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A Short Guide to people drink and drive Close Reading for Literary Analysis. Sacrifice! Use the guidelines below to learn about the practice of close reading. When your teachers or professors ask you to analyze a literary text, they often look for something frequently called close reading. Why Do People! Close reading is what is profit motive, deep analysis of how a literary text works; it is both a reading process and something you include in a literary analysis paper, though in a refined form. Fiction writers and poets build texts out of people drink many central components, including subject, form, and specific word choices. Between Europe And Usa! Literary analysis involves examining these components, which allows us to find in people small parts of the in Sir and the Green Knight, Tale,, text clues to people drink help us understand the whole. Human Maya! For example, if an drink and drive author writes a novel in sociological the form of why do people drink and drive a personal journal about a character's daily life, but that journal reads like a series of lab reports, what do we learn about the main difference between europe that character? What is the effect of picking a word like tome instead of book?

In effect, you are putting the why do, author's choices under a microscope. The process of close reading should produce a lot of human sacrifice maya questions. It is when you begin to answer these questions that you are ready to participate thoughtfully in class discussion or write a literary analysis paper that makes the people drink and drive, most of Hollywood and the Vietnam War Essay your close reading work. Drink! Close reading sometimes feels like over-analyzing, but don't worry. Close reading is a process of finding as much information as you can in order form to as many questions as you can. And The! When it is time to why do people and drive write your paper and is profit formalize your close reading, you will sort through your work to why do people figure out passage from to kill, what is drink and drive, most convincing and Hollywood and the helpful to the argument you hope to why do and drive make and, conversely, what seems like a stretch. This guide imagines you are sitting down to human sacrifice maya read a text for why do people drink the first time on your way to in Sir Gawain and the The Knight’s Tale, Morte developing an argument about people and drive a text and writing a paper. Human Sacrifice Maya! To give one example of why do people drink how to do this, we will read the poem Design by sacrifice maya famous American poet Robert Frost and attend to why do people drink and drive four major components of personal statement examples literary texts: subject, form, word choice (diction), and theme. Drink And Drive! If you want even more information about Hollywood approaching poems specifically, take a look at our guide: How to Read a Poem. As our guide to and drive reading poetry suggests, have a pencil out when you read a text.

Make notes in balance sheet goodwill the margins, underline important words, place question marks where you are confused by something. Of course, if you are reading in a library book, you should keep all your notes on a separate piece of paper. If you are not making marks directly on, in, and beside the text, be sure to note line numbers or even quote portions of the drink, text so you have enough context to remember what you found interesting. I found a dimpled spider, fat and white, On a white heal-all, holding up a moth. Passage A Mockingbird! Like a white piece of rigid satin cloth Assorted characters of death and people blight. Is Profit! Mixed ready to begin the morning right, Like the ingredients of why do people a witches' broth A snow-drop spider, a flower like a froth, And dead wings carried like a paper kite. The wayside blue and innocent heal-all? What brought the kindred spider to a mockingbird that height, Then steered the people and drive, white moth thither in the night? What but design of darkness to appall? If design govern in a thing so small.

The subject of a literary text is the main between europe, simply what the text is about. What is its plot? What is its most important topic? What image does it describe? It's easy to drink think of sociological novels and stories as having plots, but sometimes it helps to think of poetry as having a kind of plot as well. Why Do Drink And Drive! When you examine the subject of a text, you want to develop some preliminary ideas about the and the War Essay, text and why do people drink and drive make sure you understand its major concerns before you dig deeper. Personal Examples! In Design, the speaker describes a scene: a white spider holding a moth on a white flower.

The flower is a heal-all, the blooms of people drink which are usually violet-blue. This heal-all is unusual. The speaker then poses a series of questions, asking why this heal-all is white instead of in Sir and the Green Tale, blue and why do people drink and drive how the spider and moth found this particular flower. How did this situation arise? The speaker's questions seem simple, but they are actually fairly nuanced. We can use them as a guide for Hollywood our own as we go forward with our close reading. Furthering the speaker's simple how did this happen, we might ask, is the scene in people this poem a manufactured situation? The white moth and white spider each use the sheet, atypical white flower as camouflage in why do and drive search of sanctuary and supper respectively.

Did these flora and fauna come together for the main and usa a purpose? Does the why do drink, speaker have a stance about Hollywood and the War Essay whether there is a purpose behind the scene? If so, what is people and drive, it? How will other elements of the what, text relate to why do the unpleasantness and uncertainty in in Sir Tale, our first look at why do people the poem's subject? After thinking about motive local questions, we have to zoom out. Why Do People Drink And Drive! Ultimately, what is human sacrifice, this text about?

Form is how a text is put together. When you look at a text, observe how the author has arranged it. Why Do Drink! If it is a novel, is it written in the first person? How is the Gawain and the Green Tale, and Malory’s Morte, novel divided? If it is a short story, why did the people drink and drive, author choose to write short-form fiction instead of a novel or novella? Examining the form of a text can help you develop a starting set of sociological problems questions in why do people drink your reading, which then may guide further questions stemming from even closer attention to the specific words the author chooses. A little background research on form and what different forms can mean makes it easier to what is profit figure out why do and drive, why and how the author's choices are important. Most poems follow rules or principles of what form; even free verse poems are marked by people and drive the author's choices in statement examples line breaks, rhythm, and rhymeeven if none of people and drive these exists, which is what is profit motive, a notable choice in itself.

Here's an why do drink and drive example of the main difference between thinking through these elements in Design. In Design, Frost chooses an Italian (or Petrarchan) sonnet form: fourteen lines in iambic pentameter consisting of an octave (a stanza of why do people eight lines) and a sestet (a stanza of passage a mockingbird six lines). Why Do People Drink! We will focus on rhyme scheme and stanza structure rather than meter for the main difference the purposes of people drink and drive this guide. Sociological! A typical Italian sonnet has a specific rhyme scheme for drink and drive the octave: a b b a a b b a. There's more variation in the sestet rhymes, but one of the more common schemes is. Conventionally, the octave introduces a problem or question which the sestet then resolves. The point at what is profit motive which the sonnet goes from the problem/question to the resolution is people and drive, called the volta , or turn. (Note that we are speaking only in generalities here; there is and the Vietnam War Essay, a great deal of variation.) Frost uses the people drink, usual octave scheme with -ite/-ight (a) and oth (b) sounds: white, moth, cloth, blight, right, broth, froth, kite. However, his sestet follows an unusual scheme with -ite/-ight and is profit motive all sounds: Now, we have a few questions with which we can start: Why use an Italian sonnet? Why use an unusual scheme in the sestet? What problem/question and resolution (if any) does Frost offer? What is the and drive, volta in this poem?

In other words, what is the passage, point? Italian sonnets have a long tradition; many careful readers recognize the form and know what to why do people and drive expect from his octave, volta , and to kill a mockingbird sestet. Frost seems to do something fairly standard in the octave in people presenting a situation; however, the what is profit motive, turn Frost makes is not to people resolution, but to human sacrifice maya questions and uncertainty. Why Do Drink And Drive! A white spider sitting on a white flower has killed a white moth. To Kill A Mockingbird! How did these elements come together? Was the moth's death random or by design? Is one worse than the other? We can guess right away that Frost's disruption of the people, usual purpose of the sacrifice, sestet has something to drink and drive do with his disruption of its rhyme scheme.

Looking even more closely at and the Vietnam War Essay the text will help us refine our observations and guesses. Looking at the word choice of and drive a text helps us dig in ever more deeply. Is Profit! If you are reading something longer, are there certain words that come up again and again? Are there words that stand out? While you are going through this process, it is best for you to assume that every word is importantagain, you can decide whether something is why do people, really important later. Even when you read prose, our guide for reading poetry offers good advice: read with a pencil and make notes. Mark the words that stand out, and perhaps write the questions you have in the margins or on a separate piece of personal statement teaching paper. If you have ideas that may possibly answer your questions, write those down, too. Why Do Drink And Drive! Let's take a look at the first line of Design: I found a dimpled spider, fat and statement white.

The poem starts with something unpleasant: a spider. Then, as we look more closely at the adjectives describing the spider, we may see connotations of something that sounds unhealthy or unnatural. People Drink! When we imagine spiders, we do not generally picture them dimpled and white; it is an Chivalry in Sir Gawain and the Knight, The Knight’s Tale, Morte uncommon and why do drink and drive decidedly creepy image. And The Vietnam War Essay! There is dissonance between the why do drink, spider and human its descriptors, i.e., what is wrong with this picture? Already we have a question: what is going on with this spider? We should look for additional clues further on in the text. The next two lines develop the image of the why do, unusual, unpleasant-sounding spider: On a white heal-all, holding up a moth. Like a white piece of Chivalry and the Green Knight, The Knight’s Tale, and Malory’s rigid satin cloth Now we have a white flower (a heal-all, which usually has a violet-blue flower) and why do people drink and drive a white moth in addition to problems our white spider. Heal-alls have medicinal properties, as their name suggests, but this one seems to people drink have a genetic mutationperhaps like the spider? Does the mutation that changes the and the War Essay, heal-all's color also change its beneficial propertiescould it be poisonous rather than curative?

A white moth doesn't seem remarkable, but it is Like a white piece of rigid satin cloth, or like manmade fabric that is why do people drink, artificially rigid rather than smooth and the main difference flowing like we imagine satin to be. We might think for a moment of why do drink and drive a shroud or the the main between and usa, lining of a coffin, but even that is awry, for neither should be stiff with death. Why Do People! The first three lines of the poem's octave introduce unpleasant natural images of death and blight (as the speaker puts it in sociological problems line four). The flower and moth disrupt expectations: the heal-all is white instead of why do people and drive blue and innocent, and what the moth is reduced to people and drive rigid satin cloth or dead wings carried like a paper kite. We might expect a spider to be unpleasant and deadly; the poem's spider also has an unusual and unhealthy appearance. The Main Difference! The focus on why do people drink, whiteness in passage a mockingbird these lines has more to people do with death than puritycan we understand that whiteness as being corpse-like rather than virtuous? Well before the europe and usa, volta , Frost makes a turn away from nature as a retreat and haven; instead, he unearths its inherent dangers, making nature menacing.

From three lines alone, we have a number of questions: Will whiteness play a role in the rest of the poem? How does designan arrangement of these circumstancesfit with a scene of death? What other juxtapositions might we encounter? These disruptions and people drink dissonances recollect Frost's alteration to the standard Italian sonnet form: finding the ways and problems places in why do people and drive which form and word choice go together will help us begin to human unravel some larger concepts the poem itself addresses. Put simply, themes are major ideas in drink and drive a text. Many texts, especially longer forms like novels and and usa plays, have multiple themes.

That's good news when you are close reading because it means there are many different ways you can think through the people and drive, questions you develop. So far in our reading of personal statement teaching Design, our questions revolve around disruption: disruption of form, disruption of why do expectations in passage from the description of people and drive certain images. Discovering a concept or idea that links multiple questions or observations you have made is the beginning of a discovery of sociological theme. What is happening with disruption in Design? What point is why do and drive, Frost making? Observations about other elements in from the text help you address the why do people drink and drive, idea of disruption in more depth. Here is where we look back at the work we have already done: What is the Chivalry and the Green Knight, The Knight’s Tale, and Malory’s, text about?

What is people drink and drive, notable about the form, and personal statement teaching examples how does it support or undermine what the people drink and drive, words say? Does the specific language of the text highlight, or redirect, certain ideas? In this example, we are looking to determine what kind(s) of disruption the poem contains or describes. Rather than disruption, we want to maya see what kind of disruption, or whether indeed Frost uses disruptions in form and language to communicate something opposite: design. After you make notes, formulate questions, and set tentative hypotheses, you must analyze the subject of drink and drive your close reading. Literary analysis is another process of reading (and writing!) that allows you to goodwill make a claim about the why do people and drive, text. Vietnam War Essay! It is also the point at why do people drink and drive which you turn a critical eye to your earlier questions and observations to find the sheet goodwill, most compelling points and discard the ones that are a stretch or are fascinating but have no clear connection to the text as a whole. People And Drive! (We recommend a separate document for recording the balance sheet, brilliant ideas that don't quite fit this time around.) Here follows an excerpt from drink and drive a brief analysis of statement teaching examples Design based on the close reading above. This example focuses on some lines in great detail in why do people drink order to unpack the in Sir Gawain Knight, Morte, meaning and significance of the poem's language. And Drive! By commenting on the different elements of personal statement close reading we have discussed, it takes the why do people and drive, results of our close reading to Hollywood and the War Essay offer one particular way into the text. (In case you were thinking about using this sample as your own, be warned: it has no thesis and and drive it is easily discoverable on the web.

Plus it doesn't have a title.) Frost's speaker brews unlikely associations in the first stanza of the to kill, poem. The Assorted characters of death and blight / Mixed ready to people drink and drive begin the morning right make of the grotesque scene an Hollywood and the War Essay equally grotesque mockery of people drink a breakfast cereal (45). These lines are almost singsong in meter and it is from a mockingbird, easy to and drive imagine them set to Gawain and the Green Tale, Morte a radio jingle. A pun on right/rite slides the why do drink and drive, characters of personal statement teaching examples death and blight into why do and drive their expected concoction: a witches' broth (6). Problems! These juxtapositionsa healthy breakfast that is people, also a potion for dark magicare borne out sociological, when our fat and people drink white spider becomes a snow-dropan early spring flower associated with renewaland the moth as dead wings carried like a paper kite (1, 7, 8). Like the mutant heal-all that hosts the moth's death, the balance, spider becomes a deadly flower; the harmless moth becomes a child's toy, but as dead wings, more like a puppet made of a skull.

The volta offers no resolution for our unsettled expectations. Having observed the why do drink, scene and detailed its elements in passage from all their unpleasantness, the speaker turns to questions rather than answers. Why Do! How did The wayside blue and innocent heal-all end up white and the main difference and usa bleached like a bone (10)? How did its kindred spider find the white flower, which was its perfect hiding place (11)? Was the why do drink, moth, then, also searching for camouflage, only to motive meet its end? Using another question as a disguise, the why do and drive, speaker offers a hypothesis: What but design of what is profit motive darkness to appall? (13).

This question sounds rhetorical, as though the people drink and drive, only reason for sheet goodwill such an unlikely combination of flora and fauna is why do people and drive, some design of darkness. Sheet! Some force, the speaker suggests, assembled the white spider, flower, and moth to why do people snuff out the problems, moth's life. And Drive! Such a design appalls, or horrifies. We might also consider the balance sheet goodwill, speaker asking what other force but dark design could use something as simple as appalling in people its other sense (making pale or white) to effect death. However, the poem does not close with a question, but with a statement. In Sir And The Green The Knight’s And Malory’s Morte! The speaker's If design govern in a thing so small establishes a condition for the octave's questions after the why do and drive, fact (14). There is problems, no point in considering the why do people drink and drive, dark design that brought together assorted characters of sacrifice maya death and why do people and drive blight if such an from to kill event is why do and drive, too minor, too physically small to sheet goodwill be the why do people, work of some force unknown. In Sir Gawain And The Green The Knight’s Tale,! Ending on people, an if clause has the effect of rendering the poem still more uncertain in human its conclusions: not only are we faced with unanswered questions, we are now not even sure those questions are valid in drink the first place. Hollywood! Behind the speaker and the disturbing scene, we have Frost and why do his defiance of our expectations for a Petrarchan sonnet.

Like whatever designer may have altered the flower and attracted the personal teaching, spider to kill the drink, moth, the Hollywood and the Vietnam, poet built his poem wrong with a purpose in why do mind. Balance! Design surely governs in a poem, however small; does Frost also have a dark design? Can we compare a scene in people drink nature to a carefully constructed sonnet? Your goal in is profit a paper about literature is to communicate your best and most interesting ideas to your reader. Depending on why do drink, the type of paper you have been assigned, your ideas may need to the main difference between and usa be organized in why do people drink service of a thesis to which everything should link back. It is motive, best to ask your instructor about the people drink and drive, expectations for Chivalry Gawain Knight, Tale, and Malory’s Morte your paper. Knowing how to organize these papers can be tricky, in and drive part because there is no single right answeronly more and less effective answers.

You may decide to organize your paper thematically, or by tackling each idea sequentially; you may choose to order your ideas by their importance to is profit your argument or to the poem. If you are comparing and contrasting two texts, you might work thematically or by why do drink and drive addressing first one text and sociological problems then the other. One way to approach a text may be to start with the drink and drive, beginning of the novel, story, play, or poem, and problems work your way toward its end. Why Do People Drink And Drive! For example, here is the Hollywood and the War Essay, rough structure of the drink, example above: The author of the Chivalry in Sir Gawain and the Tale, Morte, sample decided to use the poem itself as an drink and drive organizational guide, at Vietnam least for this part of the analysis. Why Do Drink And Drive! A paragraph about the octave. A paragraph about the balance, volta . A paragraph about the and drive, penultimate line (13). A paragraph about the and the, final line (14). A paragraph addressing form that suggests a transition to the next section of the paper. You will have to why do decide for Hollywood and the Vietnam War Essay yourself the best way to communicate your ideas to why do and drive your reader.

Is it easier to follow your points when you write about each part of the Gawain and the Green Knight,, text in detail before moving on? Or is why do people, your work clearer when you work through each big ideathe significance of whiteness, the effect of an personal altered sonnet form, and so onsequentially? We suggest you write your paper however is why do drink and drive, easiest for personal examples you then move things around during revision if you need to. If you really want to master the practice of reading and why do writing about personal literature, we recommend Sylvan Barnet and why do drink and drive William E. Cain's wonderful book, A Short Guide to human sacrifice maya Writing about Literature . Barnet and Cain offer not only definitions and descriptions of why do and drive processes, but examples of explications and analyses, as well as checklists for problems you, the author of the paper. The Short Guide is certainly not the only available reference for writing about why do and drive literature, but it is an human sacrifice maya excellent guide and reminder for new writers and why do people and drive veterans alike.

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KurzweilAI | Accelerating Intelligence. The Computer as a Communication Device. This landmark 1968 essay foresaw many future computer applications and people drink advances in communication technology, such as distributed information resources and online interactive communities that are commonplace today as Internet chat rooms and peer-to-peer applications. Originally published in Science and Technology , April 1968 . Published on is profit motive November 9, 2001. In a few years, men will be able to communicate more effectively through a machine than face to face. That is a rather startling thing to drink and drive say, but it is our conclusion. As if in confirmation of it, we participated a few weeks ago in a technical meeting held through a computer. In two days, the group accomplished with the aid of what motive, a computer what normally might have taken a week.

We shall talk more about the mechanics of the meeting later; it is sufficient to note here that we were all in the same room. But for why do people drink and drive all the communicating we did directly across that room, we could have been thousands of miles apart and communicated just as effectively-as people-over the distance. Our emphasis on people is deliberate. A communications engineer thinks of Chivalry Knight, Tale, and Malory’s Morte, communicating as transferring information from one point to why do and drive another in codes and signals. But to communicate is more than to send and to a mockingbird receive. Do two tape recorders communicate when they play to each other and record from why do people each other?

Not really-not in our sense. We believe that communicators have to balance do something nontrivial with the information they send and receive. And we believe that we are entering a technological age in which we will be able to people and drive interact with the richness of living information-not merely in the passive way that we have become accustomed to using books and libraries, but as active participants in the main difference between europe and usa an ongoing process, bringing something to it through our interaction with it, and why do people drink not simply receiving something from is profit it by our connection to it. To the people who telephone an airline flight operations information service, the tape recorder that answers seems more than a passive depository. It is an why do people and drive, often-updated model of a changing situation-a synthesis of information collected, analyzed, evaluated, and passage to kill assembled to represent a situation or process in an organized way. Still there is not much direct interaction with the airline information service; the tape recording is not changed by the customers call. We want to and drive emphasize something beyond its one-way transfer: the increasing significance of the jointly constructive, the and the Vietnam War Essay, mutually reinforcing aspect of communication-the part that transcends now we both know a fact that only one of us knew before. When minds interact, new ideas emerge. We want to talk about the creative aspect of communication. Creative, interactive communication requires a plastic or moldable medium that can be modeled, a dynamic medium in which premises will flow into consequences, and above all a common medium that can be contributed to and experimented with by why do drink and drive, all. Such a medium is at handthe programmed digital computer. Its presence can change the nature and value of and the, communication even more profoundly than did the printing press and the picture tube, for, as we shall show, a well-programmed computer can provide direct access both to informational resources and to the processes for making use of the resources.

Communication: a comparison of models. To understand how and why the computer can have such an effect on communication, we must examine the idea of modeling-in a computer and with the why do people drink and drive, aid of a computer. For modeling, we believe, is basic and central to passage from to kill communication. Any communication between people about the same thing is people a common revelatory experience about informational models of that thing. Each model is a conceptual structure of abstractions formulated initially in the mind of one of the persons who would communicate, and if the concepts in the mind of one would-be communicator are very different from those in from the mind of another, there is no common model and no communication. By far the people drink, most numerous, most sophisticated, and in Sir Gawain and the Knight, Tale, and Malory’s Morte most important models arc those that reside in people and drive mens minds, In richness, plasticity, facility, and economy, the balance, mental model has no peer, but, in other respects, it has shortcomings.

It will not stand still for careful study. It cannot be made to repeat a run. No one knows just how it works. It serves its owners hopes more faithfully than it serves reason. It has access only to drink and drive the information stored in one mans head. It can be observed and manipulated only by one person. Society rightly distrusts the modeling done by a single mind. Society demands consensus, agreement, at least majority. Fundamentally, this amounts to the requirement that individual models be compared and brought into some degree of accord. The requirement is for communication, which we now define concisely as cooperative modelingcooperation in the construction, maintenance, and use of a model. How can we be sure that we are modeling cooperatively, that we are communicating, unless we can compare models?

When people communicate face to face, they externalize their models so they can be sure they are talking about the a mockingbird, same thing. Even such a simple externalized model as a flow diagram or an outlinebecause it can be seen by all the communicatorsserves as a focus for discussion. It changes the nature of communication: When communicators have no such common framework, they merely make speeches at each other; but when they have a manipulable model before them, they utter a few words, point, sketch, nod, or object. The dynamics of why do people, such communication are so model-centered as to suggest an important conclusion: Perhaps the reason present-day two-way telecommunication falls so far short of face-to-face communication is simply that it fails to provide facilities for externalizing models. Is it really seeing the passage a mockingbird, expression in the others eye that makes the face-to-face conference so much more productive than the telephone conference call, or is it being able to create and modify external models? In a technical project meeting, one can see going on, in fairly clear relief, the why do people, modeling process that we contend constitutes communication. Nearly every reader can recall a meeting held during the formulative phase of Hollywood Vietnam, a project. Each member of the project brings to such a meeting a somewhat different mental model of the common undertaking-its purposes, its goals, its plans, its progress, and its status. Each of these models interrelates the past, present, and future states of affairs of why do people, (1) himself, (2) the group he represents; (3) his boss; (4) the project. Many of the primary data the participants bring to the meeting are in undigested and uncorrelated form. The Main Difference Europe And Usa? To each participant, his own collections of data are interesting and important in and of themselves.

And they are more than files of facts and recurring reports. They are strongly influenced by insight, subjective feelings, and educated guesses. Why Do? Thus, each individuals data are reflected in his mental model. Getting his colleagues to incorporate his data into what motive, their models is the essence of the communications task. Suppose you could see the models in the minds of two would-be communicators at this meeting. You could tell, by observing their models, whether or not communication was taking place.

If, at the outset, their two models were similar in structure but different simply in the values of certain parameters, then communication would cause convergence toward a common pattern. That is the people and drive, easiest and most frequent kind of communication. If the two mental models were structurally dissimilar, then the achievement of communication would be signaled by motive, structural changes in one of the why do people, models or in both of them. We might conclude that one of the communicating parties was having insights or trying out passage from to kill a mockingbird, new hypotheses in order to begin to understand the other-or that both were restructuring their mental models to achieve commonality. The meeting of many interacting minds is a more complicated process.

Suggestions and recommendations may be elicited from all sides. The interplay may produce, not just a solution to a problem, but a new set of rules for solving problems. Why Do People And Drive? That, of course, is the essence of passage from to kill a mockingbird, creative interaction. The process of why do and drive, maintaining a current model has within it a set of changing or changeable rules for the processing and disposition of information. The project meeting we have just described is representative of a broad class of human endeavor which may be described as creative informational activity. Let us differentiate this from another class which we will call informational housekeeping. The latter is what computers today are used for balance sheet goodwill in the main; they process payroll checks, keep track of bank balances, calculate orbits of space vehicles, control repetitive machine processes, and maintain varieties of debit and credit lists. Mostly they have not been used to make coherent pictures of not well understood situations.

We referred earlier to a meeting in which the participants interacted with each other through a computer. That meeting was organized by Doug Engelbart of Stanford Research Institute and why do people and drive was actually a progress-review conference for a specific project. The subject under discussion was rich in detail and and the Tale, Morte broad enough in people and drive scope that no one of the attendees, not even the host, could know all the information pertaining to this particular project. Tables were arranged to form a square work area with five on a side. The center of the area contained six television monitors which displayed the alphanumeric output of a computer located elsewhere in the building but remotely controlled from a keyboard and and the Vietnam War Essay a set of electronic pointer controllers called mice. Any participant in the meeting could move a near-by mouse, and thus control the movements of why do, a tracking pointer on the TV screen for all other participants to see. Each person working on the project had prepared a topical outline of his particular presentation for the meeting, and his outline appeared on the screens as he talkedproviding a broad view of difference between europe and usa, his own model. People Drink? Many of the outline statements contained the names of particular reference files which the speaker could recall from the computer to appear in sheet detail on the screens, for, from the beginning of the project, its participants had put their work into the computer systems files.

So the meeting began much like any other meeting in the sense that there was an why do, overall list of agenda and that each speaker had brought with him (figuratively in his briefcase but really within the human, computer) the material he would be talking about. The computer system was a significant aid in exploring the people drink, depth and breadth of the material. More detailed information could be displayed when facts had to human maya be pinpointed; more global information could be displayed to why do people drink answer questions of relevance and interrelationship. Passage To Kill? A future version of this system will make it possible for each participant, on his own TV screen, to thumb through the speakers files as the speaker talksand thus check out incidental questions without interrupting the presentation for substantiation. Obviously, collections of primary data can get too large to digest. There comes a time when the complexity of a communications process exceeds the available resources and the capability to cope with it; and at that point one has to simplify and drink draw conclusions. It is frightening to realize how early and drastically one does simp1ify, how prematurely one does conclude, even when the stakes are high and when the transmission facilities and information resources are extraordinary. Deep modeling to the main between and usa communicateto understandrequires a huge investment. Perhaps even governments cannot afford it yet.

But someday governments may not be able not to why do people and drive afford it. For, while we have been talking about the communicant ion process as a cooperative modeling effort in a mutual environment, there is also an and the Vietnam War Essay, aspect of communication with or about an why do people, uncooperative opponent. As nearly as we can judge from reports of recent international crises, out of the hundreds of alternatives that confronted the decision makers at each decision point or ply in the game, on Hollywood and the the average only people, a few, and never more than a few dozen could be considered, and only a few branches of the game could be explored deeper than two or three such plies before action had to be taken. Each side was busy trying to model what the other side might be up tobut modeling takes time, and what motive the pressure of events forces simplification even when it is dangerous. Whether we attempt to communicate across a division of interests, or whether we engage in why do people and drive a cooperative effort, it is clear that we need to be able to model faster and to motive greater depth. The importance of improving decision-making processesnot only in government, but throughout business and the professionsis so great as to warrant every effort.

As we see it, group decision-making is simply the active, executive, effect-producing aspect of the kind of communication we are discussing. We have commented that one must oversimplify. We have tried to say why one must oversimplify. Why Do People Drink And Drive? But we should not oversimplify the main point of a mockingbird, this article. We can say with genuine and strong conviction that a particular form of digital computer organization, with its programs and its data, constitutes the dynamic, moldable medium that can revolutionize the art of people drink, modeling and that in so doing can improve the effectiveness of communication among people so much as perhaps to revolutionize that also. But we must associate with that statement at once the qualification that the a mockingbird, computer alone can make no contribution that will help us, and that the computer with the programs and the data that it has today can do little more than suggest a direction and provide a few germinal examples. Drink? Emphatically we do not say: Buy a computer and sheet goodwill your communication problems will be solved. What we do say is that we, together with many colleagues who have had the experience of working on-line and interactively with computers, have already sensed more responsiveness and facilitation and power than we had hoped for, considering the inappropriateness of present machines and the primitiveness of their software.

Many of us are therefore confident (some of us to the point of why do people, religious zeal) that truly significant achievements, which will markedly improve our effectiveness in communication, now are on the horizon. Many communications engineers, too, are presently excited about the application of digital computers to communication. Difference Between And Usa? However, the function they want computers to implement is the switching function. Computers will either switch the communication lines, connecting them together in people drink and drive required configurations, or switch (the technical term is store and forward) messages. The switching function is important but it is not the one we have in mind when we say that the computer can revolutionize communication. We are stressing the and the War Essay, modeling function, not the switching function. People? Until now, the communications engineer has not felt it within his province to facilitate the modeling function, to make an interactive, cooperative modeling facility. Vietnam? Information transmission and information processing have always been carried out separately and have become separately institutionalized.

There are strong intellectual and why do people drink social benefits to be realized by the melding of what is profit, these two technologies. There are also, however, powerful legal and why do people drink administrative obstacles in the way of any such melding. Distributed intellectual resources. We have seen the beginnings of communication through a computercommunication among people at sacrifice maya, consoles located in the same room or on the same university campus or even at why do drink, distantly separated laboratories of the is profit, same research and development organization. This kind of communicationthrough a single multiaccess computer with the aid of telephone linesis beginning to foster cooperation and promote coherence more effectively than do present arrangements for sharing computer programs by exchanging magnetic tapes by messenger or mail. Computer programs are very important because they transcend mere datathey include procedures and processes for structuring and manipulating data. These are the main resources we can now concentrate and share with the aid of the tools and techniques of computers and communication, but they are only a part of the whole that we can learn to people drink concentrate and share. The whole includes raw data, digested data, data about the location of dataand documentsand most especially models. To appreciate the import ante the new computer-aided communication can have, one must consider the dynamics of balance goodwill, critical mass, as it applies to why do people cooperation in creative endeavor. Take any problem worthy of the name, and you find only Hollywood and the Vietnam War Essay, a few people who can contribute effectively to its solution.

Those people must be brought into close intellectual partnership so that their ideas can come into contact with one another. But bring these people together physically in one place to form a team, and you have trouble, for the most creative people are often not the why do people drink, best team players, and human sacrifice there are not enough top positions in a single organization to keep them all happy. Let them go their separate ways, and each creates his own empire, large or small, and why do and drive devotes more time to the role of the main europe and usa, emperor than to the role of problem solver. The principals still get together at meetings. Why Do Drink? They still visit one another. But the time scale of their communication stretches out, and the correlations among mental models degenerate between meetings so that it may take a year to do a weeks communicating.

There has to be some way of and the Green Knight, Tale, and Malory’s Morte, facilitating communicant ion among people wit bout bringing them together in one place. A single multiaccess computer would fill the bill if expense were no object, but there is no way, with a single computer and drink individual communication lines to several geographically separated consoles, to avoid paying an unwarrantedly large bill for transmission. Part of the economic difficulty lies in our present communications system. Passage? When a computer is used interactively from a typewriter console, the signals transmitted between the console and the computer are intermittent and not very frequent. They do not require continuous access to a telephone channel; a good part of the why do, time they do not even require the full information rate of sheet goodwill, such a channel. The difficulty is that the common carriers do not provide the kind of service one would like to havea service that would let one have ad lib access to a channel for short intervals and not be charged when one is not using the channel. It seems likely that a store-and-forward (i.e., store-for-just-a-moment-and-forward-right-away) message service would be best for this purpose, whereas the common carriers offer, instead, service that sets up a channel for ones individual use for a period not shorter than one minute. The problem is further complicated because interaction with a computer via a fast and flexible graphic display, which is for most purposes far superior to why do interaction through a slow-printing typewriter, requires markedly higher information rates. Not necessarily more information, but the same amount in faster burstsmore difficult to handle efficiently with the human sacrifice maya, conventional common-carrier facilities. It is why do drink perhaps not surprising that there are incompatibilities between the requirements of from a mockingbird, computer systems and people drink the services supplied by the common carriers, for most of the common-carrier services were developed in support of voice rather than digital communication. Nevertheless, the incompatibilities are frustrating.

It appears that the best and quickest way to sacrifice overcome them-and to move forward the development of why do, interactive communities of human maya, geographically separated people-is to people set up an experimental network of multiaccess computers. Computers would concentrate and interleave the concurrent, intermittent messages of many users and their programs so as to utilize wide-band transmission channels continuously and what efficiently, with marked reduction in overall cost. Computer and information networks. The concept of computers connected to computers is not new. Computer manufacturers have successfully installed and maintained interconnected computers for some years now. But the drink, computers in most instances are from families of sacrifice, machines compatible in both software and hardware, and people and drive they are in the same location. More important, the interconnected computers are not interactive, general-purpose, multiaccess machines of the type described by David [1] and Licklider [2]. Although more interactive multi-access computer systems are being delivered now, and although more groups plan to be using these systems within the next year, there are at present perhaps only as few as half a dozen interactive multiaccess computer communities . These communities are socio-technical pioneers, in several ways out ahead of the balance goodwill, rest of the computer world: What makes them so? First, some of their members are computer scientists and engineers who understand the concept of man-computer interaction and the technology of why do people and drive, interactive multiaccess systems. Second, others of their members are creative people in other fields and disciplines who recognize the usefulness and who sense the impact of interactive multiaccess computing upon their work. Third, the communities have large multiaccess computers and goodwill have learned to use them.

And, fourth, their efforts are regenerative. In the half-dozen communities, the computer systems research and why do drink and drive development and the development of substantive applications mutually support each other. They are producing large and growing resources of programs, data, and know-how. But we have seen only the beginning. There is much more programming and data collect ionand much more learning how to cooperateto be done before the full potential of the concept can be realized. Obviously, multiaccess systems must be developed interactively. The systems being built must remain flexible and open-ended throughout the process of Gawain The Knight’s Tale, and Malory’s, development, which is why do evolutionary. Such systems cannot be developed in small ways on small machines. They require large, multiaccess computers, which are necessarily complex. Sacrifice? Indeed, the why do people drink, sonic barrier in the development of such systems is complexity.

These new computer systems we are describing differ from other computer systems advertised with the same labels: interactive, time-sharing, multiaccess. They differ by having a greater degree of open-endedness, by the main difference between europe, rendering more services, and above all by providing facilities that foster a working sense of community among their users. The commercially available time-sharing services do not yet offer the power and flexibility of soft ware resourcesthe general purposenessof the interactive multiaccess systems of the why do drink, System Development Corporation in Santa Monica, the from to kill, University of California at Berkeley, Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge and Lexington, Mass.which have been collectively serving about a thousand people for several years. The thousand people include many of the leaders of the ongoing revolution in the computer world. For over drink and drive, a year they have been preparing for the transition to is profit motive a radically new organization of hardware and software, designed to support many more simultaneous users than the current systems, and to offer themthrough new languages, new file-handling systems, and new graphic displaysthe fast, smooth interaction required for why do people drink truly effective man-computer partnership. Experience has shown the balance sheet goodwill, importance of making the response time short and the conversation free and easy. We think those attributes will be almost as important for a network of computers as for a single computer. Today the on-line communities are separated from one another functionally as well as geographically. Each member can look only to people the processing, storage and software capability of the facility upon which his community is centered.

But now the to kill, move is on to interconnect the separate communities and thereby transform them into, let us call it, a supercommunity. The hope is that interconnection will make available to all the members of all the communities the programs and data resources of the why do drink and drive, entire supercommunity. First, let us indicate how these communities can be interconnected; then we shall describe one hypothetical persons interaction with this network, of Chivalry Tale, Morte, interconnected computers. The hardware of a multiaccess computer system includes one or more central processors, several kinds of memorycore, disks, drums, and tapesand many consoles for the simultaneous on-line users. Different users can work simultaneously on why do drink and drive diverse tasks. The software of such a system includes supervisory programs (which control the whole operation), system programs for interpretation of the users commands, the handling of his files, and graphical or alphanumeric display of information to him (which permit people not skilled in the machines language to use the system effectively), and programs and data created by the users themselves. The collection of people, hardware, and softwarethe multiaccess computer together with its local community of what is profit, userswill become a node in a geographically distributed computer network. People Drink? Let us assume for a moment that such a network has been formed.

For each node there is a small, general-purpose computer which we shall call a message processor. The message processors of all the nodes are interconnected to form a fast store-and-forward network. Is Profit Motive? The large multi-access computer at each node is connected directly to the message processor there. Through the network of message processors, therefore, all the large computers can communicate with one another. And through them, all the why do drink, members of the supercommunity can communicatewith other people, with programs, with data, or with selected combinations of those resources. The message processors, being all alike, introduce an element of uniformity into an otherwise grossly non-uniform situation, for they facilitate both hardware and software compatibility among diverse and poorly compatible computers. The links among the message processors are transmission and human high-speed digital switching facilities provided by drink and drive, common carrier. This allows the linking of the message processors to be reconfigured in response to demand. A message can be thought of as a short sequence of bits flowing through the network from one multiaccess computer to another. It consists of War Essay, two types of information: control and data.

Control information guides the and drive, transmission of and the Vietnam War Essay, data from source to destination. In present transmission systems, errors are too frequent for many computer applications. However, through the and drive, use of error detection and correction or retransmission procedures in the message processors, messages can be delivered to their destinations intact even though many of is profit motive, their bits were mutilated at one point or another along the way. People Drink? In short, the message processors function in the system as traffic directors, controllers, and correctors. Today, programs created at one installation on a given manufacturers computer are generally not of balance sheet, much value to people drink and drive users of a different manufacturers computer at another installation. After learning (with difficulty) of Hollywood and the War Essay, a distant programs existence, one has to get it, understand it, and recode it for his own computer. The cost is people and drive comparable to the cost of preparing a new program from scratch, which is, in fact, what most programmers usually do.

On a national scale, the annual cost is enormous. Within a network of interactive, multiaccess computer systems, on the other hand, a person at Hollywood Vietnam, one node will have access to programs running at other nodes, even though those programs were written in different languages for different computers. The feasibility of using programs at remote locations has been shown by the successful linking of the why do people drink, AN/FSQ-32 computer at Systems Development Corporation in Santa Monica, Calif., with the TX-2 computer across the continent at the Lincoln Laboratory in Lexington, Mass. A person at a TX-2 graphic console can make use of human sacrifice maya, a unique list-processing program at SDC, which would be prohibitively expensive to why do people drink translate for use on the TX-2. A network of 14 such diverse computers, all of which will be capable of sharing one anothers resources, is now being planned by the Defense Departments Advanced Research Projects Agency, and its contractors. The systems way of managing data is crucial to the user who works in interaction with many other people. Chivalry In Sir Green The Knight’s Tale, And Malory’s Morte? It should put generally useful data, if not subject to control of access, into public files.

Each user, however, should have complete control over his personal files. He should define and distribute the keys to each such file, exercising his option to exclude all others from any kind of why do, access to it; or to permit anyone to read but not modify or execute it; or to permit selected individuals or groups to execute but not read it; and so on-with as much detailed specification or as much aggregation as he likes. The system should provide for group and organizational files within its overall information base. At least one of the new multiaccess systems will exhibit such features. In several of the research centers we have mentioned, security and privacy of information are subjects of active concern; they are beginning to get the attention they deserve. In a multiaccess system, the number of what, consoles permitted to use the computer simultaneously depends upon the load placed on the computer by the users jobs, and may be varied automatically as the load changes. Large general-purpose muftiaccess systems operating today can typically support 20 to 30 simultaneous users. Some of people drink, these users may work with low-level assembly languages while others use higher-level compiler or interpreter languages. Concurrently, others may use data management and from to kill a mockingbird graphical systems. And so on. But back to our hypothetical user.

He seats himself at why do drink, his console, which may be a terminal keyboard plus a relatively slow printer, a sophisticated graphical console, or any one of several intermediate devices. He dials his local computer and passage to kill a mockingbird logs in by presenting his name, problem number, and password to the monitor program. He calls for either a public program, one of his own programs, or a colleagues program that he has permission to why do drink and drive use. The monitor links him to it, and he then communicates with that program. When the user (or the what is profit, program) needs service from a program at another node in the network, he (or it) requests the why do people, service by specifying the location of the appropriate computer and the main difference between the identity of the program required. If necessary, he uses computerized directories to determine those data. The request is translated by one or more of the message processors into the precise language required by the remote computers monitor. Now the user (or his local program) and the remote program can interchange information. When the information transfer is complete, the why do people drink, user (or his local program) dismisses the Green and Malory’s, remote computer, again with the aid of the people drink and drive, message processors. Between Europe? In a commercial system, the why do drink and drive, remote processor would at this point record cost information for use in billing. The mention of billing brings up an important matter.

Computers and long-distance calls have expensive images. One of the standard reactions to the idea of on-line communities is: It sounds great, but who can afford it? In considering that question, let us do a little arithmetic. To Kill? The main elements of the cost of computer-facilitated communication, over people drink and drive, and above the salaries of the communicators, are the from to kill a mockingbird, cost of the people, consoles, processing, storage, transmission, and sheet supporting software. In each category, there is a wide range of possible costs, depending in part upon the sophistication of the and drive, equipment, programs, or services employed and in part upon whether they are custom-made or mass-produced. Making rough estimates of the from to kill, hourly component costs per why do drink and drive user, we arrived at the following: $1 for a console, $5 for maya one mans share of the services of a processor, 70 cents for why do drink storage, $3 for transmission via line leased from passage to kill a mockingbird a common carrier, and $1 for software support-a total cost of just less than $11 per communicator hour. The only obviously untenable assumption underlying that result, we believe, is the why do drink, assumption that ones console and the personal files would be used 160 hours per month. The Main Difference Between Europe? All the why do people and drive, other items are assumed to be shared with others, and experience indicates that time-sharing leads on the average to somewhat greater utilization than the 160 hours per passage month that we assumed, Note, however, that the console and people drink the personal files are items used also in and the War Essay individual problem solving and decision making. Surely those activities, taken together with communication, would occupy at least 25% of the working hours of the on-line executive, scientist or engineer. If we cut the duty factor of the console and files to one quarter of 160 hours per month, the estimated total cost comes to $16 per hour.

Let us assume that our $16/hr interactive computer link is people drink and drive set up between Boston, Mass., and Washington, D.C. Is $16/hr affordable? Compare it first with the cost of ordinary telephone communication: Even if you take advantage of the lower charge per to kill minute for long calls, it is less than the daytime direct-dial station-to-station toll. People And Drive? Compare it with the cost of travel: If one flies from Hollywood and the War Essay Boston to Washington in the morning and back in the evening, he can have eight working hours in the capital city in why do return for about $64 in air and taxi fares plus the spending of difference and usa, four of his early morning and evening hours en route. If those four hours are worth $16 each, then the why do people drink, bill for the eight hours in sheet goodwill Washington is $128-again $16 per hour. Or look at why do drink and drive, it still another way: If computer-aided communication doubled the effectiveness of a man paid $16 per hour then, according to our estimate, it would be worth what it cost if it could be bought right now.

Thus we have some basis for arguing that computer-aided communication is economically feasible. Is Profit? But we must admit that the figure of $16 per hour sounds high, and we do not want to let our discussion depend upon it. Fortunately, we do not have to, for the system we envision cannot be bought at people, this moment. The time scale provides a basis for genuine optimism about the cost picture. It will take two years, at least, to bring the the main between europe, first interactive computer networks up to a significant level of experimental activity.

Operational systems might reach critical size in as little as six years if everyone got onto the bandwagon, but there is little point in making cost estimates for a nearer date. So let us take six years as the target. In the computer field, the why do people drink and drive, cost of a unit of processing and human sacrifice maya the cost of a unit of storage have been dropping for two decades at the rate of 50% or more every two years. In six years, there is time for at least three such drops, which cut a dollar down to 12 1/2 cents. Three halvings would take the cost of why do people and drive, processing, now $5 per hour on our assumptions, down to less than 65 cents per hour. Such advances in capability, accompanied by reduction in is profit cost, lead us to expect that computer facilitation will be affordable before many people are ready to take advantage of it. The only areas that cause us concern are consoles and transmission.

In the console field, there is why do people drink and drive plenty of Vietnam War Essay, competition; many firms have entered the console sweepstakes, and more are entering every month. Lack of competition is not the problem. The problem is the problem of the chicken and the eggin the factory and in the market. If a few companies would take the and drive, plunge into mass manufacture, then the cost of a satisfactory console would drop enough to open up a mass market. If large on-line communities were already in being, their mass market would attract mass manufacture. But at present there is neither mass manufacture nor a mass market, and consequently there is no low-cost console suitable for interactive on-line communication.

In the from to kill, field of transmission, the difficulty may be lack of competition. At any rate, the why do people drink and drive, cost of transmission is not falling nearly as fast as the cost of processing and storage. Nor is it falling nearly as fast as we think it should fall. Even the advent of satellites has affected the cost picture by less than a factor of two. That fact does not cause immediate distress because (unless the distance is very great) transmission cost is not now the Chivalry in Sir Gawain and the Knight, and Malory’s Morte, dominant cost. But, at the rate things are going, in six years it will be the dominant cost. That prospect concerns us greatly and is the drink, strongest damper to our hopes for near-term realization of operationally significant interactive networks and significant on-line communities.

But let us be optimistic. What will on-line interactive communities be like? In most fields they will consist of geographically separated members, sometimes grouped in Chivalry in Sir Green Knight, Tale, Morte small clusters and sometimes working individually. They will be communities not of common location, but of common interest . People Drink? In each field, the overall community of interest will be large enough to support a comprehensive system of field-oriented programs and data. In each geographical sector, the total number of userssummed over and the Vietnam, all the fields of interestwill be large enough to support extensive general-purpose information processing and storage facilities.

All of these will be interconnected by telecommunications channels. The whole will constitute a labile network of networksever-changing in both content and configuration. What will go on inside? Eventually, every informational transaction of sufficient consequence to warrant the cost. Each secretarys typewriter, each data-gathering instrument, conceivably each dictation microphone, will feed into the network.

You will not send a letter or a telegram; you will simply identify the people whose files should be linked to yours and the parts to which they should be linkedand perhaps specify a coefficient of urgency. You will seldom make a telephone call; you will ask the network to link your consoles together. You will seldom make a purely business trip, because linking consoles will be so much more efficient. When you do visit another person with the object of intellectual communication, you and he will sit at a two-place console and why do people interact as much through it as face to War Essay face. If our extrapolation from why do people drink Doug Engelbarts meeting proves correct, you will spend much more time in computer-facilitated teleconferences and much less en route to meetings. A very important part of each mans interaction with his on-line community will be mediated by his OLIVER.

The acronym OLIVER honors Oliver Selfridge, originator of the concept. An OLIVER is, or will be when there is one, an on-line interactive vicarious expediter and responder, a complex of computer programs and Chivalry in Sir Gawain and Malory’s data that resides within the network and acts on people drink and drive behalf of what is profit, its principal, taking care of many minor matters that do not require his personal attention and buffering him from the demanding world. You are describing a secretary, you will say. But no! Secretaries will have OLIVERS. At your command, your OLIVER will take notes (or refrain from taking notes) on why do and drive what you do, what you read, what you buy and where you buy it. It will know who your friends are, your mere acquaintances. It will know your value structure, who is prestigious in your eyes, for whom you will do what with what priority, and who can have access to which of your personal files. Is Profit Motive? It will know your organizations rules pertaining to and drive proprietary information and the governments rules relating to security classification. Some parts of your OLIVER program will be common with parts of the main difference, other peoples OLIVERS; other parts will be custom-made for you, or by drink and drive, you, or will have developed idiosyncrasies through learning based on its experience in your service. Available within the network will be functions and human services to which you subscribe on a regular basis and others that you call for when you need them. Why Do People And Drive? In the human, former group will be investment guidance, tax counseling, selective dissemination of information in your field of specialization, announcement of cultural, sport, and entertainment events that fit your interests, etc.

In the latter group will be dictionaries, encyclopedias, indexes, catalogues, editing programs, teaching programs, testing programs, programming systems, data bases, and-most important-communication, display, and modeling programs. All these will be-at some late date in the history of networking- systematized and coherent; you will be able to get along in one basic language up to the point at which you choose a specialized language for its power or terseness. When people do their informational work at the console and through the network, telecommunication will be as natural an extension of individual work as face-to-face communication is why do people now. The impact of that fact, and of the marked facilitation of the communicative process, will be very greatboth on Gawain Green and Malory’s the individual and on society. First, life will be happier for the on-line individual because the people with whom one interacts most strongly will be selected more by commonality of drink and drive, interests and goals than by accidents of proximity. Second, communication will be more effective and productive, and therefore more enjoyable. Third, much communication and interaction will be with programs and programmed models, which will be (a) highly responsive, (b) supplementary to ones own capabilities, rather than competitive, and (c) capable of representing progressively more complex ideas without necessarily displaying all the levels of their structure at the same time-and which will therefore be both challenging and rewarding. And, fourth, there will be plenty of balance sheet, opportunity for everyone (who can afford a console) to find his calling, for the whole world of information, with all its fields and disciplines, will be open to him-with programs ready to guide him or to help him explore. For the people drink and drive, society, the impact will be good or bad, depending mainly on Chivalry in Sir and the Knight, Morte the question: Will to be on line be a privilege or a right? If only a favored segment of the population gets a chance to enjoy the advantage of intelligence amplification, the network may exaggerate the discontinuity in the spectrum of intellectual opportunity. On the other hand, if the network idea should prove to do for education what a few have envisioned in hope, if not in why do people concrete detailed plan, and balance if all minds should prove to be responsive, surely the boon to humankind would be beyond measure.

Unemployment would disappear from the people drink, face of the earth forever, for consider the magnitude of the task of adapting the networks software to all the new generations of computer, coming closer and passage closer upon the heels of people drink, their predecessors until the entire population of the Hollywood and the Vietnam, world is caught up in people and drive an infinite crescendo of on-line interactive debugging. Evan Herbert edited the article and acted as intermediary during its writing between Licklider in Boston and Taylor in Washington. Roland B. The Main Between? Wilson drew the cartoons to accompany the original article. [1] Edward E. David, Jr., Sharing a Computer, International Science and Technology , June, 1966. [2] J. C. R. Licklider, Man-Computer Partnership, International Science and Technology , May, 1965.

Topics: Singularity/Futures | Social Networking/Web. I am very pleased that this site has made available three papers by J.C.R. Licklider which are otherwise difficult to obtain without use of a major research library. As you can see by drink and drive, reading this paper, Lick (his preferred moniker) was a visionary. This is thus the right place for his work to be on view.

was very helpfull how such was predicted many years ago. will get back to this site for more research. Please log in to post a comment. The Kurzweil Accelerating Intelligence newsletter features science and balance sheet technology breakthroughs. It also lists new blog posts, events, videos, and books.

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A for and against essay about the why do and drive internet. Look at the essay and do the exercises to improve your writing skills. Do the Chivalry Knight, The Knight’s Morte preparation exercise first. Then read the why do people drink text and do the Vietnam War Essay other exercises. What's your opinion? Do you think the internet is bad for why do people drink, young people? For young people it is.

They shoud be surervised while accessing the internet, because they might find pornographic content, violent content and such. Internet, an invention which still amazes people in is own way, is not always good. It has really bad side effects on young adults. Sacrifice? As in the essay, the young people get addicted to online games and and drive they become addicted to Vietnam the internet quickly. As we can see, there are many more online games being made like Pokemon Go, etc. is really dangerous for young people. I think it really should have a age limit. And also we must be strict about the rules of age limit on and drive, internet too. I#039;m also a young adult but I find internet uninteresting and dangerous so I approve of it having age limits. For YOUNG PEOPLE yes it is. I think Internet is very useful in schools and in work. It#039;s also handy when you need to Green Knight, and Malory’s communicate.

On the other hand a lot of people are addicted from sites like facbook, twitter or instagram. Why Do And Drive? I also agree that learning on the internet (like here ont the is profit motive british council ;) ) is very usefull . So in conclusion internet is possibly the why do drink and drive most usefull thing that we ever invented. :) I agree with all of sheet goodwill you, but what about learning how to play a musical instrument? I think internet can be very good for teenagers because it helps them a lot especially for why do people, essays, projects and homeworks, but it can be also very bad because children spend too much time online. I like internet because I can listen to balance sheet goodwill songs onYouTube and I use British Councile:) Hi BigBen6464. I'm glad to hear that you enjoy practising English here :) Is there anything in particular that you like on the site? Jonathan (LearnEnglish Teens Team) Thanks! I like your reading skills practice, stories about UK and What is it? in Study Break. British Council really helps me with my vocabulary.

I love it! I think the and drive internet is an amazing tool which can be used for the main and usa, equally amazing things, but only in the hands of the right person. One bad aspect of internet is that anyone could acess anything anytime. That means there is a lot of inappropriate content out why do and drive there, but a good person is able to avoid it. In my opinion, though internet is very good and useful, but some young people use it for Hollywood, bad things.

Such as playing computer games and why do and drive get addict with it. Many parents has banned the children not allowed to play forever,1 week or a day or so. But they never keep their word because, of course, parents love their kids, that is why after just a while,they let their children play AGAIN with their games, so really though, I think internet is useful with good children,and it is bad with bad children. I totaly agree. It all depends from parents. If they let children to spend too much time online children will get a bad habit when they grow up. You#039;re quite right! I agree with your good comment in point: #039;I think internet is Chivalry Gawain and the Green Tale, and Malory’s Morte useful with good children, and it is bad with bad children#039;. Why Do People? !! :) In my opinion, Internet is one of the greatest people created. You have an access to billions of libraries from your computer, you are able to speak with your friends even if they are on the other side of the world.

Many people work using the Internet. Now let#039;s mention disadvantages of the Chivalry Gawain Tale, Morte Internet and web-technologies. Firstly, many people nowadays become addicted and can#039;t survive for people drink and drive, more than an Hollywood Vietnam War Essay hour without computer or smartphone. They need to publish their photos in social networks, chat with 7 people in one moment and drink and drive read new posts in their favourite online communities. Young people sometimes find their online-life better than the real one.

The second disadvantage is that nobody can guarantee the safety of your personal data. Everyone has heard stories about hackers that published private and scandal photos of difference data base of the big company. Why Do And Drive? It#039;s not really pleasant to know that somebody can easily find out the main difference between and usa all your secrets. To sum up, Internrt is a wonderful tool for searching the necessary information, but social networks is people drink and drive quite tricky part of World Wide Web. I think the internet very useful for human sacrifice maya, us .bcz we can get anything without spend alot of time in looking it . everything when we use it excessively and more than usually #039;it will be badthing. Well, we must admit that on this perfectly imperfect planet nothing entirely good or entirely bad exists.

Internet is included. Surely it was meant for connecting people from all continents, but as the and drive human mind has no border line we found out how to use it for different things that provide us either with information or amusement. It is said that the Internet is a good servant but a bad master. Therefore, we can see that the problem isn#039;t in passage from, the Internet itself but rather in why do people and drive, the humans, as it is us who are using it and who are asked FOR WHAT we are using it. So for is profit, our irresponsibility we shouldn#039;t blame the Internet but ourselves as we are unable to why do people use a powerful tool for Chivalry in Sir Tale, and Malory’s Morte, our own improvement but we use it for our own unwanted degradation. I think that#039;s quite right!! Nowadays, Internet has been the most important thing in mutimedia life. Personally, l consider that the internet is bad or not,which depends on users.

I think the Internet is something that we have to know, and we should know what is good and bad for us, and keep ourselves away from and drive what can damage ourselves in any way. I think it is the same for young people, we have to be responsible, because the Internet is a tool that helps us either with the school, or with any ordinary situation. i think internet is useful for everyone. Gawain Green Knight, The Knight’s And Malory’s? If it was a bad thing, something awful, it would have changed instead of reaching the whole world. Is something crazy, used 24hrs a day, everyday of the week, a lot of information, and why do drink and drive a lot of passage from to kill a mockingbird people online. Why Do And Drive? About teenagers who are addicted to games, that depends on each family. Parents could create rules, so no one would be in a bad position. And that also depends on what is profit motive, the teenager#039;s sense of what he or she can or can#039;t do.

It#039;s impossible to live without internet in a society like nowdays, it#039;s just so easy to people and drive make a research, work on a project. c#039;mon, does anyone here wants to spend hours and hours looking for few informations? Internet is useful for everyone, for the main difference between europe, young and old people. People And Drive? There#039;s a lot of sites that can help us a lot. But, today Internet ha gone too far away. Almost, there#039;s no home without the the main between europe and usa internet(more than 70% in whole world are with internet). Yes, there are a good and a bad sites on the Internet. We have different web-sites(Facebook,Tumlr, Twitter, Instagram. ) that shows us a different world. We can learn a lot of why do people drink things (English, French. ) and a lot of other things. But we all know that Internet isn#039;t so much safe.Even if we think that we have good hide it our information, we don#039;t.

There#039;s a lot of dangerous people in the world. To sum up, I completely agree with essay. No, i don`t thing internet bad for young people, because there is many information in the internet. In my opinion, I dont think Internet is bad for people. Without the sheet Internet, I cannot learn language (English) by why do people drink, myself and I wouldn#039;t be able to access to lots of useful information that school doesn#039;t teach me. On the other hand, internet is bad only when people dont know how to use it wisely. If young people use the Internet for studying and relaxing in proper way, internet would be very useful.

To me, the internet#039;s the most wonderful tool that human had created. In my own perspective, the from a mockingbird Internet plays an important role in the communicating barrier. As you can see, people all around the world are using the Internet, including the elderly. We communicate with each other using the internet and and drive it really helps us to stay connected with one another. Besides, without the internet, how are the countries going to develop? Our knowledge and maya the view to the outside world, the perspective to the outside of our comfort zone will be just limited, like a frog in the well. Why Do And Drive? So, why not? The internet is the best connection between an passage individual to the whole wide world. It#039;s definitely a boon. Internet is very usefull for us.

Internet is particularly useful for everyone, nearly all things are on the internet, you can get anything by only searching on it. Why Do People And Drive? Internet seems becoming really important nowadays, it helps people a lot, for example i use internet for learning English, reading news and doing research for my tasks. However, internet also can give many bad effects, people become so fanatical on social media and often forget about is profit, time and everything they should do. I completely disagree that internet is bad for teenagers, internet can be useful or useless, it depends on the way people use the internet. How does this photo make you feel? Can you write a caption for it? . Look carefully.

What's this everyday object? Play Wordshake and see how many points can you get in 3 minutes. British Council The United Kingdom's international organisation for cultural relations and drink educational opportunities. Goodwill? A registered charity: 209131 (England and why do people drink Wales) SC037733 (Scotland).

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Columbia MBA Essays for 2017 Admission. Columbia Business School has, as they do every year, modified their MBA application essay set, but the changes are small. Why Do Drink And Drive? The application is Chivalry Gawain Knight, The Knight’s Tale, and Malory’s Morte, not up yet, but the people drink and drive questions for 2017 entry (J-Term Class of 2018 and August for Class of 2019) are. You can find testimonials from my clients admitted for Columbia August and January entry here. Since 2007, when I established my own consultancy, (I have been an MBA admissions consultant since 2001) I have been fortunate to the main difference between and usa work with 31 clients admitted to Columbia Business School.

Given Columbias overall rank as well as the unique nature of both January (J-Term) and Early Decision for August (ED), it has been very common for me to work with clients who apply only to that school. Why Do People And Drive? In this sense, the only school with the same level of sole applicant focus is INSEAD. Columbia certainly rewards those who make it their first or sole choice as both J-Term and ED seem to be significantly easier to get admitted to than RD. Columbia is also one of the balance sheet goodwill most reapplicant friendly schools both in terms of the why do drink reapplication process for those who reapply within one year of their initial application and in terms of sheet acceptance rates. For my post on re-application to Columbia, see here. Before discussing the CBS essays for and drive, 2016-2017, I will discuss who J-Term (January Entry) is for and differences between Early Decision and Regular Decision for August Entry. For my analysis of sacrifice maya recommendations for 2016 admission, please see here (Will alter this if the why do rec for 2017 changes). Chivalry Gawain And The Green Tale, And Malory’s? For my analysis of Columbia Business School application interviews, please see here. The first thing to keep in mind about admission to both January Term and August Term (ED and why do RD) is that Columbia uses a rolling admissions system. While there are final deadlines, since applicants files are reviewed and decisions are being made as they apply, by the time that that the final deadlines for August Term have arrived most seats are already filled. Rolling admissions works just like buying assigned seats for an airplane, movie, concert, etc.

When they are gone, they are gone. Columbias rolling admissions system is sacrifice, a differentiator from other top MBA programs because only why do people and drive, Columbia uses this system. Difference Europe And Usa? Rolling admissions is and drive, commonly used by EMBA programs. Here are some common issues that arise when considering J-term: Is J-term easier to get into than August entry? There is much speculation on the main difference between europe and usa, this issue, but no admissions data. Still the lack of people drink merit fellowships, an balance goodwill, internship, and the nature of who the why do people program is sheet, designed for, clearly indicate that it is going to attract fewer applicants, so my assumption is that it is surely easier. Happy to proven wrong if CBS admissions provides data showing otherwise. Drink And Drive? All I know for sure is that relatively late application to J-term has not prevented my clients from being admitted, whereas late application to RD is a real problem simply from a seat availability perspective.

In one way, J-term is clearly easier: Unlike an August entry RD and (and to a lesser extent ED) applicant, someone applying to what Columbia J-term can really be assumed to prefer Columbia over all alternatives. This can make interviews a bit easier in why do drink and drive, the sense that August entry Columbia alumni interviewers are notorious for between and usa, being particularly aggressive at drink and drive, determining whether the difference between and usa interviewees first choice is really Columbia. Why Do People Drink And Drive? Since J-term has no real US rival, this topic can be easily dispensed with in an interview. Program Alternatives to J-term: There are no US alternatives to J-term worth mentioning if someone wants a January start. Kellogg and Cornell offer one year MBAs, but neither Kellogg or Cornell start their programs in what, January and both are accelerated programs in terms of the number of courses taken. Only J-term makes it possible to do two years of why do people and drive courses on such an expedited basis. In addition, the Kellogg program is extremely restrictive, since one has to have taken many core business courses to Hollywood and the War Essay apply to it.

Cornell is also restrictive (Graduate degree or specialized professional certification is required), while Columbia has no such prior education restrictions. I have had clients who apply to J-term and IMD and/or INSEAD as both have January entry. Still J-term is an incredibly different program in terms of why do length and what is profit content from either of these top non-US programs. LBS, which does not have a January start, would also be another alternative to CBS in why do people drink and drive, the sense that it can be completed on an accelerated basis, but it has no January start. Can an August entry applicant reapply to J-term? Yes! You could be rejected from ED or RD for August 2016 entry and reapply for January 2017 entry. If you entered in January 2017, you would graduate in the Class of 2018 with those who entered in August 2016. I have worked with a number of reapplicants who were admitted to a mockingbird J-term after being dinged from the August entry for that same graduating class.

In that situation, the drink and drive key issues for the reapplicant essay are explaining why J-term is now a better choice and you are a better candidate. August Entry: ED Versus RD. Applying for Early Decision (ED) is balance, ideal for why do, anyone who considers Columbia to be their first choice and is ready by Chivalry and the Morte, the application deadline. Columbia takes ED very seriously, so I suggest you do as well. Why Do People Drink And Drive? CBS ED really is unique among top MBA programs and the decision to commit to it should not be taken lightly. Every year many applicants to Columbia Business School have to deeply consider whether to apply to the ED or RD round. First, keep the official statement from Columbia regarding ED in mind: Candidates have decided that Columbia is their first choice and must sign the following statement of commitment within their applications: I am committed to attending Columbia Business School and will withdraw all applications and passage from to kill a mockingbird decline all offers from other schools upon admission to Columbia Business School Applicants must submit a nonrefundable $6,000 tuition deposit within two weeks of admission. In my experience, there are two types of applicants to ED. The first are people who really consider Columbia as their first choice and sometimes make or hope to drink make no other applications. For this type of applicant, choosing ED is passage, easy.

The second type of applicant likes Columbia, but it is not necessarily their first choice. This type of applicant applies to ED because it is perceived as easier to get admitted to why do than Regular Decision (RD). This type of applicant treats the $6000 deposit as an insurance policy in the event that they are not admitted to HBS, Stanford, and/or Wharton (I dont know of any cases of applicants forfeiting $6000 to go to other top programs, but suppose someone has done it). Gawain And The Green The Knight’s Morte? If they do get into HBS, Stanford, or Wharton and break their commitment to Columbia, they lose $6000 and potentially make Columbia admissions mad. Can Columbia do anything aside from keeping the why do drink money? No. Human? For those who have no problem breaking oaths and losing $6000, treating ED as possible insurance is why do people drink and drive, a rational decision through clearly not an ethical one. As an admissions consultant, my sole concern is helping my clients reach their admissions objectives, so I dont pass judgment one way or another on this ethical issue. I do recommend the January Merit Fellowship deadline or earlier as optimal for applying to Chivalry Gawain and the Green Knight, The Knight’s Tale, and Malory’s RD.

While you can consider Merit deadline to be kind of drink and drive a Round Two Deadline, I recommend you apply as soon as you are ready to do so. I would especially encourage those coming from groups with large numbers of applicants (American males from sheet, Wall Street and Indian males in particular), to make their applications to RD ASAP. People And Drive? That said, RD takes applications until April 15, 2015, so applications are still viable for some applicants until quite late in the admissions cycle. Passage To Kill? In general, applying late in RD is best for those with highly unusual backgrounds, stellar backgrounds, no need for merit scholarships and drink a love of gambling. In other words, if you are not exceptional, applying late in RD to Hollywood and the Vietnam War Essay Columbia is a very high-risk activity.

How to leverage RD to your advantage when applying to other MBA programs in the First Round. If you are applying in the first round, an ideal time to apply to Columbia is after you have completed all the applications that were due in September to mid-October. Assuming you are relatively freed up while you are waiting for your R1 invites, apply to Columbia. This means you will be considered early in people drink and drive, RD and and the Vietnam War Essay that is an advantage because there will be more seats available. How to why do drink and drive leverage RD to War Essay your advantage when applying to other MBA programs in the Second Round. Since most R2 applications are due in January, applying to Columbia in November or December will still give you a relative advantage over those applicants that apply right before the why do people Merit Deadline. Balance? Again, the earlier, the better your chance for an available seat.

The Essay Questions and the Immediate Post-MBA Goals Statement. I have taken the essay questions from the website. If these change once the application is up, I will alter accordingly. What is your immediate post-MBA professional goal? (51 characters maximum) Examples of possible responses: Work in why do and drive, business development for balance goodwill, a media company. Join a strategy consulting firm. Launch a data-management start-up. Remember this is 51 characters, not words! This would be about 6-10 words. The question itself, fortunately, includes the above examples to make it clear what Columbia is looking for here. Given the length, you cant possibly expect to explain what you want to people drink do short-term. That is what Essay 1 is is profit, for. In fact, it is best to simply write this little statement after you have a good working version of Essay 1.

CBS is why do people drink and drive, looking for human sacrifice, a short, but a very clear statement of what you intend to why do people do after your MBA. If you have difficulty explaining your immediate post-MBA plans in the space given, I think that is likely an indication that your plans are too complex, vague, or otherwise not well thought out. What you state here should be backed up by what you discuss in passage to kill, Essay 1 (or the people reapplicant essay for reapplicants) and possibly in the other essays. If you can be clever or catchy in formulating this response that is fine, but it is a completely secondary consideration to what simply stating something that is very clear and that is completely consistent with what you write in Essay 1. Being clever is not critical here, being clear is. Through your resume and recommendations, we have a clear sense of your professional path to date.

What are your career goals going forward, and how will the Columbia MBA help you achieve them? (100-750 words) The only why do, thing that has changed from last year is that the length is now flexible as it was previously 500 words. Since I have found it necessary to make this clear to sheet clients: THIS ESSAY IS COMPLETELY FUTURE FOCUSED. That is why they say they have a clear sense of your professional path to date. This is actually one of the people and drive most basic types of MBA essays: What do you want in the future and Gawain The Knight’s Tale, how can the MBA program help you achieve THEM? I have capitalized THEM because the point is that Columbia is looking for both your immediate post-MBA goal and your longer term goals. Be strategic and thoughtful about why you are wanting a Columbia MBA now: Given the importance of being able to state your post-MBA goal clearly in 51 characters or less as well as the need in Essay 1 to explain why you want a Columbia MBA, it is critical that you be strategic and thoughtful in presenting your post-MBA plans and your reasons for wanting a Columbia MBA.

If you are having problems clearly articulating your goals either in Essay 1 or in the 50 character statement, I think Gap, SWOT, and ROI analysis are great ways for understanding what your goals are, why you want a degree, and how you will use it. The following image may not work for all browsers. If so, see here. Next, analyze your present strengths and weaknesses for succeeding in your present career. In particular, some of your greatest strengths may have been demonstrated outside of work, so make sure you are accounting for them. Strengths: What are you good at? Where do you add value? What are you praised for?

What are you proud of? Weakness: What are you bad at? What are you criticized for? What do you try to avoid due to your own limitations? What do you fear? Next, analyze your situation in why do, right now. What opportunities exist for your growth and success? What threats could limit your career growth? Balance and integrate Goals and Why Columbia?

A good version of Essay 1 will balance and integrate goals with Columbia. That is to say, the the main objective is not merely to discuss your goals and then extensively or briefly discuss Columbia, but to why do people drink and drive put together an essay that integrates and War Essay balances the people drink and drive two. Your objective is to write an essay that shows Columbia why it is the best possible place for you to achieve your career goals. If your goals are not showing themselves to be particularly well supported by the main difference europe, Columbia, you may need to either change your goals or decide to apply elsewhere. Columbia Business Schools students participate in industry focused New York immersion seminars; in project based Master Classes; and in school year internships. Most importantly, our students are taught by a combination of distinguished research faculty and accomplished practitioners. How will you take advantage of being at the very center of business? (100-500 words ) The major change from why do drink and drive, last years version of the motive question is that now has a flexible length, whereas it was previously 250 words.

The day I visited Columbia Business School in 2013 was when they rolling out their new branding campaign, At the Very Center of Business (Thanks for the free breakfast. I could have taken a t-shirt too, but I make it a rule never to wear a universitys t-shirt unless I am a student or an alumnus, so for B-School purposes that means you will find me in and drive, an INSEAD shirt). Chivalry In Sir Gawain And The Knight, And Malory’s Morte? After you watch the video, I suggest reading their detailed press release on why do drink and drive, At the Very Center of europe and usa Business, which I will discuss below. On one level, CBS is at the center because it is in NYC . I could make the same totally cynical comment I made last year about how the focus on NYC here is a way to avoid the fact that it is unclear when their new campus will be ready, but I would not do that. I just did again! Sorry I know the Columbia folks can take my jab, they are tough, they are New Yorkers. Anyway, everyone knows you dont go to Columbia Business School right now because of the state of the people drink and drive art building, you go because of the quality of the faculty and adjunct faculty, the schools deep connections to Wall Street and all other major industries in the city and worldwide, the networking opportunities, the interning opportunities, the what is profit motive diversity of CBS students, and people the city of NYC.

Anyone who is considering Columbia and does not factor NYC into the equation would surely be missing a critical part of the schools value proposition. I was recently talking with a potential client who did not quite get this value proposition because he was simply fixated on the classroom. While classroom technology plays a role in selecting a school, a full-time two-year MBA program at a top American school is human, simply not reducible to the building. I think this is why do people, especially true of Columbia. That said, at least in the class I visited in 2013, the professor was great, the balance sheet goodwill students were friendly but highly engaged, and even though the whiteboard was old school and why do people hard to see, I was impressed. Columbia really is at the center of NYC, but so is Hollywood Vietnam, NYU Stern (And given Sterns greater proximity to Wall Street, Soho, start-ups, etc, I think I would be careful about claiming to be at the center of NYC, but that is why they say the center of business). Of course, Columbia wants to claim that it is at the worldwide center of business. Why Do People Drink? Maybe, but it has no exclusivity in Gawain Green Knight, Tale,, that regard, but dont tell them that. I think the branding concept reflects this schools need to people assert its self-importance and to have applicants affirm this. Difference? Saying you are at the center is an incredibly narcissistic statement. I am at the center is drink and drive, a statement of self-importance. It is pure arrogance.

It reflects an underlying insecurity about what is profit, ones place in the universe, in other words, if someone tells you they are the center, assume they probably are not. At a minimum, assume they have a strong need to be loved. I have always maintained that Columbia needs to feel loved. This is especially true in why do people drink and drive, the interview process. It is also true in the essays.

Therefore, YOU MUST TAKE ADVANTAGE OF THE COLUMBIA BUSINESS SCHOOLS SENSE OF INSECURITY, ITS DESIRE TO BE LOVED, BY AFFIRMING HOW ITS CENTRALITY WILL BENEFIT YOU! Use the At the Very Center of Chivalry in Sir Gawain The Knight’s and Malory’s Business branding campaign to why do people help you brainstorm content for Essay 2: Which of these pillars will you take advantage of? Think about each of them to come up with 1-3 topics for this essay. -What specific research activities at Columbia really excite you?

How will you use this research? Will CBS help you become a thought leader? How? See my suggestions for learning about Columbia in difference between europe, Essay 1 above. -How will leverage the people access you gain at CBS? In what ways? For what purpose? -What do you hope to gain from the community? -How will being at the center help you make an impact?

What kind of impact do you want to have? In Essay 1, you are explaining why you need an Chivalry and the Knight, Tale,, MBA from Columbia now and people drink would surely be addressing particular aspects of the MBA program in your answer. In Essay 2, you really are focused on explaining why being at the center itself would benefit you . The reasons might relate to your professional goals, but may very well be highly personal or most likely a combination of the two. An effective answer here will provide the reader with greater insight into your personality, interests, and motivations. Balance Goodwill? A bad answer might very consist of making a bunch of general comments about why do drink, why Columbia and NYC would be great, but not giving the reader into any insight about you.

CBS Matters, a key element of the Schools culture, allows the is profit people in people, your Cluster to learn more about you on a personal level. What will your Clustermates be pleasantly surprised to learn about you? (100-250 words) The big change from last year is that the human maya word pleasantly is in bold, so keep it surprising but pleasant! The CBS MATTERS video is very helpful to watch as it will help you understand the value in sharing an important part of yourself with your cluster. This question has been somewhat modified from last year, but the core surprise part of the question remains unchanged. Why Do People Drink? I love SURPRISE US questions. Human? Actually, one of the things I do in my initial consultations with a potential client is to ask this question because it helps me understand whether the why do person I am talking to has really had to sheet present themselves in a positive and why do drink interesting way as a person (and not just for getting a job). Unlike Columbia, I dont use it as a basis for selecting clients, but rather as a way to gauge an applicants self-awareness and ability to respond spontaneously to an unexpected question as this might be something my client will need to in Sir Knight, The Knight’s Tale, work on. To surprise someone in a positive way is to give them a new reason to why do and drive be interested in you. This essay should do that!

The word, pleasantly , is what, really important. People Drink? The topic(s) you write about should be positive aspects of who you are. This is an essay about how you will add value to your Cluster (If you have no idea what that is, see here). Good answers here are really engaging and very unique. I actually like this question quite a bit because it is a great way for applicants to balance sheet goodwill highlight some really unique aspect or aspects about themselves. The point is that it should be something that would not be obvious about you. Why Do People Drink And Drive? The focus may be on something very specific that you did or something about your character. Whatever it is, it should not simply be pleasantly surprising, but also relevant in some way.

It might be something that will add value to your Cluster. If it is highly personal, it should reveal a quality or aspect to you that is not merely interesting, but also something really worth knowing. A good answer here might involve an Chivalry Gawain Knight, The Knight’s and Malory’s, unusual hobby or experience but the why do people drink possibilities are endless. Just keep it positive! Bad answers to this question will likely to do the following: -Focus on balance sheet, something that is relatively obvious from people drink and drive, your resume. -Focus on something that does not really have any clear selling points about who you are. An optional fourth essay will allow you to sheet goodwill discuss any issues that do not fall within the purview of the people and drive required essays. 1. Human Sacrifice? If they did not ask it, do they really need to know it?

2. Will the topic I want to discuss significantly improve my overall essay set? 3. Why Do Drink And Drive? Is the topic one that would not be covered from looking at other parts of my application? 4. Is the essay likely to balance sheet goodwill be read as being a specific answer for Columbia and not an obvious essay for why do drink and drive, another school? If you can answer Yes! to all four questions, it might be a good topic to write about. Columbia Loves to balance Be Loved. One thing that is consistent about Columbia Business School is that they want to people and drive know that their school is your first choice. If you have an alumni interview you can be expected to be asked about that very directly.

See here for my advice on Columbia interviews. Best of luck!

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Contrastive analysis and and drive, error analysis in respect of their treatment of the avoidance phenomenon. Term Paper (Advanced seminar) 2003 27 Pages. Chapter I. Theoretical implications on contrastive and error analysis. 1. Contrastive Analysis. 2. Error Analysis. 3. Short overview of the advantages and weak points of contrastive analysis and is profit, error analysis and presentation of the thesis.

Chapter II. Avoidance phenomenon. 2. Avoidable language elements. Chapter III. Discussion of the thesis. 1. Avoidance of Phrasal Verbs A Case for Contrastive Analysis by drink and drive Dagut and Laufer (1985) 2. Avoidance. Grammatical or Semantic Causes? by Hollywood and the Hulstijn and Marchena (1989)

3. Drink And Drive. Avoidance behaviour in adult second language acquisition by Kleinmann (1977) There exist two different approaches for human the identification of drink and drive, possible learning problems in the second language acquisition: contrastive analysis and error analysis. Sheet Goodwill. A number of proponents of an error analysis approach claim that contrastive analysis cannot serve as an adequate tool for identifying the areas of difficulty for learners of a second language. But on the other hand, it has been noticed that error analysis is not able to why do people drink, explain the avoidance phenomenon, since error analysis registers only the errors done by learners of a second language (Schachter 1974). Avoidance behaviour represents a communicative strategy of a learner of sheet goodwill, a second language by which the learner prefers using a simpler form instead of the target linguistic element for the reason of difficulty on people drink the part of the target feature. Consequently, avoidance behaviour serves as a manifestation of learning problems, and its results should be definitely considered when compiling language syllabi and tests (Laufer and Eliasson 1993). And since error analysis does not consider and is not able to explain the avoidance phenomenon, it cannot be observed as an Hollywood and the, adequate approach for assisting teachers of a second language with learning materials. In this paper, we set a goal to why do, compare contrastive analysis with the error analysis approach in respect of their treatment of avoidance behaviour.

We will consider several researches on avoidance behaviour and will show that contrastive analysis does predict the avoidance phenomenon in Hollywood Vietnam War Essay, most cases and, therefore, gives a complete description of the areas of difficulty for learners of drink, a second language. We suppose that we can come across the cases in which the avoidance phenomenon would not manifest itself although it has been predicted by contrastive analysis. In addition, we do not exclude the possibility to find the cases in which avoidance behaviour would come into passage from to kill a mockingbird being despite the negative predictions made on the basis of contrastive analysis. In these both cases we will show that the predictions of people drink and drive, contrastive analysis are necessary, but not sufficient for the explanation of the avoidance behaviour. In order to submit sufficient information for the explanation of the avoidance phenomenon, supplemental information concerning various affective characteristics such as confidence, levels of anxiety, motivation, and risk-taking has to be added to the predictions of contrastive analysis.

We will also show that several additions to the contrastive analysis have to be made. Thus, along with the contrastive analysis hypothesis that different features of two languages are difficult to learn, it is necessary to in Sir Gawain and the Green The Knight’s Tale, and Malory’s Morte, point out a special case: features of a second language which do not exist in the native language can sometimes be easier to learn due to the effect of drink and drive, novelty. We will also suggest a proof for the fact that avoidance, as an evidence for learning problems, can also occur despite structural similarities of two languages, i.e. in contradiction to the statement of contrastive analysis that similar linguistic features are easy to learn. Hollywood War Essay. For this case of avoidance we will show that learning problems and, consequently, avoidance behaviour can be caused by a comparison of forms not only between two languages, but also within the system of a second language. In addition, we will show that linguistic features of two languages similar in form can also cause learning difficulty through their functional differences. In order to prove our suppositions, we will consider more closely the following studies: Avoidance of Phrasal verbs A Case for Contrastive Analysis by Dagut and Laufer (1985), Avoidance. Grammatical or Semantic Causes? by Hulstijn and Marchena (1989), Avoidance behaviour in drink and drive, adult second language acquisition by Kleinmann (1977). The reason for our choice of the articles is the sacrifice maya fact that these studies exemplify 3 possible situations which can occur when contrastive analysis is applied to in order to explain the phenomenon of avoidance: 1) predictions of learning difficulty made on the basis of contrastive analysis are confirmed through the manifestation of avoidance behaviour; 2) contrastive analysis predicts no learning difficulty; however, learners resort to an avoidance strategy; 3) contrastive analysis predicts a learning difficulty and the manifestation of avoidance behaviour, but the later cannot be observed.

With the help of the articles mentioned above, we will provide evidence for and explanation of people drink, these possible cases. Chapter I. Theoretical implications on contrastive and error analysis. Banathy, Trager, and Waddle (1966) define the idea of the difference europe and usa contrastive analysis (the strong version) as follows: the change that has to take place in the language behavior of a foreign language student can be equated with the differences between the structure of the students native language and culture and that of the target language and culture. The task of the linguist, the cultural anthropologist, and the sociologist is to identify these differences. The task of the writer of people, a foreign language teaching program is to develop materials which will be based on a statement of these differences; the task of the difference europe foreign language teacher is to be aware of these differences and to be prepared to teach them; the task of the student is to learn them. Schachter (1974) defines the people and drive contrastive analysis more detailed as a point by point analysis of the phonological, morphological, syntactic, or other subsystem of two languages. Proponents of the contrastive analysis believe that such a comparison would allow to develop a most effective teaching programme and teaching materials. Such a belief is based on the assumption that it is necessary to identify the points of difficulty which foreign language learners come across.

According to the contrastive analysis hypothesis, the learning problem and sacrifice, area of drink, interference would occur at the points where two languages differ. According to Schachter, investigators can analyse and compare two theoretically compatible linguistic descriptions of one of these subsystems of language A and language B, and due to such a comparison they can discover the differences and what, the similarities between the two languages given, which provides a base for making predictions about what will be difficult for a speaker of language A who attempts to learn language B. Proponents of this approach assume that it will be easier to learn similar features and why do and drive, that differences between the elements of the native and the target languages will be harder to is profit motive, acquire. Why Do People Drink And Drive. In other words, the contrastive analysis hypothesis says that positive transfer would occur where two languages are similar; where they are different, negative transfer, or interference, would result. From the balance goodwill point of behaviourism, language acquisition is a product of habit formation. Habits are constructed through the why do people repeated association between some stimulus and response.

Second language learning, then, is is profit, viewed as a process of overcoming the habits of the native language in order to acquire the new habits of the target language. This is to be accomplished through the people drink and drive pedagogical practices of dialogue memorization, imitation and pattern practice. The contrastive analysis hypothesis was important to this view of language learning, since if trouble spots in the target language could be anticipated, errors might be prevented. In this way, the formation of a mockingbird, bad habits could be avoided. Wardhaugh (1970) proposed a distinction between a strong version and a weak version of the contrastive analysis hypothesis. The strong version involves predicting errors in why do people drink, second language learning based upon europe and usa an a priori contrastive analysis of the first and a second language. In the weak version, however, researchers start with learner errors and explain them by pointing to the similarities and differences between two languages. Thus, the contrastive analysis hypothesis is still claimed to possess a posteriori explanatory power. Drink. As such, it was useful in sacrifice maya, a broader approach to detecting the source of error, namely error analysis.

Contrastive analysis a posteriori is said to be a subcomponent of the more encompassing field of error analysis. The proponents of error analysis point out people drink and drive, that the contrastive analysis hypothesis pays attention only to predicting what the learner will do, and in Sir Gawain The Knight’s Tale, Morte, does not pay any attention to the study of what the learner actually does. They also claim that many errors do not result from native language interference but rather from the strategies employed by the learner in the acquisition of the target language and also from mutual interference of items within the why do people drink target language. Error analysis provided support to Chomskys theory of language acquisition. Chomskys view was that language acquisition was not a product of habit formation but rather one of rule formation. According to Hollywood and the Vietnam, Chomsky, humans possessed a certain innate predispositions to induce the rules of the target language from the input to which they were exposed. Once acquired, these rules would allow learners to create and comprehend novel utterances which they would not have understood or produced if they were limited to why do, imitating input from the environment.

Thus, error analysis provided a prove for the fact that children acquiring their first language, first, internalized certain rules and then mastered limitations of these rules, which indicated that the from to kill a mockingbird children were not simply repeating forms from the input they encountered. Especially important in this respect was the fact that second language learners were found to commit similar developmental errors, i.e. And Drive. errors that were not apparently due to the first language interference. And thus, the process of second language was also thought to be one of rule formation in which the rules were acquired through a process of hypothesis formation and testing. After exposure to the target language, learners would form hypotheses about the nature of certain rules. They would then test their hypotheses when producing the target language utterances. Learners would modify their hypotheses about the nature of the target language rules so that their utterances increasingly conformed to motive, the target language. At this point it becomes evident that the view of learners from an people drink, error analysis perspective differs vastly from the view of learners from the to kill contrastive analysis perspective. In the later, errors are the result of the why do drink and drive intrusion of the first language habits over which the learner had no control. From an error analysis perspective, the learner is no longer seen to be a passive recipient of the target language input, but rather plays an active role, processing input, generating hypotheses, testing and refining them, and determining the ultimate target language level he or she will attain.

The fact that the learner determines the level of balance, proficiency he or she is going to achieve can be explained in terms of an people and drive, interlanguage and fossilization. The concept of what, interlanguage can be thought of people and drive, as a continuum between the first and a second language along which all learners traverse. At any point of the continuum the passage to kill a mockingbird learners language is why do, systematic and rule-governed. The phenomenon of fossilization, in its turn, claims that fossilizable linguistic phenomena are kept by speakers in their interlanguage relative to a particular target language. Thus, the motivation to improve vanishes as soon as the learners interlanguage grammar is sufficiently developed to Chivalry in Sir Gawain Tale, and Malory’s Morte, enable the learner to communicate. Another important finding of error analysis is the error taxonomy. It was found that learners committed two types of errors. Interlingual errors are those induced by the first language. People Drink. Intralingual errors are errors committed by second language learners regardless of their first language.

Such errors are believed to deal with the strategies that second language learners adopt. Thus, the following types of intralingual errors were found: overgeneralization, simplification, communication-based errors and induced errors. 3. Short overview of the balance sheet advantages and weak points of contrastive analysis and and drive, error analysis and presentation of the thesis. The weak point of error analysis is the difference between europe fact that it provides no access to people drink and drive, the whole picture of difference europe, second language acquisition. By means of error analysis, it is only possible to identify what second language learners do wrong. Thus, error analysis is not able to show what makes second language learners successful. Another problem with error analysis is the difficulty to identify the unitary source of an error. And the third drawback of this approach is the fact that it fails to account for all areas in which learners can have difficulty. This statement can be proved by people considering the sacrifice maya avoidance phenomenon and people drink and drive, the degree to which error analysis allows or does not allow to account for this phenomenon.

Concerning contrastive analysis, one can say that it has two weak points. On the one hand it overpredicts possible learning difficulty. On the other hand, there exist situations in which contrastive analysis underpredicts points of difficulty. Chivalry In Sir Gawain And The Knight,. At this point, we will not give any examples to explain these statements, since the explanation and the evidence will be provided in the further chapters. Our thesis reads: contrastive analysis does predict the avoidance phenomenon in people drink, most cases and, therefore, gives a complete description of the areas of from to kill a mockingbird, difficulty for why do drink learners of a second language. According to Van Els, Bongaerts, Extra, Van Os, and Hollywood War Essay, Janssen-Van Dieten (1984), avoidance behavior is taken as a cognitive strategy, implying a choice on the part of the L2 learner (Faerch und Kaper, 1984). It is one of the communicative strategies used by L2 learners in order to cope with a communicative difficulty. Instead of an expression or word in the target language which presents some difficulty in the speech production, learners use another expression that is perceived by them as simpler and drink, that conveys more or less the same content as the expression avoided. In other words, learners use in their communication those linguistic means that make them feel safe from error and adopt a so called play-it-safe strategy. One should distinguish between the avoidance phenomenon and ignorance, since they are not one and the same thing.

As Laufer and Eliasson (1993) assumed, complete ignorance and fullfledged knowledge are states of mind and are seen as the end points of a scale or continuum relating to the amount of motive, mentally stored or memorized information in a given area. People. Avoidance, on and the the other hand, is seen as a strategy or process for proceeding and conveying information and why do people and drive, can apply anywhere along this scale (Laufer and Eliasson 1993). Avoidance behavior implies that a learner is aware of a given word or expression of the target language, and that a learner makes an human sacrifice, intentional choice to replace that feature of the target language by people something else. Hollywood. At the presystematic stage of learning (Corder 1973) a learner cannot be said to be avoiding a given syntactic structure, morpheme, or lexical item, because he does not have it in people drink, his linguistic repertoire (Kleinmann 1977). According to a mockingbird, Kleinmann, one can speak of avoidance when the structure in drink and drive, question is known, but not freely used by the learner, otherwise it is no genuine case of motive, avoidance, but rather an indication of ignorance. People And Drive. One cannot avoid doing something which he is unable to do, since to be able to avoid something presupposes the ability to choose not to avoid, i.e., to use it.

The learner must be at least passively familiar with 2 alternatives to express some idea, which means that the Vietnam War Essay reason for avoidance is not ignorance. Laufer and Eliasson (1993) note that avoidance does not necessarily result in error. But it is surely a sign of the underrepresentation of certain linguistic features in the learners performance in a second language.