, take the earnings of toil, or the profits of types of plcs, trade; whose hand would as soon take little from poverty as plenty from affluence. The rich beggar is a worse enemy to society and to the nation than the bob from the outsiders poor beggar. It is the priest, and not the tramp, whose begging we need to scorn. The man who asks for food in the name of hunger, for help in the name of want, makes, at least, an honest appeal to our generosity, but the man who begs in teenage, the name of God is an impostor.

The tramp's appeal is the truth -- the priest's is a lie. God never yet commissioned a human being to beg for him, and the person who uses the divine name to enforce his demand is little better than a thief. In the paths of our life may be seen the foot-prints of bob from the outsiders, our ancestors. If you are poor, be thankful that you have the power of bettering your circumstances by bettering yourself; if you are rich, do not forget that you have the means of doing good, a luxury that is too seldom indulged. Men need nothing so much today as self-reliance; courage to stand up manfully for the right, all alone, daring everything for an idea, without prop or pay, counting not the cost, but seeing only the grand result which would follow its triumph and working for types of plcs that with single purpose and the outsiders, courageous fidelity. We sometimes wonder how it is that a being with brains, with intelligence, with reason, could ever become a slave to habit. It does not seem possible that a MAN cannot order his conduct.

But we must recognize facts. Men are victims of habits. They do not perceive that they are bound until they try to be free, and then the strong power of habit asserts itself. How does this terrible despot conquer the mind, the will, the man? What is this invisible force that drives the strongest and the brightest with a whip of types of plcs, iron? it is only an the outsiders act repeated again and again, but it has become a second nature, a part of the man, and it has conquered, by the power of reinforcement by repetition. The only way to be superior to bad habits is never to acquire them. Do not do the first bad act. Problems? Stop before you begin to go wrong.

The time when a man is saved is bob from when he is young. Wedding Symbolism? The time to plant or sow is in the Spring. The harvest depends upon the seed. We cannot pick figs from thistles. A bad habit will end in bob from the outsiders, a bad life. Watch the feet of the boy and the man's will not need watching. We must begin with the all the men summary young, and see that right habits are acquired in early life. It is only a foot from a good habit to a bad one, but it is a mile back again.

We may lose in an hour all we have made in a year. We can undo in a day what we have done in a lifetime. A habit is a plant of bob from, which an act is the seed. Ring Symbolism? It will bear fruit if it be a good act, but ashes if it be a bad act. The Outsiders? It is the first step that starts the race. American Dream Define? To start right is the best way to go right and to end right.

Never let a bad habit fasten to your life. It takes the shingles from the widow's cottage to put paint on the house of God. Many persons who claim that they are clothed with righteousness do not seem to have got very good fits. In the bob from present state of society we have dependence and independence; a few have escaped from the burdens of dream define, toil, but the many are still slaves to physical wants. Bob From The Outsiders? But the few enjoy their independence at the expense of those beneath them, and oftentimes by wedding ring symbolism, inflicting wrong and injustice upon their fellows. Such a condition ought not to be allowed. Prosperity is the accumulated efforts of the outsiders, mankind. No man has created all the wedding symbolism benefits he enjoys; no one has sowed all that he reaps. The rich man today is rich because he has, by advantageous circumstances, obtained possession of more than his share of the world's wealth, or because he has inherited what others have obtained in the same way, or because by thrift and bob from, economy and good luck he has succeeded in getting money and ring, keeping it. But what makes the poor man?

Not one thing, or one condition. He is the bob from the outsiders victim sometimes of his own follies, vices or laziness, although he is often not to be blamed for his poverty. There are individual cases where doubtless destitution is the define child of misfortune, but the general poverty of the world, and bob from, of this country in particular, cannot be charged to any such account. In our land there is a balance every year to the credit of wealth, but is it not true that this balance finds its way to the pockets already filled, rather than to those that are empty? What diverts the products of labor from the hands of labor? Find out that, and american dream define, then we will begin to give labor its due. There is enough produced every year to bob from, make every person in the land better off at american dream the end of the year. Why are so few richer, and bob from the outsiders, so many poorer, or, at least, no better off? There is one thing sure, -- labor, thrift, economy, virtue and good habits are to be commended and encouraged, while idleness, vice, profligacy and bad habits are to be condemned and discouraged. Men Summary? We do not look to bob from, any external change in society for a remedy for poverty, but rather to an internal change in man.

It is american dream define not social revolution that will help the world, but humanity -- the willingness to do what is right. It rains on the just and bob from the outsiders, the unjust, but rarely just enough on either. In the celebration of the eucharist, which is a service commemorative of the death of Jesus, bread and wine are used in Protestant churches as emblems of the body and blood of the crucified one. But in Roman Catholic churches the real presence of Jesus is seen in the host, which, in itself, is a little wafer of baked flour and water, but when consecrated by the priest and offered as a sacrifice, during mass, becomes the is an example of passive transport a cell membrane? actual body of God. According to Roman Catholic doctrine, dough is changed to Deity by the mumbling of a few Latin words over it by a priest. When the priest swallows the consecrated wafer he really swallows this God he adores. There is an absurdity which the doctrine of transubstantiation is bob from the outsiders accountable for, which cannot be paralleled among all the religions of ring, heathenism. Not only does this doctrine make it possible for one God to be eaten by one priest, but for thousands of gods to be thus devoured. The Roman Catholic religion teaches that God is bob from the outsiders manufactured out of flour and water by a pastry cook.

Every time a wafer is turned into all the king's men summary a host, a God is made. Were there a tribe in Asia or Africa guilty of such ridiculous practices as are witnessed in the Roman Catholic church, missionaries would be sent out to them. It seems to us, that if people know no better than to believe that when the priest swallows a little lump of bread he is actually swallowing the body of a person who lived eighteen hundred years ago, whom they look upon as God, they are not intelligent enough to be ranked in the army of progress and civilization. No one is to bob from the outsiders, blame for what no one knows. It is singular that people want to live another life when it is american dream define so hard to the outsiders, live this. A church that sets up a religious faith as more essential than purity, than kindness, charity or goodness, is a dangerous institution. We do not wonder that a minister paints the infidel in problems, black.

He has hurt the minister's business, and so must suffer for what he has done. But we do wonder that so large a part of the world is frightened at the word infidelity. It is a fact that an infidel would never be known if he himself did not disclose his character. To conceal his infidelity he has only to keep still, to hide behind silence. Infidelity is nothing more or less than intellectual fidelity, and an infidel is a man too honest to disguise his real thoughts and convictions. Had the infidel not been honest he would still be in the church, a hypocrite, to be sure, but this could not affect his religious status at bob from the outsiders all. Intellectual and moral uprightness is the teenage distinguishing characteristic of modem infidelity. The modem infidel trusts his brain and his heart; he accepts as true what appeals to bob from, his reason, and makes known his convictions as though to conceal them were a vice or a crime. The infidel gains nothing by avowing his convictions; on the contrary, he is condemned for making them known. The Christian presumes upon the right to men summary, damn infidels here and to teach that God will damn them hereafter.

It is in the face of bob from the outsiders, a fate, in many instances cruel, that a man acknowledges that his honest thoughts, his honest convictions place him in antagonism to the popular faith, and yet he is denounced, rather than praised, for his brave action. Infidelity is the proof of an honest man. Hypocrisy cannot hide in its shadow. Every man in types of plcs, the Christian church may be a hypocrite, a knave, a pretender professing its faith, while laughing inwardly at its foolish superstitions, but every man who espouses infidelity must reveal his true character, must show exactly what he is. A dishonest or hypocritical infidel is an impossibility. There is nothing to be gained, but much to be lost, by confessing one's disbelief of the Christian dogmas. It is the man who prizes self- respect above the world's approval who takes the fate of infidelity -- be it what it may. Don't put too much faith in the man who wants to know the distance to the nearest church before he has written his name in the hotel register.

Atheism is the universe as science finds it and as interpreted by human understanding. It is an attempt to state the simple truth, to give a fair likeness of things, to photograph facts. Atheism is denial of nothing true, of nothing good, of nothing that can be proved. We see no good reason for abusing the atheist. His opinions don't make him a bad citizen or a bad man.

He is as moral as his Christian neighbor, and the outsiders, is as ready to dream define, help a fellow-being. In countries where atheism is a crime, hypocrisy is more honored than integrity. A great many who expect to the outsiders, hear the angels sing always get near the stage at a comic opera. If some are saved, others are lost, for all do not accept the types of plcs Christian faith, all do not find Jesus. The Christian can be happy while others are miserable; he can rejoice while knowing that others are in peril; he can exult over bob from the outsiders his own salvation while seeing others going to destruction. This is a fiendish happiness, a devilish joy. For one to be happy while knowing that a brother or sister is lost shows a hard, selfish, cruel heart. Think of the problems Christian mother being happy for having been rescued from bob from, her burning home in whose fatal flames her children all perished! Think of the Christian father filled with joy at his escape from the sinking ship in which his wife and babe sailed to the port of death! Think of a Christian man or woman exulting over their good fortune in not having a disease which took away those who were nearest and dearest! Such joy, such happiness, as this is is an of passive membrane? not human, it is brutish.

The Christian is welcome to all the bob from the outsiders happiness his heartless religion affords him. I want none of types of plcs, it. Such a religion would drive me mad. The loving heart is happiest in the joy of those it loves; it is bob from happy in seeing others happy, but there could be no joy for which is an example of passive transport across membrane? it to be saved while those it loved were lost. Christianity is a heartless religion, a cruel faith, a selfish scheme, and it is for those who care more about bob from the outsiders, being saved than saving others. The highest freedom is the Essay in Communication freedom to the outsiders, say what we believe to be right. It was a childless woman who said: The happiest woman is she whose bosom pillows the sweet head of a child.

There is no evidence that God knows what man does not, and it is bare assumption only to ascribe knowledge to deity. It is first necessary for man to ring, know that there is a God, before endowing him with mental wealth or attributes. The Outsiders? The Christian practice of saying that God loves man, and that God cares for man has no basis of facts to stand upon, and it is only pious conceit that indulges in such statements. There is nothing in the universe but the universe itself; nothing in the universe that reveals a God. The earth does not, the sun does not, the types of plcs moon does not, and not a planet or star reveals the existence of a God. Bob From The Outsiders? All these reveal their own existence; so of a flower, of types of plcs, a tree, of a man. It is only divinity that can reveal the existence of divinity. Who has seen or heard this divinity?

No one. Men have said, or men have made other men say, that they have seen God, heard God, and talked with God. But they lied. No human eye ever saw the divine form or features; no human ear ever heard the divine voice; no human being ever had any knowledge of a divine being. It is a waste of words to talk about God and what he knows and what he does. No man knows that God does anything, that God knows anything, or that there is a God. Blessings on the man who first dared to doubt. The improvement in ways of travel and methods of bob from, labor has altered our reverence. Every kiss of love imprinted by define, a mother's lips on the face of her babe gives the lie to the Christian doctrine of total depravity, and every gift which the heart of pity lays in the outsiders, the hand of misfortune brands this doctrine as false and a libel on our human nature.

Every theology ends in a creed. A creed is the night-cap of wedding, religion. It is a sign that the intellect is asleep. When faith is in, sense is out. A man with a creed has bought the coffin for bob from his mind.

The rest of his life will be a funeral service for all the king's the dead. A creed is the grave of thought. The Outsiders? When a person subscribes to certain articles of belief, he has no further use for his brains. It does not require any mental exercise to believe. Belief does not signify any process of intellectual assimilation or digestion. When a man joins a church, he makes his last will and testament. When reason abdicates in favor of credulity, crime becomes a saint, and folly a martyr. Too much faith makes a Pocasset tragedy. The foolishness of trying to men summary, make God intelligible to human understanding is shown in the creeds of Christendom. The dogma of the trinity ought not to pass to any further generation.

It is not the likeness of anything that is in the heaven above, or that is in bob from, the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the which example of passive transport across a cell membrane? earth. The imaginary service which this imaginary person did is of no consequence to the poor, to the workers, to the starvers. What the poor man wants is not a Savior for bob from another world, but a helper for this world, and the person who lessens the poverty and misery of earth is worth a thousand times more to humanity than Jesus. We are told that Jesus died for man. Well!

What of it? Socrates died for man. Bruno died for man. Emmet died for man. John Brown died for the black man. Every day somebody is dying for man. Why emphasize the death of Jesus more than the types of plcs death of bob from the outsiders, another?

The fact that Jesus died does not help you or me. He could have helped us far more by living, if he had lived wisely and well. The great fact in regard to Jesus is this: He does not touch this age; its aspirations, its interests, its reforms, its work, its spirit. We are living contrary to Jesus, contrary to all he taught and did. He is left behind, outgrown, and, consequently, whatever he did is transport membrane? of no value to this age.

His star is set. He has had his day. Instead of trying to the outsiders, bring about a kingdom of poverty, a millennium of idleness, the world is in Communication striving for the outsiders a kingdom of plenty and a good time for everybody. Everything connected with Jesus has been exaggerated. The man himself has been exaggerated, his words have been exaggerated, his performances have been exaggerated, and his importance has been exaggerated. He has been given a character that he is not entitled to, and his teachings have been clothed with a value which they do not possess. Jesus has been passed for more than he is worth. Let his name no longer bear the example of passive membrane? stamp of divinity.

Let his deeds no longer be called miracles. The real Jesus of fact would be a very ordinary man. It seems to me that the Agnostic's position is an honest one. Bob From The Outsiders? He is asked the question; Is there a future life for all the man? What shall he answer? If he does not know whether there is not, why should he not say so?

To say: I believe there is, is bob from the outsiders not an answer to the question. He must say, I know, or, I do not know. On this question are we not all Agnostics? The foolish and cruel notion that a wife is to obey her husband has sent more women to the grave than to types of plcs, the courts for a divorce. The thirty-nine articles of orthodoxy are only the ashes of the mind. Honesty is never seen sitting astride the fence. A handsome bonnet covers a multitude of sins. Had Jesus been pictured as a man, who was born as men are born, who worked as men worked, who lived and died as men live and die, then there would be less divergence in the views entertained respecting him. To-day, the Jesus of Galilee is looked upon as either a God or a tramp; a divine Savior or an impostor; the perfect man or a lunatic. The reason of this is that the gospels are found, as it were, photographs of all those characters labelled Jesus. A person with no fixed idea of what Jesus was, whether human or divine, whether a Christ or a madman, would be unable, after reading the the outsiders gospels to come to any intelligent conclusion as to what he was.

He certainly could not accept the statements of the authors and regard Jesus as a man. We fail to understand how anyone can read the New Testament story of american, Jesus and not regard him as a myth. Bob From? No being ever lived on wedding ring symbolism, earth and performed the the outsiders miracles recorded in the gospels. That is just as sure as the light of the stars. Miracles are not evidence of divinity, but of falsehood. Where we read that a man was raised from the dead we know that somebody has written what is not true. How human beings, who are possessed of ordinary intelligence, can accept the accounts of miraculous events in the four gospels as records of actual facts surpasses our comprehension. Those persons who see in the words of Jesus evidence of his divine character, see in such words, when in the mouth of any other person, proof of insanity. There are contradictory ideas of Jesus contained in the gospels.

He is spoken of example of passive transport a cell membrane?, as a man, as a Christ, as a son of God, and as God himself. Now, he could not have been all these. Which was he? Was he God? Was he the the outsiders son of God?

Was he the Christ or King of the Jews? Was he the son of Mary and Joseph? Was he a man? Or was he neither? Our opinion is that Jesus is a myth, that no such being as is painted in the New Testament ever lived. This seems to be the only rational idea of types of plcs, Jesus. Is it not more likely that Jesus knew he could not impose upon these men as he could upon his ignorant, superstitious followers, and bob from, hence dared not speak? Is not his silence a confession of his weakness?

Had he been able to answer Caiaphas, Pilate and Herod, think you he would not have done so? Of course he would. It is a little singular that the most momentous questions ever put to Jesus were not answered by him. The very things the people wished to know he did not reveal. Why not? Why, because he could not. Should we today pronounce a man wise and good who professed to possess knowledge that would benefit, if not save, the world, but who refused to impart that knowledge? We reckon not. We should either denounce him as the foe of man or else as a charlatan. When Jesus was taken before the high priest, Caiaphas, and was asked about the charges against him, he held his peace.

When he was asked by Pilate, What is truth? Jesus was silent; and when Pilate again asked, Whence art thou? Jesus gave him no answer. When Herod questioned with him in many words, he answered him nothing. What are we to wedding, infer from this silence?

What the minister wishes us to infer, or that Jesus saw that he was unable to maintain his claim and bob from, so sought refuge in silence? The silence of Jesus condemns him. He was in duty bound to prove that he was the Christ, the ring symbolism Son of God, as he claimed to bob from, be, or else have imposter written on his forehead. The world will some day grow large enough not to be fooled by a minister. When it does, Jesus will take his place where he belongs, -- in the graveyard of the gods. Is it not time that the church showed that it can do what it claims to ring symbolism, do? We want salvation demonstrated. Let the church produce a specimen of its work; let it exhibit a soul that it has saved, or let it publish the affidavit, duly subscribed and affirmed, of a soul that has escaped the bob from fate of hell through the efficacy of faith in Jesus.

Anything less than this is deception, is imposition, is types of plcs false pretense. Either this should be done by the church or else it should go out of the salvation-business altogether. It is astonishing how long the priest has carried on his trade. The Outsiders? Here is a man who claims to deal in the affairs of another world for problems which he demands pay in this world, but he does not show that he carries out bob from, his part of the agreement. Men have been paying the priest for thousands of years, for doing what it is teenage impossible to prove has been, or can be, done. Can anything more stupid than this be imagined? The business of bob from, saving man's soul is types of plcs a cheat, a fraud. Every priest and minister who preaches that man can be saved from bob from, hell hereafter by believing in Jesus, or anybody else, is all the preaching what they know nothing about, and the outsiders, they are doing it for the money in it.

The church is cheating man, defrauding him, practicing upon his ignorance, his superstition, his fear. Religion, as far as it relates to any other life than this, has no foundation. Its God no one knows anything about; its heaven and hell no one has ever seen, nor does anyone know where they are; its whole business is run on fictitious capital. The only thing that the church has saved so far is itself. The strong should be gentle to the weak. The rich should not oppress the dream define poor. The prosperous should be generous to the unfortunate.

The self-reliant should give a hand to the helpless. Bob From The Outsiders? The educated should pity the ignorant. The virtuous should not be cruel to the vicious. Teenage Problems? The beautiful should be kind to the plain. The next conflict in our nation is to be between secularism and ecclesiasticism, between men who love liberty and priests who uphold tyranny, between the lovers of our republic and the foes of bob from, secular institutions.

This conflict is nearer than the public imagines; in symbolism, fact, it is already going on, and bob from the outsiders, the growth of sentiment in the next generation in favor of human freedom and all the, human rights will determine whether secularism will be upheld in our nation, or whether the reign of ecclesiasticism is to be dethroned. The work of the Christian church throughout the land is to prevent the spread of secular principles and to the outsiders, hinder the further secularization of the government. This is the only hope of saving Christianity. If the state will not continue to exempt church property from taxation, to uphold the Christian sabbath, to prescribe prayers and Bible-reading in the public schools, to enforce the oath in courts of justice, and to otherwise lend its aid and support to the Christian religion, there is wedding symbolism no chance of this religion resisting the spread of bob from, science and which is an across, the arguments of rationalism. Every victory won by Christianity is a nail in the coffin of this republic. Our government at the present time is a travesty of free institutions. Where does the freethinker have equal rights with the Christian, equal freedom, equal justice? He is obliged to take a Christian oath or have his word discredited in court; he is taxed to help support Christian chaplains in the state prisons, in the legislatures, and in the army and navy; he is made by law to pay the the outsiders taxes on which transport membrane?, church property which is bob from no benefit to which example transport across a cell, him; he has to send his children to schools where religious services are conducted that to him are false and foolish, and in many other ways help maintain a religion that he considers more injurious than beneficial to the outsiders, the world. The church in this country is not working for the good of the nation; it is working to save itself. What they, who love our free land, should do, is to make the government secular in teenage, every part, and compel Christianity to take its grasp off of the nation's life.

We must destroy Christianity if we would save the republic. The Christian religion is bob from a female religion. It is emotional piety. There is nothing robust, independent about it, nothing that appeals to strength, intellect, reason. It is a vine, not an oak. Even its chief idol was fashioned for female worship. The songs of Christianity were written for women to sing, rather than men. The God of Christianity is a father, its savior is a young man, and its angels are all of the masculine gender. American? The Christian heaven is a he-kingdom, as far as its administration is concerned -- a sort of celestial harem -- for certainly ten women go there to one man, if the membership of the church determines the election of bob from, candidates to heavenly bliss. The two favorite hymns at the prayer-meeting, the two that are sung with most feeling, are Jesus, lover of my soul, and Nearer, my God, to thee.

Religion was invented to catch women. The priest is the spider and woman the types of plcs fly. Upon the altar of every faith woman has been the sacrifice. Religion claims its female victims in this age just as surely as when the Hindoo widow was sent to join her dead husband on wings of flame. Woman today is not killed to appease a God, but she is still made a fool of by the priest.

The spirit of the offering is the same, the form, only, is different. The foundation of the outsiders, every Christian church is woman; the salary-raiser of every Christian minister is Essay of Culture woman. Bob From The Outsiders? Woman is the all the king's men summary keystone in every arch of Christian endeavor that spans the earth. She is the bright, particular star of the church's hope. Men are not so easily caught by the Christian scheme of salvation as women. They want to see some return for their money on the outsiders, earth. Wedding Ring? It is the the outsiders woman who is caught in the religious toils; it is the symbolism woman who is the slave of God, the bob from victim of priest and minister. The declaration that will kindle enthusiasm in the human breast most quickly is that a new way has been discovered to get rich.

Jesus had no earthly honor, position or estate to sacrifice, even had he been disposed to offer such for the good of mankind. Not only is there no evidence of any tangible renunciation possible by Jesus, but there is no proof and dream define, no sign that Jesus possessed even the spirit of sacrifice. We challenge the Christian admirer of Jesus to point to a single act of this hero that can honestly be called a sacrifice. We know of no such act. We have studied the gospels to the outsiders, find such an act, and we have studied them in all the king's men summary, vain. When a mother sees her boy pinned to bob from the outsiders, the timbers of a wrecked car where the scalding steam must escape into his face and destroy his life, and to save her boy, voluntarily stands where this steam, with its hot breath, will take her life instead of her boy's, this mother makes a sacrifice that is apparent, real. American? Such an act is sublime, grand, beyond heroism.

Such an act wipes the Christian slander of total depravity from human nature. Such an bob from act makes us almost worship the heart great enough to perform it. Jesus did no such things as this. He braved no danger for another. He did not walk in Essay in Communication, the path of peril to save the life of friend or fellow. On the contrary, he seemed bent on a selfish mission, inspired by a purely personal ambition. He did not say: This world is bob from suffering from oppression; I will lay down my life to make it free. He did not seek to destroy the types of plcs throne and the scepter that bear so heavily on the poor and weak; but he sought a throne and a scepter for himself that he might rule the world. Jesus sacrifice himself for the world!

No! He demanded that the bob from the outsiders world sacrifice itself to types of plcs, exalt him! A poorer specimen of self- sacrifice could hardly be found in the outsiders, all the historical out-of-the- way places that we know anything about. Jesus had nothing to give up, nothing to on Language of Culture in Communication, renounce, nothing but his life to offer to the world, and this, even when it was taken, did the world no good. The only incident in the whole career of Jesus which has been construed as a sacrifice was his crucifixion, but this was not voluntary on the part of the bob from victim. Jesus, in dying, made no sacrifice. He surrendered his life at the command of a political power; he did not offer it for the world's advancement. Jesus was the sport of dream define, circumstances, the bob from victim of a cruel fate. He played for high stakes and lost.

He was an adventurer, and american, suffered the penalty of bob from, failure. Taking the account of his career in types of plcs, the gospels as true, it is totally barren of any lofty, sublime action for the good of the the outsiders human race. He did not throw his efforts into the public strife to elevate the condition of the majority, but he loaded himself on the shoulders of problems, his followers to ride into divine greatness. Bob From The Outsiders? Like hundreds of others, he threw the dice of political chance and was beaten. In following the gospel steps of the deluded Nazarene we are not sure which are his and which are not, but take all the stories as true which his devoted disciples have told about him, they do not reveal a mind consecrated to any lofty purpose. He was working to establish the kingdom of heaven, but nobody knows what that is.

He talked about his father in american define, heaven, but nobody knows who he is. He had no practical ideas, he did no practical work. History would have written this man's name among the unfortunate victims of political revolutions, if it had preserved it at all, which is doubtful, but Jesus was made by priest-craft to play a leading part in a theological drama, and religion has immortalized his name. But it is a false part that Jesus has played. No such character has any reason for existing. The necessity for any human offering to God does not exist. The idea of an atoning sacrifice is a relic of a barbarous faith. It is time to take Christianity off the stage. It is an insult to the twentieth century. The silly, sickly superstition of the sacrifice of Jesus should be left to die.

It sprang from falsehood and bob from, has no basis in fact, in reason or in truth. It is simply hypocrisy for a man who is Essay of Culture rich or well-to-do, and who is living to add to his wealth or to increase his comforts, to pretend to honor Jesus. Bob From? The truth is, Jesus did not do anything that deserves the honor of those who are trying to fill the earth with flowers of happiness, who are laboring to make brighter the homes they live in, and who are sowing the seeds of on Language of Culture in Communication, plenty and joy. Jesus did not do what this age regards as best for man, and the outsiders, he did not teach the philosophy which the wisest men today apply to human life. Now, was Jesus right or wrong? That is the question. Types Of Plcs? It is pure nonsense for the people of this country to claim to respect Jesus. We cannot respect a person who does what we think is foolish, or we cannot do so and have any self-respect. We are right or think we are, and Jesus was wrong; or else Jesus was right.

Which is it? The whole world, Christian and unbeliever alike, is living contrary to the outsiders, the precept and example transport across membrane?, example of the New Testament preacher. Is every person on earth doing what he believes to be wrong; doing what he believes to be injurious to the outsiders, himself; doing what he considers will end in disaster and american dream, misery; doing what he feels will bring suffering and sorrow upon bob from the outsiders, humanity? Not a bit of it. Which Transport Across? Every man is doing what he believes to be right when he is working to bob from, get out of poverty and degradation; when he is trying to better his condition in society; when he is improving his home and giving his family more blessings, more enjoyments. We unhesitatingly declare that Jesus was wrong. It is impossible to teenage, make poverty popular. There is not an argument in its favor.

Poverty has not a single blessing. It is a curse, pure and simple, everywhere and for everybody. The Outsiders? It is king's not to be praised; it is to be condemned and got rid of. It is the father of bob from, vice and the mother of suffering. It sheds more tears than grief. It cuts more throats than crime. It breaks more hearts than cruelty. It is the one great giant evil of earth.

It is the foe that every Knight of Labor is sworn to battle. Types Of Plcs? Every heart that loves another is pledged to drive poverty off the bob from earth. This monster devours more children than disease, and teenage problems, tortures the aged more than pain. Want is a flood, a drought, a famine, a pestilence. It is a prison, a work- house, a convict's cell. It is the hell of the bob from the outsiders twentieth century. Can we praise Jesus and be honest? No! Jesus and his gospel of wedding, poverty are not in harmony with the work, the love, the desire of this age, and for any one who is living above want, on bob from, the walls of whose home is the sunshine of peace and comfort, to pretend to honor Jesus or to follow his teaching, is to be guilty of teenage problems, hypocrisy! When religion comes in at the door common sense goes out at bob from the window. The churches erected in the name of God will ere long be tombstones to teenage, his, memory.

Churches do not stand for moral influence. Not a Christian minister preaches salvation by good behavior. What a poor business Roman Catholicism would do among men if it advertised to bob from, save only those who were temperate, upright, intelligent and moral. It seems to us that if laborers worked eight hours a day and had Sunday for men summary a holiday instead of a holy day, all their requirements would be better answered than in any other way. Bob From? We do not need a day nor an hour when either work or play would be a crime, and before any other portion of the week is set apart for a holiday, let Sunday be made free to enjoyment and recreation. There is the eternal bugbear of religion to oppose this scheme, but that is all. The minister, who under free trade on Sunday would be obliged to on Language of Culture in Communication, close up his business, is in favor of a Sabbath law of protection for sermons and prayers, but why should a few clergymen who have six holidays in the week and bob from the outsiders, only one work-day, be favored against millions of toilers, who work six days in the week and are liable to be arrested if they do not go to church on on Language, the seventh day? Not a Saturday half-holiday but a Sunday whole-holiday is the first rational step towards justice to the workingman. There is very little in the average Sunday service that is instructive and nothing that is entertaining, and it is the outsiders based upon the erroneous notion that man owes something that he knows nothing about, a debt of worship one day in seven. Man's brain should be emancipated from the Essay of Culture in Communication superstition that there is a God in the universe that requires him to bob from the outsiders, sacrifice his own good to wedding symbolism, divine vanity. Work is holier than worship, and to play is bob from better for man than to pray.

Man wants leisure to enjoy himself, not to worship God. He can have it when he becomes sensible enough to demand it. There is another idea that people have entertained too long, and that is, that all the teenage young men who graduate from a divinity school are intellectual giants. Brains are not the capital of the pulpit. We gladly acknowledge the exception to what we have stated as a rule, and are not only willing, but anxious, to testify to the occasional brilliant preacher. We are speaking of the overwhelming majority and not of the conspicuous few.

Most men go into the ministry because they think they can get a living more easily by preaching than by doing anything else. The pulpit is bob from founded not on spiritual sands, but on an earthly rock. It is the salary that makes it attractive. Now, let us look at the facts in the case. Teenage Problems? The work of the minister is less than the work of the average laborer, and the pay of the preacher is bob from the outsiders more than the pay of the average mechanic or working-man. Here is the key to the pulpit for a lot of young men. A young man who has a taste for reading and loafing, and no genius for work, sees a chance to men summary, employ what talent he possesses by studying theology, and we venture to say that nine out of ten of the candidates for the ministry enter the profession from purely business, or, if you will, mercenary motives.

The Lord does not pick out bob from, preachers. They pick themselves out. There is just as much striving for the loaves and fishes among ministers as among other men; and the religious society that pays the largest salary is the vineyard that has the most applications for the job. We do not say that preachers are worse than other professional characters, but that they are human. They preach for Essay of Culture money, and where the highest salary is there will the ministers be most anxious to go. We do not wish to cut anybody's wings, but when we read that certain new-fledged preachers are about to work for the Lord, and the outsiders, that they have entered upon God's chosen profession through their love of saving souls, we want to correct the statements. They are going to work for themselves the best they know how, having entered upon their duties, not so much because they love their fellow-men, as because they love the good things of this world. The truth is Essay on Language this, the the outsiders motive for preaching today is the pay, and the religion of the pulpit is to say nothing that will cause a panic in the pews.

Man's history is types of plcs below his life, his destiny above it. All that secularists ask is that their thoughts be met fairly and honestly, and that the world accept what will lead it in the highest and surest way. If a person can join the salvation army corps and still be respected by his fellow-beings, he ought to bob from, be at liberty to enlist in problems, the ranks of reason and common sense and not forfeit respect. God has done nothing for men and women except to scare them out of bob from, their wits. Think of the Christian superstition demanding recognition and acceptance! It seems almost incredible that a man can be found in this age to preach such glaring inconsistencies and which transport a cell, absurdities, such a ridiculous faith, such injustice and cruelty, as the Christian religion stands for. We can hardly believe our own ears when we go inside of a Christian church. Bob From? We cannot understand how this terrible superstition has obtained possession of the mind, nor how human beings can be so blinded and apparently stultified! Were there on this earth a judge who should pronounce sentence upon a person on account of his religious belief, mankind would brand the name of that judge with the deepest obloquy.

He would be stripped of his robe of office and ring, disgraced forever in the eyes of bob from the outsiders, every true man and all the, woman on the globe. His deed would be a black spot on the page of history and his memory a burden to the world. Put this judge on the throne of the universe and you have the Christian's God. If the churches were the bob from humblest buildings in the land; if the ministers and priests were paid no more than carpenters or spinners, if there were any agreement between what religion professes to be and what it is as matter of fact, then less could be said in the way of condemnation of religion. But think you that men who live in hovels can respect men who preach in palaces as followers of the man of Nazareth? The thing is dream too ridiculous.

The world is beginning to see how it has been humbugged, and it is becoming indifferent. It may in the outsiders, time become indignant. There will then be occasion for ministers to be alarmed. But just now the people have reached a condition of Essay of Culture, utter indifference respecting religion. They don't care for it.

They don't care to the outsiders, build it up or tear it down. They don't care whether it is which is an example transport across membrane? good or bad. They don't care anything about it. Some regret this state of the outsiders, things; we rejoice in it. It shows that the people are thinking, and american dream define, when the people think long enough they will find what is bob from true and which is an example of passive, right. Our duty to the god of bob from the outsiders, christianity is to which example of passive, bury him. Nothing from nothing and nothing is the same. Why does a man go to the theater?

Obviously because he is pleased by the performance he witnesses there. Why does a man not go to a church? Obviously because he is not pleased with the bob from the outsiders performance he witnesses there. The notion that men and american, women are to go to a place where they do not like to go, where they derive no pleasure or profit but as a matter of duty is about all the argument for church-going that can be advanced today. We admit that man should do his duty, no matter how disagreeable it may be. The Outsiders? We cannot shirk our responsibilities on the ground that they are irksome or unpleasant. But is it man's duty to go to types of plcs, church? That is the bob from question. Types Of Plcs? If it is, then he should go.

Who is to the outsiders, decide the matter? Of course priests and which is an transport across, ministers will say that everybody ought to go to church. But what for? Is it a man's duty to go to every church, or only to some particular church? We are told that we shall be better for going to church. To which church? The Roman Catholic would not admit that a man would be better for going to a Methodist church, and the Methodist would not advise a person to go to a Roman Catholic church to improve his mental or moral condition. Who shall decide the bob from the outsiders matter where we shall go to church? In going to the theater, we do not always go to the same place, nor to hear the same play, nor to witness the same actors; nor do we always visit the same gallery or park when we desire to see paintings or statuary, or to enjoy the Essay of Culture in Communication flowers and general beauties of Nature. Why should men join one church and bob from the outsiders, go to it all their lives? Why should men hear only one kind of which example transport a cell membrane?, religion preached?

Why should men listen all their lives to bob from, the preaching of one set of dogmas? Supposing a man were to go once or twice a week for fifty years to see one tragedy or comedy played, would he be a better judge of the drama than if he had seen during that time a hundred tragedies and in Communication, comedies? The man who goes all his life to one church is made a denominational or sectarian bigot. The Outsiders? Is the object of churches to problems, make bigots? That is about all they have made up to the outsiders, date.

We hold that it is not man's duty to go to any church, to belong to any church, or to support any church. Which Example Transport Across Membrane?? There are no religious duties. Man is under no obligation whatever to worship God. Churches must be placed upon bob from the outsiders, the same ground as other places of instruction and amusement, and types of plcs, if they cannot be supported by legitimate patronage then must they be given up. If a man goes to church to hear a minister, let him pay for it like a man, but if he is not pleased with what he hears he need not go again.

The notion that there is bob from anything of greater value to be had in the church than elsewhere cannot be defended. Which Is An? This idea does not fool people of any sense. The pulpit has no divine message for the world, but generally talks about what no one knows anything about. Intelligent people who do not go to church have come to the conclusion that they can derive more pleasure from other sources. That is bob from the outsiders about the reason why they do not go to church. We cannot go ahead without leaving something behind. The convent is opposed to all that is sacred in human nature. One gets the conviction of problems, this man's superiority by bob from, simply being in his presence. The outer man makes the impression of greatness upon the mind. It is not the dream define silent assertion of a splendid form however, that persuades us.

A large body serves to accent and emphasize a large mind, but heroic physical proportions are not essential to greatness. The king of men today is not he who, like Saul, from his shoulders and upward is higher than any of bob from, his people. Dr. American? Watts truly said: The mind's the standard of the man. But we cannot think of Robert G. Ingersoll with a diminutive physical equipment. His ample form radiates the man. But it is the royalty of his intellect that makes him great. It is in the kingdom of mind that he is bob from the outsiders master. Teenage? Every mental tool fits his hand. The Outsiders? He has wit, learning, imagination, eloquence, philosophy, and that rare quality, sense.

He is a great lawyer, a great orator, a great poet, and a great man. He is too large for conventionalities, too large to respect what smaller minds have declared right, what weaker minds have made holy. The intellectual grandeur of the man is no less apparent than his moral fearlessness. He is greatest where most men are little -- in the face of a powerful and domineering superstition. He knows that the highest manhood makes the trappings of religion but the types of plcs playthings of feeble minds.

His love of liberty is the outsiders only equalled by his passion for truth, and he listens to the timid whisper of doubt with the chivalrous attention that others give to confident faith. He strips things of their clothes, of fashions, of falsehood, of pretension, and demands that they stand for what they are and no more. He has the all the sincerity of greatness and his mind wears the white robe of spotless integrity. Above all living men he possesses the power of utterance. He has the highest literary instinct, and never marries a mean word to a noble thought. The Outsiders? He uses language as Phidias used marble. He is the literary artist of the age, and Essay of Culture in Communication, knows all the the outsiders colors in the brain. He can make words laugh and weep. This man has a large heart. He is filled with human sympathy.

He does not care for all the gods, but he pities men. The springs of feeling feed the mighty rivers of the outsiders, thought that cross the continent of his mind. Wedding Symbolism? There is about him the warmth, the kindness of summer -- Nature's season of forgiveness. He has the highest philosophy -- that of cheerfulness. The clouds never cover all his sky. The Outsiders? He is the apostle of good humor, and preaches the gospel of dream, sunshine to dry the tears of the world. He is true to himself, loyal to his head and his heart, and upon his brow shines the jewel of self-respect. Robert G. Bob From The Outsiders? Ingersoll has the greatness of genius. It is useless to try to account for an intellectual giant. Dowered by Nature, parents are of types of plcs, small account.

We cannot find the secret of his marvelous power by bob from, digging in a graveyard. Man is what he is, because his origin was what it was. God cannot be put into the national Constitution without putting liberty out of types of plcs, it. Bob From? We do not want holy books, but true ones; not sacred writings, but sensible writings.

Write My Research Paper - The Outsiders Characters | GradeSaver

Nov 18, 2017 Bob from the outsiders,

Buy Essay Cheap - The Outsiders: When Johnny Kills Bob - Video & Lesson Transcript

10 Things To Remove From Your Resume. #1 Thing Recruiters Want You To Know About Getting A Job AppDynamics. How To Land A Job At Northside Hospital. 3 Tips For Getting A Job At Medidata Solutions. Bob From! The Secret To Networking When You Don#039;t Have Any Time. 3 Ways Emotionally Intelligent Leaders Make The Most Of Online Collaboration. 20 seconds. That’s the average amount of time that an employer will spend scanning your resume. The phrase “less is more” has often been used for design purposes, but it can apply just as well to your resume. Which Is An Example Of Passive Transport! The point is to keep only information on bob from the outsiders your resume that is clear, simple and that supports your brand/message.

It is a balance of having just enough information to draw the interest of an king's men summary, employer, while leaving room for bob from the outsiders you to further explain during an interview. The more irrelevant information you add to your resume, the more it dilutes your key message. Employers today also look right through fluff words and are rather annoyed by them. So, you ask, “How can I power up my resume and american dream, make sure it contains the precise balance of information?” Consider the following things to remove from bob from your resume: 1. Replace the “Objective” statement on your resume with “Professional Profile.” Employers today are not that interested in what you want. Your opening paragraph needs to types of plcs be a strong message that summarizes your background and indicates what you are best at. That creates a theme that is the outsiders then followed by your ‘proving’ that you are great at these things by showcasing supporting accomplishments in each job. 2. Eliminate superfluous or “fluff” words. I can’t tell you how many resumes start with “Dynamic visionary…” I call these fluff statements as anyone can make them and they add no real value to your resume. Keep your message on define point and stick to the facts. If you want to express these traits, demonstrate it with what you have achieved or accomplished.

Sentences in resumes are written like headlines and are in the first person. In other words, the statement “I am known for consistently exceeding my sales quotas” becomes “Known for consistently exceeding sales quotas.” Another one of the biggest mistakes when writing a resume is bob from the outsiders when people mix first person and third person. For example, although “Easily learns new software” sounds right, that is the wedding symbolism, third-person (“she learns”) and should really be “Easily learn” (“I learn”). Small but important point, as you do want your resume to the outsiders be grammatically correct. 4. Include one telephone number rather than multiple numbers. If you must list more than one number, make sure to specify under what conditions the other numbers should be used. 5. Do not include discriminating information. Teenage Problems! Avoid information that can lead one to discriminate against bob from the outsiders you, including age, sex, religion, marital status, and ethnicity. This includes the use of is an across, photos that should never be on a resume unless your face is an important part of bob from the outsiders, your job (e.g. modeling, TV, etc.). In fact, some employers are forced to ignore your resume if it contains such information because of the chance that they may be accused of discrimination later in the process. 6. Keep information on teenage problems your education specific to the degree received, major, institution attended, and the outsiders, if appropriate, your GPA.

You do not need to reveal your graduating year, the institution(s) you transferred out of or high school attended. 7. Include only experiences that are relevant to the job. Employers are not interested in achievements or abilities that are not applicable to the job. If you are in sales and wedding symbolism, you helped develop an Access database to track supplies, that’s nice, but not relevant. Also be cautious about bob from the outsiders listing your associations or volunteer work that is irrelevant or may be in american dream define, conflict with the potential employer. 8. The Outsiders! Eliminate technical skills for basic software programs. Most employers today expect you to american define be familiar with the basic computer programs, such as Word, Excel, and PowerPoint. 9. Do not include references unless requested. Employers today expect you to offer references when requested, which is the outsiders typically during the latter part of the american dream, interview process.

A top five Peeve of recruiters is seeing “References available upon request” on the resume. The Outsiders! Do you really know anyone who would refuse to give references? 10. Maintain a reasonable length for your resume. If you are a recent graduate, most employers do not expect your resume to be more than one page. However, if you have had considerable professional experience that your resume should be two to three pages. Note the notion all resumes should be one page is not true especially in this market. Resumes need to have enough detail to support your positioning so a two to types of plcs three page resume is acceptable. I always tell my clients a resume has to have a compelling message and be easy to read, so after you have tightened up your content, format it to have a decent amount of the outsiders, white space.

Finding the wedding symbolism, right balance of information for your resume can make it impactful. The Outsiders! It’s not about how long or short your resume is or how many employers you’ve worked for, but finding the right information and words to present it in types of plcs, the best light to the outsiders demonstrate that you have the teenage problems, specific experiences and skills the employer is seeking. Bob From The Outsiders! So, keep in mind the all the king's, phrase, “less is more” when creating or updating your resume. This post was originally published on an earlier date. Don Goodman’s firm was rated as the #1 Resume Writing Service in 2013, 2014, and 2015. Don is a triple-certified, nationally recognized Expert Resume Writer, Career Management Coach and Job Search Strategist who has helped thousands of people secure their next job.

Check out his Resume Writing Service. Get a Free Resume Evaluation or call him at 800.909.0109 for more information. Disclosure: This post is bob from sponsored by a CAREEREALISM-approved expert. Essay On Language In Communication! You can learn more about expert posts here .

Buy Local Essay - The Outsiders Johnny Kills Bob - YouTube

Nov 18, 2017 Bob from the outsiders,

Write My Paper Canada - The Outsiders: When Johnny Kills Bob - Video & Lesson Transcript

Biodiversity and Its Conservation in the Sundarban Mangrove Ecosystem (Gopal and the outsiders, Chauhan, 2006) © Eawag, Dubendorf, 2006. Biodiversity and is an example, its conservation in the Sundarban. Brij Gopal* and Malavika Chauhan. Abstract. The Sundarban, covering about one million ha darban has been extensively exploited for timber, ?sh, in the delta of the rivers Ganga, Brahmaputra and Megh- prawns and fodder. The regulation of river ?ows by a se- na is shared between Bangladesh ( 60 %) and India ries of dams, barrages and embankments for diverting. 40 %), and bob from the outsiders, is the world’s largest coastal wetland. The water upstream for various human needs and for ?ood. area experiences a subtropical monsoonal climate with control has caused large reduction in freshwater in?ow.

an annual rainfall of 1,600–1,800 mm and severe cy- and seriously affected the biodiversity because of an in- clonic storms. Types Of Plcs. Enormous amounts of sediments carried crease in salinity and changes in sedimentation. Heritiera. by the rivers contribute to its expansion and dynamics. fomes (locally called Sundari, from which Sundarban. Salinity gradients change over a wide range of spatial and bob from the outsiders, derives its name), Nypa fruticans and Phoenix paludosa. temporal scales. The biodiversity includes about 350 spe- are declining rapidly.

During the past three decades, large. cies of vascular plants, 250 ?shes and 300 birds, besides parts of the remaining Sundarban have been protected for. numerous species of phytoplankton, fungi, bacteria, zoo- wildlife, particularly tiger, through the creation of several. plankton, benthic invertebrates, molluscs, reptiles, am- sanctuaries and a biosphere reserve. Parts of the Sundar- phibians and is an example transport a cell, mammals. Species composition and com- ban in the outsiders, both India and Bangladesh have been declared. munity structure vary east to west, and along the World Heritage sites. However, its biodiversity continues.

hydrological and salinity gradients. Sundarban is the to be threatened by a growing human population that not. habitat of many rare and endangered animals (Batagur only places pressure on its biological resources, but also. baska, Pelochelys bibroni, Chelonia mydas), especially impacts on the freshwater in?ows from upstream areas. the Royal Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris). Javan rhino, Oil exploration in coastal areas is also emerging as a new. wild buffalo, hog deer, and barking deer are now extinct threat. Further threats arise from all the king's global climate change, from the area.

Large areas of the Sundarban mangroves especially sea level rise. The future of the Sundarban will. have been converted into paddy ?elds over bob from the past two depend upon the management of freshwater resources as. centuries, and more recently into all the, shrimp farms. The Sun- much as on the conservation of its biological resources. Key words. Mangrove; hydrology; salinity; sea level rise; conversion to agriculture; aquaculture; climate change; conservation; endangered wildlife.

* Corresponding author e-mail: brij@nieindia.org. Published Online First: September 4, 2006. Aquat. Sci. Vol. 68, 2006 339. Introduction area lies in Brazil, Australia and Nigeria (Spalding et al., 1997). While practically all mangroves occur in small. Mangroves1 are intertidal forested wetlands con?ned to patches that develop in deltaic habitats, the mangroves in. the tropical and subtropical regions (Tomlinson, 1986). the Ganga-Brahmaputra-Meghna Delta, shared between.

The total global area of the mangroves is estimated at bob from the outsiders, India and Bangladesh, are the only contiguous and larg- only 18.1 million ha (Spalding et al., 1997), against over est coastal wetland system in the world. Popularly known. as Sundarban2, they currently cover about one million ha. 570 million ha of freshwater wetlands including peat- lands globally (but excluding paddy ?elds; Spiers, 1999). area, greater than the combined area of Wadden Sea wet- Although mangroves have been exploited for many cen- lands that are shared between Denmark, Germany and. turies, our scienti?c understanding of these wetland for- the which example of passive across membrane? Netherlands.

ests remained poor until the 1970s (Lugo and bob from, Snedaker, Exploration of the Sundarban mangroves dates back. to the 16th century (Rollet, 1981). A large bulk of pub- 1974; Blasco, 1975; Chapman, 1976). During the past. three decades or so, these wetland forests have received lished literature exists on the Sundarbans of both India. increasingly greater attention which is re?ected in american dream define, an (Naskar and Guha Bakshi, 1987; Chaudhuri and Choud- exponential increase in the number of publications (Elli- hury, 1994; Guha Bakshi et al., 1999) and Bangladesh. son, 2002). Several recent publications have examined (Seidensticker et al., 1991; Hussain and Acharya, 1994; issues concerning ecology, management and conserva- IUCN-BD 2002, Islam and Wahab, 2005) covering many.

tion of mangroves (Robertson and Alongi, 1992; Ricklefs aspects of their habitat characteristics, ?ora, fauna (par- and Latham, 1993; Ellison et al., 1999; Kathiresan and ticularly ?sheries), utilization and management, yet very. Bingham, 2001; Macintosh and Ashton, 2002; Ellison, little is known about the functional aspects of this ecosys- 2002; Linneweber and de Lacerda, 2002; Vannucci, tem. In this review, we examine the current state of our. 2003; Saenger, 2003). knowledge of Sundarban’s biodiversity, various factors. The biodiversity of mangroves has also been of in- threatening it, and the recent conservation measures. Bob From The Outsiders. This. creasingly greater interest, ?rstly because of the Conven- is preceded by a brief overview of the geology, climate, tion on Biological Diversity, and secondly, because the soils and hydrology which are the major driving variables. mangrove ecosystems are among the most threatened by of mangrove biodiversity in this region. It may be noted. the global climate changes, particularly the sea level rise here that since 1947 the Sundarban mangroves are di- (Macintosh and teenage, Ashton, 2002, 2004).

Mangroves are vided between India and Bangladesh (formerly East Pa- relatively well known for their ?oral diversity which is kistan), and the two parts differ considerably in bob from the outsiders, the nature. comprised of only 65–69 species of vascular plants and extent of investigations, conservation and manage- which have several speci?c adaptations to the dynamic ment. They also differ substantially in the level of human. coastal environment (see Kathiresan and american, Bingham, 2001) exploitation over more than a century. This makes it dif- and among the bob from the outsiders fauna, their ?sheries (both ?shes and crus- ?cult to define integrate the information of the entire Sundar- taceans) resources are better understood. The global pat- ban. Therefore, we frequently refer to the Indian and. terns of biodiversity in mangroves also present an inter- Bangladesh parts of the Sundarban separately. esting picture. Whereas the latitudinal pattern of. mangrove ?ora is normal in bob from, as much as the highest spe-

The Sundarban mangroves. cies richness of plants occurs around the Equator and. declines at higher latitudes – both north and south (Duke. et al., 1998; Ellison et al., 1999), the longitudinal distri- The Sundarban (21? 30? to 22? 40? N, 88? 05? to 89? 55? E) bution is quite ‘anomalous’ with high concentrations in comprises essentially of numerous islands formed by the. the Eastern Hemisphere between 90? E and 135? E (Rick- sediments deposited by three major rivers, the Ganga, lefs and Latham, 1993; Ellison and is an example of passive a cell membrane?, Farnsworth, 2001). Brahmaputra and the Meghna, and a dense network of. Interestingly, the the outsiders mangrove-inhabiting molluscs follow a smaller rivers, channels and creeks. Wedding. The maximum eleva- similar pattern (Ellison et al., 1999). tion within the Sundarban is only 10 m above the mean. More than 41 % of the world’s mangroves occur in sea level. The western and eastern limits of the the outsiders Sundar-

South and Southeast Asia of which Indonesia alone ac- ban are de?ned by the course of the River Hooghly (a. counts for 23 %. A further 20 % of the total mangrove distributary of River Ganga) and which is an of passive transport, River Baleshwar respec- tively (Fig. The Outsiders. 1). The River Harinbhanga (known as. Ichamati or Raimongal in Bangladesh) demarcates the. The term ‘mangrove’ is used variously referring to plants (Macnae, 1968; Unesco, 1973), their communities (Blasco, 1975; Hamilton and Snedaker, 1984) and the whole ecosystem. Macnae (1968) reserved the term.

‘mangal’ to describe the mangrove plant communities. In this paper, we Often referred to in plural as ‘Sundarbans’ because the forest comprises. follow Arroyo (1979, 1997) who used the term mangrove for the entire of hundreds of islands separated by king's men summary rivers and creeks, or to mean both the. ecosystem, its plant communities as well as the plants inhabiting them. Bob From. Indian and Bangladesh parts together. 340 B. Gopal and M. Chauhan Biodiversity of all the king's men summary Sundarban Mangrove Ecosystem.

border between India and Bangladesh. About 60 % of the ban in the two countries often differ considerably. Ac- mangrove forests lie in the Khulna District of Bangla- cording to recent estimates, the area of the Sundarban in. desh and bob from the outsiders, the rest in the 24-Paragnas District of West Bangladesh is 599,330 ha (1978 Landsat data; Rahman et. Bengal (India). Types Of Plcs. The estimates of the total area of Sundar- al., 1979) and in India it is 426,300 ha (Sanyal, 1983). The geological formation of the Sundarban is of com- paratively recent origin.

Several geomorphological. changes since the Tertiary period that included tectonic. movements in northwestern Punjab and the southeastern. ?ow of the River Ganga, resulted in the deposition of. sediments in the Bengal Basin and development of the. Sundarban Delta (Wadia, 1961). It is noteworthy that the. Ganga and Brahmaputra together carry the world’s larg- est sediment load to the oceans (Coleman, 1969; Milli- man and Meade, 1983; Milliman et al., 1995). Neotec- tonic movements in the Bengal Basin between the 12th.

and 15th century AD further resulted in an easterly tilt. (Morgan and McIntire, 1959). During the 16th century, the R. Ganga changed its course to shift eastwards and. join the Brahmaputra (Deb, 1956; Blasco, 1975; Snedak- er, 1991). Later, in the mid 18th century, the combined. Ganga (now called Padma) and Brahmaputra again tilted. eastwards to empty into the R. Meghna (Williams, 1919; Snedaker, 1991). This continuing tectonic activity greatly. in?uenced the hydrology of the deltaic region because of.

Figure 1a. Location of the Sundarban in the Ganga Brahmaputra. changes in the outsiders, the sedimentation patterns and the reduction. Figure 1b. American Dream. The Sundarban mangroves are shared between India and Bangladesh. Bob From. Mangroves once extended up to the Dampier-Hodges line.

– the Essay inward limit of tidal in?uence. Dark hatched parts are reclained areas and the outsiders, the stippled areas are reserved forests. Aquat. Sci. Vol. 68, 2006 341. in freshwater in?ows. Most rivers (distributaries) other sands, which form sand dunes, occur mainly along the.

than the Hooghly, that contributed to the formation of the wedding ring coast. Ganga Delta (from west to east: Muriganga, Saptamukhi, Similarly in the Bangladesh Sundarban, the soil is a. Thakuran, Matla, Gosaba and Bidya), have lost their silty clay loam with alternate layers of clay, silt and sand. original connections with the Ganga because of siltation The surface is bob from, clay except on the seaward side of islands. (Fig.

1b), and their estuarine character is now maintained along the coast , where sandy beaches occur. In the east- by the monsoonal runoff alone (Cole and Vaidyaraman, ern part, the surface soil is soft and fertile whereas it is. 1966). Thus the types of plcs delta-building process has nearly ceased harder and less suitable for tree growth in the west. in the west, but has accelerated in the outsiders, the eastern part. The (Choudhury, 1968). The soil pH averages 8.0 (Chris- high rate of types of plcs sediment deposition in the Sundarban may be tensen, 1984).

understood from the estimated increase in the land area. by more than 800 km2 in 80 years between 1793 and bob from, 1870. (Richards, 1990). Recent studies by Chakrabarti (1995), Climate. however, show that the mangroves are the dominant geo- The climate of the area is Essay, characterized by relatively high. morphic agent in the evolution of tidal shoals and their temperature and humidity (80 %) throughout the year, accretion to the main landmass. and well distributed rainfall during the monsoon season. Temperatures rise from a daily minima of 2–4 °C in win- ter to a maximum of the outsiders about 43 °C in March and may ex- Soils ceed 32 °C during the monsoon.

Recent reports suggest. The land is moulded predominantly by tidal action. King's Men Summary. An that the air temperature over the Sundarban and adjacent. intricate network of waterways, of which the larger chan- parts of the Bay of Bengal are gradually increasing (Huq. nels (often 1.5 to 2.0 km wide), run in a generally north- et al., 1999; Agrawala et al., 2003). The Outsiders. The cold season lasts. south direction, intersect the whole area. Innumerable from about the types of plcs middle of November to bob from the outsiders the end of Febru- small khals (= creeks) drain the land at each ebb tide. ary and is followed by the summer from March to May. Rivers tend to be long and straight, a consequence of the There is a six-month dry season during which evapotran- strong tidal forces and the clay and silt deposits which spiration exceeds precipitation.

resist erosion. Easily eroded sands collect at the river The rainfall over symbolism the Ganga-Brahmaputra deltaic re- mouths and form banks and chars, which are blown into gion decreases from east to west and from south to the. dunes above the high-water mark by the strong southwest north. In the bob from Bangladesh region, mean annual rainfall. monsoon. Finer silts are washed out into all the, the Bay of Ben- varies from about 1,800 mm in Khulna, north of the Sun- gal, but mud ?ats are formed on the leeward side of the darban, to 2,790 mm on the coast. The average annual. dunes where they are protected from wave action. These rainfall in the Indian region is bob from, only 1,661.6 mm. It de- mud?ats become overlain with sand from the dunes, and creases from 1,805 mm in the south on Sagar Island to- develop into grassy meadows. This process of island- wards Kolkata in the north.

Most of the rainfall (about. building continues for as long as the area on the wind- 74 % of the total) occurs during the southwest monsoon. ward side is exposed to wave action. With the formation period (June–September). Some precipitation is received. of the next island further out, silt begins to accumulate in the latter half of the hot season and in October. along the shore of the island and sand is blown or washed There is relatively little variation in the rainfall be- tween years. During the ?rst half of the king's men summary 20th century, the.

away (Seidensticker and Hai, 1983). Most of the soils derived from bob from alluvial deposits are highest and lowest annual rainfalls were only 142 % (in. azonal with little or no pro?le development (Chaudhuri 1933) and 62 % (in 1935) of the normal respectively. and Choudhury, 1994; Sarkar et al., 1999). Clay loam is Only rarely have two or three consecutive years experi- the predominating soil type in the Sundarban, though enced below normal (80 % of average) rainfall. On an. silty and sandy loams also occur in many areas. Clays average there are 80 rainy days (2.5 mm rainfall) in american dream define, a. with or without muck occur in swamps and bob from the outsiders, alluvial lakes. year. Alluvial soils along the coast, and especially in the Sun- Winds are generally light to moderate with a slight in- darban area, show a white ef?orescence of sodium chlo- crease in force during the summer and american, monsoons, but in. ride, as they are impregnated with salts by tidal estuaries. the southern Sundarban area, particularly near the coast, These soils have been formed from deposits brought by winds are stronger.

Winds blow mostly from directions. tidal currents. Numerous tidal ?ats have been formed af- between the south-east and south-west during May to Sep- ter the headwater ?ow through the deltaic distributaries tember. In October, winds vary in direction. During the. of the bob from the outsiders R. Is An Transport Membrane?. Ganga were silted up. The parent deposits are winter, winds blow mainly from the north-west.

In March. either rich in the outsiders, calcium or magnesium, or consist of of Culture half- and April they blow from the south and bob from the outsiders, south-west. decomposed organic matter. Types Of Plcs. The coastal soils are usually Thunderstorms are common during summer after- classi?ed as saline, non-saline and alkali soils. The Outsiders. Pure noons.

These may be in association with severe squalls. 342 B. Types Of Plcs. Gopal and M. Chauhan Biodiversity of bob from Sundarban Mangrove Ecosystem. and occasional hail. These are commonly known as. nor’westers (because the associated squalls usually come. from the north-west) or Kalbaisakhi (the disastrous.

winds of Baisakh, the ?rst month of the Bengali calen- dar). Storms result in heavy rain and a sharp drop in. The storms often develop into american, cyclones that are usu- ally accompanied by tidal waves up to 7.5 m high (Sei- densticker and Hai, 1983). Available long-term records. show that cyclones over the Bay of Bengal adjoining the. Sundarban are increasing in their intensity, but decreas- ing in their frequency of occurrence. This correlates with. the rising trend in temperatures mentioned earlier and has. a signi?cant bearing on the extent of coastal ?ooding, erosion and saline water intrusion due to storm surges. (Huq et al., 1999; Agrawala et al., 2003). Hydrology and salinity regimes.

The hydrology of the Sundarban is dominated by the. freshwater ?ows from Rivers Ganga, Brahmaputra and. Meghna, which exhibit very high seasonal variation in. Figure 2. Salinity zones in the Bangladesh Sundarban. their discharge, and the tides which range in height from.

2 to 5.94 m. Tidal in?uence extends to more than 50 km. inland from the bob from the outsiders shoreline and surges increase considera- bly during the across a cell membrane? cyclonic storms. blanks which may check the the outsiders penetration of which is an transport across high tides to. The freshwater ?ows from the rivers and the tidal in- the interior of the islands. Irregular ?ooding of these. gress result in a gradient of salinity that varies both spa- blanks by high tides, coupled with the capillary action of. tially and temporally. In general, the salinity is higher the clayey soil and excessive heat during dry periods, nearer the coast and the water is nearly fresh on the inland results in the deposition of a salt crust on bob from, the soil surface, side limit of the ring symbolism Sundarban. Similarly, the salinity de- converting them into saline blanks.

Lands on the sea. creases from west to east. The eastern part of the Sundar- faces are continually denuded by tidal waves. Towards. ban in bob from the outsiders, Bangladesh is oligohaline (5 ‰ salinity) whereas the west, new land formation occurs because of problems heavy. most of the Indian Sundarban is polyhaline (Fig. 2). silt deposition from the Hooghly River and its distribu- During the past few decades, however, the sources of tary, the Muriganga at their con?uence with the Bay of. all rivers in the western part of the bob from Indian Sundarban Bengal.

Thus, the habitat is characterized by a continu- have progressively silted up, disconnecting the in?ow of ing erosion of banks, the formation of new islands, and. fresh water into wedding symbolism, the mangrove delta. Freshwater ?ows ever-changing soil texture and salinity of the outsiders water under the. are much larger from define Brahmaputra and Meghna rivers in?uence of tides. on the Bangladesh side particularly in the Baleshwar In recent years, the Farakka Barrage, built in 1974 on. River on the eastern side of the Sunarban (Seidensticker the River Ganga within India, has also affected freshwa- and Hai, 1983).

The reduced freshwater ?ows in western ter ?ows into the Bangladesh part of the Sundarban. parts of the Sundarban have resulted in increased salinity Similarly, the construction of several dams and barrages. of the river waters, and has made the the outsiders rivers shallower in the Damodar River catchment area and on of Culture in Communication, the Ganga. over the years. At the same time, during ebb tides, the have resulted in a decreased silt load and less deposition.

receding water level causes scouring of top soil and cre- of detritus in bob from the outsiders, the estuaries downstream. ates an innumerable number of small creeks, which. normally originate from the centre of the islands. The. ebb tide eroding action is stronger in some islands than. others within the Sundarban. The receding water carries. large volumes of silt which is deposited along the banks The large spatial and temporal variability in wedding symbolism, hydrological. of rivers and creeks during high tides. This results in in- regimes (both freshwater in?ows and the tides), topogra- creasing the the outsiders height of the banks as compared to the inte- phy and american, texture of the substratum, the salinity, and their. riors of the islands.

Over time, such eroded channels interactions, result in very high habitat heterogeneity in. extend further inwards into bob from, the islands and form muddy the mangrove ecosystems, and thereby ensure an equally. Aquat. Essay. Sci. Bob From. Vol. 68, 2006 343. Table 1. Total biodiversity recorded to date from the Indian Sunda- diverse biodiversity. There has been some discussion. about the characteristic mangrove plants and wedding ring symbolism, a distinction. is usually made between the “true mangrove” and “man- Group of Organisms No. of bob from the outsiders Reference. grove associate” species.

However, following the de?ni- species. tion of wetland species by Gopal and Junk (2000, 2001), Flowering Plants 105 Naskar and Mandal (1999) here we consider all those species which depend directly Pteridophytes. or indirectly upon the mangrove habitats, or on any other (Ferns Fern allies) organism living in the mangrove as mangrove organ- Algae 150 Sen et al. (2000) Lichens 32 Santra (1999)

An assessment of the all the king's total biodiversity in Indian Sun- Vertebrates 445 Das and Nandi (1999) darban is given in Table 1. Overall, there are relatively Chondrichthyes 22. Osteichthyes (Fishes) 154. small differences between the species composition of the. Indian and Bangladesh parts, largely because the deve- lopment of the mangrove system has been dictated by Birds 163. similar processes. However, the overarching gradients of Mammals 40. salinity and bob from, freshwater that occur across the Sundarban Phylum- Das and Nandi (1999) from west to the east, are clearly re?ected in the distribu- Sarcomastigophora 45.

Aplicom plexa 24. tion of biota. The Sundarban in the two countries differs. also in which is an example of passive transport a cell membrane?, the extent of management interventions. It must Ciliophora 31. also be emphasised that the bob from the outsiders Sundarban mangrove in India. has been explored frequently and in greater detail, par- Porifera 1 Mukherjee (1975) ticularly ?oristically, whereas the mangroves within Cnidaria 33 Mandal and Nandi (1969)

Bangladesh were poorly investigated until recently Ctenophora 2 Nandi et al. (1993) Platyhelminthes 41 Chaudhuri and Chaudhury. (Chaffey et al., 1985). Recent surveys provide consider- able information on on Language of Culture, several groups of plants, ?shes, rep- Turbellaria 1 Anon (1995) tiles, amphibians and birds (Ismail, 1990; Hussain and Monogenera 21. Acharya, 1994; Seidensticker, 1991; IUCN-BD, 2002a, Trematoda 13.

b, c). Differences in the nomenclature followed in the. two countries also sometimes make comparisons dif?- Acanthocephala 3. cult. The following account is based largely on the Indian Nemertinea 2. part of the Sundarban, with frequent comparisons with. the information available from Bangladesh. Floristic diversity. Mangrove plants are usually divided Hirudinea 3. into ‘true mangrove’ and ‘mangrove associate’ species.

Arthropoda 476. Globally, Duke (1992) recognised 69 species (belonging. to 26 genera and bob from, 20 families) of true mangroves (major. and minor, sensu Tomlinson, 1986) though recently Merostomata 2. Kathiresan and Bingham (2001) recognized only 65 spe- Entoprocta 1. cies (22 genera and dream define, 16 families). Of these, at least 30 true. mangroves occur in the Indian Sundarban. Debnath and Chaetognatha 4. Naskar (1999) identi?ed 36 species as true mangroves. Echinodermata 20. The Bangladesh part of the the outsiders Sundarban differs mainly in Hemichordata 1. the relative abundance of various species.

Whereas mem- bers of the Rhizophoraceae and Avicenniaceae generally. dominate most other mangrove areas, the Bangladesh. part of the Sundarban has the greatest abundance of Ster- only one species of Bruguiera (B. parvi?ora), whereas. culiaceae (Heritiera) and Euphorbiaceae (Excoecaria). Lumnitzera racemosa and Barringtonia sp. are quite re- Rhizophoraceae is the largest family with 11 species; stricted in occurrence. Interestingly, the Sundarban sup- four genera (Rhizophora, Bruguiera, Avicennia and Son- ports fewer species than other mangrove areas in India. neratia) are represented by four species each and 5 gen- and Southeast Asia. For example, there are 45 mangrove. era (Xylocarpus, Excoecaria, Thespesia, Derris and all the king's, species recorded from the bob from the outsiders Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Tamarix) have three species each.

In Bangladesh there is in the Bay of Bengal (Deshmukh et al., 1991a) and 55. 344 B. Gopal and M. Chauhan Biodiversity of Sundarban Mangrove Ecosystem. Table 2. Rare, threatened and all the, endangered ?ora of the the outsiders Indian Sunda- species from Bhitarkanika in the delta of the all the men summary Brahmani. and Baitarni rivers in Orissa on the east coast of India. (WWF-I, 2001). Family Species Status. The total ?ora of the Sundarban has also been esti- Rhizophoraceae 1. Rhizophora apiculata Occasional. mated differently in India and Bangladesh. In India, the.

2. Bruguiera parvi?ora Occasional. total vascular ?ora (including mangrove associates) is bob from, Occasional. 3. Ceriops decandra. estimated at 100 species representing 34 families and 57 Occasional. 4. Kandelia candel. genera. comprises of 30 species of trees, 32 shrubs, and Meliaceae 5. Aglaia cucullata Rare. the rest are herbs, grasses, sedges and two ferns.

Many 6. Xylocarpus mekongensis Threatened. 7. Xylocarpus granatum Threatened. terrestrial upland plants within the Sundarban area have. Sterculiaceae 8. Dream. Heritiera fomes Threatened. apparently not been included because Seidensticker and. Rubiaceae 9. Scyphiphora hydrphyllacea Very Rare. Hai (1983) recorded 334 plant species representing 245. 10. Hydrophyllax maritime Very Rare. genera from the Bangladesh Sundarban.

This record lists. Tiliaceae 11. Brownlowia lanceolata Occasional. numerous epiphytes and climbers, which include 13 or- Arecaceae 12. Nypa fruticans Occasional. chids and the outsiders, several ferns.

Several species in the Indian. Acanthaceae 13. Acanthus volubilis Very Rare. Sundarban do not occur in Bangladesh part, whereas. Papilionaceae 14. Cynometra rami?ora Rare. many other species have been reported from Bangladesh. 15. Dalbergia spinosa Rare. alone (Choudhury, 1968; Ismail, 1990). Interestingly,

Sapotaceae 16. Manilkara hexandra Rare. some species listed earlier from Bangladesh by Prain. Rutaceae 17. Atalantia correa Very Rare. (1903) and Choudhury (1968), such as Bruguiera sexan- gula, Rhizophora apiculata and Sonneratia alba, were. not recorded by Chaffey et al. (1985) and it is feared that. these species may have disappeared from the eastern part Botrychia, Catenella and define, Caloglossa form a turfy cover- of the Sundarban. Heritiera fomes (locally known as ing on mangrove tree trunks and pneumatophores. At a. Sundari, the most important timber species from which lower level on the same trees, species of Caloglossa occur.

Sundarban derives its name),which is the outsiders, abundant on the along with Chaetomorpha and Rhizoclonium. Species of. Bangladesh side, is not common on the Indian side where Lyngbya, Oscillatoria and Microcoleus are common on. it is considered endangered. Nypa fruticans also has a pneumatophores and on the mud (Mandal and Naskar, limited occurrence within the Indian Sundarban; it is 1994). rapidly disappearing because of teenage extensive exploitation. Based on their present status, Aegiceras corniculatum, Micro-organisms. The diversity of bacteria and fungi in. Kandelia candel, Rhizophora sp., Sonneratia acida, Son- the Sundarban has not been examined in detail, although. neratia apetala and Sonneratia caseolaris also require some reports mention various microorganisms in the.

conservation measures (Table 2). soils and on decomposing litter, besides pathogens in- festing mangrove leaves (Pal and Purkayastha, 1992), Algae. The algal ?ora of the Sundarban is very poorly ?sh, prawns and mammals (Das, 1999). Bacteria play a. known, but the available information suggests that the signi?cant role in bob from, the mangrove environments and the. Sundarban has a highly diverse algal ?ora comprised of Sundarban is expected to harbour a diverse bacterial. both benthic and planktonic forms ranging from the fresh- community which is yet to be explored, unlike other In- water to marine environments.

In the only study in Bang- dian mangroves that are better known (Balasubramanian. ladesh, Islam (1973) reported 34 species of planktonic and Ajmal Khan, 2002). Furthermore, 32 species of li- and benthic algae. Dream. Various published reports on the algal chens have also been recorded from the Indian Sundar- ?ora provide only bob from the outsiders, a patchy picture as they are based on ban (Santra, 1998). short-term surveys of small isolated areas (see Pal et al., 1988; Santra et al., 1988, 1991). Sen et al. (1999) record- Faunal diversity. Teenage Problems. The fauna of the Sundarban has at- ed 80 species of algae (32 Cyanophyceae and 27 Chloro- tracted much attention because of the huge economic. phyceae) from different parts of the Indian Sundarban. importance of many species. Crustaceans account for the. These included only 7 species of diatoms, whereas Baner- largest proportion of animal biomass, with an estimated.

jee and Santra (1999) listed 48 species of diatoms from annual harvest of 40 million kilograms of bob from ?ddler crabs. the Hooghly-Matla estuary alone. In a recent report, and 100 million kilograms of mud crabs (Hendrichs, Naskar et al. (2004), however, list 150 species including 1975), besides a considerable harvest of shrimps, prawns. 15 species of Rhodophyceae and types of plcs, 2 species of bob from Phaeophyc- and lobsters. The Sundarban supports very rich estuarine. eae. Another study recorded 12 genera and 16 species of and coastal marine ?sheries.

Among the diversity of in- benthic algae belonging to the Cyanophyceae, Chloro- sects, honeybees hold an important position for the pro- phyceae, Chrysophyceae and wedding, Rhodophyceae. Bob From The Outsiders. Species of is an of passive transport duction of large quantities of honey and beeswax. Also, Aquat. Sci.

Vol. 68, 2006 345. Table 3. The Outsiders. Threatened fauna of Sundarbans. the Sundarban is the only mangrove forest with a species. of the tiger – the Royal Bengal Tiger (Panthera tigris). Scienti?c Name Common Name. The total faunal diversity of the Sundarban in listed in. Muntjanus muntjack Barking Deer. Panthera tigris tigris Royal Bengal Tiger.

Fish. The ?sh fauna of the Bangladesh Sundarban in- Felis bengalensis Leopard Cat. cludes 53 pelagic and 124 demersal species (Sarker, Felis viverrina Fishing Cat. Platinista gangetica Gangetic Dolphin. 1989; Rainboth, 1991). Of these, over 120 species have. Orcaela brevirostris Irrawady Dolphin. been recorded in commercial catches (Seidensticker and Neophocaena phocaenoides Little Indian Porpoise. Hai, 1983). All The Men Summary. The Indian Sundarban supports a similar Manis pentadactyla Chinese Pangolin. number of species (165 species; Sanyal, 1999).

The ?sh Reptilia. diversity is directly related to the salinity gradients in dif- Crocodylus porosus Estuarine Crocodile. Lepidochelys olivacea Olive Ridley Turtle. ferent parts of the Sundarban. Whereas Mukherjee. Batagur baska Batagur Turtle. (1975a) considered only the outsiders, brackish water and marine spe- Lissemys punctata Indian Flapshelled Turtle. cies of all the ?sh in bob from the outsiders, the Indian Sundarban, Sanyal (1999) ex- Trionyx gangeticus Indian Softshelled Turtle. panded the types of plcs list by including 31 freshwater species.

Re- Kachuga tecta Indian Tent Turtle. Varanus bengalensis Common Indian Monitor. cently, Islam and Haque (2004), in their detailed review. Varanus ?avescens Yellow Monitor. of the ?sheries resources of Bangladesh Sundarban, have Varanus salvator Water Monitor. described the distribution of ?sh species along the salinity Python morulus Indian Rock Python. gradients. Fishes such as Harpodon nehereus, Trichiurus Aves. savala, Setipinna sp., Pampus sp., Sardinella sp. and Ardea goliath Great Goliath Heron. Pelecanus phillippensis Dalmatian Pelican. Salar sp. Bob From The Outsiders. occur in areas with salinity, whereas Pangasius.

Leptotilos duius Lesser Adjutant Stork. pangasius and Lates calcarifer occur in freshwater areas. or those with very low salinity. Wedding. The dominant ?shes in. brackish water zones (moderate salinity) are Hilsa (Tenu- alosa) ilisha, Pomadasys hasta, Polynemus sp. and bob from, Coilia 1985a,b).

Several species of king?shers (including. sp. Several marine ?shes also often occur within the which is an example transport man- brown-winged and stork-billed king?shers, Pelargopsis. groves. amauropterus and bob from the outsiders, P. capensis, respectively) and the. magni?cent white-bellied sea-eagle (Haliaeetus leu- Reptiles and amphibia. American. The species richness of both rep- cogaster) are quite common, as are many herons, egrets, tiles and amphibia is also similar in the Sundarbans of the storks, sandpipers, whimbrels, curlews and other waders. two countries: 8 and 7 amphibians and 53 and 59 reptiles There are also many species of gulls and terns, especially. in Bangladesh and India, respectively (Hussain and Ach- along the coast and the outsiders, the larger waterways. The grey- arya, 1994; Sanyal, 1999; Naskar et al., 2004).

Among headed ?sh eagle (Ichthyophaga ichthyaetus) and Pal- snakes, the Family Boidae is the all the men summary largest with 13 species, las’s ?sh-eagle (Haliaeetus leucoryphus) are quite rare. followed by Hydrophidae (7 species), Elapidae (4 spe- Apart from the bob from species particularly associated with the. cies) and Typhlopidae and Viperidae (2 species each). sea and is an example of passive across membrane?, wetlands, there is also a considerable variety of. Noteworthy species are the king cobra (Ophiophagus forest birds, such as woodpeckers, barbets, shrikes, Hannah), Indian spectacled cobra (Naja naja) and Indian drongos, mynahs, minivets, babblers and many others. python (Python molurus). Among 14 turtles and tortois- (Salter, 1984). es, six species are nearly extinct or threatened (Table 3).

The Indian side of the Sundarban has a similar avian. Of the four marine turtles, the olive ridley turtle (Lepido- diversity (Law, 1953, 1954, 1956, 1959; Mukherjee, chelys olivacea), though endangered, is the most abun- 1972, 1975b; Naskar and Mandal, 1999). Though only. dant. The green turtle (Chelonia mydas) is rare due to about 150 species were listed by Naskar (1999), Chaud- excessive ?shing, while the bob from loggerhead (Caretta caretta) huri and Choudhury (1994) report more than 300 species.

and hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata) are not common of which about 100 are migratory. The list includes a. (Hussain and Acharya, 1994). The river terrapin (Bat- large number of species that remain in the reclaimed ar- agur baska) and three of the 14 species of which example of passive transport across a cell membrane? lizards and eas adjoining the mangroves. monitors are also endangered (Table 3). Mammals. Of signi?cant interest is the fact that the. Birds. The avifauna of the Sundarban is highly varied mammalian diversity exhibits signi?cant differences. and very rich in species.

In Bangladesh, 315 species have between the Indian and Bangladesh sides of the Sun- been recorded (Sarker and Sarker, 1986; Hussain and darban: the former has only 31 species of mammals. Acharya, 1994). These include about the outsiders 95 species of water- (Chaudhuri and Choudhury, 1994, Sanyal, 1999) against. fowl (Scott, 1989) and 38 species of raptors (Sarker, 49 species in Bangladesh (Hussain and Acharya, 1994). 346 B. Gopal and M. Wedding Ring. Chauhan Biodiversity of bob from the outsiders Sundarban Mangrove Ecosystem. At least ?ve species, namely the Javan rhinoceros (Rhi- and erosional processes, create a large diversity of habi- noceros sondaicus), water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), tats which are occupied by different plant communities. swamp deer (Cervus duvauceli), gaur (Bos frontalis) The distribution of different communities along the ?ood- and probably the Essay on Language hog deer (Axis porcinus) have disap- ing gradient is the outsiders, often interpreted in terms of a zonation or. peared locally during the past century (Seidensticker successional sequence (Untawale 1987; Naskar and Gu- and Hai, 1983). The one-horned rhino (Rhinoceros uni- habakshi, 1987).

Heritiera species require more freshwa- cornis), Indian bison (Bos gaurus) and Sambhar (Cer- ter and occur together with Phoenix paludosa and Nypa. vus unicolor), which were once common here, are also fruticans, generally above the tide level. These species. now locally extinct. The only primate is the rhesus may occur separately, or in association with each other, or. macaque (Macaca mulatta) which still occurs in good with Excoecaria agallocha or Ceriops decandra.

The lat- numbers, but its population is declining gradually ter species join Rhizophora and Bruguiera in relatively. (Blower, 1985; Gittins, 1981). The Sundarbans of saline and frequently inundated intertidal habitats, where- Bangladesh and India support one of the largest popula- as Sonneratia and Avicennia species occur below the. tions of Essay of Culture in Communication tiger, Panthera tigris (estimated 350-400). mean tide level. Recent studies on the outsiders, mangroves (Bunt, Spotted deer (Cervus axis) and wild boar (Sus scrofa) 1999), including those in the Bangladesh Sundarban (El- occur in types of plcs, large numbers and form the bob from principal prey of lison et al., 2000), based on large scale sampling and de- the tiger. Besides three species of otters, there are wild tailed multivariate analysis, have however failed to detect.

cats (Felis bengalensis, F. chaus and F. Wedding Ring Symbolism. viverrina) and any zonation pattern with respect to edaphic variables that. the Ganges River Dolphin (Platanista gangetica). co-vary with elevation. Champion (1936) recognized the. Here, the notoriety of the Sundarban for its man-eat- Sundarban as a seral moist tropical forest, comprised of a. ing tigers must be mentioned. Every year a signi?cant mosaic of bob from beach forest and tidal forests. The latter were. number of men summary people (an average of 23 annually ) are killed divided into four types: low mangrove forests, tree man- by tigers, particularly in the southern and western parts of grove forests, salt-water Heritiera forests and freshwater. the Sundarban. Hendrichs (1975) hypothesised that such Heritiera forests. Bob From. Later Champion and Seth (1968) classi- killings were linked with the high salinity levels and the ?ed the all the king's men summary wetland forests into littoral forests (freshwater) absence of freshwater for drinking purposes. However, and bob from, tidal swamp forests (mangroves).

Mandal (2003) dis- recent analyses suggest that the killing of define humans is at tinguished further between the vegetation of the active. least partly related to the frequency of tiger-human inter- delta (southern part of the bob from Sundarban with dense swamp. action which makes humans available as easy prey forest), and freshwater areas (rivers, creeks, ponds) and. (Salter, 1984; Siddiqi and Choudhury, 1987). agricultural ?elds of the mature delta. The Indian part of the Sundarban with higher salinity.

Invertebrates. In the Indian Sundarban, arthropods are supports sparse Excoecaria agallocha, a dense understo- the most abundant invertebrates (476 species) comprised ry of Ceriops, and dense patches of the hantal palm. almost entirely of crustaceans (240) and insects (201 (Phoenix paludosa) on drier soils. Xylocarpus sp. and. species). Molluscs (143 aspecies), annelids (78 species) Bruguiera sp. occur sporadically throughout the area. and nematodes (68 species) are the next most common Oryza coarctata, Nypa fruticans and Imperata cylindrica. groups of invertebrates, other than the protopzoans (104 are prevalent on all the, mud ?ats (Khan, 1986). Large stands of. species) (Chaudhuri and Choudhury, 1994). As men- Sonneratia apetala occur on newly accreted mud banks.

tioned earlier,the crustaceans are of great economic im- Sand dunes bordering the sea are primarily colonized by. portance and a large number of species of prawns and grasses such as Paspalum vaginatum, Panicum repens, shrimps are exploited commercially. A substantial pro- Aeluropus lagopoides and Phragmites karka, which are. portion of species are planktonic. Bob From The Outsiders. Among insects, odo- followed by Sesuvium portulacastrum and Ipomoea pes- nates and dipterans have the largest representation. At caprae (= I. biloba) which constitute the climax dune. least 15 other phyla are represented in the invertebrate vegetation. Salicornia brachiata, Hygrophyllus asiatica. fauna of the Sundarban. Unfortunately a similar inven- and Scirpus fruticans occur occasionally.

Within Bangla- tory is on Language of Culture in Communication, not available for the Bangladesh Sundarban. desh, the salinity of the Sundarban decreases eastwards. Available reports suggest the occurrence of at least 24 and, accordingly, a polyhaline, a mesohaline and an oli- species of shrimp, 7 species of crabs, 8 species of lob- gohaline zone are recognized. Within each of these. sters and 8 species of molluscs that are commercially zones, vegetation associations change with elevation. exploitable. above sea level and the distance from the seashore (Hus- sain and Acharya, 1994). Zonation and community diversity The successional sequence of mangrove communities. The hydrological (depth and bob from the outsiders, frequency of ?ooding) and follows a similar pattern throughout the Sundarban. salinity gradients that develop in a geo-morphologically Small variations occur according to the salinity regimes. dynamic environment in?uenced by both depositional (Karim, 1988). Grasses such as Leersia, Porteresia and. Aquat.

Sci. Vol. Types Of Plcs. 68, 2006 347. Phragmites and trees such as the bob from the outsiders species of Avicennia. and Sonneratia are the pioneers on newly accreted land. With an increase in elevation of the land mass relative to. the tidal height, the succession proceeds to types of plcs a stage where. Heritiera fomes, Ceriops decandra and Excoecaria agal- locha constitute the climax community.

The biodiversity of wetlands is bob from the outsiders, governed by types of plcs a large vari- ety of factors ranging from the evolutionary history and. paleoclimate to the current biophysical and anthropo- genic factors, besides the nature and intensity of the outsiders interac- tions with adjacent systems. Furthermore, various socio- Figure 3. Factors affecting biodiversity in mangroves (adapted from. cultural, economic and political in?uences also affect the. biodiversity directly as well as indirectly. These factors. have been discussed elsewhere in the context of inland. freshwater wetlands by Gopal (2005, 2006) and american dream define, a con- leasing, while timber extraction was allowed in the re- serve forests.

It is estimated that 1,570 km2 mangroves. ceptual framework is shown in Figure 3. The same fac- tors in?uence the biodiversity of mangrove wetlands were reclaimed in the three decades since independence. such as the Sundarban, where the bob from interplay of types of plcs hydrology, in 1947 (Richards, 1990). geomorphology and bob from, chemistry is most pronounced. Man- Thus major threats to biodiversity have come mainly. groves differ signi?cantly from the freshwater wetlands from the growing human population, and is an across, consequently, in their hydrology as they interact daily with both the sea overexploitation of both timber and fauna, and conver- and inland areas. Bob From The Outsiders. sion of the which example of passive across cleared land to agriculture and aquaculture. The biodiversity of the the outsiders Sundarban mangroves has, Today, the define area around the Sundarban (in both India and. however, been affected by centuries of human exploita- Bangladesh) is densely populated.

Approximately 2.5. tion of the forests, their conversion to paddy ?elds, and million people live in hundreds of small villages very. reclamation of land for bob from the outsiders, various uses. Eaton (1991) de- close to or within parts of the Sundarban, on which very. scribes in detail the history of human colonisation of the large numbers of people depend for their livelihood at. Sundarban from types of plcs 1200 to 1750 A.D. and Richard and Flint certain times of the bob from year.

(1991) provide details of the transformation of the Sun- Numerous people are engaged in the commercial ex- darban thereafter under British rule, whereas Presler ploitation of sundari and other tree species, while the lo- (1991) discusses the management of the Sundarban until cal people depend on the forest for ?rewood, timber for. 1952. It is estimated that the Sundarban originally cov- boats, poles for american define, house-posts and rafters, golpatta (Nipa. ered more than 40,000 km2 in the outsiders, coastal Bengal. Clearing of fruticans) leaf for which is an example, roo?ng, grass for matting and fodder, the forest and rice agriculture was ?rst actively promoted reeds for fencing, and ?sh for their own consumption. by the bob from then Turk sultan rulers of Bengal. After the British Honey and wax are collected during the summer season. colonised Bengal, the area of the Sundarban still included (April to June) (Krishnamurty, 1990). Tens of thousand. 14,627 km2 of land and 4881 km2 of waterways in 1793 of ?shermen harvest ?sh and shrimps for most of the year.

(Richard, 1990). The British administration also actively except in the monsoon season. In recent years, collection. promoted deliberate conversion to agriculture. Hunter of shrimp juveniles has increased manifold, particularly. (1875) describes the state of the Sundarban at the end of for aquaculture in reclaimed areas (see, Haque, 2003, the 18th century when the then Governor of Bengal im- Hoq et al., 2001, 2006). Symbolism. It is estimated that up to 60 % of. posed a rule bringing the forest outside permanent settle- the shrimp post-larvae (PL) collected from nature die. ments under Government control. The Commissioner for bob from, during sorting, transportation and stocking. This forces.

the Sundarban was charged with the task of “regulating further harvests from the mangroves. Unfortunately the. and managing the waterlogged forests and swamps of the PL harvest of shrimp and prawns is probably the most. lower delta” and “to ensure that private landowners lucrative local economic activity available to a large pro- cleared, settled and reclaimed Sundarban forests and types of plcs, portion of the Sundarban population. PL harvesting earns. swamps for rice cultivation” (Richards, 1990).

By 1870, approximately ?ve times more gross revenue per capita. 2,790 km2 of mangroves had been cleared. Another than rice farming, and probably proportionately even. 2,750 km2 forests had been reclaimed within the next more on the outsiders, a net revenue basis as inputs other than labor are. sixty years even though about 10,000 km2 of the Sundar- negligible compared to agriculture.

ban mangroves were declared a protected or reserve for- Although the ecological impacts of this activity are. est. The protected forests were available for clearance on a cell membrane?, uncertain because of the lack of detailed information, the. 348 B. Gopal and M. Chauhan Biodiversity of Sundarban Mangrove Ecosystem. by-catch which is discarded and usually dies, is a sub- 1990). Similarly, Nypa fruticans and Phoenix paludosa. stantial proportion of the Sundarban ?sheries and the outsiders, is most are also declining rapidly. As a long-term consequence. likely a major negative in?uence on the aquatic biodiver- Heritiera is being replaced by Excoecaria (Christensen, sity within the protected mangrove areas. American. While the re- 1984).

In general, the forest structure is becoming sim- duction in shrimp juveniles directly affects the biodiver- pler and the average height of the trees is decreasing. It is. sity, shrimp farming is also causing rapid deterioration in estimated that in the Bangladesh part of the the outsiders Sundarban, the Sundarbans similar to types of plcs that in bob from, other mangrove areas 0.4 % of the forest area is replaced by dwarf species every. (Thornton et al., 2003; Barbier and Sathirathai, 2004; Is- year. This also causes a decline in the habitat for birds, lam and Haque, 2004; Islam and Wahab, 2005).arge- monkeys and other tree-dwelling species.

scale collection of shrimp from estuaries directly affects While the deterioration in vegetation is already well. the species that depend upon them for food. documented and receives continuing attention, the im- Fishermen’s camps are also a major source of distur- pacts of these changes on the fauna, particularly inverte- bance. Illegal hunting and trapping of animals is com- brates, have not been investigated. Reports suggest that. mon, not only by ?shermen and woodcutters, but also the men summary changes in herbaceous vegetation are affecting the. occasionally by bob from the outsiders military defence personnel, e.g. in Hiron population of spotted deer which now has a much lower. Point in the Sundarban South Wildlife Sanctuary (Blow- population in the western areas where salinity is the high- er, 1985). Habib (1989) reported that over 3,300 m of Essay est. However, an increase in Sonneratia sp. favours the. deer nets were removed between 1981 and 1987, but such deer because the leaves of this mangrove tree constitute.

poaching is now rare. Adult marine turtles and Batagur its staple diet. There are several studies in other man- which get caught in ?shing nets are often killed and mar- grove areas showing the effects of salinity levels, and. keted for food. their seasonal variation, on the recruitment and growth of. Among hydrological factors, the freshwater ?ows are various animals and the effect on their predators (see. the most signi?cant as they in?uence the salinity as well Hussain and Acharya, 1994). as the geomorphology through the bob from deposition of sedi- Against this background, it is clear that human activi- ments. Of Culture In Communication. The tidal frequency is a near constant factor, but ties continue to bob from the outsiders signi?cantly impact biodiversity in the. the tidal height has a signi?cant bearing on the extent of Sundarbans.

While some freshwater ?ows are diverted. inundation and also the erosion of freshly deposited sedi- upstream for irrigation, or are regulated for king's men summary, ?ood control. ments. The salinity regimes are also in?uenced by tidal and the outsiders, hydropower, major concerns have been voiced about. height. Human activities, such as forest clearing and sub- the effects of the diversion of water into ring, the Hooghly.

sequent conversion to other land uses, directly in?uence River by bob from constructing a barrage at Farakka on the Indian. the freshwater ?ow and sediment accretion. The nature of side of the border with Bangladesh. Wedding Ring. The water is required. the sediments (clay to sand) also has a great bearing on primarily to bob from keep the channel open for navigation from. the mangrove vegetation as well as the fauna. The Sunda- the Bay of Bengal up to Calcutta Port. Example Transport Across A Cell. Regular dredging. rban mangroves lie on a delta that is relatively young of the main channel is needed to maintain the depths re- geologically and has been undergoing drastic changes. quired by bob from the outsiders large, seafaring ships. In the absence of Essay ade- These changes are caused by neotectonic activity that is quate information on the outsiders, Sundarban biodiversity before the.

causing the tilting of the delta towards the east, and by Farraka barrage was installed, it is not possible to assess. the enormous amounts of sediments transported by the the extent of qualitative or quantitative changes since. rivers originating in the Himalaya. The accretion of types of plcs sedi- then. Bob From The Outsiders. However, the hilsa (Hilsa ilisha) ?sheries have de- ments in the western part and problems, the tilting to the east causes clined considerably within the Indian part of the Sundar- the river to migrate eastwards. It was pointed out earlier ban, largely because the barrage is a barrier to bob from the outsiders t upstream. that most of the distributaries of the River Ganga on the migration to the breeding sites (Sinha and Khan, 2001; Indian side have silted up and american dream define, do not carry freshwater. Payne et al., 2004).

Thus, increased levels of salinity, particularly during the the outsiders Whereas much emphasis has been placed on the al- dry season (low ?ow period) affect biodiversity, with the terations in american, freshwater ?ow regimes in recent years, the. salinity-tolerant species gradually overtaking species de- impact of bob from embankments and polders needs to all the be assessed. pendent upon regular freshwater inputs. Recent studies in bob from, detail. . During the past century, all streams and creeks. by Hoq et al. (2006) have clearly demonstrated the strong outside the protected areas, have been extensively em- in?uence of salinity, temperature and conductivity on the banked to protect the cultivated land from inundation. seasonal abundance and symbolism, distribution of shell?shes and with saline/brackish water. About 3,700 km of embank- ?n?shes within the Bangladesh Sundarban.

The palyno- ments were constructed in Bangladesh between 1960 and. logical evidence clearly shows that Heritiera fomes was 1970 (Hussain and bob from, Acharya, 1994). These embankments. very abundant in the western parts of the Sundarban 5000 and polders have altered the ?ooding regimes, increased. years ago, and has declined relatively recently as the sa- salinity intrusion, promoted erosion, accelerated silta- linity has increased (Blasco, 1975; see also Rahman, tion, and reduced the nutrient exchanges, and thereby af-

Aquat. Sci. Vol. 68, 2006 349. fected the types of plcs biodiversity (Rahman et al., 1992; Bhattach- Sundarban East (31,226 ha); and Sundarban South. arya, 1999). (36,970 ha), protecting about 23.5 % of the remaining. Further threats to biodiversity because of pollution Sundarban under the Bangladesh Wildlife (Preservation) have arisen on both the landward and seaward sides of the bob from (Amendment) Act, 1974. These sancturies (IUCN, 1997) mangrove. The agrochemicals (fertilizers and pesticides) lie on disjunct deltaic islands in the Sundarban Forest. used extensively in the catchments of the king's Ganga and Division of Khulna District, close to the border with In- Brahmaputra rivers and their numerous tributaries, as dia and just west of the main out?ow of the Ganges, well in the ?elds close to the mangroves, pollute both the Brahmaputra and Meghna rivers (Fig.

4b). Bob From. In 1987, the. waterways and the landmass, and affect the aquatic vege- Sundarban National Park in India, and in 1997, parts of. tation and fauna directly. Growing industrialisation of the the Sundarban in Bangladesh, were inscribed on the.

area around Calcutta, particularly the Haldia industrial World Heritage list (IUCN, 1997). complex, and the industries situated on the western side The entire Indian Sundarban area south of the Damp- of the Hooghly River, contribute signi?cantly to the pol- ier-Hodges line (that demarcates the inward limit of tidal. in?uence), including 5,366 km2 of reclaimed lands, has. lution load and symbolism, hence, to the degradation of the Sundar- ban mangroves. From the seaward side, major pollution also been designated as the Sundarban Biosphere Re- occurs through oil spills that cause great damage, espe- serve. The Outsiders. Within the Biosphere Reserve several distinct. cially to the aquatic fauna and seabirds (Blower, 1985). zones have been recognised: a Core Zone comprised of. An oil spill from the wreckage of a Panamanian cargo the National Park and the Tiger Reserve, a Manipulation. Zone (2,400 km2 of mangrove forests), a Restoration.

ship in August 1994 near the Dangmari Forest Station, affected about 15 km2 area including a considerable part Zone that covers 240 km2 of degraded forest and of passive transport a cell membrane?, saline. of the Sundarban. Large scale mortality was recorded in mud ?ats, and a Development Zone which includes. the seedlings of bob from Heritiera and Excoecaria, grasses, ?shes, mostly the reclaimed areas. Only the Core Zone is under. shrimps and other aquatic animals (Hussain and Acharya, strict conservation measures. Income generating activi- 1994).

Recently, the off-shore exploration for oil and gas ties such as the collection of is an example transport membrane? seeds of black tiger prawn. by both Bangladesh and India has raised strong protests (Penaeus monodon), the culturing of the outsiders oysters and crabs, concerning fears about its likely impacts on the Sundar- mushroom cultivation and bee-keeping for honey pro- ban’s biota (Anonymous, 2004; Saha et al., 2005). duction are allowed in the Manipulation Zone. Efforts are. being made, however, to also rehabilitate certain degrad- ed areas through afforestation. Among faunal species, the. Conservation estuarine crocodile and types of plcs, the Olive Ridley turtle are receiv- ing some attention by way of captive breeding. The Sun- Conservation of the Sundarban mangrove is supposed to darban Tiger Reserve in India has started a special pro- have started with its declaration as a reserve forest, under gramme for the conservation of sea turtles (http://www. the Indian Forest Act in 1878, after Schlich (1875) raised wildbengal.com/sanctuaries/sunderban_main.htm). concern over its conservation (Presler, 1991).

However, The approaches to bob from conservation differ considerably. as described earlier, this did not help conservation per se, between the Indian and Bangladesh Sundarbans and this. but only regulated the exploitation and conversion by teenage problems the has been discussed at length by Seidensticker (1991). government. Soon after independence, India declared The Bangladesh Sundarban is managed as a refuge. Lothian Island (3,800 ha) as a Wildlife Sanctury, and the outsiders, lat- where wildlife is protected in small sanctuaries located.

er, in 1960, another 35,240 ha were brought under the in the larger forest tract by men summary providing protection to the re- Sajnakhali Wildlife Sanctury. The hunting of tigers was source “hot-spots” essential to the maintenance of wild- banned completely in 1970, after the IUCN listed the life populations. This approach assumes that inviolate. Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) as an endangered core areas surrounded by restricted-use buffer zones can. species. Later, under Project Tiger, the Government of ensure the survival of communities and species such as. India established a Tiger Reserve in the Sundarban cover- large mammals and birds which depend upon the re- ing 2,585 km2 in 1973 (Fig. 4a). Another 241 km2 area sources such as food or nesting and roosting sites over. was demarcated as a subsidiary wilderness area.

The core larger areas. area of 1,330 km2 was later designated as a National Park. In India however, the strategy for Sundarbans conser- Another wildlife sanctuary was established in 1976 on vation involves the setting aside of areas where the entire. Haliday Island (595 ha) to bob from protect the spotted deer (Axis life-cycle needs of a community can be met and the eco- axis), wild boar (Sus scrofa) and rhesus macaque logical needs of Essay wildlife can be linked into the overall. (Macaca mullata), which are dominant animals in a for- management of the system for the Sundarbans.

Further- est type consisting mainly of Ceriops decandra. The Outsiders. more, in so doing, the ecological processes upon types of plcs which. Soon thereafter, in 1977, Bangladesh created three wildlife depend become integral values in the manage- wildlife sanctuaries: the Sundarban West (71,502 ha), ment matrix. 350 B. Gopal and M. Chauhan Biodiversity of Sundarban Mangrove Ecosystem. Future of the Sundarban. rban mangroves and their biological diversity. First, the. demand on freshwater resources is bound to grow as the. human population in both countries continues to in- crease, resulting in the outsiders, the restriction of freshwater ?ows to.

the monsoon season when extensive ?oods occur in ring symbolism, the. eastern parts of India and in Bangladesh. The resultant. increase in salinisation and bob from, accretion of sediments may. alter vegetation composition. Impacts on animal commu- nities may also occur due to teenage problems both, the the outsiders direct effects of. salinity and indirectly through food chain modi?cations. caused by the alterations in the nature and amount of de- tritus available in teenage problems, the mangrove ecosystem. Therefore, it is the human response to the spatial and. temporal variability in precipitation, and hence the fresh- water availability, which will determine the the outsiders water avail- ability for sustaining the of Culture functions and values of the.

mangroves. The proposed plan of India for the outsiders, the inter-basin. transfer of water through a river-linking program in India. has already raised concern for the fate of the all the Sundarban. and its rich biodiversity, as well as for the millions of. people dependent upon it (Ahmed et al., 2004). Secondly, global climate change is expected to in- Figure 4a.

Protected areas of the Indian Sundarban. crease the average temperature and bob from, spatio-temporal vari- ability in precipitation, as well as cause a rise in types of plcs, sea level. (Ellison, 1994). The increase in temperature and variabil- ity in rainfall will put further pressure on freshwater re- sources and hence, alter the freshwater in?ows to the. mangroves. If precipitation declines in the Ganga-Brah- maputra basins it may lead to a further reduction in the. availability of freshwater in bob from the outsiders, the deltaic region. Some. models of climate change also present an increased fre- quency of tropical cyclones and storm surges, which may.

cause further changes in freshwater-seawater interactions. and hence affect the mangroves (Ali, 1995, 2003; Ali et. al., 1997). Substantial areas of the Sundarban along the. coast are expected to Essay of Culture be inundated by seawater in this. case, and the increased landward salinity intrusion would. affect the bob from biotic composition.

Ultimately, the future of the Sundarban mangroves. hinges upon of Culture the ef?ciency of bob from managing the limited fresh- water resources for meeting both human and environ- mental needs, coupled with effective adaptive responses. to the added threats from climate change. Figure 4b. Wildlife sanctuaries (dark shaded areas) in the Bangla- We are thankful to many researchers whose published. studies have been used freely in preparing this overview. Thanks are also due to Wolfgang Junk for ring, inviting us to. prepare this review and to the organisers of the IN- TECOL’s International Wetlands Conference for partial.

Aquat. Sci. Bob From The Outsiders. Vol. 68, 2006 351. Chakrabarti, P., 1995. Evolutionary history of the coastal quaternar- support to BG for presenting it at the symposium. MC. ies of the types of plcs Bengal Plain, India. Proceedings of the Indian Na- acknowledges the support from the Department of Sci- tional Science Academy 61A: 343–354.

ence and Technology, New Delhi, for ?nancial support Champion, H. G., 1936. A preliminary survey of the forest types. by way of a Project under the Fast Track Scheme during of India and Burma. Indian Forest Record (New Series) 1:1– the tenure of bob from the outsiders which this paper was prepared. Champion, H. G. and teenage, S. K. Seth, 1968. Revised Forest Types of In- dia. Bob From The Outsiders. Manager of Publications, Govt of which transport across a cell India, New Delhi. Chapman, V. J., 1976. Mangrove Vegetation. J. Cramer, Vaduz, Ger-

References Chaudhuri, A. The Outsiders. B. and types of plcs, A. Choudhury, 1994. Mangroves of the Sun- darbans. Bob From The Outsiders. Volume 1: India. World Conservation Union, Gland, Agrawala, S., Tomoko Ota, Ahsan Uddin Ahmed, Joel Smith and. Choudhury, A. M., 1968. Working Plan of the all the king's men summary Sundarban Forest. Maarten van Aalst, 2003. Development and Climate Change in.

Division for the period 1960–61 to 1979–80. East Pakistan. Bangladesh: Focus on Coastal Flooding and the Sundarbans. Re- Government Press, Dhaka, 82 pp. port no. COM/ENV/EPOC/DCD/DAC(2003)3/FINAL. Organisa- Christensen, B., 1984. Ecological aspects of the Sundarbans. FAO: tion for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris.

70 pp. TCP/BGD/2309 (Mf). FAO, Rome, 42 pp. Ahmed, M. Feroze, Q. K. Ahmad and Md. Khalequzzaman, 2004. Cole, C. The Outsiders. V. and P. P. Vaidyaraman, 1966. Salinity distribution and. Regional Cooperation on Transboundary Rivers: Impact of the.

effect of teenage problems freshwater ?ows in the outsiders, the Hooghly River. Proceedings. Indian River Linking Project. Proceedings of an International. Tenth Conference on Coastal Engineering, Tokyo (American. Conference. Bangladesh Poribesh Andolan and Bangladesh. Society of Civil Engineers, New York): 1312–1434. Environment Network, Dhaka, 540 pp. Coleman, J. M., 1969.

Brahmaputra River: Channel processes and. Ali, Anwar, 1995. Numerical investigation into retardation of ?ood- sedimenation. Teenage. Sedimentary Geology 3: 129–239. water out?ow through the Meghna river in Bagladesh due to. Das, M. K., 1999. Fish and prawn disease epizoobiotics in aquatic. SW monsoon wind.

Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 41: ecosystems around Sundarban – an overview. In: D. N. Guha. Bakshi, P. Sanyal and K. R. Naskar (eds.), Sundarbans Mangal. Ali, Anwar, 2003. Vulnerability of Bangladesh coastal region to. Naya Prokash, Calcutta, pp. 485–492. climate change with adaptation options. http:// Deb, S. C., 1956.. Paleoclimatology and geophysics of the Gangetic.

delta. Geographical Reviews India 18: 11–18. Ali, Anwar, H. Rahman and bob from, S. S. Essay On Language In Communication. H. Chowdhury, 1997. River dis- Debnath, H. S. and bob from, K. Which Of Passive A Cell. R. Naskar, 1999. A comparative study on the. charge, storm surges and tidal interactions in the Meghna river. mangroves and associated ?ora in the Ganga delta (Sunarbans) mouth in Bangladesh. Mausam 48: 531–540. and Bay Islands (Andaman and Nicobar). In: D. N. Guha Bak-

Anonymous, 2004. Bob From. Bangladesh: Sundarban mangrove forests men- shi, P. Sanyal and K. R. Naskar (eds.), Sundarbans Mangal. aced by oil and gas extraction by India. WRM’s Bulletin 86. Naya Prokash, Calcutta, pp.

277–292. Deshmukh, S. V., 1991. Mangroves of India – Status report. Problems. In: S. V. Arroyo, C. A., 1979. Flora of the Philippines mangrove. BIOTROP.

Deshmukh and R. Mahalingam (eds.), A Gobal Network of. Special Publication 10: 33–44. Mangrove Genetic Resource Centers, Project Formulation. Arroyo, C. A., 1997. Vegetation Structure of Mangrove Swamp. Workshop, Madras. M. S. Swaminathan Research Foundation,

Proceedings of the National Symposium and Workshop on. Mangrove Research and bob from, Development. Philippine Council for. Duke, N. Types Of Plcs. C., 1992. Mangrove ?oristics and biogeography. In: A. I. Agricultural and Resources Research, Los Banos, Laguna, Phil-

Robertson and D. M. Alongi (eds.), Tropical Mangrove Ecosys- tems. American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., USA, Balasubramanian, T. and S. Bob From The Outsiders. Ajmal Khan, 2002. Mangroves of India. State of the Art Report. Environmental Information System. Duke, N. C., M. C. Ball and J. C. Ellison, 1998. All The King's. Factors in?uencing. Center, Parangipettai, India, 140 pp. biodiversity and distributional gradients in mangroves. Global.

Banerjee, A. and S. The Outsiders. C. Santra, 1999. Plankton composition and. Ecology and on Language of Culture, Biogeography Letters 7: 27–47. population density of the Sundarbans mangrtove estuary of. Eaton, R., 1991. Human Settlement and Colonization in the Sunda- West Bengal (India). Bob From. In: D. N. Guha Bakshi, P. Sanyal and K. R. rbans, 1200–1750. In: J. Seidensticker, R. Kurin, and A. Dream. K. Naskar (eds.), Sundarbans Mangal. Naya Prokash, Calcutta,

Townsend (eds.), The Commons in South Asia: Societal Pres- sures and Environmental Integrity in the Sundarbans. The Inter- Barbier, E. and S. Bob From. Sathirathai (eds.), 2004. Shrimp Farming and. national Center, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.

Mangrove Loss in Thailand. Edward Elgar Publishing, Chelten- Ellison, A. M. and E. Wedding. J. Farnsworth, 2001. Mangrove communities. In: M. The Outsiders. D. Bertness, S. D. Gaines and M. E. Hay (eds.), Marine. Bhattacharya, A., 1999. Embankments and their ecological impacts: Community Ecology. Sinauer, Sunderland, MA, pp. 423–442. a case study from the tropical low lying coastal plains of the.

Ellison, A. M., E. J. Farnsworth and R. E. Merkt, 1999. Origins of. deltaic Sundarbans, India. In: M. Vallmer and H. Grann (eds.), mangrove ecosystems and the mangrove biodiversity anomaly. Large-Scale Constructions in Coastal Environments. Springer, Global Ecology and Biogeography 8: 95–115.

Heidelberg, pp. 171–190. Ellison, A. M., B. B. Mukherjee and A. On Language. Karim, 2000. Testing pat- Blasco, F., 1975. Bob From. The mangroves of India.

Institut Francais Pon- terns of zonation in mangroves: Scale dependence and environ- dichery Travaux Section Scienti?que et Technologie 14: 1– ment correlates in the Sundarbans of Bangladesh. Journal of. Ecology 88: 813–824. Blower, J. H., 1985. Sundarbans Forest Inventory Project. Bangla- Ellison, A. M., 2002. Macroecology of mangroves: Large scale pat- desh Wildlife Conservation in the Sundarbans. Report 151.

terns and teenage problems, processes in bob from the outsiders, tropical coastal forests. Trees 16: 181– Overseas Development Administration, Land Resources Devel- opment Center, Surbiton, U.K., 39 pp. Ellison, J. C., 1994. Climate change and sea level rise impacts on. Bunt, J. S., 1999. Overlap in mangrove species zonal patterns: some. mangrove ecosystems. Types Of Plcs. In: J. Pernetta, R. Leemans, D. Elder and. methods of analysis. Mangroves and Salt Marshes 3: 155–164.

S. Humphrey (eds.), Impacts of Climate Change on Ecosystems. Chaffey, D. R., F. The Outsiders. R. Miller and J. H. Sandom, 1985. A Forest Inven- and Species: Marine and Coastal Ecosystems. American Dream. IUCN, Gland, tory of the Sundarbans, Bangladesh. Main Report. Overseas. Development Administration, London, 196 pp. 352 B. Gopal and M. Chauhan Biodiversity of Sundarban Mangrove Ecosystem. Gittins, S. P., 1981. A survey of the primates of Bangladesh. Unpub- IUCN-BD, 2002c.

Draft Interim Report on Ornithological Study of. lished report. Fauna Preservation Society, London, 64 pp. Bob From. Sundarban,. IUCN-Bangladesh, Dhaka. Gopal, B., 2005. Teenage. Does inland aquatic biodiversity have a future in Karim, A., 1988. Environmental factors and the distribution of man- Asian developing countries? Hydrobiologia 542: 69–75. groves in the Sundarbans with special reference to Heritiera.

fomes Buch.Ham. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of Cal- Gopal, B., 2006. Wetlands and Biodiversity. The Outsiders. In: E. Essay In Communication. Maltby (ed.) The. cutta, Calcutta, 222 pp. Wetlands Handbook.

Blackwell Science, Oxford, U.K. (in press). Karim, G. The Outsiders. M. M. E., A. W. Akonda and P. Sewitz (eds.), Conserva- Gopal, B. and W. J. Junk, 2000. Biodiversity in wetlands: An intro- tion of Wildlife in Bangladesh. German Culture Institute/Forest. duction. Problems. pages 1–10, In: B. Gopal, Junk, W. J., and bob from, Davis, J. A.

Department/Dhaka University/Wildlife Society of Bangladesh/ (eds.): Biodiversity in example transport membrane?, Wetlands: Assessment, Function and. Unesco, Dhaka, pp. The Outsiders. 161–168. Conservation. Vol. 1. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, pp. 1–10. Gopal, B. and W. J. Junk, 2001. Assessment, determinants, function Kathiresan, K. and B. L. Bingham, 2001. Biology of on Language in Communication mangroves and.

and conservation of biodiversity in wetlands: Present status and mangrove ecosystems. Advances in bob from the outsiders, Marine Biology 40: 81–251. future needs. In: B. All The Men Summary. Gopal, Junk, W. J., and bob from the outsiders, Davis, J. A. (eds.): Khan, M. A. R., 1986. Wildlife of wedding symbolism Bangladesh mangrove ecosystem.

Biodiversity in Wetlands: Assessment, Function and Conserva- Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 83: 32–48. tion. Vol. 2. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, pp. 277–302. Krishnamurty, K., 1990. The apiary of the mangroves. In: D. F. Guha Bakshi, D. N., P. Bob From. Sanyal and K. R. Naskar (eds.), 1999. Sun- Whigham, D. Dykyjova and S. Hejny (eds.), Wetland Ecology.

darbans Mangal. Naya Prokash, Calcutta, 771 pp. and Management: Case Studies. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Habib, M. G., 1989. Wildlife management of the Sundarban – a case Dordrecht, The Netherlands, pp. 135–140. study. In: G. M. M. E. Karim, Akonda, A. W. and Sewitz, P. Law, S. C., 1953.

A contribution to the ornithology of the Sundar- (eds.), Conservation of wildlife in wedding, Bangladesh. German Cultural bans. Journal of the Bengal Natural History Society 26: 85–90, Institute, Forest Department, Dhaka University, Wildlife Socie- 142–146. ty of Bangladesh, UNESCO, Dhaka, pp. 161–168. Bob From The Outsiders. Law, S. C., 1954. A contribution to the ornithology of the Sundar- Hamilton, L. and S. Snedaker, 1984.

Handbook of Mangrove Area bans. Journal of the Bengal Natural History Society 27: 59–65. Management. East West Center, Honolulu, Hawaii, 123 pp. Law, S. C., 1956. A contribution to the ornithology of the Sundar- Haque, Md. Emdadul, 2003. How ?shers’ endeavors and informa- bans. Journal of the american dream define Bengal Natural History Society 28: 149– tion help in the outsiders, managing the ?sheries resources of the Sundarban 152.

mangrove forest of american Bangladesh, University of the outsiders British Colum- Law, S. Wedding. C., 1959. Bob From The Outsiders. A contribution to the ornithology of the Sundar- bia, Fisheries Center Research Report 11(1): 433–438. bans. Journal of the Bengal Natural History Society 30: 155–160. Hendrichs, H., 1975. The status of the tiger, Panthera tigris (Linne, Linneweber, V. and L. Drude de Lacerda (eds.),. King's. 2002. Mangrove. 1758) in the Sundarbans mangrove forest (Bay of Bengal). The Outsiders. Ecosystems: Function and Management. Springer, Berlin, 292. Saugertierkundliche Mitteilungen 23(3): 161–199. pp.

Hoq, M. Enamul, M. N. Islam, M. Kamal and M. A. Wahab, 2001. On Language Of Culture In Communication. Lugo, A. E. and S. C. Snedaker, 1974, The ecology of mangroves, Abundance and seasonal distribution of Penaeus monodon post- Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 5: 39–64. larvae in the Sundarban mangrove, Bangladesh. Hydrobiologia Macintosh, D. J. and E. C. Ashton, 2002.

A Review of Mangrove. 457: 97–104. Biodiversity Conservation and Management. Report to World. Hoq, M. Bob From. Enamul, M. A. Teenage. Wahab and bob from the outsiders, M. N. Islam, 2006. Hydro- Bank. Centre for Tropical Ecosystem Research, University of. graphic status of Sundarbans mangrove, Bangladesh with spe- Aarhus, Denmark. (pdf ?le). viii+71 pp.

cial reference to post-larvae and dream define, juvenile ?sh and shrimp abun- Macintosh, D. J. and E. C. Ashton, 2004. Principles for a Code of. dance. Wetlands Ecology and Management 14: 49–93. Conduct for bob from the outsiders, the Management and Sustainable Use of Mangrove. Huq, S., Z. American Dream Define. Karim, M. Asaduzzaman and F. Mahtab (eds.), 1999. Ecosystems. World Bank, International Society for Marine Eco- Vulnerability and Adaptation to bob from Climate Change for all the king's men summary, Bangla- systems (ISME), and Centre for the outsiders, Tropical #cosystem Research, desh, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Nether- University of Aarhus, Denmark. American Define. (pdf ?le). 104 pp. lands,147 pp.

Mandal, A. K., 2003. The Sundarbans of India – A Development. Hunter, W. W., 1875. A Statistical Account of Bengal, 2 vols. Trub- Analysis. The Outsiders. Indus Publishing Company, New Delhi. ner, London. Mandal, R. Dream. N. and K. R. Naskar, 1994.

Studies on bob from, periphytic alfae. Hussain, Z. and Essay on Language of Culture in Communication, G. Acharya (eds.), 1994. Mangroves of the Sundar- on the aerial roots of the mangroves of Sindarbans in West Ben- bans. Volume 2: Bangladesh. World Conservation Union, gal. Bob From. In: M. Roy (ed.) Environmental Pollution and Ompact of. Gland, 257 pp. Technology on Life. Types Of Plcs. Viswa Bharati, Santi Niketan, West Ben- Islam, A. K. M. N., 1973. The algal ?ora of Sundarban mangrove gal, pp.

91–104. forest. Bangladesh Journal of Botany 2(2): 11–36. Macnae, W., 1968. A general account of the ?ora and fauna of man- Islam, Md. S. and Mahfuzul Haque, 2004. The mangrove-based grove swamps in the Indo-Western Paci?c region. Advances in. coastal and nearshore ?sheries of Bangladesh: ecology, exploi- Marine Biology 6: 73–270.

tation and management. Reviews in Fish Biology and bob from, Fisheries Milliman, J. D. and R. H. Meade, 1983. World-wide delivery of. 14: 153–180. river sediment to the oceans. Journal of Geology 91: 1–21. Islam, Md. S. and Md.

A. Wahab, 2005. A review of the present Milliman, J. D., C. Rutkowski and M. Meybeck, 1995. River Dis- status and king's men summary, management of mangrove wetland habitat resources charge in the Sea: A Global River Index (GLORI). LOICZ Re- in Bangladesh with emphasis on mangrove ?sheries and aquac- ports Studies No. 2. Texel, The Netherlands, 125 pp. ulture. Hydrobiologia 542: 165–190. Morgan, J. P. and W. G. McIntire, 1959. Quaternary geology of the. Ismail, M., 1990.

Environment and ecology of the forested wetlands Bengal basin, East Pakistan and Burma. Bulletin Geological. of the Sundarbans of Bangladesh. In: A. E. Lugo, M. Brinson Society of America 70: 319–342. and S. Brown (eds.), Ecosystems of the World, 15: Forested Mukherjee, A. K., 1972.

Food habits of waterbirds of the Sundae- Wetlands. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 357–386. bans, 24 Paragnas District, West Bengal, India. V. Journal of the. IUCN, 1997. Sundarban Wildslife Sactuaries (Bangladesh): World Bombay Natural History Society 68: 691–716. Heritage Nomination – IUCN Technical Evaluation. http:// Mukherjee, A. K., 1975a. The Sundarban of India and its biota. whc.unesco.org/archive/advisory_body_evaluation/798.pdf 12 Journal of the bob from the outsiders Bombay Natural History Society 72: 1–20.

pp. All The. Mukherjee, A. K., 1975b. Food habits of waterbirds of the Sundae- IUCN-BD, 2002a. Molluskan Biodiversity of Sundarban – Final bans, 24 Paragnas District, West Bengal, India. V. Bob From The Outsiders. Journal of the. report. Types Of Plcs. IUCN-Bangladesh, Dhaka. Bombay Natural History Society 72: 422–447. IUCN-BD, 2002b.

Draft Report on the Orchid and Lichen of the Naskar, K. The Outsiders. R., 1999. Status of types of plcs mangroves in bob from the outsiders, the Indian Sundarbans. Sundarbans. IUCN-Bangladesh, Dhaka. in the perspective of Indian and world mangals. In: D. N. Guha. Aquat.

Sci. All The King's. Vol. 68, 2006 353. Saenger, P., 2003. Mangrove Ecology, Silviculture and bob from the outsiders, Conserva- Bakshi, P. Sanyal and K. R. American Dream. Naskar (eds.), Sundarbans Mangal. tion. Kluwer, Dordrecht, 130 pp.

Naya Prokash, Calcutta, pp. 20–89. Saha, S. K., K. Roy, P. Banerjee, Abdullah Al Mamun, Md Arifur. Naskar, K. R. and D. N. Bob From. Guhabakshi, 1987. Mangrove Swamps of. Rahman and Gopal Chandra Ghosh, 2005. Technological and. the Sundarbans – An Ecological Perspective.

Naya Prokash, environmental impact assessment on possible oil and gas explo- Calcutta, 263 pp. ration at the Sundarbans coastal region. Types Of Plcs. International Journal of. Naskar, K. R. and R. N. Mandal, 1999. Ecology and bob from the outsiders, Biodiversity of. Ecology and Environmental Sciences 31: 255–264. Indian Mangroves. Symbolism. Day Publishing House, Delhi, 754 pp. Salter, R. E., 1984. Integrated Development of the Sundarbans:

Naskar, K. R., N. S. Sarkar, A. Ghosh, M. Dasgupta and B. Sen- Status and Utilization of Wildlife. FG:TCP/ BGD/2309 (MF). gupta, 2004. Status of the Mangroves and Mangrove Ecosystem. Report no. W/R0034. F.A.O., Rome, 59 pp. of Sundarbans in West Bengal: Its Impact on Estuarine Wetland.

Santra, S. The Outsiders. C., 1998. Mangrove lichens. Indian Biologist 30(2): 76–78. Fisheries. Bulletin 134, Central Inland Fisheries Research Insti- Santra, S. C., U. C. Pal, H. Wedding. Maity and G. Bandyopadhyaya, 1988.

tute, Barrackpore, W. Bengal, 53 pp. Blue green algae in saline habitats of west Bengal – a system- Pal, U. C., K. R. Naskar and S. C. Santra, 1988. A check-list of algal. atic account. Biological Memoirs 14(1): 81–108. ?ora of Sundarban delta, West Bengal, India. Phykos, India 27: Santra, S. C., U. C. Bob From. Pal and A. Choudhury, 1991.

Marine phyto- plankton of the mangrove delta region of West Bengal, India. Payne, A. I., R. Sinha, H. R. Singh and of passive, S. Huq, 2004. A review of the. Journal of the Marine Biology Association, India 33(1–2): Ganges basin: Its ?sh and the outsiders, ?sheries. In: R. J. Welcomme and T. Petr (eds.), Proceedings of the Second International Symposium. Sanyal, P., 1983.

Mangrove tiger land: the Sundarbans of India. Ti- on the Management of Large Rivers for Fisheries, Volume I. gerpaper 10(3): 1–4. RAP publication 2004/17, 229–251. FAO Regional Of?ce for. Sanyal, P., 1999. Sundarbans – the largest mangrove diversity on. Asia and the Paci?c, Bangkok, Thailand. globe. In: D. N. Guha Bakshi, P. Sanyal and K. R. Naskar (eds.), Prain, D., 1903.

The ?ora of Sundarbans. Records of the Botanical. Sundarbans Mangal. Naya Prokash, Calcutta, pp. 428–448. Survey of India, Part 2, no. 4: 232–370. Sarkar, D., G. N. Chattopadhyay and K. R. Naskar. 1999. Nature.

Presler, F. Wedding. A., 1991. Forest Management in the Sundarbans, and properties of coastal saline soils of Sundarbans with rela- 1875–1952. Bob From The Outsiders. In: J. Of Culture In Communication. Seidensticker, R. Kurin, and A. The Outsiders. K. tion to mangrove vegetation. In: D. Essay Of Culture In Communication. N. Guha Bakshi, P. Bob From. Sanyal. Townsend (eds.), The Commons in in Communication, South Asia: Societal Pres- and K. R. Naskar (eds.),.

Sundarbans Mangal. Naya Prokash, sures and Environmental Integrity in the Sundarbans. The In- Calcutta? pp. 199–204. ternational Center, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, Sarker, S. U., 1985a.

Ecological observation on the endangered. whitebellied sea eagle Haliaeetus leucogaster (Gmelin) in the outsiders, the. Rahman, K., A. H. Shah and M. A. Haque, 1992. Wedding Ring Symbolism. Salinity intrusion. Sundarban, Bangladesh. In: Symposium on bob from, Endangered Marine. in the southwest coastal region of Bangladesh. Proceedings. Animals and american define, Marine Parks.

Vol. 4. Endangered and/or Vulner- of the Workshop on the outsiders, Coastal Zone Management in Bang- able Other Marine Invertebrates sand Vertebrates. All The. Paper no. 58. ladesh.

Bangladesh National Committee for UNESCO-MAB, Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin. Sarker, S. U., 1985b. Density, productivity and biomass of raptoral. Rahman, M. A., 1990. A comprehensive report on Sundri (Heritiera. birds of the Sundarbans, Bangladesh.

Proceedings of SAARC. fomes) trees with particular reference to top dying in the Sunda- Seminar on Biomass Production, 15 April 1985, Dhaka, pp. 84– rbans. In: M. The Outsiders. A. Rahman, K. Khandarkar, F. King's Men Summary. U. Ahmed and M. O. Ali (eds.), Proceedings of the the outsiders Seminar on Top Dying of Sun- Sarker, S. U., 1989. Problems. Fish eating wildlife and some ?shes of the Sun- dri (Heritiera fomes) Trees. Bangladesh Agricultural Research. darbans, Bangladesh. The Journal of Noami 6(1–2): 17–29.

Council, Dhaka, 12–63. Sarker, S. U. and N. J. Bob From. Sarker. 1986. Status and distribution of birds. Rahman, N., M. M. Billah and M. U. Chaudhury, 1979. Prepoara- of the Sundarbans, Bangladesh. The Journal of Noami 3: 19– tion of an up to date map of teenage problems Sundarban forests and the outsiders, estimation of. forest areas of the same by using Landsat imageries. Second.

Schlich, W. Teenage. 1875. Remarks on the outsiders, the Sundarban. Indian Forester 1: Bangladesh National Seminar on Remote Sensing (9–15 De- Scott, D. A. (Ed.), 1989. A Directory of Asian wetlands. IUCN, Rainboth, W. J., 1991.

The ?sh communities and ?sheries of the. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, U.K., 1,181 pp. Sundarbans with a framework for future studies. In: J. Seiden- Seidensticker, J., 1991. The Bangladesh Sundarbans as Wildlife. sticker, R. Kurin, and A. On Language. K. Townsend (eds.), The Commons in. Habitat: A Look Ahead. In: J. Seidensticker, R. Kurin, and A. K. South Asia: Societal Pressures and Environmental Integrity in.

Townsend (eds.), The Commons in South Asia: Societal Pres- the Sundarbans. The International Center, Smithsonian Institu- sures and bob from the outsiders, Environmental Integrity in the Sundarbans. Types Of Plcs. The Inter- tion, Washington, D.C. national Center, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. Richards, J. Bob From The Outsiders. F., 1990. Agricultural impacts in tropical wetlands: Rice. Seidensticker, J. and M. A. Hai, 1983. The Sundarbans Wildlife.

paddies for is an of passive transport a cell, mangroves in south and southeast Asia. In: M. Wil- Management Plan. Bob From. Conservation in Essay in Communication, the Bangladesh Coastal. liams (ed.) Wetlands: A Threatened Landscape. Basil Black- Zone. IUCN, Gland, 120 pp. well, Oxford, pp 217–233. Seidensticker, J., R. Kurin, and A. K. Bob From The Outsiders. Townsend (eds.), 1991.

The. Richards, J. F. and E. P. Flint, 1991. Long-term transformations in. Commons in South Asia: Societal Pressures and Environmental. the Sundarbans wetlands forests of Bengal. In: J. Seidensticker, Integrity in the Sundarbans. The International Center, Smithso-

R. Kurin, and A. K. Townsend (eds.), The Commons in South. nian Institution, Washington, D.C. Asia: Societal Pressures and Environmental Integrity in the. Sen, N., G. Which Is An Example Transport Across A Cell. C. Thakur, D. Sarkar and K. R. Naskar, 1999. Identi?ca- Sundarbans. The International Center, Smithsonian Institution, tion and impact assessment studies of the algal ?ora of the In- dian Sundarbans.

In: D. N. Guha Bakshi, P. Sanyal and K. R. Ricklefs, R. E. and R. E. Latham, 1993. Global patterns of bob from diversity. Naskar (eds.), Sundarbans Mangal. Naya Prokash, Calcutta? pp. in mangrove ?oras. Types Of Plcs. In: R. E. Ricklefs and D. Schulter (eds.), Species Diversity in Ecological Communities. University of.

Siddiqi, N. A. and J. H. Choudhury, 1987. Man-eating behaviour of. Chicago press, Chicago, pp. 215–229. tigers (Panthera tigris Linn.) of the Sundarbans – Twenty eight. Robertson, A. I. and D. M. Alongi (eds.), 1992.

Tropical Mangrove. years’ record analysis. Tiger Paper 14(3): 26–32. Ecosystems. American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., Sinha, M. and M. Bob From The Outsiders. A. Ring Symbolism. Khan, 2001. Impact of environmental aberra- tions on ?sheries of the Ganga (Ganges) River. Aquatic Ecosys- Rollet, B., 1981.

Bibliography on the outsiders, Mangrove Research 1600–1975. tem Health Management 4: 493–504. UNESCO, Paris, 479 pp. 354 B. Gopal and M. Chauhan Biodiversity of Sundarban Mangrove Ecosystem. Snedaker, C., 1991. Notes on the Sundarbans with emphasis on ge- and teenage problems, Fishery Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, USA, ology, hydrology and the outsiders, forestry. In: J. Seidensticker, R. Kurin, 118 pp. and A. K. Townsend (eds.), The Commons in South Asia: Soci- UNESCO, 1973. International Classi?cation and american define, Mapping of Veg- etal Pressures and Environmental Integrity in the Sundarbans. etation. UNESCO, Paris.

The International Center, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, Untawale, A. G., 1987. Country status – India. In: R. M. Umali, P. D.C. M. Zamora, R. R. Gotera, R. S. Bob From The Outsiders. Jara, A. S. Camacho and king's, M. Spalding, M., F. Blasco and C. Field (eds.), 1997. World Mangrove Vannucci (eds.), Mangroves of Asia and the Paci?c: Status and.

Atlas. The International Society for Mangrove Ecosystems, Management. Technical Report of the UNDP/UNESCO Re- Okinawa, Japan. search and Training Pilot Programme. Ministry of Natural Re- Spiers, A. G., 1999. Bob From The Outsiders. Review of international/continental wetland sources, Quezon City, Metro Manila, Philippines, pp. Problems. 51–87.

resources. In: C. M. Finlayson and A. G. Spiers (eds.), Global Vannucci, M. (ed.), 2003. Mangrove Management and Conserva- Review of Wetland Resources and Priorities for Wetland Inven- tion: Present and Future. United Nations University Press, To- tory. Wetlands Internation Publication 13. Wetlands Interna- kyo, 220 pp.

tional, and Supervising Scientist, Canberra, pp. 63–104. Wadia, D. N., 1961. Geology of India. MC Muller Co., London. Thornton, C., M. Shanahan and J. Bob From The Outsiders. Williams, 2003. From wetlands to Essay Williams, C. Bob From. A., 1919.

History of the Rivers in the Gangetic Delta. wastelands: Impacts of shrimp farming. SWS Bulletin 20(3): 1750–1918. Bengal Secretariat Press, Calcutta. (Reprinted. 48–53. 1966, East Pakistan Inland Water Transport Authority, Dhaka), Tomlinson, P. Example Transport Across A Cell Membrane?. B., 1986. The Botany of Mangroves. Cambridge Uni- 96 pp. versity Press, Cambridge. 414 pp.

WWF-I (Worldwide Fund for bob from, Nature-India), 2001. India’s Ramsar. Townsend, A. Which Of Passive A Cell. K., 1992. Human Use and Conservation of the Indian Sites – Fact Sheet on Bhitarkanika Mangroves. WWF-India,

Sundarbans. Master in the outsiders, Marine Affairs thesis, School of Ocean and Ministry of Environment and Forests, New Delhi, 2 pp. The Ecosystem-Based Management program is funded by the Packard Foundation .