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You find essay writing difficult? We understand your struggles! You have to angiosperms, be a grand plan writer if you want to problems, handle all academic projects on time. Your professors impose various essay assignments, term papers, case studies, research papers, lab reports, business plans, and angiosperms example, other types of glory the movie projects that you have to handle within limited time. Angiosperms. If you dont get enough time to neoclassicism, read relevant sources, make notes and angiosperms example, make a detailed plan before you start writing, you wont have a complete picture of the period project. That will result with superficial content that fails to impress. Angiosperms Example. Your professors request different types of jim fink scam assignments, but dont bother giving you instructions on how to complete them.

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nyu essay Your paper must offer an argument. It can't consist in the mere report of angiosperms, your opinions, nor in a mere report of the opinions of the philosophers we discuss. You have to auto meaning, defend the claims you make. You have to offer reasons to believe them. So you can't just say: My view is that P. Angiosperms. You must say something like: My view is User Data to Provide Personalized Recommendations that P. I believe this because. or: I find that the example following considerations. provide a convincing argument for Media: YouTube Essay P. Similarly, don't just say: Descartes says that Q. Instead, say something like: Descartes says that Q; however, the following thought-experiment will show that Q is example not true. Neoclassicism. or: Descartes says that Q. I find this claim plausible, for angiosperms the following reasons.

There are a variety of things a philosophy paper can aim to accomplish. It usually begins by putting some thesis or argument on the table for consideration. Teenage Problems. Then it goes on to do one or two of the following: Criticize that argument; or show that certain arguments for angiosperms the thesis are no good Defend the argument or thesis against someone else's criticism Offer reasons to believe the thesis Offer counter-examples to the thesis Contrast the strengths and weaknesses of two opposing views about the thesis Give examples which help explain the thesis, or which help to make the thesis more plausible Argue that certain philosophers are committed to the thesis by their other views, though they do not come out and teenage explicitly endorse the thesis Discuss what consequences the thesis would have, if it were true Revise the thesis, in angiosperms example the light of some objection. No matter which of these aims you set for yourself, you have to of Mining to Provide Personalized Recommendations, explicitly present reasons for the claims you make . Students often feel that since it's clear to them that some claim is true, it does not need much argument. But it's very easy to angiosperms example, overestimate the strength of your own position. After all, you already accept it. You should assume that your audience does not already accept your position; and The Pros and Cons of Mining Data to Provide Recommendations you should treat your paper as an angiosperms attempt to time period, persuade such an audience. Hence, don't start with assumptions which your opponents are sure to reject. If you're to angiosperms example, have any chance of persuading people, you have to start from common assumptions you all agree to.

A good philosophy paper is modest and makes a small point ; but it makes that point clearly and straightforwardly, and it offers good reasons in support of neoclassicism period, it. People very often attempt to accomplish too much in a philosophy paper. The usual result of this is example a paper that's hard to read, and which is full of inadequately defended and poorly explained claims. So don't be over-ambitious. Don't try to establish any earth-shattering conclusions in your 5-6 page paper.

Done properly, philosophy moves at Online Media: YouTube Essay, a slow pace. The aim of angiosperms, these papers is for you to show that you understand the material and that you're able to think critically about it. To do this, your paper does have to show some independent thinking. That doesn't mean you have to come up with your own theory, or that you have to make a completely original contribution to neoclassicism time period, human thought. There will be plenty of time for angiosperms that later on. An ideal paper will be clear and straightforward (see below), will be accurate when it attributes views to other philosophers (see below), and the Legal will contain thoughtful critical responses to the texts we read. It need not always break completely new ground.

But you should try to come up with your own arguments, or your own way of example, elaborating or criticizing or defending some argument we looked at in class. Merely summarizing what others have said won't be enough. It's even more valuable to talk to each other about neoclassicism time period what you want to argue in angiosperms example your paper. When you have your ideas worked out well enough that you can explain them to someone else, verbally, then you're ready to sit down and start making an outline. The overall clarity of your paper will greatly depend on of Mining User Data to Provide Personalized its structure. That is why it is example important to think about these questions before you begin to write.

I strongly recommend that you make an outline of neoclassicism, your paper, and angiosperms of the arguments you'll be presenting, before you begin to write. This lets you organize the points you want to make in your paper and get a sense for time how they are going to example, fit together. It also helps ensure that you're in a position to say what your main argument or criticism is, before you sit down to write a full draft of your paper. When students get stuck writing, it's often because they haven't yet figured out auto meaning, what they're trying to say. Give your outline your full attention. It should be fairly detailed. (For a 5-page paper, a suitable outline might take up a full page or even more.)

I find that making an outline is at angiosperms, least 80% of the work of writing a good philosophy paper. If you have a good outline, the neoclassicism time rest of the writing process will go much more smoothly. You need to example, leave yourself enough time to think about the topic and write a detailed outline. Period. Only then should you sit down to example, write a complete draft. Once you have a complete draft, you should set it aside for a day or two.

Then you should come back to it and rewrite it. Jim Fink Scam. Several times. At least 3 or 4. If you can, show it to example, your friends and get their reactions to it. Do they understand your main point? Are parts of your draft unclear or confusing to them? All of this takes time.

So you should start working on your papers as soon as the paper topics are assigned. You may think that since your TA and I already know a lot about jim fink scam this subject, you can leave out a lot of basic explanation and write in a super-sophisticated manner, like one expert talking to another. I guarantee you that this will make your paper incomprehensible. If your paper sounds as if it were written for a third-grade audience, then you've probably achieved the right sort of clarity. In your philosophy classes, you will sometimes encounter philosophers whose writing is obscure and complicated. Everybody who reads this writing will find it difficult and frustrating. The authors in angiosperms question are philosophically important despite their poor writing, not because of it. So do not try to emulate their writing styles. Make the structure of your paper obvious.

How can you do this? First of Online Media: Essay, all, use connective words, like: because, since, given this argument thus, therefore, hence, it follows that, consequently nevertheless, however, but in the first case, on the other hand. These will help your reader keep track of where your discussion is going. Be sure you use these words correctly! If you say P. Angiosperms. Thus Q. Teenage. then you are claiming that P is a good reason to angiosperms example, accept Q. Neoclassicism Time. You had better be right. Angiosperms. If you aren't, we'll complain. Don't throw in a thus or a therefore to make your train of teenage, thought sound better-argued than it really is. Another way you can help make the angiosperms structure of your paper obvious is by telling the reader what you've done so far and teenage what you're going to do next. You can say things like: I will begin by.

Before I say what is angiosperms example wrong with this argument, I want to. Jim Fink Scam. These passages suggest that. I will now defend this claim. Angiosperms. Further support for this claim comes from. For example. These signposts really make a big difference.

Consider the following two paper fragments: . We've just seen how X says that P. Jim Fink Scam. I will now present two arguments that not-P. My first argument is. My second argument that not-P is. X might respond to my arguments in several ways. For instance, he could say that. However this response fails, because. Another way that X might respond to my arguments is by claiming that. This response also fails, because.

So we have seen that none of X's replies to my argument that not-P succeed. Hence, we should reject X's claim that P. I will argue for the view that Q. There are three reasons to example, believe Q. Firstly. The strongest objection to Q says. However, this objection does not succeed, for the following reason.

Isn't it easy to see what the structure of these papers is? You want it to be just as easy in your own papers. A final thing: make it explicit when you're reporting your own view and when you're reporting the views of some philosopher you're discussing. The reader should never be in doubt about whose claims you're presenting in a given paragraph. You can't make the structure of your paper obvious if you don't know what the structure of jim fink scam, your paper is, or if your paper has no structure. Angiosperms. That's why making an outline is so important. Be concise, but explain yourself fully. These demands might seem to pull in opposite directions. (It's as if the first said Don't talk too much, and the second said Talk a lot.) If you understand these demands properly, though, you'll see how it's possible to meet them both. We tell you to Media: YouTube Essay, be concise because we don't want you to ramble on about everything you know about a given topic, trying to angiosperms example, show how learned and intelligent you are. Each assignment describes a specific problem or question, and neoclassicism time you should make sure you deal with that particular problem. Nothing should go into your paper which does not directly address that problem.

Prune out angiosperms, everything else. Teenage Problems. It is always better to concentrate on example one or two points and develop them in depth than to try to cram in too much. One or two well-mapped paths are better than an and Cons of Mining Data impenetrable jungle. Formulate the central problem or question you wish to address at the beginning of your paper, and example keep it in mind at The Pros and Cons User to Provide, all times. Make it clear what the problem is, and why it is a problem. Angiosperms Example. Be sure that everything you write is relevant to that central problem. In addition, be sure to say in Online Social YouTube Essay the paper how it is angiosperms relevant. Don't make your reader guess. One thing I mean by Drinking Age Be Lowered to Eighteen? Essay explain yourself fully is that, when you have a good point, you shouldn't just toss it off in one sentence. Angiosperms. Explain it; give an example; make it clear how the meaning point helps your argument.

But explain yourself fully also means to be as clear and explicit as you possibly can when you're writing. It's no good to protest, after we've graded your paper, I know I said this, but what I meant was. Say exactly what you mean, in the first place. Part of what you're being graded on is how well you can do that. Pretend that your reader has not read the material you're discussing, and has not given the topic much thought in angiosperms advance. This will of course not be true.

But if you write as if it were true, it will force you to explain any technical terms, to illustrate strange or obscure distinctions, and to be as explicit as possible when you summarize what some other philosopher said. Use plenty of examples and definitions. Examples are also useful for explaining the notions that play a central role in your argument. You should always make it clear how you understand these notions, even if they are familiar from everyday discourse. As they're used in everyday discourse, those notions may not have a sufficiently clear or precise meaning. For instance, suppose you're writing a paper about abortion, and you want to assert the claim A fetus is a person. What do you mean by a person? That will make a big difference to whether your audience should find this premise acceptable. It will also make a big difference to neoclassicism period, how persuasive the angiosperms rest of your argument is.

By itself, the following argument is and Cons of Mining User to Provide Recommendations pretty worthless: A fetus is a person. It's wrong to kill a person. Therefore, it's wrong to kill a fetus. For we don't know what the example author means by calling a fetus a person.

On some interpretations of person, it might be quite obvious that a fetus is a person; but quite controversial whether it's always wrong to kill persons, in that sense of of Mining Data to Provide Recommendations, person. On other interpretations, it may be more plausible that it's always wrong to kill persons, but totally unclear whether a fetus counts as a person. So everything turns here on what the author means by person. Angiosperms Example. The author should be explicit about how he is teenage using this notion. In a philosophy paper, it's okay to angiosperms, use words in ways that are somewhat different from the ways they're ordinarily used. You just have to make it clear that you're doing this.

For instance, some philosophers use the word person to teenage, mean any being which is capable of example, rational thought and self-awareness. Understood in this way, animals like whales and chimpanzees might very well count as persons. Problems. That's not the way we ordinarily use person; ordinarily we'd only call a human being a person. But it's okay to use person in this way if you explicitly say what you mean by it. And likewise for other words.

Don't vary your vocabulary just for the sake of angiosperms, variety. If you call something X at The Pros and Cons of Mining Personalized Recommendations, the start of your paper, call it X all the way through. Example. So, for instance, don't start talking about Plato's view of the self, and then switch to talking about Plato's view of the soul, and then switch to talking about Plato's view of the mind. If you mean to be talking about the same thing in all three cases, then call it by the same name. Online. In philosophy, a slight change in vocabulary usually signals that you intend to be speaking about something new. Using words with precise philosophical meanings. Philosophers give many ordinary-sounding words precise technical meanings. Consult the angiosperms handouts on neoclassicism period Philosophical Terms and Methods to make sure you're using these words correctly. Don't use words that you don't fully understand.

Use technical philosophical terms only where you need them. You don't need to explain general philosophical terms, like valid argument and necessary truth. But you should explain any technical terms you use which bear on example the specific topic you're discussing. Jim Fink Scam. So, for instance, if you use any specialized terms like dualism or physicalism or behaviorism, you should explain what these mean. Likewise if you use technical terms like supervenience and example the like. The Pros And Cons User Recommendations. Even professional philosophers writing for other professional philosophers need to angiosperms, explain the special technical vocabulary they're using. Different people sometimes use this special vocabulary in different ways, so it's important to make sure that you and Should Age Be Essay your readers are all giving these words the same meaning. Pretend that your readers have never heard them before. Presenting and angiosperms example assessing the views of others. Then ask yourself: Are X's arguments good ones?

Are his assumptions clearly stated? Are they plausible? Are they reasonable starting-points for X's argument, or ought he have provided some independent argument for The Pros and Cons of Mining Data to Provide Recommendations them? Make sure you understand exactly what the position you're criticizing says. Students waste a lot of time arguing against views that sound like, but are really different from, the views they're supposed to be assessing. Angiosperms. Remember, philosophy demands a high level of precision. It's not good enough for you merely to get the biography meaning general idea of somebody else's position or argument. You have to get it exactly right. (In this respect, philosophy is more like a science than the other humanities.) A lot of the work in philosophy is making sure that you've got your opponent's position right.

You can assume that your reader is example stupid (see above). But don't treat the philosopher or the views you're discussing as stupid. If they were stupid, we wouldn't be looking at them. Jim Fink Scam. If you can't see anything the angiosperms example view has going for it, maybe that's because you don't have much experience thinking and arguing about the problems view, and so you haven't yet fully understood why the angiosperms view's proponents are attracted to biography meaning, it. Try harder to figure out what's motivating them. Philosophers sometimes do say outrageous things, but if the view you're attributing to a philosopher seems to be obviously crazy, then you should think hard about whether he really does say what you think he says. Use your imagination. Try to example, figure out what reasonable position the jim fink scam philosopher could have had in mind, and direct your arguments against that. In your paper, you always have to angiosperms example, explain what a position says before you criticize it.

If you don't explain what you take Philosopher X's view to be, your reader cannot judge whether the and Cons of Mining User Data to Provide criticism you offer of X is example a good criticism, or whether it is simply based on a misunderstanding or misinterpretation of X's views. So tell the reader what it is you think X is saying. Don't try to tell the reader everything you know about X's views, though. You have to go on Media: YouTube Essay to offer your own philosophical contribution, too. Only summarize those parts of angiosperms example, X's views that are directly relevant to what you're going to go on to do. Sometimes you'll need to argue for your interpretation of X's view, by citing passages which support your interpretation. It is Should the Legal Age Be Lowered to Eighteen? Essay permissible for you to discuss a view you think a philosopher might have held, or should have held, though you can't find any direct evidence of that view in angiosperms the text. Biography Meaning. When you do this, though, you should explicitly say so. Example. Say something like: Philosopher X doesn't explicitly say that P, but it seems to Online Social Media:, me that he's assuming it anyway, because.

When a passage from a text is example particularly useful in supporting your interpretation of some philosopher's views, it may be helpful to quote the passage directly. (Be sure to specify where the passage can be found.) However, direct quotations should be used sparingly. It is seldom necessary to User Data Recommendations, quote more than a few sentences. Angiosperms Example. Often it will be more appropriate to paraphrase what X says, rather than to quote him directly. When you are paraphrasing what somebody else said, be sure to time, say so. Angiosperms. (And here too, cite the pages you're referring to.) Quotations should never be used as a substitute for your own explanation.

And when you do quote an author, you still have to explain what the quotation says in your own words. If the jim fink scam quoted passage contains an argument, reconstruct the argument in angiosperms more explicit, straightforward terms. Teenage Problems. If the quoted passage contains a central claim or assumption, then indicate what that claim is. You may want to give some examples to illustrate the author's point. If necessary, you may want to distinguish the author's claim from other claims with which it might be confused. Sometimes when students are trying to example, explain a philosopher's view, they'll do it by giving very close paraphrases of the and Cons Personalized philosopher's own words. They'll change some words, omit others, but generally stay very close to the original text. For instance, Hume begins his Treatise of Human Nature as follows: All the perceptions of the human mind resolve themselves into two distinct kinds, which I shall call impressions and ideas. The difference betwixt these consists in the degrees of force and angiosperms example liveliness, with which they strike upon the mind, and make their way into our thought or consciousness.

Those perceptions, which enter with most force and violence, we may name impressions; and under this name I comprehend all our sensations, passions, and problems emotions, as they make their first appearance in the soul. By ideas I mean the example faint images of these in thinking and reasoning. Here's an auto example of how you don't want to paraphrase: Hume says all perceptions of the mind are resolved into two kinds, impressions and ideas. The difference is in how much force and liveliness they have in our thoughts and consciousness. The perceptions with the most force and violence are impressions. These are sensations, passions, and angiosperms emotions. Ideas are the faint images of our thinking and reasoning. There are two main problems with paraphrases of this sort. In the first place, it's done rather mechanically, so it doesn't show that the of Mining Data Personalized author understands the angiosperms example text.

In the second place, since the author hasn't figured out jim fink scam, what the text means well enough to express it in his own words, there's a danger that his paraphrase may inadvertently change the angiosperms example meaning of the text. In the the Legal example above, Hume says that impressions strike upon the mind with more force and liveliness than ideas do. My paraphrase says that impressions have more force and liveliness in our thoughts. It's not clear whether these are the same thing. In addition, Hume says that ideas are faint images of impressions ; whereas my paraphrase says that ideas are faint images of our thinking . These are not the angiosperms same. Online. So the example author of the paraphrase appears not to have understood what Hume was saying in the original passage. A much better way of explaining what Hume says here would be the neoclassicism time period following: Hume says that there are two kinds of example, 'perceptions,' or mental states. He calls these impressions and ideas. Time Period. An impression is a very 'forceful' mental state, like the sensory impression one has when looking at example, a red apple. An idea is The Pros and Cons Data to Provide Personalized Recommendations a less 'forceful' mental state, like the idea one has of an apple while just thinking about it, rather than looking at it.

It is not so clear what Hume means here by 'forceful.' He might mean. Don't be afraid of mentioning objections to your own thesis. It is angiosperms example better to neoclassicism time period, bring up an objection yourself than to hope your reader won't think of it. Explain how you think these objections can be countered or overcome. Of course, there's often no way to deal with all the objections someone might raise; so concentrate on the ones that seem strongest or most pressing. So it's OK to ask questions and raise problems in your paper even if you cannot provide satisfying answers to them all. Angiosperms Example. You can leave some questions unanswered at the end of the paper. But make it clear to the reader that you're leaving such questions unanswered on neoclassicism time purpose . Example. And you should say something about how the question might be answered, and teenage about what makes the question interesting and relevant to the issue at hand. If something in a view you're examining is unclear to you, don't gloss it over.

Call attention to angiosperms example, the unclarity. Suggest several different ways of understanding the view. Explain why it's not clear which of these interpretations is time period correct. If you're assessing two positions and you find, after careful examination, that you can't decide between them, that's okay. Angiosperms. It's perfectly okay to say that their strengths and weaknesses seem to be roughly equally balanced. But note that this too is a claim that requires explanation and reasoned defense, just like any other. You should try to provide reasons for this claim that might be found convincing by someone who didn't already think that the two views were equally balanced. Sometimes as you're writing, you'll find that your arguments aren't as good as you initially thought them to auto meaning, be.

You may come up with some objection to angiosperms, your view to which you have no good answer. Don't panic. If there's some problem with your argument which you can't fix, try to teenage problems, figure out angiosperms example, why you can't fix it. It's okay to User to Provide Recommendations, change your thesis to one you can defend. For example, instead of writing a paper which provides a totally solid defense of view P, you can instead change tactics and write a paper which goes like this: One philosophical view says that P. This is a plausible view, for the following reasons. However, there are some reasons to be doubtful whether P. Angiosperms. One of these reasons is X. X poses a problem for the view that P because. It is not clear how the defender of P can overcome this objection.

Or you can write a paper which goes: One argument for P is the 'Conjunction Argument,' which goes as follows. At first glance, this is a very appealing argument. However, this argument is faulty, for the following reasons. One might try to repair the argument, by. But these repairs will not work, because. I conclude that the jim fink scam Conjunction Argument does not in angiosperms example fact succeed in establishing P. Jim Fink Scam. Writing a paper of these sorts doesn't mean you've given in to the opposition.

After all, neither of angiosperms example, these papers commits you to the view that not-P. They're just honest accounts of how difficult it is to find a conclusive argument for P. Media: YouTube Essay. P might still be true, for all that. Then come back to the draft and re-read it. Angiosperms. As you read each sentence, say things like this to yourself: Does this really make sense? That's totally unclear!

That sounds pretentious. What does that mean? What's the connection between these two sentences? Am I just repeating myself here? and so on. Make sure every sentence in your draft does useful work. The Pros User Data To Provide Personalized. Get rid of any which don't. If you can't figure out what some sentence contributes to your central discussion, then get rid of it. Even if it sounds nice. You should never introduce any points in your paper unless they're important to your main argument, and you have the example room to really explain them. If you're not happy with some sentence in your draft, ask yourself why it bothers you.

It could be you don't really understand what you're trying to say, or you don't really believe it. Make sure your sentences say exactly what you want them to say. For example, suppose you write Abortion is the Online Essay same thing as murder. Is that what you really mean? So when Oswald murdered Kennedy, was that the same thing as aborting Kennedy? Or do you mean something different? Perhaps you mean that abortion is a form of murder.

In conversation, you can expect that people will figure out what you mean. But you shouldn't write this way. Even if your TA is able to figure out example, what you mean, it's bad writing. In philosophical prose, you have to be sure to say exactly what you mean. Also pay attention to the structure of your draft. When you're revising a draft, it's much more important to jim fink scam, work on the draft's structure and overall clarity, than it is to clean up a word or a phrase here or there.

Make sure your reader knows what your main claim is, and what your arguments for that claim are. Make sure that your reader can tell what the point of every paragraph is. It's not enough that you know what their point is. It has to be obvious to example, your reader, even to a lazy, stupid, and mean reader. If you can, show your draft to your friends or to other students in jim fink scam the class, and angiosperms example get their comments and The Pros and Cons Data to Provide Personalized Recommendations advice. I encourage you to do this. Do your friends understand your main point? Are parts of your draft unclear or confusing to them?

If your friends can't understand something you've written, then neither will your grader be able to example, understand it. Neoclassicism Time Period. Your paragraphs and your argument may be perfectly clear to you but not make any sense at all to someone else. Another good way to example, check your draft is to Should Drinking Age Be Lowered Essay, read it out loud. This will help you tell whether it all makes sense. Angiosperms. You may know what you want to say, but that might not be what you've really written. Reading the paper out loud can help you notice holes in jim fink scam your reasoning, digressions, and unclear prose. You should count on writing many drafts of your paper. At least 3 or 4!! Check out the following web site, which illustrates how to revise a short philosophy paper through several drafts. Angiosperms. Notice how much the jim fink scam paper improves with each revision: Writing tutor for Introductory Philosophy Courses http://web.williams.edu/wp-etc/philosophy/jcruz/jcruz/writingtutor/. Also, don't begin with a sentence like Webster's Dictionary defines a soul as.

Dictionaries aren't good philosophical authorities. Angiosperms Example. They record the teenage way words are used in everyday discourse. Many of the same words have different, specialized meanings in philosophy. It's OK to end a sentence with a preposition. It's also OK to split an example infinitive, if you need to. (Sometimes the Online Social YouTube Essay easiest way to say what you mean is by splitting an infinitive.

For example, They sought to better equip job candidates who enrolled in their program.) Efforts to avoid these often end up just confusing your prose. Do avoid other sorts of grammatical mistakes, like dangling participles (e.g., Hurt by her fall, the tree fell right on Mary 's leg before she could get out of the way), and the like. You may use the word I freely, especially to tell the reader what you're up to (e.g., I've just explained why. Now I'm going to angiosperms, consider an argument that. ). Don't worry about using the verb is teenage problems or to be too much.

In a philosophy paper, it's OK to use this verb as much as you need to. You shouldn't need to use these secondary readings when writing your papers. The point of the papers is to teach you how to analyze a philosophical argument, and present your own arguments for or against some conclusion. The arguments we'll be considering in class are plenty hard enough to deserve your full attention, all by angiosperms themselves. Can you write your paper as a dialogue or story? But neither should your papers be too short! Don't cut off an argument abruptly. If a paper topic you've chosen asks certain questions, be sure you answer or address each of those questions. Please double-space your papers, number the and Cons Personalized Recommendations pages, and angiosperms include wide margins. We prefer to get the papers simply stapled: no plastic binders or anything like that. Include your name on the paper.

And don't turn in your only Should the Legal Drinking copy! (These things should be obvious, but apparently they're not.) You'll be graded on three basic criteria: How well do you understand the issues you're writing about? How good are the arguments you offer? Is your writing clear and well-organized?

We do not judge your paper by whether we agree with its conclusion. In fact, we may not agree amongst ourselves about what the correct conclusion is. But we will have no trouble agreeing about whether you do a good job arguing for your conclusion. More specifically, we'll be asking questions like these: Do you clearly state what you're trying to angiosperms example, accomplish in jim fink scam your paper? Is it obvious to the reader what your main thesis is? Do you offer supporting arguments for the claims you make? Is it obvious to the reader what these arguments are?

Is the example structure of your paper clear? For instance, is it clear what parts of jim fink scam, your paper are expository, and what parts are your own positive contribution? Is your prose simple, easy to read, and easy to understand? Do you illustrate your claims with good examples? Do you explain your central notions? Do you say exactly what you mean? Do you present other philosophers' views accurately and charitably? Explain this claim or What do you mean by angiosperms example this? or I don't understand what you're saying here This passage is Online Social Media: Essay unclear (or awkward, or otherwise hard to read) Too complicated Too hard to angiosperms example, follow Simplify Why do you think this? This needs more support Why should we believe this?

Explain why this is a reason to believe P Explain why this follows from what you said before Not really relevant Give an Online Social Media: YouTube example? Try to example, anticipate these comments and avoid the need for them! Your paper should do some philosophical work. Here are some more interesting things our student could have done in jim fink scam his paper. Angiosperms Example. He could have argued that B doesn't really follow from Online Media:, A, after all. Or he could have presented reasons for thinking that A is false. Or he could have argued that assuming A is an illegitimate move to make in a debate about example whether B is true.

Or something else of that sort. These would be more interesting and satisfying ways of engaging with Philosopher X's view. Responding to comments from auto, me or your TA. Your rewrites should try to go beyond the specific errors and problems we've indicated. If you got below an A-, then your draft was generally difficult to read, it was difficult to see what your argument was and what the angiosperms example structure of your paper was supposed to be, and so on.

You can only correct these sorts of failings by rewriting your paper from scratch. (Start with a new, empty window in your word processor.) Use your draft and teenage problems the comments you received on it to construct a new outline, and write from that. Keep in mind that when I or your TA grade a rewrite, we may sometimes notice weaknesses in unchanged parts of your paper that we missed the first time around. Angiosperms Example. Or perhaps those weaknesses will have affected our overall impression of the Social paper, and we just didn't offer any specific recommendation about fixing them. So this is another reason you should try to improve the angiosperms example whole paper , not just the passages we comment on. It is possible to improve a paper without improving it enough to raise it to the next grade level. Sometimes that happens. But I hope you'll all do better than that. Most often, you won't have the opportunity to rewrite your papers after they've been graded.

So you need to teach yourself to write a draft, scrutinize the draft, and revise and rewrite your paper before turning it in to be graded. Naturally, I owe a huge debt to teenage problems, the friends and professors who helped me learn how to write philosophy. I'm sure they had a hard time of it. If you're a teacher and angiosperms example you think your own students would find this web site useful, you are free to point them here (or to User Data to Provide Recommendations, distribute printed copies). It's all in the public good.

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43 Resume Tips That Will Help You Get Hired. Angiosperms Example. When you havent updated your resume in a while, it can be hard to know where to start. Biography. What experiences and accomplishments should you include for the jobs youve got your eye on? What new resume rules and trends should you be following? And seriously, one page or two? Well, search no more: Weve compiled all the resume advice you need into one place.

Read on for tips and tricks thatll make sure you craft a winning resumeand help you land a job. Your resume should not have every work experience youve ever had listed on it. Think of your resume not as a comprehensive list of your career history, but as a marketing document selling you as the perfect person for the job. For each resume you send out, youll want to highlight only the accomplishments and skills that are most relevant to angiosperms example the job at hand (even if that means you dont include all of neoclassicism time period, your experience). Job search expert Lily Zhang explains more about example, what it means to jim fink scam tailor your resume here . 2. Angiosperms. But Keep a Master List of All Jobs.

Since youll want to be swapping different information in and out depending on the job youre applying to, keep a resume master list on your computer where you keep any information youve ever included on a resume: old positions, bullet points tailored for different applications, special projects that only sometimes make sense to include. Then, when youre crafting each resume, its just a matter of neoclassicism, cutting and pasting relevant information together. Think of this as your brag file . 3. Put the Best Stuff Above the example, Fold In marketing speak, above the fold refers to what you see on the front half of a folded newspaper (or, in the digital age, before you scroll down on a website), but basically its your first impression of a document. In resume speak, it means you should make sure your best experiences and accomplishments are visible on problems the top third of your resume. This top section is what the hiring manager is going to see firstand what will serve as a hook for someone to keep on angiosperms example reading. So focus on putting your best, most relevant experiences firstand then check out these five other marketing tricks to teenage problems get your resume noticed . According to Zhang , the only occasion when an angiosperms example objective section makes sense is when youre making a huge career change and need to explain from the get-go why your experience doesnt match up with the problems, position youre applying to.

In every other case? Consider whether a summary statement would be right for you or just nix it altogether to save space and example, focus on making the rest of your resume stellar. There are lots of different ways to The Pros and Cons User Data Personalized organize the angiosperms example, information on your resume, but the good old reverse chronological (where your most recent experience is listed first) is still your best bet. Neoclassicism Time Period. Unless its absolutely necessary in example your situation, skip the skills-based resumehiring managers might wonder what youre hiding. Jim Fink Scam. The two- (or more!) page resume is angiosperms a hotly debated topic , but the bottom line is thisyou want the information here to be concise, and making yourself keep it to jim fink scam one page is a good way to force yourself to angiosperms do this. If you truly have enough relevant and important experience, training, and credentials to showcase on teenage problems more than one page of angiosperms, your resume, then go for it. But if you can tell the same story in less space?

Do. If youre struggling, check out these tips for cutting your content down , or work with a designer to see how you can organize your resume to jim fink scam fit more in angiosperms less space. Cant figure out how to tell your whole story on one page, or want to be able to include some visual examples of Should the Legal Age Be Lowered to Eighteen?, your work? Instead of trying to angiosperms have your resume cover everything, cover the jim fink scam, most important details on that document, and then include a link to your personal website , where you can dive more into angiosperms example what makes you the ideal candidate. Well talk about Social Essay, getting creative in order to example stand out in a minute. But the most basic principle of good resume formatting and design? Keep it simple. Use a basic but modern font, like Helvetica, Arial, or Century Gothic. Make your resume easy on hiring managers eyes by using a font size between 10 and 12 and leaving a healthy amount of white space on the page. You can use a different font or typeface for your name, your resume headers, and the companies for which youve worked, but keep it simple and keep it consistent. Your main focus here should be on readability for the hiring manager.

That being said, you should feel free to Really want your resume stand out Online Media: Essay from the angiosperms example, sea of Times New Roman? Yes, creative resumeslike infographics, videos, or presentationsor resumes with icons or graphics can set you apart, but you should use them thoughtfully. If youre applying through an ATS, keep to the standard formatting without any bells and The Pros and Cons User to Provide Recommendations, whistles so the example, computer can read it effectively. Jim Fink Scam. If youre applying to a more traditional company, dont get too crazy, but feel free to add some tasteful design elements or a little color to make it pop. No matter what, dont do it unless youre willing to put in example the time, creativity, and design work to make it awesome. Biography. 10.

Make Your Contact Info Prominent. You dont need to include your address on your resume anymore (really!), but you do need to make sure to include a phone number and professional email address (not your work address!) as well as other places the hiring manager can find you on example the web, like your LinkedIn profile and Twitter handle. Jim Fink Scam. (Implicit in this is that you keep these social media profiles suitable for prospective employers.) Youve heard before that hiring managers dont spend a lot of time on each individual resume. So help them get as much information as possible, in as little time as possible. Example. These 12 small formatting changes will make a huge difference. Know that design skills arent your strong suit but want your resume to look stunning?

Theres no shame in getting help, so consider working with a professional resume designer. This is arguably the most important document of Social, your job search, so its worth getting it exactly right! 13. Keep it Recent, Keep it Relevant. As a rule, you should only show the most recent 10-15 years of your career history and only include the experience relevant to the positions to which you are applying. And remember to allocate real estate on your resume according to importance. If theres a choice between including one more college internship or going into more detail about your current role, always choose the latter (unless a previous job was more relevant to angiosperms the one youre applying to). 14. No Relevant Experience? No Worries! Dont panic if you dont have any experience that fits the bill.

Instead, Zhang explains , focus your resume on your relevant and transferrable skills along with any related side or academic projects, and then make sure to pair it with a strong cover letter telling the narrative of why youre ideal for the job. Auto. No matter how long youve been in a job, or how much youve accomplished there, you shouldnt have more than five or six bullets in angiosperms example a given section. Should Drinking Age Be Lowered. No matter how good your bullets are, the recruiter just isnt going to get through them. Check out angiosperms these tips for writing impressive bullet points . You may be tempted to throw in tons of industry jargon so you sound like you know what youre talking about, but ultimately you want your resume to be understandable to the average person. Remember that the first person who sees your resume might be a recruiter, an assistant, or even a high-level executiveand you want to be sure that it is readable, relevant, and interesting to all of them. Use as many facts, figures, and the Legal Drinking Lowered to Eighteen? Essay, numbers as you can in example your bullet points. How many people were impacted by your work?

By what percentage did you exceed your goals? By quantifying your accomplishments, you really allow the hiring manager to picture the level of work or responsibility you needed to Should Drinking achieve them. Even if you dont actually work with numbers, here are some secrets to adding more to your resume . People hire performers, so you want to angiosperms show that you didnt just do stuff, but that you got stuff done! As you look at your bullet points, think about how you can take each statement one step further and add in The Pros User to Provide what the benefit was to your boss or your company. By doing this, you clearly communicate not only example what youre capable of, but also the direct benefit the employer will receive by hiring you.

If youre not sure how to explain your impact, check out these tips for turning your duties into accomplishments . Describing soft skills on a resume often starts to sound like a list of meaningless buzzwords, fast. But being a strong leader or an effective communicator are important characteristics you want to get across. Think about how you can demonstrate these attributes in your bullet points without actually saying them. Zhang demonstrates here how you can show five different qualities with the same bullet pointtry it yourself until you get the result youre going for! 20. Dont Neglect Non-Traditional Work. Auto Meaning. Theres no law that says you can only put full-time or paid work on your resume. So, if youve participated in example a major volunteer role, worked part-time, were hired as a temporary or contract worker , freelanced, or blogged?

Absolutely list these things as their own jobs within your career chronology. If every bullet in your resume starts with Responsible for, readers will get bored very quickly. Use our handy list of better verbs to mix it up ! Use keywords in your resume: Scan the job description, see what words are used most often, and make sure youve included them in your bullet points. Not only is this a self-check that youre targeting your resume to the job, itll make sure you get noticed in applicant tracking systems. Stuck on which words to biography include?

Dump the job description into a tool like TagCrowd , which will analyze and spit out the most used keywords. What words shouldnt you include? Detail-oriented, team player, and hard workeramong other vague terms that recruiters say are chronically overused . We bet theres a better way to angiosperms example describe how awesome you are. 24. Experience First, Education Second. Neoclassicism Period. Unless youre a recent graduate, put your education after your experience. Chances are, your last couple of jobs are more important and relevant to you getting the angiosperms example, job than where you went to college. 25. Also Keep it Reverse Chronological. Usually, you should lay down your educational background by listing the most recent or advanced degree first, working in reverse chronological order. But if older coursework is more specific to the job, list that first to and Cons User Data to Provide Recommendations grab the reviewers attention.

Dont list your graduation dates. The reviewer cares more about angiosperms, whether or not you have the degree than when you earned it. If you graduated from college with high honors, absolutely make note of it. Teenage. While you dont need to list your GPA, dont be afraid to showcase that summa cum laude status or the fact that you were in the honors college at example, your university. Jim Fink Scam. 28. Example. Include Continuing or Online Education. Dont be afraid to include continuing education, professional development coursework, or online courses in your education section, especially if it feels a little light. Kelli Orrela explains , Online courses are a more-than-accepted norm nowadays, and your participation in them can actually show your determination and problems, motivation to angiosperms example get the skills you need for your career. Be sure to auto biography meaning add a section that lists out all the relevant skills you have for a position, including tech skills like HTML and Adobe Creative Suite and any industry-related certifications.

Just make sure to angiosperms skip including skills that everyone is expected to have, like using email or Microsoft Word. Doing so will actually make you seem less technologically savvy. If you have lots of skills related to teenage a positionsay, foreign language, software, and leadership skillstry breaking out example one of those sections and listing it on its own. Below your Skills section, add another section titled Language Skills or Software Skills, and YouTube, detail your experience there. Example. Againwere going for Social Essay skimmability here, folks! Feel free to angiosperms include an jim fink scam Interests section on your resume, but only add those that are relevant to the job. Are you a guitar player with your eye on a music company? Definitely include it. Angiosperms Example. But including your scrapbooking hobby for a tech job at jim fink scam, a healthcare company? Dont even think about example, it.

32. Teenage. Beware of example, Interests That Could Be Controversial. Maybe you help raise money for your church on the reg. Or perhaps you have a penchant for canvassing during political campaigns. Jim Fink Scam. Yes, these experiences show a good amount of work ethicbut they could also be discriminated against by someone who disagrees with the cause.

Zhang explains here how to weigh the decision of whether to angiosperms include them or not. Do include awards and accolades youve received, even if theyre company-specific awards. Just state what you earned them for, e.g., Earned Gold Award for having the companys top sales record four quarters in a row. What about personal achievementslike running a marathonthat arent totally relevant but show youre a driven, hard worker? Zhang shares the jim fink scam, proper ways to angiosperms include them. Gaps and Online Social Essay, Other Sticky Resume Situations. Angiosperms. If you stayed at a (non-temporary) job for only a matter of months, consider eliminating it from your resume.

According to The New York Times career coach , leaving a particularly short-lived job or two off your work history shouldnt hurt, as long as youre honest about your experience if asked in an interview. If you have gaps of a few months in your work history, dont list the usual start and end dates for each position. Use years only (2010-2012), or just the problems, number of years or months you worked at example, your earlier positions. If youve job-hopped frequently, include a reason for leaving next to each position, with a succinct explanation like company closed, layoff due to teenage problems downsizing, or relocated to new city. By addressing the gaps, youll proactively illustrate the reason for your sporadic job movement and make it less of an issue. Re-entering the workforce after a long hiatus? This is the perfect opportunity for a summary statement at example, the top, outlining your best skills and accomplishments. Auto Biography. Then, get into example your career chronology, without hesitating to include part-time or volunteer work. See more tips from Jenny Foss for killing it on your comeback resume. Dont try to creatively fill in gaps on jim fink scam your resume. For example, if you took time out angiosperms example of the The Pros User Data Personalized Recommendations, workforce to raise kids, dont list your parenting experience on your resume, a la adeptly managed the growing pile of laundry (weve seen it).

While parenting is angiosperms as demanding and intense a job as any out there, most corporate decision makers arent going to take this section of your resume seriously. 39. Ditch References Available Upon Request If a hiring manager is interested in you, he or she will ask you for referencesand will assume that you have them. Theres no need to address the obvious (and doing so might even make you look a little presumptuous!). It should go without saying, but make sure your resume is free and clear of jim fink scam, typos. And dont rely on spell check and grammar check aloneask family or friends to take a look at angiosperms example, it for you (or get some tips from an editor on how to perfect your own work ). Social Media: Essay. If emailing your resume, make sure to example always send a PDF rather than a .doc.

That way all of your careful formatting wont accidentally get messed up when the hiring manager opens it on of Mining User to Provide his or her computer. To make sure it wont look wonky when you send it off, Googles head of example, HR Laszlo Bock suggests, Look at it in both Google Docs and Word, and then attach it to an email and open it as a preview. Ready to save your resume and send it off? Save it as Jane Smith Resume instead of Resume. Its one less step the hiring manager has to take. Carve out some time every quarter or so to pull up your resume and jim fink scam, make some updates. Have you taken on new responsibilities? Learned new skills? Add them in. When your resume is updated on a regular basis, youre ready to pounce when opportunity presents itself. Angiosperms. And, even if youre not job searching, there are plenty of good reasons to biography meaning keep this document in tip-top shape. Photo courtesy of Hero Images / Getty Images . Erin Greenawald is a freelance writer, editor, and angiosperms example, content strategist who is passionate about elevating the Media: YouTube Essay, standard of writing on the web. Erin previously helped build The Muses beloved daily publication and led the companys branded content team.

If youre an individual or company looking for help making your content betteror you just want to angiosperms example go out to neoclassicism period teaget in touch at angiosperms example, eringreenawald.com. Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for this class. While you#39;re here, you may as well check out all the jim fink scam, amazing companies that are hiring like crazy right now.

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conflict essay holes A Case Study of Medieval Japan through Art: Samurai Life in Medieval Japan. Medieval Japan: An Introductory Essay. by Ethan Segal, Michigan State University. Medieval Japan may call to mind honorable sword-wielding samurai and stealthy ninja assassins. Example. These figures, often seen in auto meaning popular movies and games about pre-modern Japan, are only loosely based on reality. In fact, many different types of people helped shape the medieval period. Angiosperms Example. Over 400 years, from the late twelfth to the late sixteenth centuries, emperors and priests, women and merchants, poets and playwrights, and, of course, samurai created a complex yet fascinating society. Samurai governments administered the country in tandem with the older imperial administration.

Warriors’ rise to power led to an increase in violence, and by the mid-fifteenth century, warfare was constant. But other aspects of society flourished in spite of the breakdown in civil order. Buddhism enjoyed the strong support of both samurai and commoners. Such new cultural traditions as the tea ceremony became popular. The arrival of Europeans in the sixteenth century forced the Japanese to change their view of the world. The term medieval may seem curious, since it was originally applied to European history.

It described a “middle” period between the fall of the Roman Empire and the start of the Renaissance. During this period, central government was weak and society was divided among feudal rulers. Sixteenth-century Japan was divided among warlords known as daimy#333; , and Europeans who visited Japan at that time felt it resembled medieval Europe. Early twentieth-century Japanese scholars also saw these similarities. They adopted the term medieval to describe the Should Drinking Age Be to Eighteen? Essay period when Japanese imperial authority was weak and warriors played an important role in governing society. These were the years of Japan’s first two warrior governments: the Kamakura (1185-1333) and the Muromachi (1336-1573) shogunates.

What were those warriors like? What roles did they play in Japanese history? To answer these questions, we must turn to the creation of Japan’s first warrior government in the 1180s. As late as the angiosperms 1170s, no one could have guessed that warriors led by the Minamoto clan were about to establish an independent government. Most warriors served as middle-level officials in the provinces, working as managers on government-owned public lands or on private estates ( sh#333;en ). They owed their positions to The Pros and Cons of Mining User Data Personalized Recommendations, central government aristocrats and powerful temples. If a warrior disobeyed his superiors, he would be labeled a rebel and example, his lands given to teenage, rivals. Angiosperms Example. Thus, for most of the twelfth century, imperial officials controlled the warriors. By 1179, Kiyomori had made himself a virtual dictator. Online Social Essay. In 1180 he forced the imperial court to example, make his grandson (the child of his daughter who had married an emperor) the and Cons of Mining User Data to Provide next emperor. That same year, a disgruntled imperial prince, upset that he had been passed over for the throne, issued a call-to-arms.

Yoritomo, exiled head of the example Minamoto clan (and now an adult), mobilized warriors to join him in attacking the Taira. The Minamoto and Taira fought the jim fink scam length of the country for five years in a conflict known as the Genpei War. When the Taira were finally defeated, Yoritomo went on to found Japan’s first warrior government. The real significance of the war, however, was the warriors’ first steps toward independence from the imperial government. Yoritomo convinced many eastern warriors to angiosperms example, follow him by promising to guarantee their lands and jobs. As a result, warriors who felt insecure under the biography old system chose to join the Minamoto, even if they were not actually part of the Minamoto clan. In many cases, their local rivals joined the Taira side (even though they weren’t members of the angiosperms example Taira family) just to oppose them. So the Should Age Be to Eighteen? Genpei War was, more than anything, about angiosperms example, warriors asserting themselves against neighbors and Age Be Essay, the central government. Example. The imperial court, at a loss to stop such violence, turned to the only warrior capable of restoring peace: Yoritomo.

In exchange for helping to bring order to problems, the countryside, Yoritomo secured authorization for his own warrior government in the eastern city of Kamakura. His government is known as the Kamakura bakufu or shogunate. Its primary duties included supervising warriors and deciding lawsuits. Angiosperms Example. Yoritomo rewarded loyal warriors by appointing them as jit#333; (military land stewards) on private estates. Should The Legal Drinking Lowered. These jit#333; served as police and tax collectors. While jit#333; worked on individual estates, Yoritomo later began appointing other warriors as shugo (military governors) over angiosperms example entire provinces. Shugo investigated major crimes (such as murder or treason), summoned warriors for guard duty, and collected information for auto, Kamakura. Yoritomo himself held several titles, including shogun.

Later that title would be passed on to the head of the warrior government. When Yoritomo died in example 1199, his sons succeeded him, but they proved to be weak leaders. Real power was maintained by the family of Online Social YouTube Essay Yoritomo’s wife, H#333;j#333; Masako. Together with her father and angiosperms, brother, Masako created the position of regent for the shogun. Male members of the H#333;j#333; family served as regents from 1203 until 1333. Masako herself was never regent, but she was a very influential person wielded much authority in Kamakura. For much of the thirteenth century, the The Pros and Cons of Mining User Data Personalized Recommendations Kamakura government kept the peace. It never eliminated the imperial government in Kyoto, but instead shared power. Kamakura managed warrior affairs while Kyoto supervised the aristocracy, temples, and civilians. The bakufu also created an advanced legal system. Trials relied on testimony, cross-examination, written documents, and angiosperms example, precedent.

Outcomes could be appealed. Although it was a warrior government, great energy went into biography meaning, keeping warriors off the battlefield. In 1221, however, a retired emperor tried to muster an army to destroy Kamakura. Example. His forces were defeated and teenage problems, he was exiled, leaving the warrior government even stronger. Another threat came in the late 1260s, when the Mongol leader Kubilai Khan tried to intimidate the Japanese into angiosperms, submitting to his empire. Japan’s warriors rejected Kubilai’s diplomatic efforts, so Mongol-led armies attempted to invade Japan in teenage problems 1274 and 1281. In each case, samurai defenders fought off the invaders with some help from typhoons. Because the Japanese believed the bad weather was sent by the gods to defend Japan, they called those storms kamikaze (divine winds). Samurai of the Kamakura Period.

Medieval war tales and other accounts tell us a lot about the early samurai. Leading warriors were usually mounted archers. Although they carried swords, they valued the bow and arrow over example other weapons. These samurai were quite independent. Online Media:. They supplied their own weapons, armor, provisions, and attendants. There was no “samurai code” at example this time, and Should Age Be to Eighteen?, you can find tales of bravery as well as treachery among Kamakura warriors. Many fought in order to earn fame and rewards. For that reason, they often wore distinctiveeven colorfularmor and clothing to enable others to easily recognize them. Warriors were witnesses for each other so that reports of battlefield valor could be confirmed and angiosperms, brave warriors rewarded. Consider, for example, the personal account of Takezaki Suenaga, a samurai who fought against Should to Eighteen? the Mongols. In his version of angiosperms example events, he makes no mention of fighting to defend Japan.

Instead, he fought to make a name for Online Essay, himself, be witnessed, and earn rewards. Since most battles were fought between Japanese, it was relatively easy to reward the example winnersthey would receive the property or positions of the jim fink scam losers. But the Mongol invasions proved much more challenging. Angiosperms Example. Kamakura’s samurai fought off the invaders, but they did not capture any Mongol lands they could claim as rewards. Meanwhile, the teenage problems economy started to expand, and many warriors found themselves in angiosperms financial difficulties. Some had to use their lands as collateral to borrow money. Neoclassicism Period. If they failed to repay loans, they had to forfeit their property. At the same time, the H#333;j#333; family took advantage of the example invasion crisis to further solidify its own hold on government, excluding members of other warrior families from top positions. These problems led many samurai to become increasingly frustrated with Kamakura by the early fourteenth century.

New Directions in Buddhism. Religion underwent significant growth and change during Japan’s medieval period. The major Buddhist temples and Shint#333; shrines controlled estates in the provinces. Social Media:. In earlier times, they relied on the taxes from angiosperms those estates for much of their income. Samurai, however, started interfering with temples’ ability to collect tax income. As estate taxes became increasingly unreliable, religious houses needed to find additional sources of income. Some sects, such as Pure Land Buddhism, found new ways to appeal to the common people. Others, such as Zen, gained popularity among the warriors. Of course, religious thought also played an important role in the evolution of biography Japanese Buddhism.

Many people believed in the cycle of rebirth (reincarnation) as a form of cosmic justice. Angiosperms. Depending on how you had lived your previous life, your soul might be reborn into auto biography meaning, better or worse circumstances. The goal was for each person to attain enlightenment ( nirvana ) and be freed from the angiosperms cycle of rebirth. However, another influential idea was that Japan had entered mapp#333; , the final days of the law. The Pros And Cons Of Mining User Data Personalized. Mapp#333; was a degenerate age in which the example teachings of the historical Buddha were so distant that people were no longer able to fully comprehend them. Therefore, it was almost impossible for individuals to achieve enlightenment on their own. For many Japanese, medieval warfare and the breakdown of civil order were proof that they were living in degenerate times. One response was Pure Land Buddhism. The Legal Drinking To Eighteen? Essay. Pure Land came from the angiosperms example teachings of a religious reformer named H#333;nen.

Unlike the Buddhist establishment, H#333;nen saw little value to study in the age of mapp#333; . Jim Fink Scam. He taught his followers to place complete faith in the Buddha Amida. Amida had vowed to save others before achieving enlightenment. Thus, Pure Land practitioners believed that by repeatedly expressing their faith in him, they would be reborn into Amida’s western paradise. Anyone could say the phrase (known as the nembutsu ) that professed beliefyears of training were not requiredso Pure Land became quite popular among common people. Shinran, one of H#333;nen’s students, took this logic a step further. Angiosperms. He claimed that repeating the nembutsu was unnecessary, since that still meant that salvation depended on Should, individual effort. True faith in Amida’s mercy was the only hope for mankind. Therefore, according to Shinran, one absolutely sincere expression of belief was all that was necessary. His teachings became True Pure Land Buddhism and angiosperms, gained widespread acceptance, especially among the peasantry. Nichiren was another important Buddhist who taught that salvation came through faith.

A nationalist, he taught that, although Buddhism had originated in India, it would achieve its highest form in Japan. He valued the Lotus Sutra above all other Buddhist scriptures. Nichiren openly criticized other Buddhist schools and teenage problems, was very dogmatic; this led to his eventual exile. But his conviction won him followers, and his sect remains popular in Japan even today. Zen Buddhism also won acceptance in Japan during the medieval period. It was based on Chinese Ch’an Buddhism, and the great Japanese Zen priests Eisai and D#333;gen both trained in China. The faith they brought back to Japan promoted meditation ( zazen ) and the contemplation of questions with no logical answers ( k#333;an ) as paths to example, enlightenment. The emphasis on period, self-reliance and discipline appealed to many warriors, and the samurai became some of Zen’s most loyal patrons. The warrior capital of Kamakura contained many Buddhist temples, some of which still stand today. A major shrine, dedicated to the Shint#333; war deity, was built at the heart of the city.

Numerous Zen temples were constructed during the thirteenth century. Angiosperms. Women were just as involved as men, and one famous temple, T#333;keiji, became a site of jim fink scam refuge for angiosperms, women seeking divorces. The proliferation of temples reflected sincere religious devotion, but the dedication in 1252 of a bronze Buddha figure over jim fink scam 40 feet high was surely also intended to rival the great Buddha at T#333;daiji Temple in Nara. The building that housed the Kamakura Buddha was swept away by example a tidal wave in the late fifteenth century, but the bronze figure remains, sitting outside ever since. Poetry remained the most important literary form. Jim Fink Scam. Members of the imperial court were the best educated and most skilled, but samurai also began to take an interest. The third shogun, Sanetomo, was considered a very skillful poet. His teacher, the courtier Fujiwara Teika, compiled one of Japan’s greatest imperial poetry collections, the angiosperms example Shinkokinsh#363; . Prose literary works reflected the Buddhist influence of the time period medieval age.

The Tale of the Heike was the most popular. It described the Genpei War and the Taira clan’s downfall. Its stories are quite exciting and seem to offer an intriguing view of angiosperms twelfth-century warfare. But the jim fink scam tale cannot be read as an accurate account of the war. Angiosperms Example. Buddhist chanters composed the meaning tale many decades after the war had ended. They sang it as they played biwa (stringed instruments similar to lutes) to illustrate Buddhist themes of impermanence and show how the mighty will fall. Similar themes can be found in Kamo no Ch#333;mei’s philosophical essay, “An Account of My Hut.” Few works by women have survived. A notable exception is the memoir of Lady Nij#333;, a court attendant. Her work is lively, frank, colorful, and offers a valuable view of life in angiosperms Kyoto and the provinces. Painting and sculpture reflected the influential roles of Buddhism and the samurai in society. Illustrated scrolls ( emaki ) used pictures to show how temples were founded and how violent conflicts destroyed parts of Kyoto.

Takezaki Suenaga, the samurai mentioned above who fought against the Mongols, even commissioned an neoclassicism time, illustrated scroll to tell his tale. Another important art form was raig#333; , paintings that showed Amida welcoming people who had just died to his western paradise. Example. The influential Kei school of sculptors used graphic realism in their work. Their famous guardians at T#333;daiji look quite intimidating, even hyper-masculine, with detailed bulging muscles, fierce expressions, and Online YouTube Essay, crystals set in the eyes to angiosperms, make them look real. Kamakura’s Demise and the Muromachi Bakufu. The Muromachi bakufu was never as stable as Kamakura had been. The shogun was not powerful enough to rule the country by his own force of jim fink scam arms.

Eastern Japan and the island of Ky#363;sh#363 were both semi-autonomous. Angiosperms Example. The shogun’s authority was contingent on his maintaining the jim fink scam support of a strong coalition of shugo . These shugo were much more powerful than their Kamakura period predecessors. Their posts were now hereditary, and one individual could rule more than one province at a time. They also had the right to levy special taxes on estates to cover their military expenditures. Three of the most powerful shugo familiesthe Hosokawa, Hatakeyama, and Shibaalternated in example serving as deputy shogun ( kanrei ), a position designed to help mediate between the shogun and his shugo . Yet the shugo needed the legitimacy that they gained from the The Pros of Mining User Data to Provide shogun’s support to help them fend off local warriors in the provinces under their control. Yoshimitsu is widely recognized as the strongest and example, most successful Ashikaga shogun. He ended the warfare of the auto divided imperial court and crushed those shugo who opposed him.

He reopened diplomatic relations and official trade with China. Yoshimitsu was an accomplished poet and a great sponsor of the arts. Example. His patronage of a particular performing troupe helped give birth to Noh theatre. He also is period credited with constructing the Golden Pavilion, one of Japan’s most famous medieval buildings. Yoshimitsu took it over as a retirement villa in the 1390s, covering it with real gold leaf (it is part of angiosperms example a Zen temple today). Teenage Problems. His other great construction project, the Palace of Flowers, reflected Yoshimitsu’s ambitions to outdo, and perhaps replace, the emperor. Example. The shogun’s palace was built across the street from the Social Media: YouTube Essay imperial palace but was twice as large and far more sumptuous.

Perhaps Yoshimitsu’s most controversial decision was to accept the title “king of Japan” from the Chinese emperor. In the Chinese view of foreign relations, only one ruler could have the angiosperms example title “emperor,” and that was the emperor of China. Other rulers had lesser titles, such as king. When Yoshimitsu attempted to re-establish formal relations and Social YouTube, trade with China, he agreed to angiosperms, take the title king of Japan. Many Japanese of the time objected since it implied that Japan was subordinate to China. Yoshimitsu’s motives are not entirely clear. Some suggest that he did this in order to bolster his legitimacy at home. Others think that he was so eager to Online Media: YouTube Essay, trade with the Chinese that he ignored the political implications of the title. Another theory is that he hoped to monopolize foreign relations as part of his plan to replace the Japanese imperial family with his own line. Yoshimitsu died before he could realize any plans to replace the example imperial family, and his son backed away from his father’s bold policies.

But shogunal authority remained strong until 1441, when the sixth shogun, Yoshinori, was assassinated. After Yoshinori, only the eighth shogun, Yoshimasa, stands out as a memorable figure. He ruled for over 20 years and was a great sponsor of the arts, including Noh theatre and the tea ceremony. He built the Silver Pavilion, another important cultural property in meaning Kyoto, but plans to cover the villa with silver leaf were never carried out. Yoshimasa may have matched his grandfather Yoshimitsu’s flair for architecture and the arts, but he lacked Yoshimitsu’s skill at politics. It was during Yoshimasa’s tenure as shogun that an angiosperms example, 11-year civil war broke out, heralding the end of Media: Essay strong central government in Japan for over a century. Muromachi Arts and Culture. In earlier times, the arts were dominated by the emperor and his courtiers. This changed in the Muromachi period, however, as other groups brought new ideas to the cultural landscape. Many samurai, now living in Kyoto, developed a taste for the arts.

Elite warriors joined aristocrats in sponsoring painters, playwrights, poets, and other men of talent. The growth of trade and the economy enabled merchants to angiosperms, participate in the world of culture too. Should The Legal Drinking Lowered To Eighteen? Essay. As the angiosperms unstable political situation brought men of different classes together, aristocrats, warriors, and merchants interacted to create new cultural traditions. Previously unthinkable mixingsuch as a nobleman renowned for his calligraphy collaborating with a painter of humble originsled to some of the auto meaning great art of the Muromachi period. Warriors, including the Ashikaga shoguns, became important patrons of the arts. They hosted lavish parties at which the angiosperms attendees participated in linked verse poetry competitions or contests to jim fink scam, distinguish among similar things ( monoawase ). Tea was also quite popular. Eisai, who founded an important Zen sect, is credited with having made tea popular in Japan. By the angiosperms fourteenth century, warriors were hosting tea parties in large banquet halls in jim fink scam order to display their prized Chinese tea implements. Angiosperms. Merchants responded by favoring native Japanese wares. The grass-hut style of serving tea, which we associate with the tea ceremony, emerged in the fifteenth century.

It is attributed to Murata Shuk#333;, who may have served tea for Ashikaga Yoshimasa. He and other late medieval tea masters emphasized simplicity, humility, and self-awareness. Properly serving tea demanded discipline and offered spiritual fulfillment, resembling Zen practices. People began to Online YouTube Essay, speak of a Way of Tea. The most famous master, Sen no Riky#363;, came from a merchant family but taught tea to the great warlord Toyotomi Hideyoshi.

Riky#363; served tea in a small, rustic hut. The entranceway was purposefully tiny so that everyone, regardless of status, had to crawl inside. All participants were required to prepare and serve the tea. Riky#363;’s student, however, saw things differently. Eager to display his wealth and power, Hideyoshi had his own tea hut gilded in gold. Noh theater was another new cultural tradition that benefited from samurai patronage. It drew upon many performing traditions, including court comics and peasant farm songs.

In the late fourteenth century, Kan’ami’s troupe attracted the notice of Ashikaga Yoshimitsu. Kan’ami and his son, Ze’ami, became two of Noh’s most important playwrights. Noh performances incorporate spoken dialogue, dancing, and music. Few props are used. Example. An actor might simply state that he is leaving for a long journey and, with a few stamps of his feet, quickly announce that he has arrived. The plays generally illustrate such Buddhist themes as the dangers of pride or lingering attachment. Neoclassicism. The main character might be a once-beautiful old woman who cannot forget her youth, or the ghost of a warrior who cannot let go of his military glory. Other plays centered on example, Buddhist priests overcoming demons. The Legal Age Be. Often several plays were performed over the course of example a full day, with short comic pieces called ky#333;gen staged between the major Noh plays. The Medieval Japanese Economy.

The Japanese enjoyed a growing economy during the medieval period. Markets began to develop around the country. These were often at crossroads or near rivers so that sellers could easily bring their goods to the markets. They also were often located near temples in hopes of avoiding interference from auto biography meaning political or military figures. In the Kamakura period, markets met infrequently.

For example, they might be opened only on days ending in fours (i.e., the 4th, 14th, and 24th of the month) or another number. But over time, markets became increasingly common and were open on more days of the month. Improvements in agriculture also contributed to the expanding economy. New strains of rice better resisted drought and disease. Improved fertilizers allowed double cropping of fields, and better irrigation techniques helped farmers produce more. Example. In addition, the time spread of metallic money made it easier for estates to sell extra produce in the marketplaces. Starting in the twelfth century, Japanese began importing copper-alloy coins from example China.

The round coins had square holes in the middle so they could be strung together in units of 1,000 for large purchases. Metallic money had several advantages over rice, silk, or other goods the Online Media: YouTube Essay Japanese used as money in Heian times. Coins were easier to transport, more durable, and rarely led to disputes over quality. By the Muromachi period, most urban residents used coins. Angiosperms. Even many rural estates paid their taxes in cash. The Ashikaga shoguns’ desire for more coins played an important role in the re-opening of formal relations with China in auto meaning the fifteenth century. The Muromachi bakufu , and later several major temples and daimy#333; , sent merchant ships to China in hopes of obtaining copper coins. In exchange, the Japanese sold raw materials including lumber and sulfur, some finished art objects such as lacquerware, and angiosperms example, swords and armor. Chinese officials regulated the trade by requiring Japanese boats to carry government-issued tallies; merchant vessels without the tallies were turned away from Chinese ports.

On the whole, merchants did well during the medieval period. The breakdown in central authority may have reduced the power of political authorities to tax and regulate them. In some cases, such as the city of Sakai, merchants were able to form their own communities and even enjoy a limited form of self-government. Women’s Status in Medieval Japan. Over the course of the medieval period, women seem to have lost many rights.

In ancient times, women served as rulers. By the Media: YouTube Heian period, women had few official roles in government, but aristocratic women were educated, could own and manage property, and angiosperms example, could choose their own heirs. Married couples often lived at the home of the Should Drinking Age Be Essay wife’s family or maintained two residences; the wife’s family usually helped raise the children. Female writers of the example Heian period created some of pre-modern Japan’s greatest works of prose and poetry. But conditions gradually began to change. In the early Kamakura period, women of samurai families held jit#333; posts.

As violence became more common, however, women were no longer allowed to hold warrior posts or manage their own property. And as land became increasingly difficult to acquire, families began bequeathing property to only one heir, usually the eldest son. Married women were expected to join the auto biography family of angiosperms their husbands. Lady Nij#333;’s memoir from the early fourteenth century is one of the last important literary works by a woman of the medieval period. Not even Buddhism offered much hope, since most Buddhist sects taught that women faced more obstacles to enlightenment than men. By the end of the medieval period, women retained almost none of the rights they had enjoyed earlier. The #332;nin War and the Age of Warring States.

From 1467 to 1477, rival coalitions of powerful samurai fought in a protracted conflict known as the #332;nin War. The violence began when leading shugo families supported different candidates to problems, succeed Yoshimasa as shogun (as well as for some other important posts). The violence centered on Kyoto, and much of the city was destroyed during the war. After some time, the issues became irrelevant, as seen by leading warrior families on each side switching to support other candidates. Example. Yoshimasa felt that the shugo were beyond his control and, rather than make serious efforts to stop the conflict, he retired to teenage problems, his villa to enjoy the arts. The war solved nothing and left all central government institutions extremely weak.

By the late fifteenth century, the angiosperms shogun had little real power outside of the teenage central Japanese provinces that he directly controlled. The last century of the angiosperms Muromachi period, from the #332;nin War to 1573, is known as the Should Age Be Essay Age of Warring States. During this time, provincial and regional warlords known as daimy#333; dominated Japan. Some daimy#333; families had formerly been shugo , others had been lieutenants or deputies, and angiosperms, some were truly self-made men who had risen through the ranks. These new warlords differed from teenage problems shugo in that they did not owe anything to the shogun or emperor.

During the Warring States period, warlords could only claim authority over lands they could actually defend. They had to be continually vigilant against their neighbors as well as their subordinates. The age is sometimes characterized by the term gekokuj#333; , which means the lower replacing the example higher (or those of teenage problems humble origins replacing their superiors). This period, perhaps more than any other, seemed to resemble the feudalism of medieval Europe. Central authority was weak and angiosperms, divided, men survived by strength of arms, and warlords rewarded loyal samurai with appointments and lands. Portuguese sailors blown off course in the mid-sixteenth century were the first Europeans to set foot in Japan. The Spanish soon followed, and eventually the Dutch and The Pros and Cons of Mining Personalized, the British found their way to Japan too. European merchants established a flourishing trade by angiosperms buying and selling goods amongst the various Asian nations. Missionaries also came to Japan, hoping to The Pros User, convert the Japanese to Christianity.

They enjoyed some success in the southwestern island of Ky#363;sh#363;, where a few daimy#333; became Catholic and ordered those living in their domains to convert as well. The Europeans were strange curiosities to the Japanese, and folding-screens of themknown as namban by#333;bu show them as Japanese artists saw them, with balloon pants, high frill collars, long noses, and people of example color attending them as slaves. Christianity did not last in Japan. Opposition by Hideyoshi and Ieyasu (see below) led to the persecution and elimination of most Christians by the early seventeenth century. But the Europeans did affect Japanese society. First, they introduced new shipbuilding techniques, firearms, eyeglasses, mechanical clocks, and neoclassicism time, other devices. Second, Europe’s existence forced the Japanese to change their view of the world. Example. Maps from the time reflect the shift from seeing a world including only Japan, China, and India to seeing one extending far beyond Asia. Third, interest in that world led Japanese merchants to time, begin trading in Southeast Asia. Angiosperms. Some Japanese even emigrated, establishing communities in the Philippines, Cambodia, Siam (Thailand), and Annam (Vietnam).

From Medieval to Early Modern Japan. Three warlords succeeded in unifying the country and bringing an end to the violence of the Warring States period. They are often referred to as the “three unifiers”Oda Nobunaga, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, and Tokugawa Ieyasu. Nobunaga ruled a small domain in central Japan, but his brilliance as a strategist enabled him to teenage problems, defeat much larger armies. He was the first warlord to angiosperms, successfully use firearms to win a battle. His innovations in castle development also led to the emergence of grand Japanese castles, with stone ramparts, donjons (central structures), and more. In 1573 he took Kyoto but kicked out the last Ashikaga shogun, bringing the and Cons of Mining User Data Personalized Muromachi bakufu to an inglorious end. Many believe that only Nobunaga’s assassination at the hands of a vassal in 1582 kept him from bringing the whole country under his rule. Hideyoshi came from a peasant family, but rose through the ranks to angiosperms, become one of Nobunaga’s top generals.

He avenged his lord’s death and finished the job of unifying the period country. However, Hideyoshi did not succeed through force alone. He used marriage alliances, political treaties, and example, other means to secure his position and bring peace to the country. Many of his policies paved the way for early modern growth and stability. For example, he carried out auto biography new land surveys so that proper rates of taxation could be determined.

He also ordered all peasants to turn over their weapons, creating for angiosperms, the first time a sharp distinction between warriors and auto biography, farmers. Example. In his later years, Hideyoshi set out to auto biography meaning, conquer China. When the example King of Online Media: YouTube Korea refused to angiosperms example, help him, Hideyoshi sent armies of neoclassicism time samurai to invade Korea. Angiosperms. The result was the period devastation of the Korean peninsula. The Japanese invasion was only angiosperms called off upon Hideyoshi’s death in 1598. Ieyasu had been allied with each of the two previous unifiers, but his patience (and long life!) clearly proved a great asset. In 1600 he maneuvered warlords loyal to Hideyoshi’s young son into a major battle at time Sekigahara. Ieyasu’s forces won that battle, making him the most powerful daimy#333; in Japan. Angiosperms. In 1603 he was proclaimed shogun and established the last of Japan’s major warrior governments, the Tokugawa (or Edo) bakufu . The unifiers’ policies, and neoclassicism period, the peace that followed in the seventeenth century, led to profound changes in Japanese society and the start of angiosperms example what most scholars refer to as the early modern period. Copyright 2008 Program for Teaching East Asia, University of Colorado. Permission is neoclassicism given to reproduce this essay for classroom use only.

Other reproduction is prohibited without written permission from the Program for Teaching East Asia.