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argumentive essay Sure, youre a lover not a fighter. I am too. But that doesnt mean that you can avoid writing your argumentative essay! Since you have to write an argumentative essay, you might as well learn how to of my life write it well, right? Ive said it time and time againtheres nothing worse than staring at a blank page. Putting together an argumentative essay outline is the perfect way to turn your blank document into a ready-to-use template. Org Social Media. All you have to reflections life do is fill in the blanks! In this blog post, Im going to share with you how to create an Smoking Cancer, argumentative essay outline. Reflections Life. At the school end, Ill give you a downloadable skeleton outline you can use to get started. Structure of the Argumentative Essay Outline.

Thats not so bad! Theres really nothing to be afraid of. Heres how your argumentative essay outline would look if you turned it into a pretty picture: Each of reflections of my these four sections requires some important elements. Lets break those down now. Inferno An Epic. Argumentative Essay Outline Section 1: Your Intro.

Your introduction is where you lay the reflections life foundation for your impenetrable argument. Its made up of intro a hook, background information, and a thesis statement. Reflections Life. 1. Inter. Hook. Your first sentence is comprised of reflections a hook. Dont know what a hook is? A hook is a sentence that grabs your readers attention just like a good Jackie Chan movie grabs the frankenstein and his attention of a martial arts fan. Lets say Im writing an life, argumentative essay about why American people should start eating insects. My hook could be, For those interested in an epic, improving their diets and the environment, say goodbye to reflections eating chicken, fish, and greek of plato, beef and hello to reflections life eating silk worms, crickets, and Smoking and Lung Cancer, caterpillars. If youre having trouble coming up with a good hook, I recommend reading my blog post How to Write Good Hook Sentences. 2. Of My. Background information. The next part of your intro is dedicated to offering some detailed background information on inter, your topic.

Try answering the following questions: What is the issue at reflections of my life, hand? Who cares? Where is romeo and juliet intro this issue prevalent? Why is reflections life it important? For example, Insects are abundant, nutritious, and environmentally sustainable. Currently, people in the United States shun the idea of eating insects as part of testamental their diets, favoring instead less nutritious and environmentally destructive food options, such as beef and pork.

The UN recently issued a statement calling for more world citizens to of my embrace the many benefits of pro eating insects. 3. Thesis. Your thesis typically makes up the last sentence of reflections your intro paragraph. This is is dante's an epic where you clearly state your position on reflections, the topic and give a reason for inter your stance. For example, A diet of reflections of my life insects can help fix problems related to animal pro starvation, obesity, and climate change, and therefore, United States citizens should learn to reflections life rely on a variety of insects over and Lung Cancer, chicken, beef, and fish as their main source of reflections of my life protein and inter testamental, nutrition. Notice the reflections of my life word should in my thesis statement? Using this word makes it clear Im taking a stance on is dante's, the argument.

Youll also notice that my thesis statement sets up the reflections three claims Im going to expand on and Lung, later: a diet of reflections of my insects can help fix problems related to starvation, obesity, and inter, climate change. Life. Lets talk about and juliet intro, adding those claims to our argumentative essay outline now. Argumentative Essay Outline Section 2: Developing Your Argument. Now that you have filled in reflections life, the general points of your topic and outlined your stance in greek, the introduction, its time to develop your argument. Reflections Of My Life. In my sample outline, I show three claims, each backed by three points of romeo and juliet evidence. Offering three claims is just a suggestion; you may find that you only have two claims to make, or four. The exact number of claims you choose to reflections life include doesnt matter (unless, of course, your teacher has given you a specific requirement).

What matters is that you develop your argument as thoroughly as possible. Greek. 1. What is a claim? A claim is life a statement you make to support your argument. Animal Pro. For example, Bugs are highly nutritious and reflections of my life, eating them can fix the hector berlioz fantastique problem of hunger and of my life, malnutrition in the United States. Great! So Ive made my claim. Animal. But whos going to believe me? This is where evidence comes into play. 2. Of My Life. What is evidence?

For each claim you make, you need to provide supporting evidence. Evidence is factual information from reliable sources. Hector Berlioz Fantastique. It is not personal knowledge or anecdotal. For example, Researchers at the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United States state that Termites are rich in protein, fatty acids, and of my, other micronutrients. Greek School Of Plato. Fried or dried termites contain 3238 percent proteins. My outline shows three pieces of reflections of my evidence to intro support each claim, but you may find that each claim doesnt necessarily have three pieces of evidence to back it. Of My. Once again, the exact number doesnt necessarily matter (unless your teacher has given you instructions), but you need enough evidence to make your claim believable.

Once you have gathered your evidence to support your claims, its time to romeo and juliet intro add the reflections of my next important element of frankenstein and his bride your argumentative essay outline: refuting your opponents arguments. Reflections Life. Lets talk about that now. Argumentative Essay Outline Section 3: Refuting Opponents Arguments. In this section, you state your opponents views and then offer a rebuttal. For example, Opponents of Smoking and Lung Cancer insect eating from the Beef Council of of my America say that it is too difficult and romeo and juliet intro, time consuming to catch crickets, so it is not easy to gather enough food for a meal, whereas a cow is large and contains a lot of reflections of my meat for many meals. Oh diss! We know the is dante's an epic Beef Council just wants us to keep eating McDs hamburgers and reflections of my, skip the cricket soup. (By the animal pro wayI just made that up.

The Beef Council did not say that. In your essay, make sure to use real facts.) Now its time to reflections set the opponents straight with a refutation that is greek school full of of my hard evidence and inter, that will bring them to of my life their knees. Romeo And Juliet. For example, According to life researchers Cerritos and frankenstein and his, Cano-Santana, the life best time to harvest crickets is to frankenstein and his bride catch them in reflections of my life, the hour just before sunrise when they are least active. Whats more, it is easy to develop the inter testamental infrastructure to reflections of my farm crickets in a way that is more sustainable than cattle farming. Booyah! The Beef Council has been served (crickets). Greek School Of Plato. Once you have refuted your opponents viewpoints, its time to life sail to the finish line with your conclusion.

Argumentative Essay Outline Section 4: Conclusion. In your conclusion, you are going to testamental accomplish two important tasks. 1. Reflections. Restate the romeo intro importance of your issue. Similar to what you did in reflections of my life, your introduction, you want to bride restate why this topic is reflections life critical. Inferno. For example, Simply by incorporating insects into of my, their diets, U.S. citizens can improve the sustainability and nutrition of the inferno an epic American diet. 2. Paint a picture of the life world if your argument is (or is not) implemented.

In the final part of intro your conclusion, make your audience think about the reflections ramifications of your argument. What would happen if people started eating insects as a staple of procon org social media their diets? For example, The world would be a better place if more people ate insects as a part of of my their diets. Fewer people would go hungry, more people would get the frankenstein vitamins, minerals, and micronutrients they need to live healthy lifestyles, and our planet would be relieved of the burden of an unsustainable food system. Closing with a clear picture of the of my life world as you would like it to be can leave your reader convinced that your argument is valid. Frankenstein And His. Download the Argumentative Essay Outline Template. Download this skeleton Argumentative Essay Outline to get started. Reflections. Before you go off into is dante's an epic, the sunset and of my life, use my outline template, make sure that you are following the Smoking and Lung Cancer Essay guidelines specific to reflections of my your course. Frankenstein Bride. While this is a pretty standard outline, there are other ways to outline your argumentative essay.

If youre interested in of my, learning more about inter, argumentative essays, I suggest reading The Secrets of a Strong Argumentative Essay. Reflections Life. Want even more knowledge? Check out animal testing pro, this argumentative essay infographic! If youre looking for some ideas, check out these argumentative essay examples. When you have your argumentative essay and outline ready to go, you can always have one of our awesome editors give it a second look. Psst.

98% of life Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over 500,000 example essays. About the frankenstein and his bride Author. Naomi Tepper is reflections life a former Kibin editor, the inter testamental former content manager for of my the Kibin blog, and forever a word nerd. wow this was really help full. Romeo. Super! I#8217;m really happy to help. Reflections Of My. #128578; Hi I have a 20 minute presentation to do on school of plato, the history of reflections of my cognitive-behaviour therapy. Symphonie. Don#8217;t know where to begin. Is this the same as doing an of my life, argument.

This sounds more like an expository essay. Bride. An expository essay (or presentation in your case) has the goal of informing the audience on a specific topic. Usually you don#8217;t take an argumentative stance for or against these topics. For more information on expository writing visit: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-an-expository-essay/ hi i need some help on an argument . The topic is internet a guide or a distraction. i hope u can help. Do you think the of my internet is a guide or a distraction? I would suggest writing a thesis statement like this: You could focus on arguing for Smoking Essay the internet: #8220;The internet is a useful guide as shown by of my life evidence 1, evidence 2, and evidence 3.#8221; OR you could focus on Smoking and Lung Essay, arguing against of my life, the internet: #8220;The internet is an and his, annoying distraction as shown by reflections evidence 1, evidence 2, and Smoking and Lung, evidence 3.#8221; OR, and life, this is the symphonie best option, you could focus on reflections of my, arguing how to animal best use the internet: #8220;The internet can be both a useful guide as shown by evidence 1 and evidence 2, but it can also be an annoying distraction as shown by evidence 3 and evidence 4. It is of my important to set personal limits on Essay, web use including solution 1, solution 2, and of my, solution 3.#8221; Personal limits could include things such as limiting yourself to viewing only frankenstein bride specific websites during work/study hours, limiting overall time online, and other things like that! Hi Liz, well first you need to pick a side.

What do you think? Should they have their licenses revoked? Then you need to come up with a few reasons for why you think this. Reflections. Can you find any examples of how this tactic has worked (or hasn#8217;t worked). And Juliet Intro. What about people who lose their licenses for other (criminal) reasons, is this type of life punishment effective? Why or why not? Come up with approx three claims to support your side. Find some evidence to support your claims.

Lay out berlioz symphonie fantastique, how each of the life two authors approach the is dante's inferno topic of the reflections of my life Crusades. What do they have in is dante's an epic, common? What is different? Super happy to help! thank you so much for reflections life this! You are welcome so much! Thanks for romeo and juliet reading. #128578; Hi, I am writing an life, argumentative essay on and juliet intro, freedom of life speech rights and the 1st amendment and and juliet intro, I have two sides of the argument. Reflections. I am for freedom of an epic speech if it doesn#8217;t harm other people and I have some cases where the supreme court are avoiding the laws stated in of my life, the amendment but I#8217;m on frankenstein bride, the court#8217;s side of reflections of my life restricting inappropriate speech in pro, a school environment. How should I start out reflections of my, my argument?

I think you need to combine your two perspectives into hector berlioz, one focused argument. Reflections Of My. Do you, perhaps, want to argue that inappropriate speech in a school environment is and Lung Cancer actually harmful to other people? That way, it falls into your first argument (pro-free speech as long as it#8217;s not harmful) quite nicely. Good luck! it has helped a lot #8230;#8230; great work. Thanks! Glad you liked it. #128578; Thank you very much :)) You are welcome!

Thanks for of my life reading #128578; HI, I am writing an argumentative essay on how different governments should provide additional funding to org social increase awareness of human trafficking, prevent human trafficking, and help victims who have been trafficked. I am not sure where to life start from. Hisome of and his these example essays on reflections of my, human trafficking may give you ideas on how to get started: https://www.kibin.com/essay-examples/search/human%20trafficking. Hi, I am writing an animal testing, argumentative essay on life, how is animal social media like Facebook or Twitter beneficial or harmful to its users? I am not sure how to start from life, there. Hi Rosie you might find inspiration on greek, how to reflections of my life get started by reviewing some of pro these example essays on of my life, social media: https://www.kibin.com/essay-examples/search/social%20media. Hi, i was wondering if in the conclusion of the Smoking and Lung essay you need to end it with a question, something for reflections life the reader to romeo and juliet continue to think about reflections of my, after reading or is it unnecessary? Great question! Asking a larger question is testing pro definitely one great conclusion technique. Reflections. Some teachers/profs really like this, while others prefer that you tie everything up with a neat little bow.

I recommend you check out this post on hector berlioz symphonie fantastique, the topic of reflections conclusions: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/essay-conclusion/ This helped a lot! Thanks, love how its broken down. Of Plato. I have a question though. Should the reflections life conclusion have its own paragraph or can I include the greek conclusion with opponents argument? I definitely recommend giving your conclusion its own paragraph. You don#8217;t want to reflections leave your readers hanging on testing, to just your opponent#8217;s argument! You can learn more about reflections, writing conclusions in this post: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/essay-conclusion/ Helped me to help my students #128578; I was wondering if you can show a sample essay with these elements in use? Thank you #128578; Awesome! I love to animal testing pro hear that. That#8217;s a really great idea#8230; and reflections of my life, one that I intend to frankenstein and his implement in upcoming blog posts.

However, at reflections, this time I don#8217;t readily have access to a knock out example. Frankenstein Bride. Naomi. HELP. I am having a hard time with my argumentative research essay on drug testing to receive state benefits a.e. T.A.N.F, food stamps.. Reflections Of My. I#8217;m getting so frustrated and and juliet, I dont have any idea where to reflections life begin.. I found it very useful! Thanks a lot #128512; You#8217;re welcome a lot! Thanks for reading. #128578; thanks helped me a lot luv your work 3. Org Social Media. can u do a website on of my life, argumentiv wtiting starters plz im a begener. Org Social Media. OMG. THX so much this helped a ton.

You are so welcome! Thanks for reading. Life. #128578; You#8217;re welcome! Wow that#8217;s a great idea for an essay. Very intriguing. is this guide ok for an eight grader test. Inter Testamental. Yasss#8230;This blog is reliable#8230;Thanks ? Woot!

Glad you like it. #128578; I#8217;m happy to reflections of my hear it. #128578; Thanks for inferno your comment. Reflections. I have to write an procon org social media, argumentative. research essay about the life career of my choice, which is intro sports marketing. Reflections. I#8217;m not sure what type of procon org social arguments I need to make. Am I defending my choice of careers? Am I talking about it#8217;s importance in the world? It#8217;s just something I am interested in reflections life, so I am not sure how to greek school write an argumentative paper about it. I have to write an argumentative research essay about the of my life career of bride my choice, which is sports marketing. Reflections Of My Life. I#8217;m not sure what type of procon media arguments I need to make. Am I defending my choice of careers? Am I talking about reflections of my life, it#8217;s importance in the world?

It#8217;s just something I am interested in romeo and juliet intro, so I am not sure how to reflections write an inter testamental, argumentative paper about life, it. Hi thereI#8217;d double check your assignment for clues on frankenstein and his, how to reflections of my approach this. If there really aren#8217;t any additional clues, I would go with your first instinct to inter testamental defend your choice of reflections of my life careers. Animal Testing Pro. Why are you interested? Is the pay worth it? What makes you cut out for this career in particular? A thesis statement might look like: Sports marketing is the reflections perfect career choice for inferno me as it will allow me to use my strengths in reflections life, XYZ, make a decent income, all while keeping me interested and engaged. Then use the rest of your essay to berlioz symphonie fantastique fill out reflections of my, those key points.

Thanks! That#8217;s helpful. Intro. Here#8217;s what the assignment says: #8220;In your argumentative research essay, you will a) conduct research about a successful and of my, realistic career of an epic your choice, b) use this research and accompanying commentary and reflections of my, rhetoric to frankenstein and his create an argument that you will eventually present and defend to of my life a group of peers. Hector Berlioz Symphonie. This assignment serves to reflections of my life create a foundation for personal statements, resumes and hector berlioz symphonie, CVs, and of my life, even interviews in which you will be asked about inter, your chosen career path and of my, its significance to procon media you. The evidence you collect during your research should support and justify your pursuit of any given career.#8221; Do you think I will be on track if I use your suggested thesis?

YesI do. You#8217;ll also want to reflections of my life find some hard facts and statistics to is dante's inferno an epic support your claims. Of My Life. For example, dig up how much it will cost for you to procon get your degree and of my life, weigh that against your potential income. You#8217;ll want to start with a clear thesis statement. Procon Org Social Media. I assume that when you say you are pro-Hungary this means that you feel the reflections of my country shouldn#8217;t be required to and his bride accept refugees? If so, your thesis statement might look something like this: Hungary should not be required to accept Syrian refugees because of of my life reason 1, reason 2, and inter testamental, reason 3. Orif you think the country should help. You would start with a thesis like this: Hungary should be required to life accept Syrian refugees because of org social media reason 1, reason 2, and reflections of my life, reason 3. Glad to help! Thanks for pro your comment. Hi ! I need help in writing a good thesis statement on reflections of my, the advantages and disadvantages of frankenstein and his using a cell phone. Please help. Of My. I need to testing submit it on thursday.

Plz Plz help. This one is reflections life pretty straightforward. Intro. You can frame it like this: Cell phone use has many advantages such as A, and B, but some disadvantages such as C. Or you could flip it: Cell phone use has many disadvantages such as A, and of my life, B, but some advantages such as C. Fill in symphonie fantastique, A, B, and C with your actual research. Thank you so much Naomi. Of My. This is inter testamental a great help. Reflections. Hi ! I need to Smoking Cancer Essay write a thesis statement on the topic, #8216;Element of hamartia in life, Hamlet, Love song of J Alfred and is dante's, Agamemnon. I need a thesis statement on this.

I have written Unable to reflections life take the correct decision at the right time can lead to a tragic end. Animal Pro. To be able to make that correct decision one must have the confidence otherwise it can have a tragic end as it happened to the protagonists in Hamlet, Agamemnon and reflections of my life, The Love song of J. Org Social. Alfred. Do you think this is of my life ok, if not can you help me please in writing a good thesis statement. Romeo. Thank you. Of My. I think you have the is dante's inferno right idea, but your version is unclear and a bit repetitive.

How about this edit? Being unable to life make the right decision at the right time can lead to animal testing a tragic end, which is exactly what happened to the protagonists in of my, Hamlet, Agamemnon, and hector berlioz symphonie, The Love song of J. Of My. Alfred. Hector Berlioz Symphonie. Thank you Naomi so very much. This is reflections great. I can go ahead now. You#8217;re welcome, Rachel! First you#8217;ll need to come up with a thesis statement. Is Dante's An Epic. For example: Public schools should be divided by reflections of my life sex because of testamental reason 1, reason 2, and reflections, reason 3. Then choose reasons that you can support with evidence from inter testamental, your research. this really works thanks.

Glad it worked for you, Rose! Thanks for your comment. Reflections Of My Life. Thanks but I#8217;m having trouble coming up with a good topic that is pro strong and reflections, worthy to greek school of plato be argued but not boring. Reflections Life. I want to frankenstein do something that isn#8217;t a popular topic like is texting and driving bad anu advice. Reflections. thank you so much. I have to write an argumentative essay on Poverty and Illiteracy. Cancer. I have already looked up my citations. Life. But I don#8217;t know how to testing break down my citations. Could you help me please? I#8217;m not sure whether you need to of my life write APA, MLA, or some other type of testing pro citation, but I have some blog posts that can help: MLA is life how I need to write it. Oh lordy this blog is ammmaaazzzinnnng.

Why thank you! I appreciate you readinnnnnng! can you send me your project on inter testamental, my email [emailprotected] Ikr like wowww #8230;I am so grateful to reach up on reflections of my life, it. Frankenstein And His Bride. can u send me your project on of my, my email [emailprotected] . Greek School Of Plato. I#8217;m supposed to reflections life create an argumentative essay that Rome was a superior society to Han China. Thank you so much. I think this is and his super helpful. Now my next problem is life if I can fit it all onto one page. Inferno. (That#8217;s the limit our teacher gave us. he wants to life see if we can make brief statements that speak many words with little words written) Funnyis that a common assignment this month? You#8217;re not the berlioz first student to of my life ask me about this Romans v Hans.

A topic that large is testamental going to be very difficult to explore in a single pagebut hey, it#8217;s a good exercise in concision. In any caseat the risk of sounding sales-ythe Kibin editing team is really good at meticulously cutting an life, essay down to size if you end up going over that one-page limit. You can learn more about our editing service here: https://www.kibin.com/essay-editing-proofreading. I really don#8217;t understand the refuting part. When you refute something, you take your opponent#8217;s argument and rip it to shreds. Greek School. So for example, say your opponent#8217;s biggest argument is that Donald Trump is the best candidate for U.S. president, you could counter that argument by pointing out of my life, that he has zero experience in politics. Hector Fantastique. hello again. I don#8217;t know if you got my resent reply but I was trying to reflections of my ask and inferno an epic, see if you could give me a little advice on life, some good resources involving work laws for teens.

This is animal testing really helped a lot. Of My Life. I was able to animal pro do my argumentative essay after reading this. Reflections Of My Life. It also explained clearly what I was looking for. Thank you! 3. School Of Plato. You are so welcome! Glad to help. Reflections. #128578; thanks a lot! this helped me create my english paper!

Sweet! Love to org social hear that. Reflections. #128578; Thank you so much. You saved my last semester of college! (From a French canadian currently having English Classes) Hey! Thanks for the great comment. You really made my day! I wish you the symphonie fantastique very best in your English classes. Reflections Life. Woot! Happy to help. #128578; Fantastic! So happy to procon org social media hear it. Reflections Life. #128578; I#8217;m writing about hector fantastique, functionalism and life, Weberianism.

Compare and contrast them and discuss briefly how concepts from the two theories contribute to the knowledge of is dante's inferno health practitioners. Please hook me up!! Love this blog. What email address I can sent my essay to get fix? And how long do I have to wait to get it back. Thank you. Hi Trinh Le, I love that you love it. #128578; Thanks for the comment. Reflections. To have an greek school, essay edited, please visit us here: https://www.kibin.com/essay-editing-proofreading. Our editors can have your essay back in reflections, as few as 3 hours (depending on word count). I#8217;m in love with this blog. Romeo And Juliet Intro. I was totally dreading the argumentative essay outline but now I#8217;m kind of life pumped thanks to your (absolutely hilarious) examples!

Awesome! I love hearing this. Media. Writing can be fun as long as you don#8217;t actively dread it. Of My. #128578; THANK YOU SO MUCH PLEASE WISH ME LUCK FOR MY ENGLISH EXAM TOMORROW SINCE ARGUMENTATIVE IS GOING TO BE INCLUDED IN THE EXAM TOMORROW I SHOULD#8217;VE ADD THE EVIDENCE FOR THE CLAIM HAHAHAHA O??? Thanks for reading! #128578; This saved my life. Frankenstein Bride. Thank you so much! Sweet! Happy to of my be a lifesaver. Romeo And Juliet. I need this argumentative essay for of my life tmm#8230; if crickets should be added to lunch school I need a sting essay I#8217;m in 11 grade my opinion is yes crickets should be added. Org Social. Hi there, the reflections of my outline in school of plato, this post should help you a lot! As for your thesis statement, you could write something like:

Crickets should be added to the school lunch menu because they are both nutritious and inexpensive. Reflections. For the rest of your essay, talk about and juliet, how you know they are nutritious and reflections life, inexpensive (hint, do your research!). I never understood the way my teacher taught this until I found this blog. It has helped me write a better argumentative essay. Thanks. You#8217;re welcome! Thanks for bride reading. #128578; Awesome! I love to of my hear feedback like this. Smoking Cancer Essay. Thanks for reading!

Thanks a lot mate helped me so much. Super! Happy to help. Reflections. You#8217;re super welcome! Happy to is dante's inferno help. Thank You sooo much for this blog. Reflections Of My Life. This has given me a chance to structure my assignment even better. THANKS xx. Thanks so much for is dante's inferno an epic reading!

Happy to reflections life help. Bride. I#8217;m writing about functionalism and Weberianism. Compare and reflections, contrast them and greek school, discuss briefly how concepts from the reflections life two theories contribute to the knowledge of health practitioners. Inter. Please hook me up!! Your topic is life a bit over inferno, my head, but you may be able to of my life get the creative juices flowing by animal testing using our compare/contrast thesis statement generator: https://www.kibin.com/thesis-builder/compare-contrast-topic. You#8217;re welcome!

Thanks for reading. My name is life Haley and frankenstein, i have to of my life do an argumentative essay for hector LA and reflections life, my topic is#8230;#8230;..In what situations, if any, does a woman have a right to animal pro an abortion? what should i put as a hook? The hook you choose will definitely depend on reflections life, your stance on the topic. Romeo And Juliet. If your paper is pro-choice, you could start with a shocking statistic about the reflections of my life number of testamental women who go through illegal/dangerous abortions during times and reflections of my life, places where abortion is Smoking and Lung Cancer Essay illegal. Reflections. If your paper is pro-life, you might start with an emotional appeal about the and juliet intro life of an unborn fetus being cut short. Of My Life. This is very helpful.

I was having trouble getting started on is dante's, writing but now I feel a lot more confident in reflections life, my subject. Thanks for the breakdown. Happy you found it useful. Animal. Thanks for reflections of my reading! Glad to hear that!

M hving trouble with introduction on procon media, smoking restriction. Can you help me with introducing on reflections, smoking restriction topic and frankenstein bride, thesis as well. Reflections Of My. I#8217;m going to procon assume that you are taking a stance in favor of smoking restriction. A hook would be a shocking statistic about the health risks of reflections life secondhand smoke to non-smokers. Berlioz Symphonie Fantastique. Here is a good source to life get you started: http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/secondhand_smoke/general_facts/ A thesis statement framework might look like this: Smoking restrictions are critical to symphonie public health due to reason 1, reason 2, and reflections of my, reason 3. You might also try our thesis statement builder: https://www.kibin.com/thesis-builder.

Naomi! youre amazing! this has really clarified this topic for is dante's an epic me. Life. thank you! Well, thank you, Neil! This comment was a great way to start my Friday. #128578; Wow, this is really good. I have been reading about academic reading and writing every day for 9 wks. I have to hector symphonie write a 1200-1500 word argumentative essay for my 1st university assessment.

This is by far the reflections of my life most helpful article I have read. Well done and inferno, thanks. Reflections Of My. Heaps. Frankenstein Bride. Fantastic! Happy to help. I have to write a argumentative essay and reflections of my life, the topic is: Should Homeland security and the CIA treat terrorist better? Aren#8217;t they people too? I#8217;m not sure what exactly im suppose to do or how to greek school of plato start it. Of My. thank you ms.Naomi that was really helpful. Hector Symphonie. Do you add in a rebuttal for reflections each of your points??

That is certainly one way to an epic approach an argumentative essay. Take an of my, opponent#8217;s view on Smoking, each of your arguments and reflections life, then crush it with your rebuttal. Or, if you follow the procon outline I gave you in reflections of my life, this post, just include a section to Cancer Essay crush one or two common opponent arguments. Thank you, this was very helpful and in the same time funny! good way to make interesting!! This was very helpful, but I still have some hesitation, my last important paper is an of my, Argumentative Research, and inter testamental, this will be my first one. Of My Life. I already have a thesis chosen and I#8217;m just kinda confuse about what facts I need to collect, but its just getting information that will back up my thesis,correct? Hi thereyes, as long as you have a good defendable thesis, you should be able to find sources to org social media support your stance. Reflections Life. Here is romeo and juliet a blog post about reflections of my, making sure your sources are credible: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/apply-craap-test-essay-sources/ Thanks for answering but I#8217;m having a difficult time trying to intro find and of my life, discern what will be helpful in my paper. My paper being about animal testing, Human Rights specifically Minority/Indigenous Rights. This was so helpful! But, I do have a couple of questions.

Is there a secret to writing a killer hook? What is the best way to reflections of my state your claim in the introduction? You might need to also read these posts: Thank you so much for testamental the helpful info. I definitely owe a get out of reflections jail free card. Procon Media. Awesome, I could definitely use it. #128578; Seriously very usefull tips i like it #128578; How many paragraphs is this? The argumentative essay outline is life 6 paragraphs as it stands, but you can definitely alter it to inter suit your purposes by adding or subtracting body paragraphs as needed. Usually your hook sentence is of my separate from your thesis statement. The hook is the and juliet intro first sentence in the intro paragraph, while your thesis statement is typically the reflections life last sentence in this paragraph. Sometimes you will add some background information too.

So an inter testamental, intro is of my Hook-background info-thesis statement. And Juliet Intro. Here#8217;s a revision of your sentence: ADD A HOOK SENTENCE OR TWO HERE. Reflections. We live in 21st century, and and juliet intro, many gender roles are outdated and shouldn#8217;t affect our lives in the ways they did before. One of these outdated gender roles is the idea that only reflections boys can ask girls outgirls should be able to testing ask boys out too. Of My Life. this is very useful#8230; but I can not write argument for my research paper (my topic is the racism in america and how effect to people ) can you help me , please. Racism in and Lung Cancer Essay, America is reflections of my a huge problem and inter, a huge topic. Reflections Life. I think your first step is to inferno an epic narrow your research focus. Reflections Of My. First, which specific problem of racism will you be looking at? Racism against a particular minority group? In a specific region or city? Are there studies that show the org social effects in life, these groups and pro, regions? What are some common findings/themes?

Here is another post specifically about reflections of my life, writing a research paper: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-a-research-paper/ This blog is Amazing! Very helpful! But my question is that did you really have to use #8220;eating insects#8221; example? I was having a hot n sour soup while reading this. Ha! I#8217;m so sorry to org social media have ruined your supper. Of My. #128578; I think I was inspired to inter testamental write this post after a bug flew into my mouth while I was riding my bike to work#8230; nutty and a bit bitter. Of My. Thanks for reading! This is absolutely incredible! I greatly admire your work and accomplishment!

I am a teacher that is writing a textbook with Creative Commons licensing for my school district using CK-12 as the platform. With all due respect, I would really love to romeo speak with you about possibly including some of the reflections of my information on the Kibin site, particularly this post, as a properly attributed contribution to procon org social my 6th Grade Reading Language Arts textbook. If you would not mind getting in contact with me, my email is of my [emailprotected] or simply reply to frankenstein this comment. @naomi_tepper:disqus. Hi AlishaThanks for your kind comment. I#8217;m totally in favor of you using the content from reflections, this post in romeo and juliet, your textbook with attribution.

Best of life luck on animal testing pro, this very important project, and if you need to life discuss, you can easily reach me at testing, [emailprotected] You#8217;re going to life have to take a stance for or against greek, school uniforms and of my, offer credible evidence to support your stance. Inter. I#8217;d suggest reading this post on how to reflections of my write a thesis statement : https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-a-thesis-statement/ Thank you for writing all these helpful hints! I#8217;m currently writing one for is dante's college with the topic of legalizing lane splitting for motorcycles. I just finished writing found your blog which is helping me make sure I did everything correctly #128578; thank you!! Fantastic! Happy to help. this is reflections of my amazing and inter testamental, funny as hell. this should help with my exam. Life. tqvm #128578; Thanks so much! Best of luck with your exam. Greek. #128578; it#8217;s very useful. Reflections Of My. thanks a lot. You#8217;re welcome! Thanks for testamental commenting. Reflections Of My Life. I#8217;ll be thankfull to you #128578;

You just made my time. Procon Org Social Media. You#8217;re welcome! Thanks for reflections life the comment. Procon. #128578; Thank you very much for reflections of my life making this easy to understand, this helped me ace my English final exam. You are the greek best #128578; So happy to life hear it! Thanks for inter the comment. Hi ?. Thanks for this wonderful guidelines.

Your article really makes my day more easier. Wish me luck. Inny. Sweet! Good luck on of my, your project! What a great tips. Thank you #128578; Happy you think so! Thanks for the comment. woooow this blog had helped me lotssssssss , thanks for your efforts. Happy to help! Thanks for the comment. Media. This seems to be very helpful!

I have an reflections, English final tmrw and I am really scared. Animal. Our teacher is giving us four random articles and we have to create an reflections life, argumentative essay on Cancer, a question he provided us. Do you know what I can do because I#8217;m really bad at reflections, writing and school of plato, reading. Like what else can I do rather than read this blog? First off, relax, deep breath, no need to of my be scared! As intimidating as this final seems right now, it will be over symphonie fantastique, soon and reflections of my, you#8217;ll barely remember it happened. Org Social Media. #128578; I know you said that you want advice more than just this blog, but it happens that my best advice happens to reflections of my life be on hector symphonie fantastique, the blog. Reflections Life. I have a post that I think will help you make a game plan for berlioz symphonie fantastique tackling an in-class essay. Here it is: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-a-timed-essay/ wowwwwwwww niiiiiiiiiiice. This really help a lot keeeep uuuuuup the good woooork. Reflections Of My Life. Great!

Glad you thought it was helpful. #128578; This blog is awesome and is dante's an epic, so helpful! Thank you thank you thank you. Thanks for reflections the sweet comment! Happy to org social help. Reflections Of My. #128578; may u send me your project on romeo, my email [emailprotected] thank you so muuch #128512; Thanks for reading! Glad we could help. Soo good it helped me a lot! Great! Happy to reflections help. Testing. #128578; Thanks for the clear outline, was very confused about reflections life, how to frankenstein bride start my paper after reading this made me crystal clear, don#8217;t know how I started and reflections life, didn#8217;t know I had ended just went off like a flash. very very useful. Romeo Intro. I#8217;m so glad you found it useful, Ram. Reflections. Thanks for reading! Thank you so much for greek school of plato the outline!!

I used it all morning to help start my essay for reflections of my college English over intro, Big Box vs Small Businesses! Fantastic! Happy to reflections of my hear it. Of Plato. #128578; i am writing a argumentative essay for reflections life #8220;being competent in greek school, English Language is necessary for life successful academic achievement#8221; cloud you plx give me a best introduction for procon org social this essay #8230; An interesting fact or statistic that shows the reflections correlation between learning English and is dante's an epic, academic success might be your best choice, if you can find something from a reputable source. Reflections. Or, if you could start with a story about romeo and juliet intro, yourself or someone you know who achieved something great because of knowing how to of my speak English. Can anyone give me a good hook for same sex marriage . I#8217;m writing an argumentative paper for my adv. School Of Plato. comp class. Your hook will depend on the stance you are taking. For example, if you are arguing in favor of life same sex marriage you could start with an frankenstein, interesting statistic that shines a light on the success of same sex marriages or you could start with a heartwarming story or anecdote about a successful same sex marriage.

This was really funny! (and useful) Thanks #128578; Awesome! Glad you liked it. Thanks for the comment. Reflections Life. #128578; Hey!! This page was rlly helpful but I still need help with making an intro for #8220;Why Teenager Should Not Have TVs In Their Bedrooms#8221; I would really appreciate it if u could help ASAP plz!!O That will help you write a strong intro #8212; including a strong thesis #128578; Ths for this it helped a lot. Inter. Awesome! Thanks for the comment. #128578; I really appreciate your help. didnt help at all sorry. Of My. Sorry that it wasn#8217;t more helpful, Trent.

Let us know if you have any questions that are still unanswered! I#8217;m going to write about and his, how humanity should strive for life immortality. Do you think the testing topic is too hard and broad for a 10th grader like me? May I know your thoughts and suggestions, please? Thanks! Nah, you can totally handle that topic! I don#8217;t think it#8217;s too broad, either, and reflections of my life, I really like that it take a strong stance.

Just make sure that you have 2-3 solid and testing, specific reasons to back up your claim that we should strive for immortality, as you#8217;ll want to include those reasons in reflections of my life, your thesis and and his bride, defend them throughout your paper. So the first question to answer as you write your thesis is #8220;Why do I believe this?#8221; Hi, there. I saw your question asking for reflections life advice on the difficulty of writing a paper on org social media, immortality. I have a few views on that myself but of the opposite point. Reflections Of My. I would be very interested in reading your thoughts on org social, the matter. So perhaps you would be inclined to life email me your assignment once it#8217;s finished. Greek School Of Plato. thanks this blog was very helpful. Reflections Of My. Awesome! We#8217;re happy you think so and testamental, thanks for the comment. Of My Life. #128578; Super helpful! About to write a 6-7 page paper for school of plato my college professor and reflections of my, I needed advice on greek of plato, an effective argumentative structure outline.

This is exactly what I needed to look at. Well designed. Reflections Of My Life. Sweet! Love to animal testing hear that it helped. Reflections Of My Life. Thanks for the kind comment. #128578; Is Misdiagnoses of and juliet intro Mental Disorders a good topic to write about? And is of my it too broad? I want to include toxic thinking as a huge contribution and impact to mental illness.

I need direction Please help!! It is is dante's inferno an epic a bit broad, yes. Reflections Of My. I would suggest narrowing it down to just one mental disorder. Maybe depression or ADD. You could narrow it down even further to animal pro talk about these diagnoses in reflections life, young adults or children rather than everyone. Animal Pro. Finally, make sure you have some evidence to support your argument that toxic thinking is the reflections contributing factor here! That#8217;s a pretty big statement and you#8217;ll definitely need to school of plato back it up.

I COULD KISS YOU RIGHT NOW YOU SAVED MY LIFE. Reflections. 3. can u send me your project on Smoking and Lung Cancer, my email [emailprotected] nice .. great work you have done.. Reflections Of My Life. thanks for and his help Naomi#8230; Thanks for reflections reading and for your kind comment! Thanks for procon org social your comment! Argumentative essay known as a task challenging somehow but the reflections of my thing you break it up, that was a sick info. Thanks so so much. P.S. loved your sense of humour. Animal Testing Pro. Aww, shucks.

Thanks for your sweet comment! #128578; bless you!! i have a paper due and this helps so much ^^ Woot! So glad to reflections of my hear it. Smoking And Lung. Thanks for reflections reading! Thank you so much for frankenstein bride the helpful outline. This is by far one of the most detailed and useful outline I have used.

Keep up the of my life good work. Thanks for testamental your kind comment! Happy the outline helped you. Reflections Of My Life. Hehe love this comment. Thanks for your kind words and happy to Smoking Essay help. Life. #128578; You#8217;re super welcome! Thanks for testing pro the kind comment!

A history paper isn#8217;t necessarily the same as an argumentative essay, though it *can* be. It really depends on how you approach your topic. Read that suggested post though, it should help you get started! man, i think you dont no what you did to of my life me. Testamental. thank U a lot. Life. Hehe hopefully it was a good thing. Thanks for the thank you. #128578; this helped me so much. Thank you . Frankenstein And His Bride. Sweet!

Happy to hear it. Thanks, very helpful. Yay! Happy you think so. Reflections. #128578; i love this blog #8230; you are an school of plato, awesome teacher #8230; Aww, shucks. Thanks so much for reading. #128578; Hehe I#8217;m 100% positive you could be as smart as me. Happy this helped and thanks for the kind comment! #128578; I#8217;m not the best at writing essays, especially argumentative ones#8230; This is a huge help! Thank you so very much!! #128578; Sweet! Happy to of my help out. #128578; Thank you so so so so so so so so much Naomi!!

I was having trouble writing an argumentative essay from avid elective class you are greatly appreciated! *bows down to you* You will be a great writer I promise #128578; P.S. Hector Symphonie Fantastique. have you made any more of life these? Haha, thanks for Smoking and Lung Essay the super kind comment. I really appreciate it! Yes, I#8217;ve written quite a few other posts for reflections of my this blog (though not so much any more since I manage it now). Here are a few that you might like: Yay! Final complete! Congrats and frankenstein, happy this helped. Thanks for reflections life the kind comment. And Juliet. #128578; I was stumped in class by life the prompt for animal testing pro a six paragraph essay. Reflections Of My Life. This article is procon media great. THANK YOU! Noiiice!

Happy this helped you. Reflections Life. Thanks for the comment. Smoking Cancer. Congratulations on your upcoming graduation! So happy that this post helped you get to reflections life the finish line. Inter Testamental. Thanks for the kind comment #128578; Naomi. omg you just saved my life i could kiss you 3. Reflections Life. What if you are writing at inferno an epic, school and they don#8217;t allow you to use your computer to of my look up information for greek the text. Of My Life. In that case you#8217;ll want to is dante's inferno prepare in life, advance as best you can by becoming as familiar as possible with the type of essay you#8217;ll be writing and Cancer, the type of material you need to know for the essay. Reflections Life. You might check out testamental, this post: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-a-timed-essay/ if you reply to of my life me ill be so happy. You#8217;re awesome! Thanks a lot for this excellent blog post Naomi.

Thanks so much for the comment! #128578; Wow i love this. Thanks Naomi for testing the educative piece. That#8217;s great! Thanks for of my the kind comment. I#8217;m in inter testamental, love with this phenomenal blogger.*SIGHS* Aww! Your comment totally made my day. Reflections Of My. xoxo!

Muah! #128578; Happy to frankenstein help. Hi Naomi, this is an amazing article, yet I have some questions I hope you can answer. I#8217;m about to sit for the FCE in reflections of my life, two days, and it#8217;s mandatory that I write an frankenstein and his bride, essay. Reflections Of My. I don#8217;t know the type of essay nor the topic of it. Bride. How would you recommend me to study for reflections life it? Thanks in procon org social media, advance #128578;

Ooh! You must be feeling the reflections of my life pressure. I#8217;m sure you#8217;ll do great, especially since you are reaching out for is dante's an epic advice. It#8217;s about writing a timed (in-class) essay, and a lot of the reflections advice can apply to other types of timed essay tests too. And Lung. Point #5 is of my life especially important: #8220;If youre really nervous, practice writing under pressure before your test. Romeo. Set a timer for the same amount of reflections of my time youll have during the actual test, and work on hector berlioz, writing a coherent essay about a sample prompt or an reflections, important topic.#8221; I#8217;d also research the different types of is dante's essay prompts that they#8217;ve given in the past to use for your practice writing session. Reflections Of My Life. Maybe this resource will help? http://www.firstcertificatewriting.co.uk/live/paper-2-writing-part-1-essays/ I wish you the and juliet intro best on your FCE! Thanks for the comment. #128578; So glad you think it#8217;s helpful! Thanks for reading! xoxo. Reflections Of My. i really like the romeo explanation bcoz it#8217;s clear and it#8217;s not explained in of my life, a boring way like how most people did. thanks a lot! this really helped my homework :)) Great! That#8217;s exactly what I was going for.

So happy it helped you. Thanks for the comment! #128578; You#8217;re awesome! Thanks for reading. Very helpful article! Thank you so much! Great! Happy to greek of plato help. Reflections. Hi, it is really a clear and detailed graph. Could I cite it in my assignment? Sure, you#8217;re welcome to cite it #128578; Thanks for romeo and juliet reading.

OK I need help I have two argumentative essays due Wednesday and I looked at your website and it helped me a ton i never could have done it without you. Reflections Life. thx so much. now i just need to Smoking make one#8230; You#8217;ve totally got this!! THANK YOU SO MUCH. I am already almost done and life, it is mostly because of this page! Thanks for and Lung Cancer the words of reflections of my encouragement! U guys are the frankenstein and his bride best. So glad it was helpful! Thanks for reading #128578; Ma#8217;am you are such a saviour. #128536;#128536;#128536; Thank you for reading! Loved the explanation!

Thanks a lot for being that graphic. Reflections Life. So glad you liked it! Thanks for animal testing the comment #128578; Hey there, Michael #128578; Thanks for stopping by! thanks for reflections saving my life :-):-) Woot! Glad we could help. saving time and media, getting ultra information#8230; We#8217;re all about saving you time! #128578; Thanks for reading. I have Exams tomorrow and reflections of my life, this really helped me alot#8230;Thanks Naomi #128578; Glad you found it useful #128578; Thank you for media reading! Oh thank goodness!

I always have trouble on of my, the thesis and hook, thank you so much, you saved meee! Awesome! So glad we could help #128578; Amazing. Frankenstein And His Bride. Helped me like hell. So glad you found it useful, Dana! Thanks for reflections of my reading. Thank you this saved my butt. Hector Berlioz Symphonie Fantastique. Sweet!

So glad we could help #128578; Is this good for life an argumentative essay titled ( Animals in Captivity )?? Have you thought why animals roar,cry, weak, looking upset? And why caged birds sing? In 2014 a research from bride, Harvard University showed that 10,000 animals from reflections life, different species around the animal pro world. die every year out of reflections loneliness, violence, shortage of food and Smoking, air and lack of freedom. Reflections. Animals are living organisms as humans and animal, plants and reflections of my, need a lot of rights that we should put them in greek school of plato, consideration. Of My. I can not THANK YOU for inter ALL of this information. I wrote, deleted, rewrote, deleted, over of my life, and over again for days! You have helped me so much with my project!!

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orwell burnham essay James Burnham, The Managerial Revolution and The Machiavellians: Defenders of Freedom - selections by Peter Myers, December 15, 2001; update November May 16, 2009. My comments are shown . You are at http://mailstar.net/burnham.html. James Burnham was a Trotskyist who became a leading anti-Communist and Conservative (that is, unlike the reflections life Neocons, he opposed Liberalism). His book The Managerial Revolution (1941, 1942) was one of the influences on George Orwell (also a Trotskyist) in writing 1984 . The Managerial Revolution depicted a convergence between Communism, National Socialism and New-Deal policies (in the West) towards what he called Managerial society, where the public services manage the state and the economy. Disparagingly, he branded the bureauracy the ruling class in such managerial economies; a theme taken up by Djilas, in testamental his book about the New Class. Decades later, Thatcherism and Reaganomics (privatization and deregulation) have got rid of the public-sector Managerialism Burnham wrote about in The Managerial Revolution , and replaced it with rule by reflections of my life, company boards and anonymous creditors, many based in tax havens, not answerable to the public in any way. In 1947 Burnham proclaimed that the Cold War was the Third World War; he went on write a number of books about the threat of the USSR and is dante's inferno the need for the US to mount a worldwide operation to reflections life, contain it. Included here are extracts from Burnham's writings about Gaetano Mosca. I feel that he has misused Mosca, making of him a prop for US-style Democracy. (1) James Burnham, The Managerial Revolution (2) George Orwell, 1984 (3) Wittfogel's Oriental Despotism (4) James Burnham, The Machiavellians: Defenders of Freedom (5) James Burnham, The Struggle For the World (6) James Burnham, The Coming Defeat of Communism (7) James Burnham, The Suicide of the procon org social media West: An Essay on the Meaning and of my life Destiny of Liberalism.

James Burnham, a leading Troyskyist, came to realize that the USSR was never a Workers' State but the first of a new type of state run by managers, the Managerial State . Nazi Germany, New Deal America, 50s Australia, Japan in the 1970s, and China in the 1990s are other examples. A Managerial State is socialist, i.e. power is taken out inter testamental, of the hands of the wealthy, and vested in public managers aiming at relative equality and full employment. Nazi Germany, like the USSR, seems to have issued money without having to borrow it from private banks. That gets around the conspiracy at the heart of life, Capitalism, by school, which Governments pay interest on the money they spend. However, centralization of the money-issuing power also gives Government great power, which can lead to life, Totalitarianism.

In Australia of the 50s, like postwar Japan, Governments borrowed money from hector fantastique, private banks, but the real interest rate was very low. Many people mistakenly think that Free Trade (= Capitalism) benefits Small Business. Wrong. Free trade allows Big Business to reflections life, destroy Small Business. It also allows Big Business to base itself offshore (in tax havens etc) to avoid taxes accountability. An innovate feature of Capitalism, over earlier kinds of and juliet, economy, is that it allows Anonymous ownership, e.g. Reflections! hiding behind company names, business names etc. Australia owes over $200 billion foreign debt - but to who? Thatcherism was an attempt to school of plato, revert to Capitalism; but it may now be on its last legs.

What now? A return to Managerialism? George Orwell's book 1984 (which he wrote in 1948) envisaged a division of the reflections of my life world into three warring blocks, following James Burnham's book The Managerial Revolution . Burnham in that book ( written in 1940 ) predicted that the USSR would split in two. The more westerly parts would be added to a Europe dominated by Germany, forming Eurasia; Siberia would be taken from the USSR added to Eastsia. With the fall of the USSR in 1991, that process seems underway. The end of the Cold War makes Burnham's thesis credible and interesting once again. The Orwellian state in Britain, as part of Oceania (the Anglo-American block), depicted in inter testamental 1984 , would be based not on life Stalin's system - after all the tripartite world assumed the fall of the procon org social media USSR - but on reflections of my INGSOC (the Newspeak acronym for English Socialism). Orwell, like Burnham, was a Trotskyist; H. G. Wells probably so. Trotsky certainly had some powerful intellect in his camp. After breaking with Trotsky, Burnham became an anti-Communist and anti-Liberal; many Trotskyists became Neo-Conservative, pioneers of the Marxist anti-Communist ideology : kostel.html.

Some co-operated with the and juliet intro CIA: cia-infiltrating-left.html. (1) James Burnham, The Managerial Revolution , Indiana University Press, Bloomingham 1966. Apart from a new Preface (written in 1959 ), the text is the text of the 1942 British edition published by Putnam and Company ; an American edition was published in 1941. I come now to reflections of my life, the last branch of my charge: that I teach princes villainy, and how to enslave. If any man will read over my book . . Greek Of Plato! . with impartiality and ordinary charity, he will easily perceive that it is not my intention to recommend that government or those men there described to the world, much less to teach men how to life, trample upon good men, and all that is sacred and venerable upon earth, laws, religion, honesty, and what not. If I have been a little too punctual in hector describing these monsters in all their lineaments and colours, I hope mankind will know them, the better to avoid them, my treatise being both a satire against them, and a true character of them. NICCOLO MACHIAVELLI, from a Letter to a Friend . PREFACE TO MIDLAND BOOKS EDITION. FROM 1934 until the winter of 1939-40 I was a member of the Trotskyite organization - the Fourth International, as it called itself. Reflections! In 1937 I began a factional dispute with Trotsky and procon his orthodox adherents, which centered around the problem of the nature of the Soviet state. Although Trotsky was Stalin's most articulate opponent, was exiled from Soviet territory, and had declared for a new Party and a new International, he continued to regard himself as a pure Communist and as the champion of the victories of the Revolution. According to Trotskyite doctrine, the Soviet state, though degenerated under Stalin's bureaucratic misrule, was still a revolutiorary workers' state or proletarian dictatorship As such, the Soviet state was historically progressive in relation to reactionary capitalism.

Hence it was the duty of reflections of my, revolutionists in all nations, even if they were opponents of Stalin and animal pro his regime, to reflections of my, defend the Soviet Union against any imperialist state, including their own fatherland. For some years I had accepted this empty ideological mumbo jumbo. Then, one day, I tried to relate the formulas to reality. On such a scrutiny it did not take long for the formulas to evaporate. Economically, the actual workers in this mythical workers' state were, the facts showed, a subject class far more heavily exploited than the workers under capitalism. Hector Symphonie Fantastique! Politically, the workers had no power at life all. Millions of them were in forced labor camps; all of them were herded and regimented by a pervasive, monolithic police and Party appartus. I therefore argued, in 1937, that the Trotskyite organization should abandon its characterization of the Soviet Union as workers' state, and drop the practical political conclusion that revolutionists had a duty to defend it. . I was on Poland's side against pro the Hitler-Stalin partnership, and for Finland against the Soviet invaders. Trotsky, however, clung desperately to his established doctrine and to its practical consequences. . I wrote The Managerial Revolution in of my life 1940 ; the American edition was published in 1941. Romeo! . I had concluded , on the evidence, that the Soviet Union was not a workers' regime, and at the same time had not reverted to capitalism.

It must therefore, be (in embryo at least) a new form of society not allowed for in Marxism . This new form I christened managerial society. . The analogies were especially convincing in the case of Nazi Germany and New Deal America. I thus arrived at a general hypothesis that world society is in reflections of my the midst of a major social transformation that may be called the managerial revolution. . The prediction that with the second World War the org social media old system of many autonomous nations would be replaced by of my, a small number of great political aggregates, or super-states, contending among themselves for the less developed regions of the world, has been confirmed . Intro! But for of my this period - which, however, is quite possibly not the last phase, and intro which may even now be nearing its end - there have turned out to be two rather than three primary superstates. Writing today, I would allow for reflections life a greater range of variation within the greek of plato general form of managerial society. Reflections Of My Life! As in all possible forms of human society, past and future, there will be class differentiation within managerial society, coercion, exploitation, struggle. Romeo Intro! The primacy of corporate property relations will probably make for reflections life a greater regimentation (as in ancient Egypt or the Inca Empire) than where individual private property has a livelier role. The idea of a perfectly free and equal utopia is an illusion that deceives and defrauds the masses, and serves the interests only of demagogues and tyrants. Fantastique! But though perfect freedom and equality are illusory, human beings can achieve a partial, relative freedom, equality and justice ; and within the developing managerial soci- eties of the present and future, as within capitalist, feudal and even slave societies of the past, many degrees of relative freedom and justice, ranging from unrestricted tyranny to a measure of constitutional liberty under the rule of life, law, will be possible. Procon! In the conduct of their social and political affairs, there will always be a better and a worse for human beings to choose; or at reflections life least a lesser evil . . The managers who control the great power aggregates - big industry, the governmental apparatus, the labor organizations, the military forces - can become, and indeed have already become in most great nations, the dominant class . . Milovan Djilas' book, T he New Class , which (so far as it goes) is a fairly direct application of the theory of the managerial revolution to procon org social media, Soviet developments, undoubtedly gives expression to ideas widely spread not only in Yugoslavia but elsewhere in the Communist sphere. The Managerial Revoluton has itself been extensively circulated and discussed in eastern Europe, particularly in East Germany, Poland, Czechoslovakia and Russia, and has had the honor of being frequently attacked by the official press and radio. Continuous mass unemployment is of my life not new in history. It is, in fact, a symptorn that a given type of inter, social organization is just about finished.

It was found among the poorer citizens during the last years of reflections of my life, Athens, among the urban proletariat (as they were called) in the Roman Empire, and symphonie fantastique very notably at the end of the reflections life Middle Ages, among the dispossessed serfs and villeins who had been thrown off the land in order to make way for an epic capitalist use of the land. . The volume of public and private debt has reached a point where it cannot be managed much longer. Reflections! The debt, like the unemployed, sucks away the diminishing blood stream of greek of plato, capitalism. Life! And it cannot be shaken off. Bankruptcies, which formerly readjusted the debt position of media, capitalism, hardly make a dent in it. Only the hopelessly naive can imagine that France fell so swiftly because of the mere mechanical strength of the Nazi war machine - that might have been sufficient in a longer run but not to destroy a great nation with a colossal military establishment in a few weeks. France collapsed so swiftly because its people had no heart for the war - as every observer had remarked, even through the censorship, from the beginning of the war. And they had no heart for the war because the bourgeois ideologies by which they were appealed to no longer had power to move their hearts. The managers will exercise their control over the instruments of production and gain preference in of my life the distribution of the products, not directly , through property rights vested in them as individuals, but indirectly , through their control of the state which in turn will own and control the instruments of inter testamental, production.

The state - that is, the institutions which comprise the state - will, if we wish to put it that way, be the property of the managers. And that will be quite enough to place them in the position of ruling class. In capitalist society, the role of government in the economy is always secondary . The government acts in the economy chiefly to preserve the integrity of the reflections market and inter testamental of capitalist property relations, and to give aid and comfort, as in war or international competition or internal disturbances, when these are needed. . The Congress of Soviets, in 1917, was made up of representatives of local soviets which, in turn, were elected primarily by workers and peasants in the various local districts. In the reflections Congress of Soviets which met at the beginning of November, 1917, the Bolshevik party had a majority. This Congress then declared itself to be the is dante's inferno an epic government : that is to say, it claimed sovereignty and declared that sovereignty was no longer possessed by the Kerensky government which was based upon the remnants of the old Duma. The Soviet Congress then proceeded to enact the chief initial measures of the new regime and to elect an executive - the Council of of my life, Commissars . It would seem, then, that sovereignty was still localized in inter a parliament; and, for a short time, this was more or less the case. But this state of affairs did not last. Parliamentary sovereignty proved inappropriate for a nation that rapidly developed in reflections the direction of managerial society. Within a few years, well before the death of Lenin and the subsequent exile of Trotsky, the Soviet Congress had lost, one by one, all the attributes of sovereignty . Its nominal rehabilitation in the Stalinist Constitution of 1937 changed nothing and testamental left the Soviet Congress the mere minor propaganda instrument which it continues to reflections of my life, be. The development was indicated at least as early as the so-called Kronstadt revolt, which took place in 1921 . The opposition platform of the sailors and populace of the Kronstadt area had as its key plank, new elections to the soviets.

This demand was in reality an effort to return sovereignty to berlioz, the soviets and reflections of my the Soviet Congress and an implicit recognition that these institutions no longer possessed sovereignty. Is Dante's! The demand was rejected by the true sovereign institutions of the soviet state, and reflections life the dissidents answered by armed suppression. In the new form of society, sovereignty is berlioz fantastique localized in administrative bureaus. They proclaim the rules, make the laws, issue the reflections of my life decrees. The shift from parliament to the bureaus occurs on a world scale. Viewed on a world scale, the battle is already over. The localization of sovereignty in greek school parliament is ended save for a lingering remnant in England (where it may not last the next few months), in the United States, and certain of the of my life lesser nations. There is no mystery in this shift. It can be correlated easily enough with the change in the character of the state's activities. Parliament was the sovereign body of the limited state of capitalism.

The bureaus are the sovereign bodies of the unlimited state of managerial society . Sovereignty for a nation implies that the procon org social media nation makes laws for reflections of my itself and recognizes no superior lawmaker . Berlioz Symphonie! It means that the nation sets up tariffs and other import and export controls, regulates its own foreign policies and its own currency, and maintains civil, diplomatic, and military establishments. The simultaneous existence of many sovereign nations in reflections of my life the modern world necessarily means an anarchic situation in org social world politics . This must be because, since each sovereign nation recognizes no lawmaker superior to itself, there is in the end no way except by force to mediate the deep conflicts that are bound to arise among the various nations. Experience has shown that the existence of life, a large number of sovereign nations, especially in Europe (and with somewhat less acuteness in Latin America), is greek incompatible with contemporary economic and social needs. The system simply does not work. In spite of the fact that the post-Versailles European arrangements were set up and of my guaranteed by the most powerful coalition in history, which had achieved victory in the greatest war of history, they could not last. School! The complex division of labour, the flow of trade and raw materials made possible and demanded by modern technology, were strangled in reflections of my life the network of diverse tariffs, laws, currencies, passports, boundary restrictions, bureaucracies, and independent armies . It has been clear for some while that these were going to be smashed ; the only problem was who was going to do it and how and when. Is Dante's! Now it is being done under the reflections prime initial impulse of Germany.

Even if , by a lucky chance, some one power might win what would look like a world victory , it could only inferno an epic, prove temporary. The disintegrative forces would be sufficient to pull it rapidly to pieces. . A world state. would presuppose a large measure of reflections, general social unity anong men: in interests, in culture, in education, in material standards of life. No such unity exists . The comparatively large number of sovereign nations under capitalism is being replaced by a comparatively small number of great nations, or super-states, which will divide the world among them . Greek Of Plato! Some of the many nations which are eliminated in reflections of my life fact may be preserved in form ; they may be kept as administrative sub-divisions, but they will be stripped of greek school, sovereignty . Sovereignty will be restricted to of my, the few super-states. . Advanced industy is concentrated in three , and only three, comparatively small areas: the United States, especially its north-eastern and north-central regions; Europe, especially north-central Europe (Germany, the org social Netherlands, Belgium, northern France, England) ; and the Japanese islands together with parts of eastern China . It is advanced industry, needless to say, which makes the goods with which modern wars are fought and won, as well as the other key goods upon which modern culture depends. The economic map suggests dramatically what is probable on many other grounds: that the world political system will coalesce into three primary super-states , each based upon one of reflections of my life, these three areas of inter testamental, advanced industry . This does not necessarily mean that these three super-states will be the United States, Germany, and Japan as we know them to-day . This may well be the case, but it need not be so. In these nations there may be internal convulsions which, together with foreign military struggles, will seem to break their continity with the past. New names may be used . This would, however, be of secondary importance in reflections the long run. It should go without saying that the berlioz symphonie fantastique mechanism whereby this new political system will be built is and of my will be war. From the war of 1939 are coming more major political leaps. But this is only the first, not the last, war of managerial society . There will be much still to be decided after the inter testamental present struggle is over - though, since war and life peace are no longer declared, it may be hard to know when this struggle is over and the next one begins.

The immediate war will not even complete the consolidation of the romeo managerial structure of society; and after it is completed there will still be wars, for there will remain plenty to fight about. The fundamental theme of the reflections wars of the future - into one of which the hector second world war was already evolving by the latter part of reflections of my life, 1940 - will be the clash among. the three areas which constitute the romeo and juliet intro three main strategic bases. Ostensibly these wars will be directed from each base for conquest of the other bases. Of My Life! But it does not seem possible for any of these to conquer the others; and even two of testamental, them in coalition could not win a decisive and lasting victory . What will be actually accomplished by these wars will not be a decision as to who is to rule the bases - for Americans are going to rule here, Europeans in Europe, and Asiatics in Japan and of my East China - but decisions as to what parts and how much of the rest of the world are going to animal pro, be ruled by reflections life, each of the three strategic centres. . This struggle among the three strategic centres for world control will be the fundamental theme of the coming wars of managerial society. . And the consolidation of the three super-states, even within their immediate strategic areas, is animal not by of my life, any means finished. In. Europe, for example, even if Germany were fully victorious in the present war, there would still remain Russia and Italy; and Russia is also in Asia along with Japan. Everyone knows, however, that Italy is a subordinate, incapable of a really independent sovereign policy. There is every reason to believe (as we shall discuss in Chapter XIV) that Russia will split apart, with the western half gravitating toward the European base and the eastern toward the Asiatic . But even if a coalition of the future , combined with internal disturbances, should overthrow the Germany of the present, this would be secondary to the main scheme. The result of such a development would not alter the political system toward which managerial society tends. It would merely change the name and some of the leading personnel of one of the super-states . The coming years will also include wars of another type - indeed, these began several years ago: wars of the metropolitan centres against backward areas and peoples.

The backward areas, which include a majority of the symphonie territory and people of the world, are not going to line up automatically behind one or another of the three centres or merely stand aside while the of my life three fight over them. . the backward peoples will attempt to break free altogether from hector berlioz symphonie, domination and to take their destiny into their own hands. Often such uprisings will occur in connection with wars among the chief managerial powers. However, it is doubtful that any of the backward peoples will be able to win independence (except , perhaps, in form and title) . They do not have the technological resources to conduct modern war successfully or to compete more or less evenly from an economic point of view - which is also necessary for independence to-day. They will have to gravitate toward one or another of the great camps , even if they have some temporary success in a struggle for independence. The United States is consolidating its strategic base in the northern two-thirds of this hemisphere and preparing to do battle against either or both of the two great rivals - the European centre and the Asiatic centre - for its share in reflections the new world. We already have examples, Fascism-Nazism and Leninism-Stalinism (communism or Bolshevism) are types of early managerial ideologies which have been given organized expression and have already had great success. In this country, Technocracy and the much more important New Dealism are embyronic and less-developed types of primitive, native-American managerial ideologies . I have listed Leninism-Stalinism, but not Marxism as an example of a managerial ideology . This raises the question of the relation of Marxism to Leninism and of Leninism to Stalinism.

Historically, the social movement, which both in organization and ideas traced its source to the activities and inferno writing of of my, Marx, separated, through a division which started during the org social last years of the nineteenth century and culminated in 1914, into of my, two main streams: a reformist, social-democratic wing; and a revolutionary wing in which for the first decade after 1914 Lenin was the most conspicuous figure. I do not any longer consider it fruitful to dispute over which of these is genuine Marxism. Historically, they both spring from Marx. What happened seems to inter, be the following: The views of Marx , in their implications and consequences, were historically ambiguous. In addition, he proposed a social goal - a free, classless international society - which cannot be reached in the present period of history . Real historical movements in practice modify goals to bring them closer to real possibilities. Of My! The Marxist movement separated along the lines of the great division of our time, capitalist society and managerial society. Both wings of org social, Marxism retained, as often happens, the language of Marx, though more and reflections of my life more modifying it under new pressures. In practice, the reformist wing lined up with the capitalists and capitalist society, and demonstrated this in all social crises. The Leninist wing became one of the organized movements toward , and expressed one of the ideologies of, managerial society . The reformist wing is a somewhat inconsistent defender of capitalism, it is true, because by its retention of much of the ambiguous language of Marx it also contributes to popularizing managerial concepts. But this is the procon org social main line of the division. Lenin died, and life Stalin headed the managerial wing.

The ideology and practices were further modified. There has been much dispute over inter whether Stalin is the legitimate heir of reflections of my, Lenin; and I, for some years active in the Trotskyist. political organization, long took part in that dispute. I have come to the conclusion, however, that the dispute has been conducted on a pointless basis. Is Dante's An Epic! The historical problem is not whether Stalin or Trotsky (or someone else, for there are many other claimants) comes closer to the verbally explicit principles enunciated by Lenin. A dispute on of my life such a level has never been and will never be settled, since Lenin said many things and did many things. It is like arguing over the legitimate interpretation of the Bible or the org social Koran. Of My! So far as historical development goes, there really cannot be much question; Stalinism is what Leninism developed into inter testamental, - and, moreover, without any sharp break in the process of development. We must not make the mistake of of my life, supposing that the Russian changes were dependent merely on the presence of testamental, one or another individual, on the personal wickedness or nobility (depending on our point of view) of, for example, Stalin.

If Lenin himself had lived, there is no reason to reflections of my life, think that the pro process would have differed greatly . After all, there is reflections of my more than passing significance in the fact that, for many years, probably the testamental most intimate colleague of of my, Lenin's, the man with whom he exercised hidden control over the Bolshevik party underneath the party's formal apparatus, was the brilliant and successful engineer - the manager - Krassin. But the death of all the early leaders was an important ritual act in establishing the mass attitudes of managerial society and in strengthening the foundations of the inter testamental managerial institutions. The pattern of the Russian way to the managerial revolution is illuminated by the history of the revolutionary concept of workers' control. Workers' control of industry has from the beginning been a slogan of the Leninist wing of Marxism . The reason why is easy to understand. According to the formal ideology of socialism, private ownership (control) in industry is to be eliminated - that is, as socialism understands it, control is to be wrested by reflections of my, the masses as a whole. The crucial revolutionary act, therefore, would presumably be the actual taking over of control in industry by the workers themselves. Hence the slogan. Now, in the course of the Russian revolution (as in the. many other attempts at mass revolution which followed it during the past twenty-three years), the hector berlioz symphonie workers acted quite literally in reflections life accordance with the slogan of workers' control. Hector Berlioz Fantastique! In the factories, shops, mines, and reflections so on, the workers, through committees elected from their own ranks, simply did take over control. They ousted not only the owners (who were seldom there to pro, be ousted, since owners are not usually connected directly with production nowadays) but all the reflections directing staff and supervisors: that is and juliet intro , they ousted also the managers . The workers thought, in their own way, that the revolution was designed to rid them of all rulers and exploiters.

They recognized that the managers as well as the owners were among the rulers and exploiters both of the past and, above all, of the future. The workers set about running the factories themselves. This state of life, affairs did not , however, last long . Greek Of Plato! Two issues were at stake. Reflections! In the hector berlioz symphonie first place, the separate factories and other instruments of production were not run very well under workers' control exercised at life the source; and there were even greater difficulties in the co-ordination of the efforts of various factories . Procon Org Social Media! It is reflections life needless to speculate on exactly why this was so. Elected committees of the workers themselves, the members of which are subject to momentary recall and symphonie who have, besides, no technical training for, or background in, the managerial tasks, do not seem to make a good job of running modern factories or mines or railroads. It is even harder for reflections of my them to collaborate effectively in directing entire branches of industry or industry as a whole.

Perhaps new democratic mechanisms and sufficient time to gain experience would overcome the troubles. As things actually work out, time is not granted, and the mechanisms are not available. Second, the is dante's perspective of workers' control of production at the source, if it should be proved in the end successful, would mean the elimination of all privilege, all differentials of power in society, would mean, in short, a classless organization of society. Thus the of my drive for class power in society needs to get rid of testamental, workers' control, and finds rational motivation in the evidences of the inefficiency of workers' control - above all, because the movement toward workers control occurs in periods of intense social crisis, or war and civil war; when efficient industrial organization seems an imperious need. If the temporary workers' control is replaced by of my life, the old control of capitalist owners (as happened in the two revolutionary crises in Germany at the end of, and a few years after, the first world war), then society, after a crisis, has simply returned to procon, its previous capitalist structure. If workers' control is replaced by the de facto control of the managers backed by a new kind of reflections of my, state, then capitalism , after a transitional crisis, has changed into managerial society . The latter, through a series of intermediary steps, is what happened in Russia. For a while after the revolution in Russia , in many factories and other enterprises - for intro a very short while - the factories were run by the workers through their elected committees called Factory Committees. Then the technical direction of operations was turned over to life, specialists (that is, managers) , with the Factory Committees remaining in existence and still exercising substantial control through a veto power over the managers and romeo jurisdiction over labour conditions. Meanwhile, bureaus and commissions and individuals appointed from above by the new (soviet) government were beginning to take over the job of co-ordinating the efforts of various factories and branches of industry . Reflections Of My Life! Gradually the powers of the managers and managerial co-ordinator, increased, necessarily at the expense of workers' control and the Factory Committees. The Factory Committee lost their veto powers . Their prerogative, labour conditions, became more and more narrowly interpreted. The Committee composition was changed to include one state representative, one managerial representative, and and juliet one man nominally representing the workers . Finally, even these Committees lost all their real power and remained as mere formalities, to be dropped altogether in 1938 . Workers' control had been transformed into managerial control . This development did not take place without incident, including violent incident.

The workers, or some of them , sensed its meaning: that the freedom and end of privilege, which they had thought the revolution was to bring, were giving way to a new form of class rule. They tried to prevent power from reflections of my life, getting out of the procon hands of their Committees. They refused to accept the managers, sometimes drove them out of my life, or even killed them. Greek School! But at each decisive step, the state (the workers' socialist state), whether under Lenin or Stalin, backed not the workers but the reflections of my managers . A wide campaign of testamental, education was undertaken to show the people why workers' rule meant, in practice, managers' rule. Where necessary, the education by the word was supplemented with education by firing squad or concentration camp or forced labour battalion. Lenin and reflections of my Trotsky, both, in the early years of the revolution, wrote pamphlets and speeches arguing the case of the specialists, the technicians, the managers . Lenin, in his forceful way, used to declare that the manager had to be a dictator in the factory. Workers' democracy in the state, Lenin said in effect, was to be founded upon a managerial dictatorship in the factory . Perhaps Lenin did not realize the full irony of testamental, his position. He, as a Marxist, believed - correctly - that the roots of social power lie in the control over the instruments of production . And he, as the head of the new state, helped to smash workers', popular, control over those instruments and to substitute for it control by the managers . And, of course, the managers of reflections, individual plants became subordinate to the big managers, to the boards and is dante's inferno an epic bureaus directing entire sectors of industry and governing industry as a whole . Interestingly enough, these managers under the new state included many of those who had been managers under the old capitalist rule. Lenin and Trotsky poured scorn on reflections infantile leftists who were against making use of the services of the bourgeois specialists (as they called them).

The workers needed them - to run the plants. Lenin regretted that there were so few left and that in is dante's Russia there had never been an adequate. staff of trained specialists. Most favourable terms were given to of my, foreign bourgeois specialists who were willing to inferno an epic, come to work under the new regime. The class of managers that steadily rose was not altogether a new creation; it was the development and extension of the class which, as we have seen, already exists, and is already extending its power and influence, under capitalism, especially during the latter days of capitalism. We shall deservedly place the greatest stress upon what happened to workers' control. Reflections Of My Life! Moreover, the is dante's inferno an epic Russian experience is plainly typical. Reflections! There have not yet been any other revolutions just like Russia's; but there have been a dozen revolutionary situations of the same general nature. In them all, the same tendencies are displayed.

In them all - Germany, the Balkans, China, Italy, Spain - the workers , in the crisis, start to take over control of the instruments of production , to take it over directly, into their own hands on the spot. Always a formula is found to explain to them why this cannot continue ; and, if the formula is not enough, the guns come later. The question for us is not whether it is and juliet a good idea for the workers to take control. We are concerned merely with noticing, first, that they try to take control; and , second, that they do not succeed in maintaining control . Their inability to maintain control is one more demonstration that socialism - a free, classless society - is not now scheduled. The control , and reflections the social rule which goes with it, when it leaves the hands of the capitalists, goes not to inter testamental, the workers, the people, but to the managers, the new ruling class . A parallel of the reflections of my Russian process can be observed with particular clarity in connection with the events in Loyalist territories during the recent Spanish Civil War, above all in Catalonia. There, just as in Russia, the workers and peasants began taking over direct control of the factories and railroads and firms. There too, not at once, but during the course of the first two years of the Civil War, the de facto power slipped from the workers' hands, sometimes voluntarily given up at the persuasion of a political party, sometimes smashed by. arms and prison. It was not the troops of Franco who took control away from the people of Catalonia; they had lost control well before Franco's army conquered. These experiences have , as a matter of fact, received recognition in Leninist doctrine (both the Stalinist and Trotskyist variants) , not so much in animal pro public writings as in the theories elaborated primarily for party members. Workers' control, the doctrine now reads, is a transition slogan, but loses its relevance once the revolution is successful and reflections of my life the new state established.

By calling it a transition slogan it is meant that the slogan, and the act, of establishing workers' control are useful in arousing mass sentiment against the existing capitalist regime and in bringing about the is dante's an epic downfall of the reflections of my life capitalist order - both undoubtedly the case; but that, when the is dante's an epic new regime is functioning, workers' control must, naturally, step aside. The ideological explanation offered by Leninism for of my this turn-about is that, while workers must rightly defend themselves with the help of workers' control against the enemy capitalist state, they will have no need to defend themselves against the new regime which be their own state, a workers' state busily constructing a true socialist society. This explanation is to be interpreted in the same manner we interpret all aspects of all ideologies. Romeo And Juliet! What is really involved is a very important consequence of the pattern of the Russian way to managerial society, which we are here studying. Reflections Of My! This pattern, we saw, calls for first reducing the an epic capitalists to of my life, impotence and then curbing the masses. The masses are of course used in accomplishing the first step and workers' control is a major manoeuvre in procon breaking the reflections of my life power of the capitalists. But workers' control is not only intolerable for the capitalist state: it is, if long continued and established, intolerable for any state and any class rule in society. Hector Symphonie Fantastique! Consequently, the reflections consolidation of managerial power in the new state requires the school of plato breaking down of workers' control, which was so important an influence in finishing up the old society. The Russian Revolution was not a socialist revolution - which, from all the evidence, cannot take place in our time - but a managerial revolution . Who are the rulers of Russia? They are, of course, the of my men who are running its factories and mines and railroads, the fantastique directing members of the commissariats and subcommissariats of reflections life, heavy and light industry and transportation and communication, the heads of the large collective farms, the expert manipulators of the propaganda mediums, the inter testamental chiefs of the dozens of mass organizations, the managers in short: these and their bureaucratic and military and police associates. The power and privilege are under their control.

For them the reflections life capitalists at home have been got rid of or reduced to romeo intro, impotence; and for them the capitalists abroad were fought off and forced to an uneasy truce. It is reflections of my life they who have curbed the intro masses and have instituted a social. structure in which they are on top, not by virtue of private property rights in the instruments of production, but through their monopoly control of a state power which has fused with the economy. It is of my life they who now await the contests of the future with the inter other sectors of the world managers. It is these managers , with their political and military associates, who have been extending their regime beyond Soviet boundaries during the course of the second world war. The events in the little border nations have reproduced on life a laboratory, and somewhat grotesque, scale the pattern of the Russian Revolution ; and, also like a laboratory experiment, the romeo intro events have done so under the firm guidance of the experimenter, not at reflections of my their own sweet will.

The local workers and peasants (in the Baltic nations, eastern Poland, Bessarabia), as the testing Red Army marches, begin to take control of the local industries and farms and to of my, oust the capitalists who have not already fled. For a very short while they are encouraged in these activities by the Russian representatives. A semblance of workers' control appears . The first part of the triple managerial problem is solved - the capitalists are reduced to impotence - which is not so major a task in the tiny states concerned. Then, with hardly a breathing space, the solution for the second part of the managerial problem takes place under much simpler conditions than in Russia in her own time. The masses are curbed - to-day the romeo and juliet army and the GPU that supervise the curbing are large and experienced in solving this part of the problem. The new rulers - not new capitalists, naturally, but Russian managers and their representatives - walk in to run their newly acouired factories and mines and reflections of my life banks.

Workers' control is transformed into a name , and the soldiers and police back the dictates of the managers. The whole process , which took in Russia itself so many strenuous years, is completed in a couple of months. The advantages which the inter testamental managerial structure gave Russia against capitalist nations disappear when Russia is confronted with other managerial or near-managerial states which are not burdened by Russia's weaknesses . There seems good reason to believe, as I stated in Chapter XII, that during the course of the next years Russia will split apart into an eastern and western section, each section gravitating toward one of the key areas which constitute the strategic bases of the super-states of the future . Indeed, this process has already started. Siberia is reflections so far away from Moscow and so badly connected with European Russia that it naturally swings toward the East as it has for some years been conspicuously doing. Its future brings it into always-closer integration with the East Asian central area of advanced industry . And similarly , at an increased rate since the Nazi-Soviet pact, European Russia swings toward the central European area. Testing Pro! Feelers move out from of my life, both sides of the border.

The Russian boundaries advance toward the of plato west. At the same time, economic and social relations with Germany increase. German technicians, managers, move into the Russian industrial enterprises. How great the latter influx has so far been the public figures do not tell us but it is certainly much further advanced than any publicist has yet imagined. This infiltration of German managers is a large step in the road toward fusion of European Russia with the European centre . We may be sure that the reflections completion of the fusion, under whatever nominal auspices it comes, will find Russia subordinated to European centre, not, as the is dante's inferno an epic spinners of Bolshevik nightmares tell us, the other way around. Reflections! The development of the fusion begins in a dozen ways, beneath the surface. Its accomplishment will, presumably, include war, one or more. of the managerial wars of to-morrow, the preparations for which are so plainly around us. Note. - In spite of the Russo-German war, it has seemed to me advisable to leave the an epic text as it was written in 1940, and first published in the Spring of 1941 . The intent of this book is not journalistic but scientific. From a scientific standpoint, the theory of the managerial revolution is much better tested by of my life, its ability to make events intelligible before they happen, rather than by of plato, the ease with which it can doctor up references to what has already occurred.

The outbreak of the Russo-German war, and its course, seem to life, me a confirmation of the fundamental analysis precented in this chapter, and in particular of the political analysis summarized in Chapter XII. This war, to org social media, use the language of the theory, is of my part of the means whereby the western half of Russia is being integrated into the European super-state. However, the impression that the text gives is of a later beginning of greek, war between Russia and reflections of my Germany than actually turned out to be the case - and, so far as I can recall, this impression corresponds with the opinion I held in 1940. Romeo And Juliet! I believe that this error in time schedule resulted from a too schematic application of the sociological and economic analysis to of my, the problem, with insufficient attention to strictly military considerations. That a large part of Russia should be drawn within the is dante's an epic west-European orbit, and that war would be part of the process of reflections of my life, fusion, followed from the animal testing whole course of contemporary history. Just when the reflections of my life war would start, however, was decided primarily by the requirements of military strategy. her colonies, her merchant marine, and her navy; and her army was reduced to a minimum figure. Her people had been exhausted by the war and by the famine which occurred during its last year. She was saddled with reparations not merely in berlioz money - which she could and did pay largely through borrowings - but in kind, which latter meant the loss of material goods. Her opponents had carved up all the juiciest slices of the world in what they took to be their own interests.

It is against this background that we must place contemporary Germany . Nazi Germany eliminated unemployment within a couple of years from Hitler's ascension to power. The means whereby this was done are irrelevant to our inquiry; the fact that it was done is reflections crucial. Mass unemployment is the primary indication of the collapse of a given form of society. The great capitalist powers have proved that they cannot get rid of mass unemployment under capitalist institutions. Even after a year and a half of war, after more than half a year of the Battle of animal testing, Britain, there were still, according to official figures - which probably understate the facts and besides do not include so-called unemployables - nearly a million unemployed in England . Nazi Germany's elimination of unemployment is, in and by itself, a sufficient proof that Germany has left the basis of capitalism and reflections of my entered the road of a new form of society. Inferno! Everyone knows and many have stated that it is not by virtue of the capitalist elements remaining in German culture that unemployment has been got rid of, but through the introduction of non-capitalist methods.

Similarly, Germany has broken through the restrictions of capitalist finance. According to all the laws of capitalism, Germany should have been bankrupt five years ago; its currency should have gone into a wild inflation; it should have been impossible tor the state to finance its vast undertakings. But, under the life state control of finance, none of the laws held. Testamental! Again, through state control of imports and exports, Germany has been able to carry on foreign trade without the means, according to capitalist standards, of doing so . And huge outlets - primarily in life state enterplises - have been found for the investment funds that sit idly in the banks of the great capitalist powers. We find in Germany to an ever-increasing degree those structural changes which we have discovered to be characteristic of the procon media shift from capitalism to life, managerial society . In. the economic sphere, there is a steady reduction, in romeo intro all senses, of the area of private enterprise, and a correlative increase of state intervention. There was a brief period, immediately following the Nazi accession to state power, when the trend seemed to be in the opposite direction, when even a few enterprises which had been under state operation in the Weimar Republic were handed back to private capitalists. But this quickly reversed.

The state intervention in the economy occurs in numerous directions. Outright state ownership and operation , advancing in all fields, are particularly ascendant in of my life the extensive areas of new enterprise opened up during the greek school Nazi rule. However, to confine attention to outright ownership and operation with all legal formalities would be deceptive. Virtually all economic enterprise is subject to rigid state control ; and it is control which we have seen to be decisive in relation to the instruments of production. Legal forms, even income privileges, are in the end subordinate to de facto control. Even where private owners stlll exist in Germany, the decisions about their property are not in of my life their hands. They do not decide what to school, make or not to make. They do not establish prices or bargain about wages.

They are not at liberty to buy the raw materials they might choose nor to seek the most profitable markets. They cannot, as a rule, decide how to invest or not invest their surplus funds. In short, they are no longer owners, no longer effective capitalists, whatever certificates they may have in reflections life their deposit boxes. The regulation of production in Germany is no longer left to the market . What is to be produced, and how much, is org social decided, deliberately, by groups of men, by the state boards and bureaus and commissions . It is they that decide whether a new plant shall be built or an old plant retired, how raw materials shall be allotted and orders distributed, what quotas must be fulfilled by various branches of industry, what goods shall be put aside for export, how prices shall be fixed and credit and exchange extended . There is no requirement that these decisions of the bureaus must be based on any profit aim in the capitalist sense. If it is thought expedient, for whatever reason, to produce, for ezample, an ersatz rubber or wool or food, this will be done even if the production entails, from a capitalist point of view, a heavy loss. Similarly, in order to accumulate foreign exchange or to stimulate some political effect in a foreign nation, goods will be exported regardless of loss . A factory may be compelled to shut down, even though it could operate at a high profit. Of My! Banks and procon individuals are forced to invest their funds with no reference to the private and voluntary opinions about reflections of my life, risks from a profit standpoint. It is literally true to berlioz symphonie, say that the Nazi economy, already, is not a profit economy.

The workers, on their side, are no longer the reflections free proletarians of procon org social media, capitalism. Under Nazism the workers are indeed, free from unemployment. Of My! At the same time they cannot, as individuals or through their own independent organizations, bargain for romeo wages or change jobs at will. They are assigned to their tasks, and their labour conditions are fixed, by reflections life, the decisions of the state bureaus and commissions . Millions of them are allotted to media, the vast state enterprises. The minimum estimate I have seen (for 1939) gives the percentage of national income representing direct state activities as 50%. With the reflections of my reduction in is dante's inferno an epic the area of private enterprise and the increase of reflections of my, state enterprise, goes also a corresponding reduction in intro the social position of the private capitalists. So far as control over the instruments of production goes, the capitalists are already near the bottom.

As to income privilege: a recent estimate by a New York statistician gives as a mere 5% the share of the German national income going to profits and interest . This is a substantial reduction from the 1933 figures, in spite of a huge increase in the total national income, which, under capitalism, would normally be accompanied by a percentage increase in profits. Of My! In the intro United States, profits and interest are 20% of the national income , even excluding all so-called entrepreneurial profits. Moreover, of the German capitalists' 5%, the greater part is appropriated by the state as taxes and contributions. The statistics, however - which are, in any case, not reliable - fail to indicate the full meaning. How strange that it has not yet been remarked how seldom we find a manager among the voluntary or forced exiles from of my, Nazi Gerrnany! There are artists and writers among the exiles, ideologists and procon politicians, unassimilable foes of the new regime, storekeepers and reflections life professionals and teachers, and not a few capitalists, both Jews and Christians. But almost never a manager.

It is strange that this has not been remarked but not strange that it is the case. For the managers realize that the society which is developing is their society. In short! Germany is to-day a managerial state in an early stage . Structurally, it is testamental less advanced along managerial lines than Russia; it retains as yet more capitalist elements. But, though structurally less advanced, Germany is without most of those major weaknesses which we noted in the case of Russia. Its industrial and of my life technological foundation is far stronger; the rising managerial class is much larger, better trained, more able . The first part of the second world war, up to procon, the fall of France in June, 1940, was in reality the reflections of my continuation of the strategic extension begun in 1935. Testamental! This phase, the consolidation of the European base, was completed with France's surrender. It is completed irreversibly and can no longer be undone whatever the of my life outcome of the succeeding phases of the war, which are really other wars. This consolidation fundamental to the world politics of and juliet, managerial society, is not going to be dissolved, not even if the present German regime is utterly defeated. The day of a Europe carved into a score of sovereign states is over ; if the states remain, they will be little more than administrative units in a larger collectivity.

. a deal between Germany and England would be much more advantageous to the European super-state of the future than to have England conquered by Germany. With a deal in which England would necessarily be subordinate, the tendency would be for the British Empire to keep attached to the European central area. In the course of the military conquest of England, most of the Empire tends to drop off to the spheres of the United States and the Asiatic central area. But the English capitalists weighed the costs and decided to keep on fighting . Thus the second phase of the war, really a second war, goes on of my as I write. By the end of 1940 it was clear that the focus of the greek of plato war was shifting, that the reflections of my life result of the European struggle was in and juliet fundamentals decided, and that a new, third, phase was beginning wherein the mighty opponents of the future - the reflections three political structures based on the three central areas - were undertaking their first trials of testing pro, strength.

These wars of the developing super-states will not end with the end of this war. Their results, we have noted, is sure to be inconclusive, since none of the three central areas can firmly conquer any of the reflections others. From her continental base, the United States is called on to make bid for maximum world power as against the super-states to be based on the other two central areas . Greek! . First, there is the consolidation of the main strategic base. In Europe this consolidation meant smashing the Continental political system. In the Americas, most of the of my life base is already included within the boundaries of the United States. . Next comes the protective extension of the base with the aim of making it invulnerable for defence and convenient for attack. This, in current terms, is the policy of pro, modified hemisphere defence, to draw a ring around all of North America and northern South America. The second stage is already well advanced.

It was prepared for by the series of Pan-American conferences and reflections agreements and by what is propagandlsttcally referred to as tbe Good Neighbour Policy. It has gone forward through such measures as the establishment of air lanes throughout Latin America, the is dante's inferno an epic visits of reflections life, warships and war planes, the projection of the symphonie fantastique Pan-American Highway, the of my strengthening of the Panama Canal, reciprocal military agreements with Latin-American nations, the defence alliance with Canada which in inter testamental effect subordinates Canada's sovereignty to the United States, and reflections the deal with Britain which secured outlying bases in testamental the Atlantic. Naturally, this stage wlll not stop with these moves. It will issue in a situation comparable to what Hitler aims at in most of Europe: the of my life de facto elimination of independent sovereignty in all nations and colonies of the area except the United States , and thus the animal creation of a single interrelated territory so far as de fatto political sovereignty goes. There is every reason to suppose that this stage will be successfully accomplished. The third and grandiose stage, which, though it has already begun for the United States, will extend many decades into the future, and for which the first two stages are preparation, is the reflections of my bid for testing pro the maximum of world power against the claims of the European and reflections of my Asiatic central areas. The United States is romeo and juliet forced to begin this third stage before the preparatory first two stages are finished. The first great plan in the third stage is for the United States to become what might be called the reflections of my receiver for the disintegrating British Empire . (We are not, of course, interated in the propagandistic terms that are used in current references to this action.) The attempt is to swing the orientation of the Empire from its historical dependence on Europe to dependence on and subordination to testing, the American central area. Along with the United States' receivership plan for the British Empire go still broader aims in connection with the rest of South America, the life Far East (including conspicuously the Far Eastern colonies of formerly sovereign European states) and in fact the whole world . The struggle which has begun is the world struggle of the super-states of the future.

This struggle, as I have remarked, is bound to be inconclusive. No one of the animal testing three central areas is able to conquer definitely the of my other central areas, and romeo and juliet therefore no one state power can in fact rule the world. This will not, however, prevent the struggle from reflections of my, taking place. The new world political system based on a small number of super-states will still leave problems - more, perhaps, than a unified single world-state; but it will be enough of inter testamental, a solution for society to keep going. 2.1 In the following quotes, the page numbers in 1984 are firstly given for a hardback edition: George Orwell: Animal Farm, Burnese Days, A Clergyman's Daughter, Coming Up-Or Air, Keep the Aspidistra Flying, Nineteen Eighty-Four , Secker Warburg/Octopus, London, 1976. Page numbers are then given for the paperback edition: Penguin, Harmondsworth 1955. Orwell, as a Trotskyist, makes Trotsky (a Jew) the hero in both Animal Farm and 1984 . In Animal Farm , the horse Snowball is modelled on Trotsky. In 1984 , the reflections of my life underground leader Goldstein is modelled on Trotsky: . the face of Goldstein . was a lean Jewish face, wit h . a small goatee beard (p. 749; p. 13 in the Penguin paperback). Personally, I find this offensive, because Trotsky helped set up the Red Terror.

On which see worst.html. Orwell should have known better; but his view of the inter testamental USSR was being shaped by Trotsky, whose organisation Orwell was in . Burnham was in reflections of my it too; but in The Managerial Revolution he shows an awareness that the USSR was NEVER the of plato Workers' State Trotsky told the public it had been (before Stalin). Reflections! It was ALWAYS a Managerial State. Gereralising the figure Goldstein: in the novel 1984 Goldstein (the hero who resists Big Brother) is a Jew. Today, what with the Holocaust Industry the laws against greek school of plato Hate speech, which define it in terms of life, subjective criteria (someone feels offense), it's those who criticise Judaism Jewish power who feel that they are the hector berlioz fantastique ones taking on the Thought Police . a nice reversal of reflections of my life, roles compared to the scenario in 1984 . but more like the situation in the USSR before Stalin. O'Brien's Inquisitor says to him : Later, in the twentieth century, there were the testamental totalitarians , as they were called. Reflections Life! They were the German Nazis and the Russian Communists. The Russians persecuted heresy more cruelly than the Inquisition had done. And they imagined that they had learned from the mistakes of the past; they knew , at any rate, that one must not make martyrs . Before they exposed their victims to public trial, they deliberately set themselves to destroy their dignity.

They wore them down by torture and solitude until they were despicable, cringing wretches, confessing whatever was put into their mouths . And yet after only a few years . The dead men had become martyrs and their degradation was forgotten. . In the first place, because the confessions that they had made were obviously extorted and untrue. We do not make mistakes of berlioz fantastique, that kind. (p. 889; pp. 203-4 in the Penguin paperback). This passage proves conclusively: Orwell is reflections of my life warning us NOT about the SOVIET UNION but about OUR OWN SOCIETY.

Here. Now. 2.2 During the Cold War, readers of 1984 in the West identified the terror with the USSR. The book was a potent weapon which made its readers fear the USSR. It shows how much Trotskyists hated Stalin. A whole swag of Anti-Communists broadly sympathetic to Marxism, or Zionism, or a World State - Jews like Arthur Koestler (koestler.html), non-Jews like Orwell, H. Procon! G. Of My Life! Wells, Bertrand Russell - could never admit that Stalin had wrested control from the non-theistic Jews ( philos.html). Romeo Intro! This is life one of the great Denials of our time. Even then, Stalin relied on greek of plato Jews to help run the USSR and, later, the East European satellites. But my view is, he stole their conspiracy.

The Cold War was, not so much against Communism per se, as against Stalin, against the Russian communists who overthrew Trotskyism . Trotsky kept from his Western followers, his own role in setting up the Red Terror (worst.html). And that it was set up by a faction of non-theistic Jews (ginsberg.html). And those followers did not bother to find out the facts. Had Trotsky retained power, they would have been his apparchiks fellow-travellers in the West, and acting together they may have delivered us to a World State (opensoc.html). The forced collectivisation Stalin implemented, was actually a policy of Trotsky. It failed in Ukraine, and was not implemented in Eastern Europe, where farms remained in private hands. So Stalin is a hero, but only in a negative way. He gave them a taste of their own medicine. Of My Life! Both Trotsky and Stalin lived by the sword and died by testing pro, the sword (death-of-stalin.html).

2.3 Joseph Nedava writes in his book Trotsky and the Jews (The Jewish Publication Society of America, Philadelphia, 5732 /1972): This realization, apparently, was also what psychologically motivated George Orwell to give a Jewish coloring to the Opposition in his nightmarish Oceania in 1984 . In this book the leader of the Opposition and of my the writer of The Book ( The Theory and Practice of Oligarchical Collectivism ), which attempts to answer the un-answerable question of Why?, is Emmanuel Goldstein . The Brotherhood may have something to do with Trotsky's Fourth Internationale . It should also be recalled that Orwell was a member of the Trotskyite P.O.U.M. during the Spanish Civil War in the 1930s, and he was certainly acquainted with Trotsky's writings. Deutscher is of the opinion that it was from Trotsky-Bronstein that he [Orwell] took the hector berlioz symphonie few sketchy biographical data and even the life physiognomy and the Jewish name for Emmanuel Goldstein; and the fragments of 'the book,' which take up so many pages in 1984, are an obvious, though not very successful, paraphrase of Trotsky's The Revolution Betrayed . Russia in Transition (New York, 1960), p. 261. (3) Wittfogel's Oriental Despotism James Burnham shows that the USSR was always a Managerial State, never a Workers' State.

Karl A. Wittfogel was writing on the same lines as Burnham. In his book Oriental Despotism (Yale University Press, New Haven, 1957) , he makes an acknowledgement to Burnham on p. School! 48 , footnote a: a. Reflections Of My! Social science is indebted to James Burnham for pointing to the power potential inherent in managerial control . The present inquiry stresses the importance of the general (political) organizer as compared not only to the technical specialist (see Veblen, 1945: 441ff.), but also to the economic manager. This, however, does not diminish the inter author's appreciation of the contribution made by Burnham through his concept of managerial leadership. Once a Communist of the anti-Stalinist (Trotskyist) camp, Wittfogel turned against not only reflections, Stalin but also makes direct criticisms of Marx, Lenin Trotsky . For Wittfogel as for Arthur Koestler, the Nazi-Soviet Pact of 1939 was the final straw. Wittfogel joined the German Communist Party in 1920, and was a member of the Frankfurt School between 1925 and 1933.

Its other leading members were Jewish, and Wittfogel fits the pattern of Jewish Bolsheviks who abandoned ship through Stalin's seizing power. Evidence of Jewish ancestry or identity has not been presented, but the Christian religion was sometimes a cover for Jews who had assimilated but retained a Jewish identity. Leo Amery, author of the Balfour Declaration, is a modern example of a covert Jew: balfour.html. He fits into the Trotskyist camp, but once he turned against Communism he abandoned Trotsky too. He says that Lenin criticised the Tsar's regime as an Asiatic Despotism, but before 1917 Lenin changed his tune and inferno even acknowledged that the next revolution might bring an Asiatic Restoration. On p. v Wittfogel acknowledges a long-term debt to reflections, the Rockefeller Foundation. ' Marx generally overstated the oppressiveness of Oriental society , which he held to be a system of general slavery. Ironically, but suitably, that designation can, however, be used for the new industrial apparatus society.

We can truly say that the October revolution , whatever its expressed aims, gave birth to an industry-based system of general (state) slavery. ' (p. 441). He attributes the Asiatic Restoration in the USSR to the Tatar legacy acquired during centuries of conquest by the East. At no point does he acknowledge the Jewish domination of the early USSR. This could be crucial for animal pro understanding the despotism - I believe it derives not from the Tatars but from the Fundamentalist Judaism of the East-European Jewish communities (who had not assimilated like the Jews of reflections life, Western Europe). The Israeli Professor and hector berlioz symphonie fantastique dissident Israel Shahak repeatedly says in his book book Jewish History, Jewish Religion that Judaism has a totalitarian streak (on pp. 10, 15, 16, 18, 19, 102, and 103): shahak1.html. The Jewish religion's harsh condemnation of of my, pagans (goyim), the nations; its insistence on separation from them; its depiction of God's People's unending battle with its opponents; these are the origin of the hardness. If this be the source, then it might offer the prospect of inter, a less-severe Managerial State one day, not burdened by this Jewish bitterness or, equally, by a white separatist prejudice. The Managerial State clearly offers full employment in a way that Capitalism does not; could there be a variant which also allows more personal freedom? Is the Confucian Renaissance producing such variants?

It seems not. So far, every modern Managerial State has been based on a higher tribalism of some sort. For Jews to admit the Jewish creation domination of the early USSR, is comparable to Whites admitting the White conquest of the New World. No progess can be made towards an alternative to Capitalism, without both admissions: this, and other mutual confessions, is the key to any new Socialism. I have named this site Neither Aryan Nor Jew, in this hope. Is the Asia Model a Confucian Renaissance, as Reg Little calls it? confucian-renaissance.html. Or an Oriental Despotism, as Wittfogel would call it: wittfogel.html. Chapter 2 of reflections of my life, Oriental Despotism is animal testing called Hydraulic Economy - a Managerial and Genuinely Political Economy . (4) James Burnham, The Machiavellians: Defenders of Freedom , Gateway Editions, Washington 1987; first published 1943. For a background on Machiavelli see toolkit2.html. Gaetano Mosca's book The Ruling Class : mosca.html. REFLECTIONS ON RE-READING THE MACHIAVELLIANS

James Burnham's The Machiavellians (1943) is the least known and most important of his books . It is the most important because it contains a clear expression of his social philosophy of freedom, which is reflections life not limited to his oppostion to communism and to what he calls private capitalism. He also defends his belief in a pluralist society, in which power restrains power and the right of public opposition to school, the rulers, whoever they are, is the heart of freedom and is sustained forever. Many of his critics and reflections his followers are unaware of the actual nature of James Burnham's commitment to freedom in a book whose very title seems to suggest something quite different . After all, the very word Machiavellian in popular discourse has the media connotation of political cunning, duplicity, and reflections of my life bad faith; and the great social thinkers of the greek school of plato past, Gaetano Mosca, Vilfredo Pareto, and Roberto Michels, whom Burnham classifies as Machiavellians , are conventionally more notable for their criticisms of the possibility of democracy than as protagonists of reflections of my, human freedom. It is well known that Pareto was honored by Mussolini, and Michels was welcomed by syndicalist elements among Italian fascists. In undertaking a vindication of Machiavelli and of the testamental three great Italian social philosophers as protagonists of human freedom, James Burnham has offered a challenging reinterpretation of some accepted views in the history of ideas. It is certainly not decisive about the meaning of a doctrine or. thinker that a political figure of movement seeks to exploit it or him for reflections of my life his or its own purposes. Not everyone who claims paternity for his views in Nietzsche, Marx, or Pareto is justified in doing so. The basic question is the validity of procon, Burnham's assessment of the doctrines he attributes to the modern Machiavellians.

A personal word or two may be in order concerning the period during which Burnham wrote this book. We were colleagues in the Department of Philosophy at Washington Square College, New York University, of which I was Chairman. Burnham was a very effective teacher who offered elective courses in life aesthetics, Dante, and Aquinas. He was very familiar with Machiavelli's works. He became acquainted with the ideas of Mosca, Michels, and Pareto through my pointing out their criticisms of Marxism and socialism . During the inter late 30's when Burnham subcribed to the Marxist outook, he was not impressed by their criticisms. Of My! It was only after he broke with Trotskyism that his intellectual odyssey led him to repudiate Leninism, Marxism, and other varieties of inter testamental, socialism . It was then that he carefully read the works of Mosca, Michels, and Pareto, accepted the reflections of my basic validity of their analyses, and animal testing interpreted them as a confirmation of reflections of my, his own non-Utopian conception of a free society. In referring to animal testing pro, The Machiavellians as the most important of James Burnham's books, some readers may think I have erred because Burnham's public recognition began two years earlier, in 1941, with the publication of The Managerial Revolution . In that book, he argues that Marxism had misconceived the nature of the true revolution of our time and that the effective ruling class in life all industrialized societies was the managers - the hector berlioz symphonie technologists, engineers, and bureaucrats - without whom no economy could func- tion. Of My! Although he tried to assimilate his predictions about the existing and growing power of the managerial elite to the thesis of testing pro, The Machiavellians , the two themes are logically independent of each other. Shortly before The Managerial Revolution was published, Stalin was shooting Soviet managers out of hand, and shortly thereafter Hitler's managers kowtowed to the wildest instructions of of my, their ideological Party mentors. Hector Berlioz Symphonie! The burden of the argument of The Machiavellians is that whatever group, class, or elite , including managers, exercises directing power in any society, institutional ways must be found to limit this authority in the genuine interest of freedom.

The normal processes of political democracy cannot do this unless they develop methods of preventing official or unofficial monopolies of power, which in reflections the nature of the case they cannot do . Why not? For several reasons developed in greater detail by Mosca, Pareto, and animal pro Michels. Mosca argues that majority rule , without which democracy cannot exist, is reflections of my literally impossible. In every society, regardless of its political form, an organized minority constitutes the testamental actual ruling class. It rules by myths that unify society and facilitate the reflections life acquisition of the habits that keep the org social media ruled in their accustomed grooves of behavior. In times of stress when the ruled see through the myths and become restive, the rulers fall back on fraud to retain their power.

If the fraud is of my no longer accepted and resistance begins, the rulers resort to naked force . Pareto argues that if the ruled revolt and succeed in overthrowing their rulers, it is not the hector people who come to reflections life, power but the leaders of the testamental people - a new elite replacing an reflections of my, old elite. Revolutions in effect are a circulation of elites into and out of procon, power. Pareto believed that Marx was right in stressing the fact that there is a class struggle. He was wrong in of my life believing it would ever end. As soon as the.

workers overthrow the capitalists, a new class, a new minority, whether of bureaucrats, intellectuals, commissars, or what not, come to power and enjoy the privileges of power. In this sense the class struggle is sure to endure forever. Michels stressed that no mass movement can ever succeed without an organization . The very nature of an organization dictates that some have more authority than others, else nothing gets done. Authority means hierarchy, specialized functions, and consequent privileges. All this is historically verifiable, and inescapable. The result is the iron law of oligarchy - which means that socialists or democrats may be victorious, when they have a majority, but socialism or democracy, never. Leaders must take over in order to satisfy the needs of the is dante's inferno led, which they do in their own way, on their own terms, and reflections life guided by their own interests.

It follows from this that democracy as a form of self-government or a government in which the major decisions of government rest upon animal pro the freely given consent of a majority of the adult governed, or their representatives, is a myth . It is impossible. Reflections Of My Life! Burnham accepts this as having been established by the Machiavellian thinkers. But he refuses to surrender the term democracy to procon org social media, its enemies to those who preface it with adjectives like new, directed, higher, organized, workers - all of of my life, which are semantic disguises for totalitarianism. He proceeds to redefine democracy as any political system in which liberty exists. For Burnham, this means the berlioz symphonie public acceptance of the perennial right of of my, opposition as an absolute sine qua non of animal testing, a free society. Life! It is this commitment to a free society that underlies all of his subsequent works. As welcome as Burnham's acceptance of the right to dissent is, is the right to org social, dissent a sufficient defini- tion of democracy? And prior to that, are the arguments of the Machiavellians compelling? Do they establish that democracy as a form of reflections of my life, government is impossible, or rather that it is very difficult - requiring safeguards and unsleeping vigilance. Pro! . PREFACE TO THE GATEWAY EDITION.

This book was written a generation ago, a short time for mankind but long enough by of my life, an individual reckoning. There have been periods when, looking back a generation, one would have had to say: those dear (or damned) departed days belonged to another age, now vanished with the inter testamental skirts and bonnets its women wore. I do not see it so, when, from this platform of 1963 I view once more the happenings of 1941 and 1942 through the life memories opened up by reading the proofs of the testamental paragraphs I was writing then. Those years of reflections of my life, wars and pro revolutions, death camps and propaganda machines, the collapse of old orders and the wanderings of the peoples, belong most recognizably to the same age that is still ours in 1963. Most of the life text is the more or less systematic exposition of the theories of Machiavelli and a small group of rather inaccessible more recent writers whom I call Machiavellians. Inter Testamental! Along with that there is a certain amount of commentary and illustration, in terms contemporary in 1941-2. The exposition is accurate, fair and probably sufficient for both understanding and judgment, so that it remains valid now, as then. Some of the commentary and life illustration strikes me as a little callow or archaic; but perhaps it is just as well not to lose too many illusions too early. (I have made a few changes in romeo and juliet the text here and there, to of my life, untie it from symphonie fantastique, too close links to what was its present, or to reflections life, straighten obscurities.) Writing this book was primarily, I suppose, as most books are for their authors, a matter of self-education; more particularly, of the long re-education I had to undertake after seven Trotskyist years. I was grateful to these Machiavellians , and perhaps I gave them rather more than their due.

Having come to know something of the gigantic ideology of Bolshevism, I knew that I was noit going to be able to settle for the pygmy ideologies of Liberalism, social democracy, refurbished laissez-faireor the inverted, cut-rate Bolshevism called fascism. Through the Machiavellians I began to berlioz, understand more thoroughly what I had long felt: that only by renouncing all ideology can we begin to reflections of my, see the world and man . Kent, Connecticut February, 1963. 1. The Machiavellian Tradition. MACHIAVELLI lived and wrote during a great social revolution, through which feudal society, its economy, political arrangement, and culture, were being replaced by the first stage of capitalist society. This revolution occupied a long period of time, and its boundaries cannot be given exact dates. Nevertheless, we may consider that it reached a decisive turning point during Machiavelli's own life, with the hector discovery of the New World , the rise of the first international stock exchanges, the Protestant religious revolution, the consolidation of the English national state under the Tudors, and the first appointment of bourgeois representatives - by Henry VIII - to the chief political offlces of reflections, a great kingdom. We also live during a great social revolution, a revolution through which capitalist society is being replaced by what I have elsewhere defined as managerial society. It is, perhaps, the close analogy between our age and Machiavelli's that explains why the Machiavellian tradition, after centuries during which it was either neglected or misunderstood or merely repeated, has, in an epic recent decades, been notably revived. Through the thought and research of a number of brilliant writers, Machiavellism has undergone a profound and life extensive development. In The Managerial Revolution , published by the John Day Co. in 1941. The crisis of capitalist society was made plain by the first World War.

With a far from accidental anticipation, much of the hector chief work of the modern Machiavellians was done in the period immediately preceding that war. Reflections! Gaetano Mosca, it is true, had formulated many of his ideas as early as 1883, when he finished his first book, Teorica dei governi e gverno parlamentare . However, his mature and finished thought is presented, with the war experiences close at hand, in the revised and expanded 1923 edition of Elementi di scienza politica , which is the basis of what has been translated into English as The Ruling Class . Georges Sorel's active career went on through the war, and ended with his death in 1922. Robert Michels and hector symphonie fantastique Vilfredo Pareto were writing their major books when the war began. In a revolutionary transition, the struggle for power, which, during years of social stability, is often hidden or expressed through indirect and undramatic forms, becomes open and of my life imperious. Machiavellism is concerned with politics, that is, with the struggle for power. It seems natural, therefore, that its first appearance as well as its revival should be correlated with social revolution. Greek School! The revolutionary crisis makes men, or at least a certain number of men, discontent with what in normal times passes for political thought and science - namely, disguised apologies for the status quo or utopian dreams of the future; and reflections of my life compels them to face more frankly the inter testamental real issues.

of power: some because they wish to understand more clearly the nature of the world of reflections of my life, which they are a part, others because they wish also to and juliet intro, discover whether and in what way they might be able to control that world in the furtherance of of my life, their own ideals. . Gaetano Mosca, like all Machiavellians, rejects any monistic view of greek of plato, history - that is, any theory of history which holds tnat there is one single cause that accounts for life everything that happens in society. From the days, in the early centuries of Christianity, when the first philosophles of. history attributed all that happened to the Will of God as sole causal principle, there have been dozens of examples of such monistic theories. Mosca examines three of them in some detail: the climatic theory, the racial theory, and the economic materialist theory, which maintain, respectively, that differences in climate, in animal race, or in methods of economic production, are able to explain the course of history. He rejects all of reflections of my, these theories, not because of any prejudice against monism, but for that simple and and juliet final reason that seems to have no attraction for monists: because these theories do not accord with the of my facts. . Social and political events of the procon org social media very greatest scope and order - the collapse of the Roman Empire, the rise of Christianity, the advance of Islam - have occurred without any im- portant correlated change in the mode of economic production; consequently the mode of production cannot be the sole cause of social change. The critique of these monistic views does not mean that Mosca wishes to substitute some similar view of his own, or, on the other hand, to deny that such factors as climate, race, or mode of production have causal influences in history. Reflections Life! Climate, obviously, can change the inter testamental course of events: some regions of the earth are literally uninhabitable, others so unhealthy or so arid that a high level of civilization cannot be supported by them (though a vigorous society learns to conquer unfavorable natural conditions); a drop in reflections of my life rainfall might lead to hector, a migration. Changes in the mode of economic production must unquestionably be recognized as one of the reflections life chief factors entering into the historical process: the berlioz fantastique invention of new tools or machines, new ways of organizing work, new relationships of economic ownership, may have vast repercussions throughout the social order. Even racial differences may conceivably affect political and social organization. For that matter, still other circumstances can influence history-new types of armaments or ways of fighting, to take an important example, or shifts in religion and social beliefs. Mosca himself holds what is sometimes called an interdependence theory of historical causation: the reflections of my life view that there are a number of important factors that determine historical change that no one of these can be considered solely decisive, that they interact upon each other, with changes in one field affecting and in turn being affected by pro, changes in others.

He makes his critique of historical monism in order to break down abstract approaches to reflections life, history, to do away. with preconceptions of how things ought to of plato, be, and to force a concrete examination of the facts in each specific problem rather than an adjustment of the life facts to fit the is dante's inferno an epic requirements of some schematic theory. Monistic theories of history, he believes, are a great obstacle to a recognition of the facts. His particular field is politics. He thinks that by a comparative and historical approach to life, the facts of political life it is possible to have a science of politics, though he is very modest in his hopes about what political science can at the present time accomplish, either in reaching general conclusions or in providing guides for action: Man neither creates nor destroys any of the forces of nature, but he can study their manner of acting and fantastique their interplay and turn them to his advantage. . Yet . in the social sciences in general the of my life difficulties to be overcome are enormously greater. . Man can much more easily study the phenomena of physics, chemistry or botany than he can his own instincts and his own passions. . But then, even granting that . individuals can attain. scientific results, it is highly problematical whether they can succeed in is dante's an epic using them to modify the political conduct of the great human societies. ( The Ruling Class , pp. 40-41.) Since the primary purpose of life, Machiavellians is to org social, discover the truth, they do not feel required to of my life, make demagogic claims even about their own accomplishments. 2. The Ruling Class.

IT IS characteristic of Machiavellian political analysis to be anti-formal, using formal in the sense which I have defined in inferno the discussion of Dante's De Monarchia . That is, Machiavellians, in their investigations of political behavior, do not accept at reflections life face value what men say, think believe, or write. Whether it is the speech or letter or book of an individual, or a public document such as a constitution or set of romeo and juliet, laws or a party platform, Machiavellians treat it as only one fact among the larger set of social facts, and reflections interpret its meaning always in relation to these other facts. Romeo Intro! In some cases, examination shows that the of my life words can be accepted just as they stand; more often, as we found with De Monarchia , a divorce between formal and real meaning is is dante's discovered with the words distorting and disguising the real political behavior which they indirectly express. This anti-formal approach leads Mosca to reflections of my, note as a primary and universal social fact the exist- ence of two political classes, a ruling class - always a minority - and the ruled. . The existence of a minority ruling class is, it must be stressed, a universal feature of all organized societies of which we have any record. It holds no matter what the social and political forms - whether the society is feudal or capitalist or slave or collectivist, monarchical or oligarchical or democratic, no matter what the constitutions and laws, no matter what the professions and beliefs. Mosca furthermore believes that we are fully entitled to conclude that this not only has been and is always the case, but that also it always will be. Procon! That it will be, follows, in reflections of my life the first place, from the univocal experience of the past: since, under all conditions, it has always been true of political organization, it must be presumed that it is a constant attribute of political life and will continue to hold for the future.

However, the conclusion that there will always be a minority ruling class can be further demonstrated in another way. By the theory of the of plato ruling class Mosca is refuting two widespread errors which, though the opposite of each other, are oddly enough often both believed by the same person. The first , which comes up in discussions of reflections life, tyranny and dictatorship and is familiar in today's popular attacks on contemporary tyrants, is that society can be ruled by a single individual . Hector! But, Mosca observes, the man who is at the head of the state would certainly not be able to govern without the support of a numerous class to reflections, enforce respect for his orders and to have them carried out; and granting that he can make one individual, or indeed many individuals, in the ruling class feel the weight of fantastique, his power, he certainly cannot be at odds with the class as a whole or do away with it. Even if that were possible, he would at once be. forced to create another class, without the support of which action on his part would be com pletely paralyzed. (P. Reflections Of My! 51.) The other error, typical of democratic theory, is that the romeo intro masses, the majority , can rule themselves . . Nor is this rule at all suspended in the case of governments resting in form upon universal suffrage. . Few who have paid attention to the political facts, rather than to reflections of my life, theories about these facts, in greek the United States, will disagree with the account as it applies to this country. Within the ruling class, it is usually possible to distinguish roughly two layers: a very small group of reflections of my life, top leaders, who among themselves occupy the highest and and juliet intro key positions of the society; and a much larger group of secondary figures - a middle class, as it could properly be called - who, though not so prominent nor so much in the limelight, constitute the day-to-day active directors of the community life . Of My Life! Just as Mosca believes that the individual supreme leader is unimportant to the fate of a society, compared to the ruling class, so does he believe that this secondary level of the ruling class is, in the long run at least, more decisive than the top.

Below the highest stratum in the ruling class, there is always, even in procon org social autocratic systems, another that is much more numerous and comprises all the capacities for leadership in of my the country. Without such a class any sort of social organization would be impossible. Inter! The higher stratum would not in itself be sufficient for leading and directing the activities of the masses. In the last analysis, therefore, the reflections of my life stability of any political organism depends on the level of morality, intelligence and activity that this second stratum has attained. . Any intellectual or moral deficiencies in romeo intro this second stratum , accordingly, represent a graver danger to the political structure, and one. that is reflections of my life harder to repair, than the presence of similar deficiencies in the few dozen persons who control the workings of the state machine. Procon Media! . (Pp.

404-5 From the point of view of the theory of the ruling class, a society is the society of reflections of my, its ruling class. Greek! A nation's strength or weakness, its culture , its powers of reflections of my life, endurance, its prosperity, its decadence, depend in the first instance upon the nature of its ruling class . More particularly, the way in which to study a nation, to understand it, to predict what will happen to it, requires first of all and primarily an analysis of the ruling class. Pro! Political history and political science are thus predominantly the history and science of reflections, ruling classes , their origin, development, composition, structure, and changes. . However arbitrary this idea of history as the history of berlioz, ruling classes may seem to reflections of my life, be, the truth is that all historians, in practice even such historians as Tolstoy or Trotsky, whose general theories directly contradict it - are compelled to write in terms of it. If for no other reason, this must be because the great mass of mankind leaves no record of itself except insofar as it is an epic exppressed or led by outstanding and reflections of my life noteworthy persons . . There is an ambiguity, which is noted by Professor Livingston, in Mosca's concept of the ruling class.

Mosca considers himself a political scientist rather than a sociologist, and inter testamental tries, some of the time, to restrict his field to politics rather than to general social behavior. Life! If literally translated from the animal testing pro Italian, his phrase would usually be political class, or governing class, rather than ruling class. In his writings his meaning seems to shuttle between the narrower concept of a governing class - that is, the class directly or indirectly concerned with the reflections specific business of government - and the more general concept of a social elite - that is, the class of all those in a society who are differentiated from the masses by the possession of some kind of power or privilege , many of whom may have no specific relation to government. However, this ambiguity does not affect Mosca's argument to any considerable degree; and if we judge by the context, the general concept of an hector symphonie fantastique, elite is usually more appropriate to his meaning. What seems to have happened is that Mosca began his work in the narrower field of politics, with the narrower concept in mind. His political inquiries then led hirn outward into of my, the. wider field of school, social action, since the political field could not be understood apart from the background of the whole social field. The idea of the political class expanded its meaning into the idea of a social elite without an reflections life, explicit discussion of the change.

In later Machiavellian thought - in Pareto, particularly - the an epic wider meaning of elite is consistently employed . We should further note that in stating the theory of the ruling class, Mosca is not making a moral judgment, is not arguing that it is good, or bad , that mankind should be divided into rulers and ruled. I recently read, in a review by a well-known journalist, that this country will never accept a theory of the elite - as if it is wicked to talk about such things, and reflections life noble to denounce them. The scientific problem, however, is not whether this country or any other will accept such theories, but whether the procon org social media theories are true. . 3. Composition and Character of the Ruling Class. MOSCA rejects the many theories which have tried to apply the Darwinian theory of of my life, evolution directly to animal testing, social life. Life! He finds, however, a social tendency that is indirectly analogous to the process of biological evolution . The outcome of this struggle for pre-eminence is the decision who shall be , or continue to be, members of the ruling class . . He finds that the possession of certain qualities is useful in all societies for gaining admittance to the ruling class, or for staying within it. Deep wisdom, altruism , readiness at self-sacrifice, are not among these qualities, but, on the contrary, are usually hindrances. . The best method of all for entering the ruling class is to be born into it - though, it may be observed, inheritance alone will not suffice to of plato, keep a family permanently among the life rulers. Symphonie! Like Machiavelli here also, Mosca attributes not a little to fortune. . To mention simple examples: in a society which lives primarily by fishing, the expert fisherman has an advantage; the skilled warrior, in a predominantly military society; the able priest, in a profoundly religious group; and so on.

Considered as keys to of my, rule, such qualities as these are variable; if the conditions of life change, they change, for when religion declines, the priest is media no longer so important, or when fishing changes to agriculture, the of my life fisherman naturally drops in the social scale. Thus, changes in the general conditions of life are correlated with far-reaching changes in the composition of the ruling class. The various sections of the ruling class express or represent or control or lead what Mosca calls social forces , which are continually varying in greek of plato number and importance. By social force Mosca means any human activity which has significant social and political influence. . A given ruling class rules over a given society precisely because it is able to control the major social forces that are active within that society. If a social force - religion, let us say - declines in importance, then the section of the ruling class whose position was dependent upon control of religion likewise, over a period, declines. If the entire ruling class had been based primarily upon religion, then the entire ruling class would change its character (if it were able to life, adapt itself to the new conditions) or would (if it could not adapt itself) be overthrown. Similarly, if a new major social force develops - commerce, for example, in a previously agricultural society, or applied science - then either the existing ruling class proves itself flexible enough to gain leadership over testamental this new force (in part, no doubt, by absorbing new members into its ranks); or , if it does not, the leadership of the new force grows up outside of the old class, and in life time constitutes a revolutionary threat against the old ruling class, challenging it for and juliet supreme social and political power. Thus, the growth of new social forces and the decline of old forces is in general correlated with the constant process of change and dislocation in the ruling class. A ruling class expresses its role and position through what Mosca calls a political formula . This formula rationalizes and justifies its rule and the structure of the of my society over hector symphonie which it rules. The formula may be a racial myth, as in Germany under a Nazi regime or in reflections of my life this country in relation to procon org social, the Negroes or the reflections life yellow races: rule is then explained as the natural prerogative of the superior race.

Or it may be a divine right doctrine , as in the theories elaborated in con- nection with absolutist monarchies of the greek school of plato 16th and 17th centuries or traditional Japanese imperialism: then rule is explained as following from a peculiar relationship to divinity, very often in fact from direct blood descent (such formulas were very common in ancient times, and have by no means lost all efflcacy). Or, to cite the formula most familiar to us , and functioning now in reflections of my life this country, it is a belief in testing the will of the people : rule is life then said to follow legitimately from the will or choice of the people expressed through some t,vpe of suffrage. the special political formula employed within a given nation is often related to wider myths that are shared by a number of and juliet, nations , so that several political formulas appear as variations on similar basic themes. Conspicuous among these wider myths are the great world religions - Christianity, Buddhism, Mohammedanism - which, unlike most earlier religions or still-continuing religions of the type of Japanese Shintoism, are not specifically bound up with a single nation or people; the myth, probably best expressed by Rousseau, which is built out of reflections life, such ideas as the innate goodness of man, the animal will of the reflections people, humanitarianism, and progress; and the contemporary myth of animal testing, collectivism, which, in Mosca's opinion, is the logical extension of the democratic Rousseau myth. Second, it may be seen from reflections, historical experience that the integrity of the political formula is animal pro essential for the survival of a given social structure. Changes in reflections of my the formula , if they are not to destroy the society, must be gradual, not abrupt.

The formula is indispensable for holding the social structure together. A widespread skepticism about the formula will in romeo and juliet time corrode and disintegrate the social order. It is perhaps for reflections of my life this reason, half-consciously understood, that all strong and long-lived societies have cherished their traditions, even when, as is usually the case, these traditions have little relation to fact, and even after they can hardly be believed literally by educated men. Rome? Japan, Venice, all.

such long-enduring states, have been very slow to procon media, change the old formulas, the time-honored ways and stories and rituals; and they have been harsh against rationalists who debunk them. This, after all, was the crime for which Athens put Socrates to death. From the point of view of life, survival, she was probably right in doing so. 4. Tendencies in school the Ruling Class. WITHIN all ruling classes, Mosca shows that it is possible to distinguish two principles, as he calls them, and two tendencies. These are, it might be said, the developmental laws of ruling classes. Their relative strength establishes the most important differences among various ruling classes. The autocratic principle may be distinguished from the liberal principle. Life! These two principles regulate, primarily, the method by which governmental officials and social leaders are chosen. Media! In any form of political organization, authority is either transmitted from above downvard in the political or social scale [ the autocratic principle ], or from below upward [ the liberal principle ]. (p. 394.) Neither principle violates the general law that society is divided into a ruling minority and a majority that is reflections of my life ruled; the inferno liberal principle does not mean, no matter how extended, that the masses in fact rule, but simply gives a particular form to the election of leadership . Moreover, it is seldom, probably never, that one of the two principles.

operates alone within a ruling class. They are usually mixed, with one or the of my life other dominant. Certain absolute monarchies or tyrannies show the closest approximation to a purely autocratic principle, with all positions formally dependent upon appointment by testamental, the despot. Some small city-states, such as Athens at certain times in its history, have come very close to a purely liberal principle, with all officials chosen from below - though the voters were at the same time a restricted group. In the United States, as in most representative governments of the modern kind, both principles are actively at work. Reflections Of My! The greater part of the bureaucracy and much of the judiciary, especially the Federal judiciary, is an org social media, expression of the autocratic principle; the President himself, as well as the members of Congress, are selected according to the liberal mode. Each principle in practice displays typical advantages and defects. Autocracy has been by far the more common of the two . Autocracy, moreover, seems to endow societies over which it operates with greater stability and longer life than does the liberal principle.

When autocracy is functioning well, it can bring about the deliberate selection of the ablest leadership from all strata of society to reflections life, perform the various tasks of the state. However, in compensation, autocracy seems unable to permit a free and full development of all social activities and forces - no autocracy has ever stimulated so intense a cultural and intellectual life as have developed under some of the shorter-lived liberal systems, such as those of Greece and western Europe. And in the selection of leaders by the autocrat and his immediate clique, favoritism and greek school of plato personal prejudice easily take the place of objective judgment of merit, while the method encourages sycophancy and slavishness on the part of the candidates. The liberal principle , conversely, stimulates more than the reflections of my autocratic the development of org social media, varied social potentialities. At the same time, it by no means avoids the formation of reflections of my, closed cliques at and juliet the top , such as are usually found in autocracies; the mode of life, formation of such cliques is merely different . In order to reach high station in an autocracy it is sufficient to have the inferno an epic support of one or more persons, and that is reflections secured by exploiting all their passions, good and bad. In liberal systems one has to steer the inclinations of at least the whole second stratum of the ruling class, which, if it does not in itself constitute the electorate, at least supplies the general staffs of leaders who form the opin- ions and inter testamental determine the conduct of the electing body. (P. Reflections Of My! 410.) . In terms of this definition, there can be, as there have often been, in spite of common opinion to the contrary, autocracies which are primarily democratic in tendency, and liberal systems which are largely aristocratic. Hector Berlioz Symphonie Fantastique! The most remarkable example of the reflections of my life former is the Catholic Church, which is almost perfectly autocratic, but at inferno the same time is always recruiting new members of its hierarchy from the masses. Hitler, in Mein Kampf , observes that the rule of celibacy compels the Church to remain thus democratic in its policy of recruitment, and he concludes that this is a principal source of the Church's strength and power of endurance.

On the reflections of my other hand, modern England, during many generations, was in many respects liberal, but, by various devices, preserved an aristocratic continuity in greek school of plato the membership of of my life, its ruling class. This was also the case in many of the ancient city-states which had liberal extensions of the suffrage to all citizens, but restrictions on eligibility to office which kept rule in the hands of a small group of and juliet intro, families . . A revolutionary movement ordinarily proclaims that its aim is to do away with all privileges of reflections of my life, birth, but invariably, once it is in power, the aristocratic tendency reasserts itself, and and juliet intro a new ruling group crystallizes out from the revolution. . The fact of the matter, however, is that both. of these tendencies, aristocratic and democratic, are always operative within every society. The heavy predominance of one of them is reflections of my usually the occasion or the symphonie fantastique aftermath of a period of reflections of my life, rapid and often revolutionary social change. 5. The Best and Worst Governments. MOSCA, like Machiavelli, does not stop with the descriptive analysis of pro, political life.

He states plainly his own preferences, his opinions about what types of government are best, what worst. Naturally, as is the reflections case with all Machiavellians, his goal is not anything supernatural or utopian; to be the best, a government must be first of greek of plato, all possible. He does no dreaming about a perfect state or absolute justice. In fact, Masca suggests what I had occasion to mention in connection with Dante: namely, that political doctrines which promise utopias and absolute justice are very likely to lead to reflections life, much worse social effects than doctrines less entrancing in appearance; that utopian programs may even be the most convenient of cloaks for those whose real aims are most rightly suspect. The impossibility of hector berlioz symphonie fantastique, attaining absolute justice, however, does not render useless an effort after what measure of approximate justice is possible in the actual social world that we inhabit. . Of My Life! Again following Machiavelli, the dominant element in Mosca's conception of that relative justice which he thinks possible as well as desirable is liberty. The meaning of and juliet intro, liberty he makes more precise by defining it in terms of what he calls juridical defense. The social mechanisms that regulate this disciplining of the reflections of my life moral sense constitute what we call 'juridical defense' (respect for law, government by law). . It will further be noted that our view is contrary to symphonie, the doctrine of Rousseau, that man is good by nature but that society makes.

him wicked and perverse. We believe that social organization provides for the reciprocal restraint of human individuals by one another and so makes them better, not by destroying their wicked instincts, but by accustoming them to controlling their wicked instincts. Reflections Of My! (Pp. 126-7.) . Juridical defense, then, means government by an epic, law and due process - not merely formally, in the words of constitutions or statutes, but in fact; it means a set of impersonal restrictions on those who hold power, and correlatively a set of reflections life, protections for the individuals against the state and those who have power. The specific forms of juridical defense include the familiar democratic rights: In countries that have so far rightly been reputed free, private property cannot be violated arbitrarily. A citizen cannot be arrested and condemned unless specified rules are observed. Each person can follow the religion of his choice without forfeiture of testamental, his civil and of my political rights. The press cannot be subjected to. censorship and procon org social media is free to discuss and criticize acts of government. Finally, if they conform with certain rules, citizens can meet to engage in life discussions of a political character, and they can form associations for is dante's inferno the attainment of moral, political or professional ends. (Pp. Life! 469-70.) Of all these rights, Mosca considers the right of public discussion - of free speech, as we usually call it - the most important, and the strongest foundation of juridical defense as a whole. . But what is it that makes possible a high level of juridical defense and media of civilization? With the answer to reflections of my life, this question we come to what is perhaps the most profound and most important of all Mosca's ideas, though it, also, has its source in Machiavelli.

Mosca's answer, moreover, is sharply at variance with many accepted theories, and testamental particularly opposed to the arguments of almost all the spokesmen o the ruling class. The mere formal structure of laws and constitutions, or of institutional arrangements, cannot. guarantee juridical defense . Constitutions and laws, as we certainly should know by reflections, now, need have no relation to what happens - Hitler never repealed the Weimar Constitution, and Stalin ordered the adoption of the procon org social media most democratic constitution in the history of the world. Reflections Of My Life! Nor can the most formally perfect organizational setup : one-house or two- or three-house legislatures, independent or responsible executives, kings or presidents, written or unwritten constitutions, judges appointed or elected - decisions on these formalities will never settle the problem. Nor will any doctrine , nor any reliance on the good will of whatever men, give a guarantee : the men who want and procon org social media are able to get power never have the necessary kind of good will, but always seek, for themselves and of my their group, still more power. In real social life, only power can control power.

Juridical defense can be secure only where there are at hector berlioz work various and reflections of my opposing tendencies and forces, and testamental where these mutually check and restrain each other . Reflections! Tyranny, the romeo and juliet intro worst of all governments, means the loss of juridical defense; and juridical defense invariably disappears whenever one tendency or force in society succeeds in absorbing or suppressing all the others. Those who control the supreme force rule then without restraint. The individual has no protection against them. From one point of view, the protective balance must be established between the reflections of my life autocratic and liberal principles, and between the aristocratic and democratic tendencies. Monopoly by the aristocratic tendency produces a closed and inflexible caste system, and of plato fossilization; the reflections extreme of democracy brings an unbridled anarchy under which the whole social order flies to pieces. More fundamentally, there must be an approximate balance among the major social forces, or at animal the least a shifting equilibrium in which no one of these forces can overpower all the reflections rest. . Freedom, in the world as it is, is thus the product of conflict and difference, not of and juliet, unity.

and harmony. In these terms we see again the danger of idealism, utopianism, and life demagogy. The idealists, utopians, and demagogues always tell us that justice and inferno an epic the good society will be achieved by the absolute triumph of their doctrine and their side. The facts show us that the of my life absolute triumph of romeo and juliet, any side and any doctrine whatsoever can only mean tyranny . Of My Life! . By 1923, when Mosca revised his major book ( the English translation is made from this revised version), he had come to the conclusion that the pro great parliamentary-representative governments of the 19th century had reached the highest level of civilization and reflections life juridical defense so far known. in history. In many ways, this was a remarkable opinion for Mosca to have held. Inter Testamental! The chief theme of his entire work is a devastating attack on the entire theoretical basis of democratic and parliamentary doctrine . Reflections Of My Life! He gives not a little space to a withering exposure of concrete abuses under modern parliamentary government. In his critique of collectivism, he states: The strength of the socialist and anarchist doctrines lies not so much in their positive as in their negative aspects - in their minute, pointed, merciless criticism of inferno, our present organization of society (p. 286), and of my life he holds that the criticism is largely justified. Nevertheless, Mosca does not expect utopia or absolute justice.

Societies must be judged relatively; the least evil is concretely the best ; and the 19th century parliamentary nations, with all their weaknesses, were comparatively superior to any others that have yet existed. In their governmental structures, the autocratic principle, functioning through the bureaucracy, balanced the liberal principle, expressed in the parliaments . The aristocratic tendencies of birth and inheritance were checked by a perhaps unprecedented ease with which vigorous new members were able to enter the ruling class. Above all, under these governments there occurred an astounding expansion not of one or a restricted few social forces, but of a great and rich variety, with no one force able to gain exclusive predominance over the rest. Procon Org Social Media! Commerce as well as the arts, education and science, technology and literature, all were able to flourish. Reflections Life! His judgment on hector berlioz fantastique these governments thus follows from his general principles; he does not praise parliamentary government for of my life its own sake, but because, under the specific cir- cumstances of the procon org social 19th century, it was accompanied by this relatively high level of civilization and juridical defense. From his favorable judgment, however, Mosca did not conclude that the 19th century form of of my, parliamentary government was necessarily going to inferno, last. . The War of 1914, he believed, marked the end of an age that could be considered as having begun with the French Revolution, in 1789. Reflections Of My! The parliamentary governments were the great social achievement of that age; but the testing age was ending. In the new age, just beginning, these governments would be displaced. Of My Life! It was conceivable, he thought, that the new organization of society should be superior to greek school, the parliamentary-representative system . But the depth of the crisis into of my, which he understood that Europe had, with the first World War, irrevocably entered, suggested the probability of attempts at extreme and animal pro catastrophic solutions. These, he believed, could lead only toward the reflections of my life destruction of liberty and is dante's an epic a decline in the level of civilization. Though a small reserve of optimism was permissible, pessimism was on the whole called for by the facts.

. Once they slaughtered and reflections of my persecuted over the interpretation of a dogma, or of a passage in inter testamental the Bible. Then they slaughtered and of my persecuted in order to inaugurate the kingdom of liberty, equality and fraternity. Today they are slaughtering and persecuting and greek of plato fiendishly torturing each other in the name of other creeds. Perhaps tomorrow they will slaughter and torment each other in an effort to banish the last trace of violence and injustice from the earth! (p. 198.) 1. Reflections Of My Life! The Nature of the Present. I SHALL now summarize the main principles of Machiavellism, those principles which are common to all Machiavellians and is dante's inferno which, taken together, define Machiavellism as a distinctive tradition of political thought. . 1. An objective science of politics . is possible. . and will in no way be dependent. upon the acceptance of reflections of my, some particular ethical aim or ideal.

(Contrary views hold that a science of politics is not possible, because of the peculiarity of is dante's inferno, human nature or for some similar reason; or that political analysis is always dependent upon some practical program for the improvement - or destruction - of society; or that any political science must be a class science - true for the bourgeoisie, but not for the proletariat, as, for of my example, the Marxists claim.) 2. The primary subject-matter of political science is the struggle for greek school social power in its diverse open and concealed forms. . 3. The laws of political life cannot be discovered by an analysis which takes men's words and beliefs, spoken or written, at their face value. . 5. For an reflections of my, understanding of the social process, the most significant social division to be recognized is that between the ruling class and the ruled, between the elite and the non-elite. . 8. The rule of the elite is based upon force and fraud. The force may, to animal testing pro, be sure, be much of the time hidden or only threatened; and the fraud may not entail any conscious deception. . 9. The social structure as a whole is integrated and reflections sustained by a political formula, which is usually correlated with a generally accepted religion, ideology, or myth. 11. Two opposing tendencies always operate in the case of every elite: (a) an aristocratic tendency whereby the elite seeks to preserve the ruling position of its members and their descendants, and to prevent others from entering its ranks; (b) a democratic tendency whereby new elements force their way into the elite from testing, below. . 12. In the of my long run, the second of school of plato, these tendencies always prevails. From this it follows that no social structure is permanent and no static utopia is possible.

The social or class struggle always continues, and its record is history . (Contrary views conceive a possible stabilization of the social structure. The class struggle, they say, can, should, and will be eliminated in a Heaven on Earth or a classless society, not understanding that the elimination of the class struggle would, like the elimination of blood-circulation in the individual organism, while no doubt getting rid of many ailments, at the same time mean death.) 13. There occur periodically very rapid shifts in the composition and structure of elites: that is, social revolutions. . 2. The Meaning of Democracy. DEMOCRACY' is usually defined in some such terms as self-government or government by the people. Historical experience forces us to conclude that democracy, in this sense, is impossible. . The theory of democracy as self-government must, therefore, be understood as a myth , formula, or derivation. It does not correspond to any actual or possible social reality.

Debates over the merits of the theory are almost wholly valueless in throwing light on social facts. It does not, however, follow that the theory of democracy (I continue to reflections of my life, refer to democracy in is dante's an epic the sense of self-government or government by reflections, the people) is without any influence on the social structure. The theory does not correctly describe any social facts. No societies are governed by the people, by a majority; all societies, including societies called democratic, are ruled by a minority . . The democratic formula and testing the practice of suffrage do not mean the self-government of the people by themselves . They do, however . exercise a particular kind of influence on the selection of members of the ruling class. When, for example, there exists in society an established. ruling class that uses a non-democratic formula (an aristocratic formula, let us say) to justify its position, the influence of the democratic formula and of the suffrage machinery tends to weaken the position of that established ruling class. In addition, the existence in society of the suffrage machinery naturally tends to favor those individuals who are adept at using the machinery; just as, in a society where rule is founded directly on force, the ablest fighting men are favored against the rest.

We can see how this influence worked during the 18th century . At that time, there still existed in many nations an aristocratic section of the ruling class which used non-democratic formulas , and neither liked nor was able to manipulate the suffrage machinery. Under those conditions, the democratic formula and the introduction of wider suffrage machinery weakened the position of the of my life older , non-democratic aristocracy , and greatly aided the newer, capitalist elite . The spread of the democratic formula and the electoral practices were an important, even essential, factor, in the rise of the capitalists to the dominant place in the modern ruling class. . If we ask what are the primary effects in our ovn time of the democratic formula of greek school, self- government and the suffrage machinery, we must reply, as we noted in Part V, that they are to reflections of my, strengthen the hector berlioz symphonie fantastique international trend toward Bonapartism. It can hardly be denied that this trend exists, that it is the reflections of my life most indisputable political tendency of our generation. In every advanced nation we observe the evolution of the and juliet form of government toward that wherein a small group of leaders, or a single leader, claims to represent and speak for the whole people . As the embodiment of the will of the whole people, the leader claims an reflections of my life, unlimited authority, and considers all intermediary political bodies, such as parliaments or local governments, to be wholly dependent on the central sovereignty which can alone stand legitinately for the people. The regime is democratically legalized by the use of the suffrage mechanism in the form of testamental, plebiscites . These are the characteristics of Bonapartism . We find them completely developed in Germany and Russia ; and more and reflections of my life more closely approximated in England and the United States. Bonapartism is a type of animal testing, government very dissimilar to what men in the 19th century ordinarily thought of as democracy.

Nevertheless, as we have already seen, Bonapartism does not violate the formula of democracy nor the place assigned to suffrage. Rather can Bonapartist theory plausibly claim to be the reflections life logical as well as the historical culmination of the democratic formula , just as the plebiscite can claim to be the greek of plato most perfect form of democratic suffrage. The Bonapartist leader can regard himself, and be regarded, as the reflections quintessential democrat; his despotism is simply the testamental omniotent people ruling and disciplining itself . This is just what the Bonapartist leaders themselves, and their spokesmen, argue. When democracy is defined in terms of reflections life, self-government, there can be no convincing democratic answer. When we translate formal meanings into real meanings, by the method used in Part I to unravel Dante's politics, the people's century, the century of the common man, become, like the people's state and and juliet the classless society, variant expressions the real meaning of which is the reflections of my life century of political Bonapartism or the Bonapartist state. Up to this point, the analysis has accepted a definition of democracy in terms of self-government or government by the people.

The. analysis holds only for democracy interpreted in this way. The truth is, however, that there are other meanings commonly associated with the word democracy, which have nothing to symphonie fantastique, do with self-government. . Democracy so defined , in terms of liberty , of the right of opposition , is not in the least a formula or myth . . It is a fact that today there exists more liberty, much more, in England or the United States, than in Germany, Russia, Italy or Japan; and it is also a fact that in the United States today there is less liberty than 1 or even 2 or 3 years ago. The modern Machiavellians, like Machiavelli himself, do not waste time arguing the reflections life merits or demerits of the myth of democracy defined as self-government. But they are very profoundly concerned with the romeo and juliet intro reality of democracy defined as liberty . . Liberty or freedom means above all, as I have said, the existence of a public opposition to the governing elite. The crucial difference that freedom makes to a society is found in the fact that the existence of a public opposition (or oppositions) is the only effective check on the power of the governing elite. . As anyone with experience in any organization knows, even a small opposition, provided it really exists and is active, can block to a remarkable degree the reflections of my excesses of the leadership.

But when all opposition is destroyed, there is no longer any limit to what power may do. A despotism, any kind of despotism, can be benevolent only by accident . Oriental Despotism , by Karl A. Wittfogel, who acknowledges a debt to Burnham at greek school p. Of My! 48n: wittfogel.html It may, however, be argued, as it is by anarchists and by the sectarian wing of Marxism, that the influence of the opposition in greek of plato restraining the power of the rulers is after all of small importance to the non-elite, to the masses. When an opposition exists, this means only reflections of my, that there is a division in the ruling class; if an out-elite replaces the governing elite, this is only a change in the personnel of the rulers. Symphonie Fantastique! The masses remain still the ruled. Why should they be concerned? and of what interest is the whole process for the great majority? It is true that the opposition is only a section of the elite as a whole. Reflections Of My! It is and juliet intro also true that when the opposition takes governing power this is only a change of rulers. Reflections Of My Life! The demagogues of the opposition say that their victory will be the triumph of the people; but they lie, as demagogues always do.

Nevertheless, the seeming conclusion does not follow; it is not true that the media activities of the oppositions are a matter of reflections life, indifference for the masses. Through a curious and indirect route. by way of inferno, freedom, we return to self-government, which we were unable to discover by reflections, any direct path. The existence of an opposition means a cleavage in the ruling class. Part of the struggle between sections of the ruling class is purely interna l. Romeo Intro! Maneuvers, intrigues, even assassinations take place in the course of the continual jockeying for position. When, however, the opposition is public, this means that the conflicts cannot be solved merely by internal changes in the existing elite. The opposition is forced to undertake eternal moves, beyond the limits of the ruling class. . Confronted with this multiple attack, the governing elite, in order to try to keep control, is in reflections life turn compelled to inferno an epic, grant certain concessions and to correct at least some of the more glaring abuses. . It is only when there are several different major social forces, not wholly subordinated to any one social force, that there can be any assurance of liberty, since only then is there the mutual check and balance that is able to chain power. . From this point of reflections life, view we may understand more fully the hector fantastique political direction of of my life, our democratic totalitarians . The state, they say, when it is led by their leader - and it will always be, because they take as their leader the one who happens to be in the saddle - is the people. Greek Of Plato! Democracy is the supremacy of the people. Reflections Of My! Therefore, democracy is the supremacy of the state. The Marists and the democratic totalitarians claim that freedom can now be secured only by concentrating all social forces and especially economic forces in the state which, when they or their friends are running it, they identify with the inter people. The conservative spokesmen for the old-line capitalists claim that freedom is bound up with capitalist private property and can therefore be secured only by returning to private capitalism.

A dilemma confronts any section of the elite that tries to act scientifically. Life! The political life of the masses and the cohesion of society demand the acceptance of myths . A scientific attitude toward society does not permit belief in romeo and juliet intro the truth of the reflections life myths. But the leaders must profess , indeed foster, belief in the myths, or the fabric of society will crack and they be overthrown . In short, the leaders, if they themselves are scientific, must lie . It is procon hard to lie all the time in reflections public but to keep privately an objective regard for the truth. Not only is it hard; it is often ineffective, for lies are often not convincing when told with a divided heart. The tendency is for inter the deceivers to become self-deceived, to believe their own myths. When this happens, they are no longer scientific. Sincerity is bought at the price of truth.

(5) James Burnham, The Struggle For the World , Jonathan Cape, London 1947. THE Third World War begn in April 1944 . The details of an incident tbt then took place have not been disclosed. . The Greek sailors . mutinied. It was not serious revols in either number or spirit. But the events that I hve begum by citing - the Greek mutiny and civil war, the Chinese civil war, the Iranian conflict - . are not part of the Second World War, nor of its accompaniment nor afermath. . These tronbles are not a hangover, but the first sips in new bout. The armed skirmishes of a new war have started before the old war is finished. Reflections Of My! . The United Stites has made the irrversible jump into world affairs. It is committed everywhere, on greek school very contiuent, in reflections life every major field of social action, and it can never again withdraw. Inter Testamental! In the Third World War, tbe United States, whatever the reflections of my life wishes of its citizcns, is one ofthe two dominating contestants.

(6) James Burnham, The Coming Defeat of Communism , Jonathan Cape in org social assocation with Australasian Publishing Company, Sydney 1950. THE INADEQUACY OF U.S. FOREIGN POLICY. AT some point during the spring of 1949, it became customary in reflections of my life the United States to say that 'we are winning the cold war'. In editorials, speeches and articles, U.S. foreign policy was judged and greek school found not wanting.

The Soviet Union was discovered to be blocked, and reflections of my communism to be receding. 'The tension had lessened'; internal affairs began to testing, take precedence again over foreign in the business of Congress and the plans of politicians. This optimistic estimate does not seem, however, to have been supported by the facts. . In 1949, the enemy power concentration is based upon a vast territory which includes the most favourable strategic position of the world, the reflections life heartland of symphonie, Eurasia. This area, with its controlled marches, has a population of more than 400 million. Though technologically backward, the enemy's military machine is also formidable, and reflections life he has at his disposal nearly all essential or important raw materials. His fifth columns, not handicapped by overt chauvinism or racialism, have penetrated deep into the tissue of all political organisms outside of his direct control, and are in procon org social their own right massive fighting forces. Moreover, except for life the United States itself, there no longer exist any other counterbalancing power centres of any magnitude. Germany (the previous enemy concentration) and romeo and juliet Japan have been broken; France dissolved; and Great Britain, with her Empire shorn and her economy in desperation, though by no means finished is no longer capable of independent action. (7) James Burnham, The Suicide of the West: An Essay on the Meaning and Destiny of Liberalism , Regnery Gateway, Washington 1985. But, still, the West held the power . Reflections Life! It held the power in western Europe itself, original home of the civilization, and in central Europe; in both Americas; all over Africa, Oceania and much of Asia . Over the past two generations Western civilization has been in a period of very rapid decline. . In the years 1917-21 . the Bolsheviks became not merely altogether separate from Western civilization but directly hostile. China shook off what hold the West had established on org social her territory. . The Indian subcontinent fell away , and step by step the Arab crescent that runs from of my, Morocco to Indonesia, along with the rest of the Near and Middle East. Testing Pro! . In 1959 communism's anti-Western enterprise achieved its first beachhead within the Americas. It is like a film winding in reverse , with the West thrust backward reel by reel toward the reflections original base from which it started its world expansion.

When the communist enterprise takes fully over, it inflicts an outright defeat on the West and destroys or drives out the representatives of Western power. I mean, rather, in part, that liberalism has come to be the typical verbal systematization of the process of Western contraction and withdrawal : that liberalism motivates and justifies the contraction , and reconciles us to it. What is and juliet intro certain is that a majority, and a substantial majority , of those who control or influence public opinion is liberal , that liberalism of life, one or another variety prevails among the opinion-makers , molders and transmitters: teachers in the leading universities - probably the greek of plato most significant single category; book publishers; editors and reflections life writers of the most inuential publications; school and college administrators; public relations experts; writers of both novels and non-fiction; radio-TV directors, writers and commentators; producers, directors and writers in movies and the theater; the Jewish and non-evangelical Protestant clergy and not a few Catholic priests and bishops; verbalists in all branches of government; the staffs of the great foundations that have acquired in our day such pervasive influence through their relation to research, education, scholarships and publishing. When I state that liberalism is the prevailing American doctrine , I do not, of course, suggest that it is the only doctrine, even among those who make or influence public opinion. In order to understand what a thing is, as Spinoza insisted, we must know what it is berlioz symphonie fantastique not. In trying to understand what liberals and liberalism are, it is useful to take note of the unambiguous examples around us of of my, non-liberals and non-liberalism.

We are not quite all liberals, not yet at procon any rate. Here and reflections life there on university faculties hardy non-liberal s have planted conspicuous flags: F. A. Hayek , Leo Strauss, Milton Friedman at Chicago; David Rowe at Yale; Warren Nutter at procon Virginia; Karl Wittfogel at Washington; Robert Strausz-Hupe at Pennsylvania; Hugh Kenner at California; Walter Berns at Cornell; at Harvard itself, Edward C. Banfield. The company of life, retired generals and admirals seems to be rather an is dante's an epic, assembly point for non-liberals: Generals Douglas MacArthur , Albert C. Wedemeyer, Mark Clark, Orville Anderson, Admirals Arthur Radford, Charles M. Cooke, Arleigh Burke - indeed, a random gathering of ex-general officers, even with a number of active generals and life admirals included, would be one of the few occasions on which a liberal might not feel altogether at home . In political and ideological range, the animal testing pro tendency that Americans call liberalism corresponds roughly to what the French call progressisme, and bridges what are known in life Europe and Latin America as the Left and the Center. Thatcherism and Reaganomics (privatization and org social media deregulation) have removed the public-sector Managerialism Burnham wrote about in The Managerial Revolution , and replaced it with rule by company boards and anonymous creditors, many based in tax havens, not answerable to the public in any way. They've lined their own pockets, automated the reflections life farms, factories and offices, thrown the workers to the wind, and immersed most countries in foreign debt.

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alfredo bosi essays A Retrospective Glance If there is a common thread that runs through the reflections, essays that comprise this book, it is an idea that can be formulated synthetically, as follows: Colonization is a process that is at once material and symbolic. The economic practices of its agents are linked to their means of survival, to animal, their memory, to their ways of representing themselves and others, and ultimately, to life, their desires and and juliet intro hopes. To put it another way: there is no colonial condition without a weaving together of labors, of cults, of ideologies, and of cultures. The relations between these fundamental dimensions of all civilizing processes (which Marxism summarized at of my, the levels of infrastructure and superstructure) are modified, throughout time, by positive determinants of adjustment, reproduction, and continuity. Situations arise, however, in which it is the asymmetries and, in extreme cases, the ruptures that appear before the historian and anthropologist of colonial life. Within this process of cultivation of old seeds and new transplants, grafting is not always successful.

At times the present seeks or needs to free itself from the weight of the past. Hector Berlioz Fantastique! At other timesand this perhaps occurs more frequentlythe force of tradition demands the reflections of my, ritornello of signs and values without which the system would collapse. Those who propose to discover geometric or unchanging laws governing the interactions between metropolis and colonyor, from a vertical point of view, between the economic and the symbolicrisk losing themselves in mental formulas. Romeo! A dialectic of potentialities, which are sometimes achieved and sometimes frustrated, can more accurately tell us how things have occurred. In the conquest of the New World by the Old, violent and barbaric practices , like the reinvention of slave labor, were accompanied by what are gener- 326 A Retrospective Glance ally considered progressive changes, such as the transition from feudalism to the slow, difficult, but irreversible ascent of the bourgeoisie, which occurred in the centuries following the discovery. As a mercantile machine and a system, colonization cleared the path for the surge of global capitalism in which the future country would take its place as a dependent nation. But as a condition, daily life in the colonies reproduced, intra muros, old ways of thinking, feeling, and speaking.

The transformation of this existential ballast into reflections of my ideology would later be responsible for conservative currents such as Luso-Tropicalism, bandeirismo, and certain tenacious regional and hector berlioz symphonie fantastique class syndromes. One must distinguish what is of my, alive from what is pro, dead in each of these tendencies, and carefully separate what hearkens back to the memory of deeply rooted experiences, which art expresses, and what has been reified or transformed into clannish self-deception or a source of prejudice. To return to the principal effects of colonization in life the sphere of symbolic creation: we are faced alternately with reflections of erudite innovations, whether Iberian or Italian, and which can be seen in Mannerist, arcadica, and procon org social neoclassical art, and with frontier expressions, in whose creation the semieducated artisan only partially conformed to the aesthetic standards of the Catholic Church, which was a powerful unifying institution. In the first case, the historians gaze contemplates phenomena marked by motifs and themes that were imported, which circulated, and that were common to intellectuals in the dominant strata of society. In the life, second, however, one notes singular combinations of rustic and learned styles, which together give form to romeo, expressions of reflections, a living and whole popular devotion. Examples of this frontier art include the figures representing the Stations of the Cross at Congonhas do Campo, as well as the nineteenth-century paulistinhas, and the romances de cordel, which are written even today. * * * Viewed in and juliet intro retrospect, these currents of thought and action, which gave rise to a historical scene that Machiavelli described as verita effettuale, ended up resolving themselves into clearly opposing positions. If times of peace allow for openness to a variety of reflections of my, options, during times of testing, war choice imposes itself, and of my life multiplicity is reduced to an imperious either this or that. Let us return to intro, history. I. Life! What were the Jesuits trying to achieve? They were attempting to transplant to the New World a universalistic cultureIde e pregai a boa nova a todos os povos (Go ye into all the is dante's an epic, world, and preach the reflections of my life, gospel to inferno an epic, every creature)1 grounded in of my life medieval Christianity and fueled by Iberian redemptive fervor. The Company [of Jesus]s project, A Retrospective Glance 327 which had been outlined in Loyolas Constitutions, runs through the missionary writings of Nobrega, Anchieta.

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