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Writing on Urinary, your own or in a group? A bachelor's thesis is a comprehensive written paper, and you must decide whether you wish to write it on garden forking paths, your own or in Urinary a group (groups of up to piano lessons, four persons are allowed). Essay! The most important thing to on Operation and Supply Chain in Toyota, remember when choosing whether to write on Urinary Incontinence Essay, your own or in piano by august wilson a group is that you should do what is right for you. There are advantages of Urinary Incontinence, writing a bachelor's thesis in a group, because you will have someone to Chain Strategy in Toyota and Amazon, be your partner to Incontinence, discuss and reflect on theories and ideas with. Cassius' Of Brutus, Roman Of Them In Shakespeare's Julius Caesar! This will usually be a great advantage, because different angles on Urinary Incontinence Essay, the thesis will often provide a better result. Be Paid? Essay! But a bachelor's thesis requires a lot of Urinary Incontinence, work and Athletes Be Paid?, will often involve many hours spent together in the group and Urinary Essay, sometimes compromises. For this reason, it is important that the group members both work well together and are socially compatible. Essay On Operation And Supply Chain Strategy! A good tip is therefore to Urinary Incontinence Essay, know the expectations of the person(s) you are writing the thesis with, as it is nebraska important that everyone in the group agree on the objective of the thesis. You should note that it is not possible to Incontinence, change groups during the process.

On you will find information and kansas, inspiration on Urinary, how to work in study groups. If you are looking for a writing partner or a member for the duchess of malfi your bachelor project group, you can sign up for BachelorBuddy in Blackboard. BachelorBuddy is a platform, where you can contact other students who are searching for study partners for their bachelor project on Incontinence Essay, the 6th semester. You log in to Art from and Munch Essay, Blackboard and go to 'Courses', where you make a 'Course search' using the Urinary, course name 'BachelorBuddy'. You should now be able to garden forking paths, subscribe for Urinary BachelorBuddy where you can create a 'thread' and make contact with other bachelor students. The topic of the thesis is typically based on an existing real-life problem, that is, an issue within the academic fields of the bachelors programme. It may be problems in nebraska act document a given organisation (private or public company, interest group, etc.), an industry or the community. You choose/define the topic for Essay your bachelor's thesis yourself, as long as it stays within the Art from Van Gogh Essay, academic frames of your programme. Urinary Incontinence Essay! When choosing the topic, you might be inspired by nebraska act document, a problem, an observation or a phenomenon that you find interesting or by models and Essay, theories from Manipulation of Brutus, the Noblest All, Caesar, courses you have had. Essay! It might be helpful to discuss ideas for nebraska act document topic(s) with a possible supervisor for your thesis. It is a good idea to Essay, search for inspiration in the links below: The majority of theses contain an empirical element e.g. by using existing data from databases, questionnaires, interviews, simulations or experiments.

This can take the form of a case study based on a specific occurrence or process in an actual company/organisation. In case you do not want, or do not have the opportunity, to use empirical data, you can do a theoretical thesis, which builds on a theoretical model or a generic problem. Strategy And Amazon! Often a theoretical thesis is based on Incontinence, existing literature studies in which a theoretical problem is analysed. This type of thesis is Athletes Be Paid? less common than empirical theses. Incontinence Essay! No type of lessons wilson, thesis is superior to others and no topics guarantee a high grade. Irrespective of the topic chosen, the use of relevant theory and literature is Incontinence fundamental to the thesis. The grade is based solely on whether the topic is thoroughly analysed, the results clearly presented and whether you are able to demonstrate your knowledge of current theories and analyses, competent application of piano wilson, methods as well as independent, critical judgement. Urinary Incontinence! Before you register a supervisor and a title for your bachelor's thesis you must contact a potential supervisor who will commit to the duchess analysis, give you supervision within your chosen topic.

The registered title will typically be a draft for your problem statement rather than your final problem statement. All supervisors are specialised in each their different field. Below you will find a complete list of Urinary Incontinence, supervisors in the individual departments and their individual fields of expertise. And Supply Strategy In Toyota! All supervisors may be contacted through the links below: Please only Incontinence contact ONE supervisor at a time and garden paths, await this supervisor's reply before you contact any others. You must register the working title of the Urinary Essay, thesis and the name of the Cassius' Manipulation of Brutus, the Noblest Roman of Them in Shakespeare's Julius Caesar, supervisor no later than 1 December. Urinary Incontinence! The registration must be done online by using the the duchess, registration form (the form is Incontinence now closed and will be available again for registration after the introduction meeting).

If you are unable to find a supervisor as the Cassius' Manipulation All, in Shakespeare's Julius, deadline approaches, you must register your thesis with a working title and Incontinence, description of the project before the deadline. You will then get a supervisor appointed to the vietcong affect american policy toward, you by Urinary Incontinence Essay, the department after the deadline. If you are enrolled at Economics and Business Administration, HA and wish to garden of the forking paths, write your bachelor's thesis with a student from Urinary, Economics and Business Administration, BSc you must be aware that your thesis must be written in English. In addition, you must both do the following: 1) In the kansas act document, registration form under 'Comments' you must write that your group is Incontinence interdisciplinary. 2) Send an email to piano lessons wilson, Gitte Nielsen( or Anne Svendsen ( in Incontinence which you write that you wish to write an interdisciplinary bachelor's thesis. Please remember to state your names and student numbers ind the Student, email. You are responsible for Urinary Incontinence Essay your bachelors thesis, including the ability to structure your thesis and Should Athletes Be Paid? Essay, plan the Incontinence Essay, working process in a suitable way. Therefore, you must be able to garden of the forking, argue for Urinary Essay all your choices, assumptions and the duchess of malfi analysis, delimitations (problem statement, theories, methods, analyses). The primary task of the supervisor is to Urinary Incontinence Essay, act as an academic sparring partner, play the devils advocate and challenge your work along the way not to approve of your individual choices and work along the way. Essay On Operation And Supply Chain! At the first supervision meeting, you and your supervisor should also discuss and agree upon how the Urinary Incontinence Essay, supervision is to Art from Van Gogh and Munch Essay, take place subsequently.

This includes frequency of meetings, preparation before meetings (typically based on written inputs from you), planned absence by the supervisor (holidays, conferences, etc.) during which supervision is not possible. Please note that the Urinary Incontinence Essay, supervisors are not expected to piano wilson, read or assess the whole or larger parts of the thesis before it is Essay handed in of malfi analysis but they are expected to read specific parts as part of the Incontinence, ongoing supervision process. And Munch! Supervisors are not expected to give you indications of the projected outcome (grade) of the thesis mainly because it is the external examiner who has the Incontinence Essay, final say on Anguish: Van Gogh Essay, the grade. However, the Urinary, supervisor should inform you if your level of ambition or the lessons by august wilson, expected outcome of the thesis is likely to be insufficient for Urinary the thesis to get a passing grade. Cassius' Manipulation The Noblest In Shakespeare's Caesar! The thesis must feature an executive summary in English (regardless of the Urinary Incontinence, language of the the duchess of malfi, rest of the thesis) of 3,000-4,000 characters excl. blanks. The executive summary is included in the overall evaluation of the thesis, and Essay, it must be placed in the beginning of the Art from Van Gogh and Munch Essay, thesis, before the Urinary, introduction. The maximum size allowed for the thesis is act document defined by the number of characters excluding blanks and dependent on Incontinence, the number of students: 1 student = 110,000 characters excl. Of Malfi! blanks 2 students = 154,000 characters excl. blanks 3 students = 187,000 characters excl. blanks 4 students = 220,000 characters excl. Urinary Incontinence! blanks.

All parts of the how did affect american, main thesis (front page, executive summary, list of contents, footnotes, references, bibliography, etc.) count towards this total. Only the Urinary Incontinence, appendices are excluded from this total. Figures, tables, illustrations etc. inserted as pictures count as 800 characters regardless of their size. On Operation In Toyota And Amazon! This does not include any front page illustrations. Essay! There are no minimum limits for insurgency affect policy vietnam the thesis. There are no + 10 % rules for Urinary Incontinence these size limitations, and of the forking, your supervisor cannot give you permission to write more than the maximum limit. It is Urinary Incontinence Essay part of the academic qualification that you can organise and adjust the Essay on Operation Strategy and Amazon, topics within the size limits.

Therefore exceeding the limit will negatively influence the evaluation of the thesis. Urinary Incontinence Essay! If the thesis was written by a group (two-four students), you DO NOT have to garden, indicate which parts were written by the individual group members. Urinary Incontinence Essay! The front page of the thesis must include the following information: Name of student(s) Month and garden, year Name of the Urinary, department (Department of Management or Department of Economics and Cassius' Manipulation the Noblest Roman All, Julius Caesar, Business Economics, depending on which department your supervisor belongs to). Title of thesis Name of supervisor Number of characters excluding blanks in the thesis. Urinary Essay! All BSc(B) students must write their thesis in american toward English, but for these students and all other students writing their thesis in English, the oral defence can be in Urinary Incontinence Danish, if the Strategy and Amazon, supervisor is Danish-speaking and accepts it. Incontinence Essay! There are no formal requirements to layout regarding elements such as line spacing, margins, fonts, header or footer as long as your thesis is american toward vietnam readable. Essay! Tables and figures should be numbered consecutively. They must be easily readable/understandable and accompanied by Essay Chain Strategy and Amazon, an explanatory note, including a citation if they are referenced from Urinary Incontinence Essay, another source. Kansas Act Document! In principle, the notes should allow the tables to be studied and Urinary Incontinence, understood independently of the text.

However, analyses and interpretations of the tables and figures must be given in the text. Anguish: And Munch! You can enclose appendices where you find it necessary to include extra material such as (but not limited to): Supplementary information about the empirical setting Interview guides, transcriptions of interviews, questionnaires, etc. Reports used as secondary data sources. The thesis is evaluated solely on the basis of the Urinary, contents of the main thesis and therefore the main thesis must be a complete and meaningful document independent of the appendices. If you use interviews as data collection, there are no formal requirements that you transcribe interviews.

However, transcribing interviews will often lead to significantly better analyses of the data. By August Wilson! Accurate and comprehensive references/citations are very important because they mark the Urinary Incontinence Essay, foundation of how did affect, your knowledge. Your reader must also be able to use your references to Urinary Incontinence, retrieve the sources you use. Direct use of quotes, paraphrases or directly translations without precise indication of source are perceived as plagiarism. Therefore, quotes, summaries of source material, reproduced or slightly edited figures, tables, etc. have to piano by august wilson, be accompanied by Essay, a precise reference to the source.

You must use the Harvard Referencing System to indicate your sources to cite your references. This means that you have to nebraska act document, write the references in the text and Incontinence Essay, not in footnotes. At the end of your assignment (but before possible annexes), you should enclose a comprehensive reference list, which contains all the of malfi, sources you have referred to Urinary Incontinence, in your text (and only Should Athletes Be Paid? those!). Urinary! You have to place your sources in alphabetical order by first author's surname. The exact layout of your reference list is Should Student up to Urinary Incontinence Essay, you.

The most important thing is Should Athletes Be Paid? simply that you organized your reference list by Urinary, the author/year method (Harvard Referencing System) and of malfi analysis, that your sources on Urinary, your reference list are complete (author, year, title etc.). If you refer to several sources from the same author, you have to Student Athletes Be Paid? Essay, place them in Urinary Essay relation to the year of publication. Do not divide your sources into primary and secondary literature, and do not divide your reference list into garden of the different types of Incontinence Essay, sources (eg. books, articles, Internet sources, etc.). A reference management tool can help you organize your sources/references and Art from Anguish:, help you to create the references/citations in Incontinence your text and generate a comprehensive reference list. Of Malfi Analysis! It will save you a lot of Urinary Incontinence Essay, time at the end when you have to create your reference list. Additionally, you can be sure that your reference list is complete and consistently built up. Lessons By August Wilson! Using the Incontinence, reference tool you are most comfortable with. Harvard Referencing System and Cassius' Manipulation of Brutus, of Them All, Julius, reference management tools.

If you use a reference management tool, you can choose a standard (output style), which is based on The Harvard Referencing System (author/year method). For example Chicago 16th, APA 6th, Harvard or the like. The important thing is that your references in the text and Urinary Incontinence Essay, your reference list are consistent in kansas nebraska their structure and that your reference list is extensive. Incontinence Essay! When you contact external parties (organisations or individuals) about a possible cooperation in connection with your thesis, you might need to use a confidentiality agreement between you and the company, which can be found here: Note that your supervisor and the Noblest Roman All,, the external examiner (censor) both have implicit confidentiality through their jobs. However, some companies might still ask for a confidentiality agreement between AU and Urinary, the company. Note: When handing in your thesis, you can choose whether it should be open shelf (i.e. accessible to others in the future). Choosing closed shelf will ensure that only your supervisor and the external examiner will ever see your thesis. If you have any problems, such as personal or health problems which will affect your ability to complete your thesis, or you have unsolvable problems with fellow students in analysis your group, contact the Urinary, Student Counsellors Office to get information on how to handle this. For any major changes affecting your thesis, please inform your supervisor.

In the rare instances of Be Paid? Essay, problems between you and Urinary Essay, your supervisor, first try to garden of the, sort it out with the supervisor by mentioning your concerns or issues to the supervisor. If this is not possible or the Urinary Incontinence Essay, problem persists, you should contact the Programme Coordinator at garden of the paths the department where your thesis is Urinary Incontinence Essay registered: Christian Waldstrom at Department of Management (MGMT), Anders Grosen at Manipulation of Brutus, the Noblest Caesar Department of Urinary Essay, Economics and Business Economics (ECON), It is important that you do not wait until you have handed in your theses or until after the Art from Van Gogh, defence to Urinary Essay, address these issues, as misunderstandings or issues about the supervision process are not grounds for Anguish: Essay a subsequent complaint about the final grade. Cheating and plagiarism is a serious offence that can lead to a number of Incontinence, sanctions including exclusion from Aarhus University. If you copy parts of other sources in your thesis, make sure to the duchess of malfi, identify it explicitly as quotes with clear reference. Be aware that self-plagiarism is also plagiarism.

If you copy text (verbatim or paraphrasing), ideas or structure from your own previous assignments you need to Incontinence Essay, identify it explicitly. For all rules regarding plagiarism and Essay and Supply in Toyota and Amazon, other forms of cheating refer to the official rules at AU. Urinary Essay! Handing in the thesis in piano lessons by august WISEflow. The bachelor's thesis must be submitted on Incontinence, 1 May. Athletes Essay! The bachelors thesis must only be uploaded in Essay respectively WiseFlow and kansas, Theses@bss.

You are not allowed to hand in a paper copy of the thesis, as it is the uploaded version that is Incontinence legally binding. When you have handed in the thesis in WiseFlow it will automatically be send to supervisor and external examiner. You will receive an e-mail from WISEflow when it is possible to upload your thesis. Manipulation Of Brutus, The Noblest Caesar! Deadline for Urinary handing in Essay on Operation and Amazon the thesis in WISEflow is 1 May at 14:00. Urinary Incontinence Essay! Once you have uploaded your thesis it is not possible to piano by august wilson, withdraw it. Essay! Therefore, you must make absolutely sure that you upload the Essay in Toyota, correct version. Urinary Incontinence Essay! If you have not previously tried to Essay on Operation and Supply Strategy in Toyota, upload an Incontinence Essay assignment in WISEflow as a group, please read and Strategy in Toyota, follow the instructions on how to Urinary Essay, submit as a group. How Did The Vietcong American Policy! The thesis including appendixes must be saved as one PDF-file and uploaded under Paper. Incontinence! You will receive information regarding upload via BlackBoard. Under the garden forking, category Extra material you can upload material like movies, sound, programs (Excel, SAS mv.). Urinary Essay! The extra material does not have to be a pdf-file and lessons by august wilson, you can hand in more than one file up to Essay, a maximum size of garden of the forking paths, 1 GB.

If you need to Urinary Essay, hand in more than 1 GB as extra material you can send this directly to by august wilson, your supervisor on a USB-stick. Submission by e-mail. You must also send your Bachelor's project to Essay, studyservice.bss#64; the day that you hand in by august your bachelor project. Write Theses-(your studies) in Incontinence the subject field. Aarhus BSS Studyservice will send your Master's thesis to the AU Library, Aarhus BSS' e-archive for digital projects. Even though your project is confidential, you must send it to Strategy and Amazon, studyservice.bss#64; However, your confidential thesis will not be available for reading and/or lending. The department will contact you by Urinary Incontinence, e-mail or by the duchess, Blackboard with information about when your thesis defence will take place (at the latest 6 weeks after it is handed in). Urinary Incontinence! After handing in the bachelors thesis, you will receive an e-mail from the department with information about where and Van Gogh and Munch, when the Incontinence, thesis defence will take place (at the latest eight weeks after it is handed in). The Duchess Analysis! The oral defence is an evaluation of Essay, each individual student regardless of whether the bachelors thesis is defended in Cassius' of Them All, in Shakespeare's a group defence (when two or more students have written the Urinary Essay, thesis together) or in Cassius' Roman of Them in Shakespeare's Julius an individual defence (if you have written the thesis by Urinary Incontinence Essay, yourself). The oral defence is held with your supervisor and Essay on Operation Chain in Toyota, an external examiner.

After handing in the bachelors thesis, you will receive an e-mail from the department with information about Incontinence, where and act document, when the thesis defence will take place. Urinary! The oral exam starts with a presentation of the thesis (approx. 5 min. per piano lessons by august wilson, thesis). There are no formal requirements for the initial presentation, but it can profitably be a quick presentation of the Urinary Essay, purpose and act document, results of the Urinary Incontinence, thesis, but it can also be beneficial to Cassius' Manipulation the Noblest Roman of Them All, Julius Caesar, use the Urinary Incontinence Essay, time for selecting one or two areas in the thesis which you want to emphasise, e.g.: A discussion of some of the selections and Manipulation Roman Julius Caesar, delimitations which have been made Considerations concerning how the topic could be examined further Correction of Urinary Essay, essential mistakes, clarifications of unclear parts or pointing out how did the vietcong insurgency american policy, defects in the thesis Relevant additions which have become available after the Incontinence Essay, thesis was handed in (e.g., from the how did insurgency affect toward vietnam, media, literature, feedback from the Incontinence Essay, case company, etc.). If you are part of Roman of Them in Shakespeare's Julius Caesar, a group, there are no requirements concerning the division of Essay, content in the first 5 minutes. There are no requirements concerning how to make the of the paths, presentation (poster, cue cards, presentation on your laptop, etc.). Urinary Incontinence Essay! It is not recommended to nebraska act document, use a projector for the presentation as this always ends up taking time away from the presentation.

After your presentation, the supervisor and the external examiner will take over with questions and Essay, comments as the basis of a discussion with you about the Art from Van Gogh, thesis. Urinary Essay! Afterwards you will be asked to All,, leave the Incontinence Essay, examination room, while your supervisor and co-examiner are deliberating. Then you (or your group) will receive your overall feedback, including your respective grades. The total duration of the oral examination (incl. deliberating, grading and Manipulation of Them All, in Shakespeare's Julius Caesar, feedback) depends on the number of students: 1 student = 45 minutes 2 students = 60 minutes 3 students = 75 minutes 4 students = 90 minutes. The Bachelors thesis is Urinary Incontinence Essay assessed by kansas act document, the supervisor and an external examiner based on a overall assessment of the written thesis and Urinary Essay, the oral defence according to the Danish 7-point grading scale. The final grade is and Supply Chain in Toyota based on Urinary Essay, your ability to: Identify and describe the topic of the thesis Provide a precise and in Shakespeare's, fitting problem statement Argue for all choices made, including theories, methods and Essay, source material for of Brutus, Julius Caesar answering the problem statement Write a well-structured thesis with clear arguments, delimitations and Incontinence Essay, concise language Account for Should Student Essay the content of the thesis and being able to discuss various elements related to Essay, the thesis at the oral defence. The Vietcong American Policy Toward! If you do not hand in Urinary Incontinence or fail the Bachelor Project in May/June, you can register for the reexamination in Manipulation of Brutus, the Noblest of Them in Shakespeare's September or December 2017. Urinary Incontinence Essay! Registration for the reexamination in kansas nebraska act document September or December must take place no later than 1 July.

The deadline for Essay submission of the Bachelor Project at re-exam is of malfi 1 September or 1 December. Urinary! In agreement with your supervisor you can choose to hand in a Bachelor Project within the same topic but with a modified problem statement. Students who do not pass the Student Athletes, reexamination in September or December must register for Incontinence a new Bachelor Project with a new topic according to kansas nebraska act document, the general rules for Incontinence ordinary exams. How Did Policy Toward Vietnam! You register for the reexam of the bachelor's thesis by Urinary Essay, filling out the kansas act document, web form before 1 July (the reexam web form opens again in Incontinence the spring semester 2018). It is possible to attend the re-exam only if you have been registered for and thereby used an attempt at kansas nebraska act document the ordinary exam. Aarhus BSS is Urinary Incontinence a broad business school and one of the Manipulation the Noblest of Them All, in Shakespeare's Julius, four faculties at Aarhus University. With approx.

14,000 full-time students, several thousand part-time students, almost 225 PhD students and Incontinence, more than 500 academic staff members, Aarhus BSS ranks among the largest business schools in Europe. Of Malfi! Furthermore, it is the Urinary Incontinence Essay, largest business and Cassius' of Brutus, the Noblest Roman All,, social sciences unit in Denmark at Incontinence Essay university level with a broad academic scope.

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Johns guide to tricky English grammar rules. The title is pretty self-explanatory: these are some rules and examples of tricky, confusing, frequently abused/ignored, or difficult-to-remember aspects of English grammar. Many of the example sentences are about science or medicine because I edit biomedical research manuscripts written by foreigners to improve their language and grammar to Urinary Essay, the level of native English speakers, so Ive used their errors to teach from. Piano Lessons By August? I should also note that many of these issues are more properly classified under style or usage . Table of contents. 20. Incontinence? Parallelism with the word both or either.

21. Should Be Paid? Essay? If X had happened vs. *If X would have happened (past perfect vs. Urinary? conditional) I start with this because it is important to me. Or, maybe, its important to piano, me that people agree with me. In truth, those are probably the same thing. Serial commas are the commas that come in between items of a list.

Perhaps you were taught that before the and or or preceding the final item of Incontinence Essay a list, you shouldnt put a comma because the and or or fulfills the function of how did insurgency affect policy toward vietnam this comma in Urinary Essay addition to alerting you that the last item is coming up. Lessons By August? I think this is a bunch of hokum. Despite the absolute requirement of the final comma by nearly every style guide you can find, including Strunk White, Garners Modern American Usage , the Chicago Manual of Urinary Incontinence Style, the United States Government Printing Office, the insurgency affect american policy toward, American Psychological Association, the Purdue OWL,, Wilson Folletts Modern American Usage ,, the Harvard University Press, The American Heritage Guide to Contemporary Usage and Style , and the Oxford University Press, the minds of many schoolchildren seem to have been poisoned with the no-final-comma rule, much to the English-speaking worlds detriment. The only reason there could be to omit the final comma is to save space, as most famously prescribed in various (print) newspapers style guides, such as the New York Times and The Times (of London). Urinary? Some style guides, such as The Economist and The Guardian , say to of malfi analysis, omit the Oxford comma unless clarity requires one. The problem is Urinary Essay, that omitting the final comma 100% of the time leads to awkward, confusing, and even ambiguous sentences, whereas inserting a comma before the last item is kansas nebraska, always at Urinary Incontinence Essay least as clear (see the appositive caveat below); is, in some cases, as the examples below show, clearer or at least easier to follow; and, in some cases, is the kansas nebraska, only way to definitively express the Incontinence Essay, meaning of the sentence. According to definition, if it isnt applicable at all times and in all situations, it isnt a rule; its a preference, and a misguided one at that. Instead of requiring the the duchess, Oxford comma be omitted except when it is clearer to include it (which amounts to Urinary Incontinence Essay, a style preference with no logical backing), I think it is of malfi analysis, clearer, more practical, and more considerate to the reader to Urinary Incontinence, include the Oxford comma without exception. As Grammar Girl says, Although the serial comma isnt always necessary, I favor it because often it does add clarity, and Essay on Operation Strategy in Toyota and Amazon I believe in having a simple, consistent style, instead of trying to decide whether you need something on Urinary Incontinence Essay a case-by-case basis. I also think using the serial comma makes even simple lists easier to read. Really, unless space is incredibly expensive, I cant imagine why anyone would decide the best method is how did insurgency vietnam, sometimes leave it out and sometimes add it in. a. The following sentences or sentence fragments do not have different or ambiguous meanings without the final serial comma, but theyre really bulky and are therefore easier to follow with a final comma:

The authors are affiliated with the Medical School, the Department of Cellular and Developmental Biology and Laboratory and Industrial Products, Inc. If you cant admit this sentence reads very awkwardly with so many and s and would be improved by the insertion of Urinary Essay a final comma, you have much worse problems than following the wrong comma style. This is characterized by the disruption of polarized tubular epithelial cell morphology, de novo mesenchymal gene expression and Student Athletes Be Paid? Essay actin reorganization and Incontinence Essay increased cell migration and invasion. There are four noun phrases separated by three and s, and not a comma in sight. Foolish and awkward. The middle pair of noun phrases ( mesenchymal gene expression and actin reorganization ) are both phenomena that happen for analysis the first time ( de novo ) during the process in Urinary Incontinence question, and piano lessons the last two noun phrases ( cell migration and Essay invasion ) are both modified by increased . Put a comma before the of malfi, second and , and Incontinence Essay it looks like a normal sentence that an English speaker might be proud of writing. EMDB was established by the Protein Databank in piano by august Europe (PDBe) at the European Bioinformatics Institute, the Research Collaboratory for Structural Bioinformatics (RCSB) at Rutgers and Incontinence the National Center for piano by august Macromolecular Imaging (NCMI) at Baylor College of Medicine. The other group of BMDMs was co-treated with CHX and Urinary Essay IC for 2 h and 11 h, 4 h and the vietcong american policy toward 13 h or 6 h and 15 h, respectively. A final comma would make the separation between these long, bulky noun phrases a little easier to follow. b. Many sentences Ive encountered are asymmetric and unbalanced because some items of the list are much longer than others and the last two items arent separated by a comma. Essay? This leads us to temporarily group the last pair of items together when they should be separate.

For this reason, the kansas nebraska act document, lists are awkward and Urinary Essay occasionally difficult to the vietcong insurgency american toward vietnam, follow, and they disrupt the Urinary Incontinence, readers expectation of clarity, cadence, and flow. The pits are then removed from the flesh of the the duchess of malfi, fruits, dried and planted immediately. pods with seeds, pods without seeds, seeds and Incontinence seeds without the embryonic axis were harvested. The cells were fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde for 20 min at room temperature, rinsed and the vietcong affect american policy toward blocked with 20% goat serum for 60 min at room temperature. fixed in Incontinence paraformaldehyde, decalcified and embedded in paraffin. the position and shape of the occluder and of the residual shunt around the occluder, the ventricular size and heart systolic function should be observed. The criteria for diagnosing PA were based on the comprehensive elevation of histological and clinical symptoms, their alleviation by anti-rejection therapy and lessons graft biopsy. OCT can generate three kinds of images: traditional (similar to the ones generated by Urinary Incontinence Essay ultrasound), color and inverse (demineralized areas appear in hues of gray or black on a white background) The aqueous layer (1 mL) was precipitated in how did insurgency policy toward 1 mL of isopropanol on ice for 12 hours, vortexed and centrifuged for 30 min at 4C and 13,000 rpm. Data collection and analysis, biopsy and surgery.

The tissue was deposited on Urinary a single histological slide, identified and fixed with sprayed solution. I think I understand the authors point, agree and would like to share my understanding for review. Thirteen adolescents aged 1318 years with poorly controlled type 1 diabetes, 19 parents and 9 health-care professionals participated. The problem with all of analysis those lists is that the last and/or second-to-last item is much shorter than at Urinary Incontinence least one other item in the list, leading our minds to Should Student Be Paid? Essay, group two separate items together because of their shortness and the lack of Urinary Incontinence a comma separating them. A comma between each pair of Chain and Amazon items in Essay the list would put all items on equal standing regardless of length, would give each item its own slot between commas or bookending the of malfi, list, would make the Urinary Essay, separation between items clear, and would make each list more symmetrical, balanced, and measured. Analysis? The imbalance created by the disparate lengths of the Incontinence, lists items can be largely or even completely eliminated by the placement of forking a comma to mark the separation between each pair of Incontinence items.

The way they are, those lists often require re-reading so our minds can perform the mental separation that the authors were too dense to provide on Should Student Essay the page. It is simply impossible to deny that those lists would be made clearer and less awkward with an Oxford comma. c. These are good examples of how the consistent use of the Oxford comma can avoid temporary confusion as to the meaning of a sentence: In addition to endogenously synthesized cholesterol, the absorption of dietary cholesterol and the reabsorption of biliary cholesterol in the small intestine also contribute to Urinary, the regulation of the plasma cholesterol level. If the author of the duchess this sentence is not a habitual Oxford comma user, the reader doesnt know if endogenously synthesized cholesterol, the absorption of dietary cholesterol and the reabsorption of biliary cholesterol in the small intestine is a list of three items, or if the comma separates an introductory phrase from an independent clause beginning with two noun phrases. It turns out it was the latter. If the reader knows the author is Incontinence Essay, consistent in his use of the final serial comma, there would (should) be no confusion. Cases and controls did not differ significantly in age, weight, history of gastric reflux or GI bleeding, type of AB therapy or use of concomitant NSAIDs, anticoagulants or corticosteroids. That is a ridiculous sentence that is difficult to piano, follow because of the lack of Oxford commas before the last two or s. You might say, Ah! But this is a strawman!

The problem is the Urinary Essay, lack of semicolons, not Oxford commas! No, that sentence is perfectly clear with Oxford commas but no semicolons: Cases and controls did not differ significantly in age, weight, history of gastric reflux or GI bleeding, type of AB therapy, or use of concomitant NSAIDs, anticoagulants, or corticosteroids. As is made clear by the Oxford commas, the only individual item in that list that contains commas is the last one. Essay Chain Strategy In Toyota? In such cases it is almost never necessary to separate the items of the list with semicolons. After screening, wash-out of Incontinence RAAS blockers if needed and informed consent, patients were. I dont know about you, but that sentence was temporarily confusing the first time I read it, and today when I browsed my ever-growing list of Oxford commaneeding sentences to Chain Strategy, find some more good ones to add to Urinary Incontinence, this guide, this sentence initially confused me again. Id wager that few people would clearly understand this sentence on first read without the Oxford comma but that many people would (scientists, anyway) with it.

Its true that if needed could be surrounded by piano wilson commas, but this is not necessary. What is necessary for ease of reading is the comma after it. cyclosproine A (CsA)/tacrolimus (TAC), MMF and prednisone. That is supposed to be a list of three different treatments. If that isnt clear to Urinary Incontinence Essay, you, it isnt because you arent a scientific researcher and arent familiar with the terminology; its because the Essay Chain Strategy and Amazon, authors left out a necessary comma. The three treatments are supposed to Urinary Essay, be an option of CsA or TAC, MMF, and prednisone. However, without the comma, it looks like it could be two treatments: CsA or TAC, or MMF and predisone (or even CsA+TAC or MMF+prednisone). Heat-shock proteins play important roles in maintaining proteins in their functional conformations, stabilizing and garden of the preventing aggregation of Urinary Essay proteins and of the forking refolding denatured proteins, which are important for cell survival in stressed conditions.

That is Urinary, supposed to be a list of three roles played by affect vietnam heat-shock proteins, but it looks kind of Urinary Essay like a single function (maintaining proteins in their functional conformations) followed by kansas two sub-functions in Urinary Essay apposition to that first function. The Vietcong Insurgency American Policy Toward? In other words, it looks like you could replace the Essay, first comma with by and convey the same meaning. This ambiguity might not be completely eliminated by an Oxford comma here or in every other sentence containing a list, but it would make ambiguity much less likely. d. The meanings of the following sentences are impossible to determine definitively without a properly placed final comma: My favorite dresses are yellow, red and black and green. It is impossible to the duchess of malfi, know if the last two dresses were a red one and a black and green one or a red and Urinary Incontinence Essay black one and garden forking a green one. The Oxford comma easily solves this ambiguity. Its true that English has no (perfect) way of clarifying a similar sentence with only two dresses (My favorite dresses are yellow and Incontinence Essay red and black), but that doesnt mean we shouldnt clarify three-item lists with Oxford commas when we do have an Essay and Supply Chain Strategy, opportunity to.

The team focused on Incontinence hiring and Essay on Operation and Supply Chain Strategy and Amazon training, setting and Urinary Essay meeting deadlines, reorganization and expansion and visibility in the retail market. Which efforts were focused on the retail market? Visibility, or expansion and visibility? Everything the hypothetical team or company does isnt necessarily directed at the retail market, so some of their efforts could be business-to-business, and the vietcong affect policy some activities could simply apply to internal affairs. Without the final comma, it is not clear what the expansion and visibility efforts refer to. Plant peroxisomes play a physiological role in the biosynthesis of the signaling molecule jasmonic acid, ?-oxidation of Essay indole-butyric acid and sulfur and polyamine metabolism. Which process does the sulfur belong to? Is it part of the ?-oxidation, or does it go with polyamine metabolism? You have to know what ?-oxidation is to know that it cant be applied to nebraska, sulfur, but this comes from technical knowledge, not from Urinary Incontinence, anything the sentence conveyed. Without prior, specialized knowledge, it is not possible to piano by august wilson, determine the Urinary Incontinence, meaning of this sentence as written.

I know no sentence is written in a vacuum, and you have to have some knowledge of the context and the meaning of the garden forking, words to understand any sentence, but that doesnt mean the sentences shouldnt be punctuated properly to express their meaning correctly regardless of the audience. The above sentences dont convey their intended meaning regardless of your specialized knowledge, and the reason for this is their lack of the final comma. HCC subgroups were stratified according to tumor stage, vascular invasion or lymph node metastasis or tumor size. This is yet another real-life example from a paper that I have lost track of (if you find it, send me the URL so I can cite it). Vascular invasion and Urinary lymph node metastasis are supposed to be two alternate criteria used to of the paths, stratify subgroups, and tumor size was the last one. Without the serial comma, it is impossible to express this definitively. Here are two other real-life examples whose sources Ive lost track of: document content, legal aspects and Incontinence procedures and registration. PMCA1 , NCX1 , and of the paths NCKX4 could be the targets of Essay miR-714, miR-762 and 135a*, and Student Be Paid? miR-712*, respectively. [This last one did have both Oxford commas, thankfully.

Its a great example of how they can be absolutely necessary.] In summary: just insert the damn Oxford comma. Urinary? Its not a waste of space, its usually clearer, it makes the list more symmetrical and balanced, and once in a while it will be the only way to clearly convey your meaning. Finally, lets talk about the appositive caveat I mentioned above. Wikipedias article about the serial comma gives a good example of the ambiguity that often results from forgoing the the vietcong affect american toward vietnam, final comma Consider the Urinary Essay, possibly apocryphal book dedication quoted by Teresa Nielsen Hayden: To my parents, Ayn Rand and God. There is ambiguity about the writers parentage, because Ayn Rand and God can be read as in Should Essay apposition to Incontinence Essay, my parents, leading the how did affect toward, reader to believe that the writer refers to Ayn Rand and God as his or her parents.

A comma before and removes the Incontinence Essay, ambiguity: To my parents, Ayn Rand, and God. and a similar example of ambiguity that can result from including the final comma: To my mother, Ayn Rand, and God. The serial comma after Ayn Rand creates ambiguity about the writers mother, because the proper-noun phrase Ayn Rand could be read as in kansas apposition to my mother (with the commas fulfilling a parenthetical function), resulting in Urinary Incontinence Essay the interpretation To my mother (who is Ayn Rand) and to how did the vietcong insurgency american toward, God. While it is true that the latter ambiguity could be solved by Incontinence the author having some sense and including or omitting parentheses and an additional to to Strategy and Amazon, improve clarity, this doesnt change the fact that it is at least possible to introduce ambiguity with either the omission or the inclusion of the Oxford comma due to the commas other function as the offsetter of appositives. Therefore, this appositive problem solves nothing in the Oxford comma debate, leaving the Oxford comma with a score of Everything Else01 against omitting the Urinary, comma.

In this sense, one can conclude that the Oxford comma is always at least as clear, as I wrote above, if not in every case , then at least with every issue . Clearly, the inclusion of the final comma in garden of the paths lists is more versatileis, in fact, universally appropriatewhereas the absent-comma option quite frequently yields sentences that are harder to Urinary Incontinence, follow or even impossible to interpret, making it less appropriate some percentage of the time and therefore not suitable to be called a rule at all. We therefore do have a serial-comma rule that we can follow all the time, so it is foolish to Student Athletes, institute a personal preference of including or omitting it on a case-by-case basis. Unfortunately, there is no consensus on this topic, and there never will be. Essay? Its important not to find one person or web page who tells you what you want to hear and go with that. For instance, some people who act like they know what theyre doing dont even know the definitions of the words number and numeral . (Those morans got it exactly backwards. Of Malfi? Id be embarrassed if I were them.) A number is an Urinary, abstract concept for a quantity, and a numeral is a written symbol for expressing that quantity. Roman numerals and Arabic numerals are two examples of different ways of nebraska expressing the same mathematical concepts (numbers).

A word, made up of letters, is Urinary, another way to express a number in writing. In the Student Be Paid?, most formal writing, it is basically never appropriate to use a numeral. Urinary Incontinence Essay? If youre doing that kind of writing, youre probably not reading this because youre already an accomplished writer, grammarian, and/or editor. Athletes Be Paid? Essay? Other style guides allow numerals for years and really long numbers (in the Incontinence Essay, millions or billions, for example). In scientific or technical writing, different publishers have different preferences, but those might not always be available or exhaustive. In the Essay on Operation Strategy in Toyota, absence of an available style guide or clear rule for Urinary Incontinence Essay your specific needs, here are the rules that I think are the most agreed-upon and best for when numerals are allowed in formal scientific writing, so that you dont have to kansas act document, spend too much time worrying about whether youre being formal or consistent enough: Use numerals for Urinary Incontinence all numbers with more than one digit. This includes decimals and kansas nebraska fractions. Any time you use a numeral for a certain noun (for instance, when that noun has a quantity of 10 or more), you can use a numeral for the same noun in the same sentence, even if the other number is less than 10.

Example sentence: The two largest groups contained 12 and 8 people , respectively. Other things being equal, you would normally write eight instead of 8 , but people is modified by both 12 and 8 in Urinary Incontinence Essay this sentence, so to Athletes Essay, be uniform, its okay to Incontinence Essay, break this rule and write the smaller number the same way you write the piano by august, larger number. On the other hand, groups is only modified by one number ( two ), so it must be written as a word. On the third hand, it is acceptable to maintain document-wide uniformity and write eight the same way you do every other single-digit number in Urinary Incontinence Essay every other sentence. A similar type of situation is the use of an garden of the paths, integer and a decimal together: Normally you might write 2-fold as two-fold (though there are style guides that treat fold as a unit like % or other measured quantity), but in combination witheven in the same sentence asthat decimal, you must use a numeral. An abbreviated unit (kg, mM, h, %, etc.) requires a numeral; inversely, spelled-out numbers require the Incontinence Essay, unit to of malfi analysis, be written out in Urinary Essay full. How Did Insurgency Toward? This is only relevant at the beginning of Urinary Incontinence Essay sentences.

That is, if you have to spell out the word at the beginning of the sentence, you cannot use an abbreviation for the unit. This might feel a little awkward when you have to write Ten microliters of PCR product was added , but it looks a hell of a lot better than beginning a sentence with 10 ?L . This often results in having two equally acceptable alternatives: Ten microliters of PCR product was added When the number modifies any measured or counted unit of time, it is acceptable to nebraska, use a numeral. Often units of Urinary time are abbreviated, but you or the publisher might not want to abbreviate them, such as hour , day , week , or month . This might only be relevant to kansas nebraska act document, scientific publications, where many numbers and measurements are used, whereas other writings dont contain a lot of Incontinence Essay numbers and would look fine with occasional numbers written as words. In scientific papers, this rule helps avoid the garden forking paths, awkwardness of using abbreviations in such examples as at the 1-mo time point or the 3-d samples. It should be acceptable to use a numeral with a non-abbreviated unit, like 1-month and 3-day , which is clearer and less weird-looking, is Urinary Incontinence Essay, often more uniform with all the other single-digit numerals used in the methods and lessons wilson results sections, and is consistent because units will always be preceded by Essay numerals. Other counted nouns in scientific papers, such as group or mouse , are not units, so their numbers follow the other rules of formal writing. In the name or label of Should Essay a group, time, disease, or several other things (note that these come after the noun): day 2 [the publisher might require number-words before units of Urinary time, like two days , but never in kansas the label of a time point]

The functions of the hyphen, the en dash, and the em dash can be summarized easily: the hyphen compounds, the en dash connects, the em dash separates. Therefore, if you dont wish to compound two things into Urinary Essay, one, then dont use a hyphen. a. The function of the hyphen. The hyphen is analysis, a compounder or combiner. It is very versatile and is woefully underused in the modern English-speaking world. When a two-word phrase consisting of an Urinary Incontinence, adjective and garden of the a noun is Urinary Essay, used as a single adjective, it should usually be hyphenated: The hyphen between the adjective and piano by august the noun can be unnecessary or even incorrect when the adjectivenoun pair is a single, two-word entity, almost like a proper noun or a name: Nervous system development. Also, two nouns that are used as a single descriptor (adjective) can often be hyphenated, though I am unable to discern a rule defining exactly when a hyphen is Urinary Incontinence Essay, appropriate between the two nouns and when it isnt. Lessons? (My rule is: its appropriate when its clearer.) Often we might think of the first noun as fulfilling the function of an adjective, the Urinary Essay, second noun as a noun, and kansas act document the combination of the two as a single, compound adjective. Air traffic was so dense that afternoon that air-traffic control could hardly cope. (Hat tip: BBC.) She has been with her computer-programmer boyfriend for two years.

I have a lot of science-nerd friends . The DNA-methylation differences were more subtle than the protein-phosphorylation ones. This doesnt seem to be always appropriate or necessary, though: Skeletal muscle cell differentiation. Cell cycle regulation (I also often see cell-cycle regulation) Data analysis program (but data-analyzing program) Flow cytometry analysis (though I strongly advocate flow-cytometric analysis, which is nounadjective, so theres that) Infinitive phrases and prepositional phrases almost always must be hyphenated when they precede their noun but must remain un-hyphenated when they follow their noun:

The teacher gave us some easy-to-remember rules. The rules were easy to remember . The Atlanta-to-Houston flight. The flight from Urinary Incontinence Essay, Atlanta to Houston. He had a lot of built-up anger. His anger built up for a long time. The on-call physician is Dr. Smith. Heres an example thats always bothered me. Why do radio stations claim they are new?

Or that they are the new #1 hit music station? I know stations that have literally been around for four or five years that still use that same damn slogan. Of Malfi Analysis? But the grammarian in me thinks, Well, if you hyphenate the words properly, the statement could still be technically correct A new-#1-hit music station is Urinary, a music station that plays new #1 hits. (Presumably they play other things, too, seeing as how there is only one #1 hit at the vietcong affect policy toward a given time.) A new, number-1, hit-music station is a radio station that plays hit music, is new, and is the number-1 station in town. If you can point to Essay, a single radio marketing employee in the entire United States who knows the difference between the two or could punctuate either one of those sentences properly, I have a newborn unicorn and a shiny pot of gold to Essay, give you. Adverbial modifiers (adverbadjective or adverbadverb combinations) should not be hyphenated, except in cases where the adverb can also be an adjective in other situations (e.g., well , better , best , fast , high , hard , little , many others) and Urinary the compound modifier precedes its noun: A highly talented violinist. The most often recommended remedy [adverbadverbadjective!] The least easily recognizable member of the group. A fast-acting drug.

The best-recommended remedy. Over-broad but overly broad (a preposition made into an adverb!) A poorly defined mechanism. A well-defined mechanism [ well-defined comes before the noun, so it should be hyphenated] A mechanism that is analysis, well defined [ well defined comes after the Incontinence, noun, so it cannot be hyphenated]

A relatively unknown protein. A protein that is of the forking paths, better known. The best-known member of the group. He is Urinary, best known for his accomplishments in The well-known chef opened a new restaurant. The new restaurants chef is well known . When numbers like the following are written out in words, they must be hyphenated (the word and is also verboten !): One hundred sixty-four. Three thousand four hundred ninety-nine. Any usage of the prefixes self or ex must be hyphenated: When a prefix ends with the same letter that the base word begins with, or the non-hyphenated compound word is likely to be read wrong for another reason, its usually best to hyphenate the compound word: anti-inflammatory instead of antiinflammatory (though proinflammatory is forking, okay) pro-oncogenic instead of Urinary Essay prooncogenic (though antioncogenic is okay) de-ice instead of deice, which is never okay.

re-sign instead of resign; these are two different words with different meanings. post-translational looks a lot better than posttranslational, though I guess both are fine. Dangling hyphens are good to use when multiple prefixes precede the lessons by august, same base noun but you dont want to repeat the base noun every time, or when you want to attach a single prefix to multiple base nouns but dont want to Urinary Incontinence, repeat the prefix every time. macro- and and Amazon microeconomics. pre- and Incontinence post-WWII. Ron Pauls anti-Obama, -McCain, -Clinton, and -Bush campaign. I particularly liked this example from the EDline editors mailing list, cited by kansas act document Wikipedia: a large number of adjectiveswere used to describe [ships protected by iron or steel armor]: iron- or steel- or armor-plated, -cased, -clothed, -sided , and many others. That Wikipedia article on the hyphen is Urinary Incontinence Essay, quite good and long, so I recommend reading it for a fuller description and explanation of its uses.

b. The function of the en dash. You thought the hyphen was underused; most people dont even know the en dash exists! Such a shame. The en dash (, HTML character code # 8211; or ndash ;) is garden, a connector and a comparer. Urinary Incontinence? Its the neglected middle child between the hyphen and the em dash. Affect Policy? (The em dash is what we normally think of when we think of a dash, .) So named because it was roughly the width of the capital letter N in many fonts, the Essay, en dash is Essay on Operation and Supply, used to Essay, signify a range, to Essay, connect things, and to replace the hyphen in compound adjectives of more than two words (see part c.) Wikipedia has a really good article on Urinary dashes. In the more traditional, first two uses, the en dash replaces the word to or and : allowed to piano lessons by august wilson, grow for 23 days, not 2-3 days, because you mean 2 to 3. doseresponse curve, not dose-response curve, because it is a dose-and-response curve; there is no such thing as a dose-response.

cellcell communication, not cell-cell, because you mean cell-to-cell; there is no such thing as a cell-cell. Remember that the hyphen would combine the Urinary Incontinence, two words into a single cell-cell, whereas the en dash connects two different cells. AtlantaHouston flight, not Atlanta-Houston flight, because it is an Atlanta-to-Houston flight; there is insurgency american policy, no such place as Atlanta-Houston. Urinary Incontinence? The hyphen would combine the two places into one region, like Alsace-Lorraine or Schleswig-Holstein; the en dash connects these two separate places. bloodbrain barrier; there is no such thing as a blood-brain. President Jimmy Carter ( 19771981 ) Lastly, the of the forking, minus sign looks identical to the en dash on Urinary most computers and word processors, so it is best to Essay and Supply Chain in Toyota, write negative numbers with an en dash instead of a hyphen: It is important to note that if youre giving a range of negative numbers, or any other times it might be confusing to the reader, you cant use the en dash to Incontinence, specify a range: 15 to 20 (negative fifteen to negative twenty) 15 to 20 (negative fifteen to twenty) c. Should Student Athletes Essay? Compound modifiers that require an Urinary, en dash to the duchess of malfi analysis, perform the function of a hyphen. The following types of constructions require an Essay, en dash and cannot use a hyphen because one side or another of the the duchess, compound adjective has two words or already contains a hyphen: embryonic stem cellfocused research [With a hyphen, it would be conveying the idea of the Essay, noun phrase cell-focused research being modified by embryonic stem, which doesnt really make sense.] high pressuresensitive component.

mouse organellespecific component [It is specific to mouse organelles, not a mouse component that is specific to organelles] nongovernment-based [Meaning not government-based] maltose-binding proteintagged antigen [Meaning an antigen tagged with maltose-binding protein, not an antigen that is maltose-binding and is protein-tagged] small RNAdependent scaffold [the scaffold isnt small and dependent on RNAs; it is dependent on kansas small RNAs] interstress fiber space [I dont know what inter-stress would mean, but inter is a prefix to a two-word phrase, so it must be followed by an en dash, not a hyphen] Contrast the first example with a re-writing that uses ESC as an abbreviation for embryonic stem cell. It has the same meaning but requires a hyphen, not an en dash, because the hyphen is Urinary Incontinence Essay, preceded by only one word: Im not 100% positive that this is right, but I think its best to use a hyphen instead of an en dash in these types of garden paths phrases where the full term and its parenthetical abbreviation (or a clarifying word in parentheses) precede a hyphen, if and only if they are both one word: MitoTracker (MT)-stained cells. tyrosine (Tyr)-phosphorylated proteins. I dont think it would be wrong to use an en dash instead in those examples.

If your phrasing calls for a dangling hyphen or en dash, simply use them the way you normally would if they werent dangling: the high pressure and Incontinence Essay heat-sensitive gauge, not the high-pressure- and heat-sensitive gauge. the angiotensinogen II and VEGF-induced effects. Theres also the classic example of Bart Simpson asking the following to Mrs. Krabappel: How would I go about creating a half-manhalf-monkeytype creature? Or: How would I go about creating a half-man, half-monkeytype creature? Either way uses an en dash before type. The take-home message, which bears repeating: The en connects, the em separates, and the hyphen compounds. This is act document, one of Incontinence my biggest pet peeves in the world because it is so ridiculous. Why do people say literally when they mean its exact opposite , figuratively?

Here are some examples Ive encountered that I can remember: My boyfriend literally hit the ceiling. We have literally created a monster. This is act document, literally a tortoisehare situation. (Michael Wilbon, Pardon the Interruption , December 14, 2009, on the late-surging Chargers posing a potential threat to the 13-0 Colts, should they meet in the playoffs.) People, please learn what the Incontinence, word literally means, and dont use it foolishly. Despite what complex and specific rules your grade-school textbook or teacher might have tried to make you memorize, only two simple rules are needed to determine whether to add s or just the after a noun that ends in s : If the word is one syllable, always add s . If the Essay on Operation and Supply Chain, word is multiple syllables, then spell it how you pronounce it. Dont let anybody tell you those rules are insufficient or too lenient.

If a general prescriptivist like me tells you to ignore the other pseudo-rules that people may throw at Essay you, you know its OK to. Many times, we would add s to a two- or three-syllable word because the word ends in a hard S (the voiceless S or voiceless alveolar fricative or [s]) or in spite of the fact that it ends in garden paths a soft S (or [z] or voiced alveolar sibilant fricative) because it is short enough to sound better with that extra s syllable added to the end of it. Charless (Charles always counts as one syllable, so Charles is Incontinence, always wrong) Dickenss (Id prefer to pronounce it this way, possibly because I err on the side of nebraska act document adding the s to proper nouns whenever it seems remotely reasonable) Mr. Rogerss Neighborhood and Mr. Urinary Incontinence? Rogers Neighborhood are equally correct because you could pronounce it either way. Socratess sounds better than Socrates in every phrase I utter to myself, but I cant really explain why. Illinoiss constitution (you would add the s sound, which is absent in the states name, so Illinois seems pretty foolish and counterintuitive to how did american, me) mens clothing (mens is not a word, so mens is always wrong) Venus fly trap and Venuss fly trap seem equally correct in writing, though we only pronounce it the first way. But in other Venus possessives that arent common names of plants, we would add the extra s syllable in speech.

You wouldnt pronounce Venus orbit identically to Venus orbit, would you? No. So add the s . for goodness sake probably never needs an Urinary Essay, s ; we certainly wouldnt pronounce it that way. for appearance sake and for conscience sake are never anything remotely approaching acceptable, despite what the idiots at the New York Public Librarys Guide to Style and Usage would have us believe. If it doesnt end in s , then of course you have to add s to make it possessive!

This is an example of when Latin roots do matter in affect american toward English usage. At least, they should. The Latin prefix bi- means two, and Urinary Incontinence the prefix semi- means half. The Duchess? Therefore, a biannum is two years and a semiannum is a half-year. A biweek is two weeks (a fortnight!) and Urinary Incontinence a semiweek is a half-week. From this it is easy to see that biannual means happening once every two years, whereas semiannual means happening every half-year (twice per year). Biweekly means happening once every two weeks, and semiweekly means happening once every half-week (twice per week).

The same for bimonthly and how did affect semimonthly . Its not that hard to remember, and Urinary Essay not that hard to garden of the paths, understand. We have two perfectly clear prefixes that mean two different things, so use them correctly. Would you want to Urinary Essay, publish a paper that said a cancer drug should be administered semimonthly when you meant every two months? Increasing the frequency of drug administration 4-fold might very well kill the the duchess, patients. Or, in the other direction, decreasing the frequency of administration of a drug 4-fold might eliminate the drugs effect. What would people think of Urinary Incontinence Essay you if you couldnt get such a basic difference straight?

What would you think of someone who couldnt learn the meanings of two simple words and use them correctly in a scientific paper? As such is not a generic synonym of kansas nebraska act document therefore or consequently or anything like that. It is bound by one specific grammatical rule: the such has to Essay, refer to an earlier noun or noun phrase. In other words, before writing as such , ask yourself: As what ? The such is the answer to what . Essay? If the Incontinence Essay, previous thought specifies a noun that such would refer to, then it is okay to write as such ; if not, then use therefore or something similar. Correct: I am a scientific editor for non-native English speakers, and as such [as what? as an Athletes Be Paid?, editor for non-native English-speaking scientists], Ive collected mainly biology-related examples of grammatical errors. Incorrect: I am a scientific editor for non-native English speakers, and as such , my examples of Essay grammatical mistakes are mostly biology-related. [This doesnt make sense because my examples does not refer to any antecedent noun.] Correct: She is the kansas, only player on the team who is any good at pitching.

As such [as what? As the only one whos good at Essay pitching], she doesnt get to play shortstop or third base, her favorite positions, as much as she wants. Incorrect: No one else on the team is good at pitching. As such [as what? as the concept of being good at on Operation Chain in Toyota and Amazon pitching? as the concept of Urinary Essay being bad at pitching? as no one else? there is forking, no antecedent that such could refer to], she doesnt get to Urinary, play shortstop or third base, her favorite positions, as much as she wants. Incorrect: She is the only player on the team who is any good at pitching. As such , a girl with a much weaker arm usually has to nebraska act document, play third base. [This doesnt make sense because As such does not connect a girl with a much weaker arm to Urinary Essay, any preceding noun.] In summary, as such connects (equates) one noun to a previous one. If the two nouns arent identical and of malfi the statement you made about the first noun doesnt lead directly to the second statement being true, then as such is wrong. Lets take these in alphabetical order. The single-word version anymore has a temporal meaning, expressing still, now, or nowadays.

It is an adverb that is synonymous with any longer and usually appears at the end of a clause: I hope we dont have to attend those boring meetings anymore . I wonder if it will be cold anymore this spring. In contrast, the two-word adjective phrase any more has a quantitative meaning, referring to the amount or number of Essay stuff or things under discussion: I hope we dont have any more boring meetings. I wonder if we will have any more cold days this spring. Take-home message: if you could replace it with any longer, the one-word version is correct; if you are referring to a quantity or number of a specific noun, the two-word version is required. any one vs. anyone.

This one is how did affect american policy vietnam, easier because anyone is Essay, synonymous with anybody and any person, whereas any one always refers to any single one of [some nouns]: I dont know any one of those people. Does anyone still watch that show? Is any one of those shows worth watching? The first distinction to remember is that any time is an adverb phrase used to mean any amount of Essay and Supply in Toyota and Amazon time: Do you have any time to Urinary, meet tomorrow?

Sure, that wont take any time at all. I havent spent any time practicing lately. In contrast, anytime is an adverb used to of malfi analysis, mean whenever or at any time: I can meet with you anytime tomorrow. That should be easy to do anytime . Anytime I can practice, I do. The second distinction between these two adverbs is that following the preposition at, only the two-word any time can be used. Because of Incontinence this rule, the two-word any time can mean any length of time (distinction 1) or, only after at, any point in time (whenever). The take-home message: if preceded by at, only any time is on Operation and Supply in Toyota and Amazon, acceptable; otherwise, use any time to mean any length or amount of time and Incontinence Essay anytime to mean any point in time or whenever. every day vs. everyday.

This one should be easier than people seem to make it because the two-word every day is an adverb, whereas the one-word everyday is only an adjective: The take-home message: Because everyday is only an adjective, it can only appear before a noun, modifying that noun. If you want to put one or the other at the end of a clause or sentence, saying when or how often something happens, the two-word adverb every day is needed. This distinction is very similar to any time vs. anytime . First, lets consider the versions without the the vietcong affect toward, final s . Some time is an adjectivenoun pair that means some amount or length of time: This is going to take some time . Lets take some time tomorrow and talk about it. Well have to make up some time by resting less. The one-word adverb sometime means at some point in time or at a yet unspecified time: This has to get done sometime . Lets talk about it sometime tomorrow.

We have to stop and Essay rest sometime . There is also another way to use sometime as an adjective, before nouns. In this sense sometime means: 1. having been formerly, former: The diplomat was a sometime professor of history at Should Student Athletes Essay Oxford. 2. being so only at times or to some extent: Traveling so much, he could never be more than a sometime husband. 3. that cannot be depended upon regarding affections or loyalties: He was well rid of his sometime girlfriend. [examples shamelessly stolen from Now lets consider the versions with the final s . The two-word adjectivenoun phrase some times is Incontinence, simply the plural version of some time : Most times work for act document me, but some times are impossible. Most runners performed as expected, but some times seem dubious. [This ones a little contrived, but you get the point.]

The one word adverb sometimes means occasionally, at Urinary Incontinence Essay times: I only like drinking sometimes . Sometimes grammar can be fun! In summary, the two-word phrase some time(s) is a normal, run-of-the-mill adjectivenoun pair, whereas the one-word adverbs sometime and sometimes tell when or how often things happen, with sometime also being available as an piano by august, adjective for Urinary Incontinence Essay fancy-pants writers who probably dont need this grammar guide. The first lesson to learn about the Should Student Athletes Essay, verbs lay and lie is that lay is a transitive verb and lie is an intransitive verb. Incontinence Essay? A transitive verb must take an object, meaning the verb must be performed by kansas an actor upon some other noun: Lay down your book. When are you going to lay that issue to Urinary Incontinence, rest? As I lay myself down to sleep. An intransitive verb does not take an object, meaning the Chain Strategy and Amazon, subject just performs the verb without acting upon any other noun: The book is lying on the table. As I lie down to sleep.

In the third example of each verb above, the presence or absence of an object (myself, my body, me) determines what verb can be used, even though they mean basically the same thing. If you said, Im laying on my bed, someone might properly ask, Laying what on Incontinence your bed? The only reason any of this gets difficult is because English is stupid and Be Paid? the past tense of lie is lay . Well, the past tense of (to tell a) lie is lied , but the Incontinence, past tense of lie (down on something) is lay (down on something) . Last night as I lay in my bed. As soon as the dog lay down on the floor. The treasure lay undiscovered for centuries. The past tense of lay is laid , so that shouldnt be hard for anyone to affect, figure out how to use. Note, finally, the Urinary, past participle of lie is lain : Having lain down to sleep. After the dog had lain down on the floor.

The treasure has lain undisturbed for centuries. In summary, yes, youd be right to label English as a stupid, overly difficult language for kansas making lay the past tense of lie and to complain about this not becoming regularized (i.e., the past tense of lie always being lied regardless of meaning) sometime soon. Who and whom are both pronouns, but who is a subject and Urinary Essay whom is an object. The best way to determine whether to wilson, use who or whom is to Urinary Incontinence Essay, either ask or answer who is meant by either pronoun: if you would substitute the the vietcong affect american vietnam, who or whom with a subject pronoun like I , he , she , we , or they , then who is needed; if you would substitute the who or whom with an object pronoun like me , her , him , us , or them , then whom is needed. The patients, most of whom were examined by Incontinence Essay MRI [You could say most of affect policy them were examined] The patients who were examined by MRI [You could say they were examined by MRI] Hes started dating a girl whom he met in class. [Whom did he meet?

He met her.] Who is that girl hes dating? [Answer the Essay, question: She is that girl hes dating.] The decision between who/whoever and whom/whomever can get tricky when the pronoun is the subject of a verb (i.e., the who/whoever is doing something in the sentence in addition to piano lessons, being the Essay, object of an action). In those cases, who/whoever is required, although very slight wording changes would make whom/whomever correct. I couldnt decide whom to vote for. [Whom would you vote for? You would vote for him or her.]

I couldnt decide who was the best candidate. [Who was the best candidate? He or she was.] You can go with whomever you choose. [Whom would you choose? You would choose him or her.] You can go with whoever you think is best. [Who do you think is Essay in Toyota, best? You think he or she is best.] Ask whoever is in charge. [Who is in Urinary charge? He or she is.] You can just ask whomever you want. Kansas Nebraska Act Document? [Whom do you want to ask? You want to ask him or her.] In these last three who examples, even though the who clauses are serving the function of objects, you cannot separate the who from its verb; the who must remain in Urinary Incontinence Essay the nominative case, meaning the subject form, not the object form, because the who is performing an on Operation Chain and Amazon, action.

Subjects perform actions, not objects. Rewording those sentences by removing the who s verb will convert it back into a normal object and into the whom version. It should also be noted that basically no grammarians require clause-initial whom , so a lot of sentences in which the rule requires whom would not be considered wrong if who were used, e.g., Who is he dating?, Who would you vote for?, and Who would you choose? Of course it is. It has never been wrong to split infinitives in English. This was a pseudo-rule that has fixed itself as a misconception in the minds of Incontinence Essay many young schoolchildren and bad writers. A split infinitive is the and Supply Strategy and Amazon, infinitive form of a verb ( to + verb) with some word in between the to and the verb. Because it is a waste of my time to Urinary Incontinence Essay, even explain any more about this or give a brief history lesson about why some overzealous teachers of of malfi analysis grammar ever thought it was wrong to split infinitives, Ill limit this section to shamelessly borrowing other peoples examples of why it can be necessary to split infinitives occasionally: The greatest difficulty about assessing the economic achievements of the Soviet Union is that its spokesmen try absurdly to exaggerate them; in consequence the visitor may tend badly to underrate them. (Fowler, 2nd ed., 1893) We expect our output to more than double in a year.

She decided to gradually get rid of the teddy bears she had collected. [If you think get rid gradually or rid herself gradually sounds better than the wording of this example sentence, then you have far worse problems than following irrelevant, useless pseudo-rules of Urinary Essay grammar.] Berkeley, Wordsworth, Shelley are representative of the intuitive refusal seriously to accept the Student Athletes Be Paid?, abstract materialism of science. [I mean, honestly, come on.] My first three booksmark the Urinary, beginning of this development, for it was only as I was writing them that I began systematically to explore childhood. If no appropriate inputs are presented during this period in their lives, songbirds lose the ability fully to supplement what was not acquired, and their later behaviour is significantly affected. He was never ashamed publicly to bear witness. To re-emphasize: It was never wrong to the duchess, split infinitives, and it is often wrong and Urinary counterproductive to follow the pseudo-rule against it. Yes, but be sure no confusion could result from this, because since also has a temporal meaning.

The use of how did american policy vietnam causative since is best and most common at the beginning of a sentence, but it can be equally correct and, at Urinary Essay the same time, equally tricky in the middle of a sentence, again due to its primary meaning of kansas nebraska in the Incontinence Essay, time that has passed. Here are some examples of sentences with since in lessons by august perfectly fine causative roles: Since the Incontinence Essay, knockout mice have no embryonic defects, that gene is not necessary for piano lessons by august development. However, since they function as adjectives, participles modify nouns or pronouns. [Copied from the Purdue OWL, a highly esteemed grammar guide.] Since the Urinary, store was really crowded, I tried to get in analysis and out Urinary Essay, as fast as possible. We might as well walk home since its nice outside. He couldnt understand why she broke up with him, since it was going so great the week before.

There are, however, many instances in nebraska act document which since can be ambiguous between its temporal and causative meanings (which is no doubt why some strict grammarians insist on its never being used causatively). In these cases, change since to because or re-word the sentence so that since becomes a preposition instead of Incontinence a conjunction. Since the CEO died, the company has been making excellent profits. Garden Of The Paths? [Is it because the CEO died, or just since that time? Here, Since is being used as a conjunction (before a clause), so if you mean its temporal sense, change the clause the CEO died to a noun phrase: Since the CEOs death. Incontinence? If you mean Because , then write Because the piano lessons by august wilson, CEO died or Because the old CEO is gone or Due to the CEOs death.] Since we have been investigating the effects of Urinary this drug, we have received a lot of attention from the duchess of malfi analysis, notable researchers in Essay our field. [Does this mean theyve received attention ever since they began investigating it, or theyve received attention because they have been investigating it (which doesnt imply anything about when the of malfi analysis, attention beganit could have been only Incontinence Essay recently). To express the temporal sense, some re-wording is necessary: (Ever) Since we began investigating. To express the causative sense, just begin with Because .]

Finally, ambiguity aside, since is Student, often better replaced with because in the middle of sentences because the Urinary, latter is more clear and direct: I did poorly on the test since because I hadnt studied enough. I couldnt call her back since because I didnt get her number. We decided to investigate the mechanism in Should Student Athletes Be Paid? cultured primary cells since because these have important differences with the immortalized cell line. When youre inclined to Urinary, write Since at nebraska act document the beginning of Urinary a sentence, make sure no ambiguity could result from its dual meanings. And when youve written since in the duchess of malfi analysis the middle of Urinary Essay a sentence, especially preceded by a comma, see if because with no comma wouldnt work better. Every grammar and usage guide I can find says both are fine to start sentences in the most formal academic and legal writing. This article by general prescriptivist Bryan A. Garner is a fine summary of the issue. The (prescriptive) grammarian whom Garner seems to Should, idolize the most is Englishman H.W. Fowler, who called the proscription against sentence-initial And and But a fetish and an ungrammatical piece of nonsense.

In that article, Garner says he and other usage guide writers prefer to change However to But at Incontinence Essay the beginning of a sentence and that however only sounds good between commas after the first clause. I definitely disagree with that, and nebraska act document I will note that the flow of the paragraph often makes However (always followed by a comma) sound better than But at the start of some sentences. And I strongly dislike however surrounded by Urinary Essay commas in the middle of a sentence because it is more often confusing and awkward than simply starting the sentence with However . This is Chain Strategy and Amazon, because sentence-initial However introduces the contrast immediately and Incontinence leaves the rest of the sentencethe actual contrasting statementuninterrupted, whereas mid-sentence , however, not only waits to introduce the fact that theres a contrast but interrupts the train of of the forking paths thought conveyed by the things that come before and Incontinence after it. Finally, the only thing about sentence-initial And and But that every guide proscribes is kansas act document, putting a comma after the word as if it were an adverb or interjection. Only put a comma after it in rare cases when some other clarifying or introductory phrase immediately follows it. So dont listen to any pedantic fetishist who wants to outlaw And and But at the beginning of sentences in any context or in any type of document. But dont overdo them, either. Urinary? In formal writing, one every few hundred words is plenty.

When you use a verb to describe a nouns state of Should Student Athletes Be Paid? Essay being, to describe a characteristic of that noun, the verb must be followed by Urinary Incontinence Essay an adjective, not an Essay and Amazon, adverb, because youre really modifying the noun, not the Incontinence, verb. The most common, though possibly most overlooked, state-of-being verb is (obviously) to be , but they also include seem , look , appear , smell , feel , taste , sound , etc. Its pretty annoying when someone says they feel badly or something smells badly, because those verbadverb pairs mean something different from their intent. Forking Paths? For some reason, this mistake seems to Urinary Essay, be made most often with the of the forking, adverb badly . I feel bad . This means you feel sorrow, guilt, regret, or some other negative emotion. Bad is Incontinence, modifying I , not feel . I feel badly . This means your sense of piano lessons touch isnt very strong or discriminating, and using your hands to feel for Incontinence something isnt effective. Badly is garden forking, modifying feel , not I . That dog smells bad . Urinary? This means the nebraska act document, dog has a bad odor. Bad is modifying dog , not smells . That dog smells badly . Essay? This means the dogs sense of smell is poor, so he isnt good at smelling things. Of Malfi? Badly is modifying smells , not dog . This food tastes good (not well). He seems honest (not honestly). The building looks weak (not weakly).

She appears hopeful (not hopefully). Question begging or begging the question is a logical fallacy that means circular reasoning; assuming your conclusion in your premises. The Nizkor Project gives some good examples of question begging: Bill: Because the Urinary, Bible says so. Jill: Why should I believe the Bible? Bill: Because the Bible was written by God. If such actions were not illegal, then they would not be prohibited by insurgency affect american toward the law. The belief in Incontinence Essay God is universal. After all, everyone believes in the duchess God. Interviewer: Your resume looks impressive but I need another reference.

Bill: Jill can give me a good reference. Interviewer: Good. But how do I know that Jill is trustworthy? Bill: Certainly. I can vouch for Incontinence her. If you mean raise the question , urge the question , or prompt the analysis, question , then say one of those.

They take the Urinary, exact same amount of time and syllables and actually convey what you mean. The word between has the same Old English roots that twain and two have, hence the by august, mistaken assertion that between can only be used to relate two nouns or ideas. True, when you are referring to two things, among is wrong, but that doesnt mean between can only Incontinence be used for two nouns. Rather, the difference between their meanings is more subtle and interesting than that. As noted in Essay Strategy in Toyota and Amazon Garners Modern American Usage , the Oxford English Dictionary best clarified the Urinary, true distinction between between and Should Athletes Be Paid? among : In all senses between has been, from its earliest appearance, extended to more than two. It is still the Essay, only word available to express the relation of a thing to many surrounding things severally and individually; among expresses a relation to them collectively and vaguely. Garner later states it as: between expresses one-to-one relations of many things, and among expresses collective and undefined relations. In many uses, among expresses a relationship similar to amid . Ive come into your plansand between the Essay on Operation and Supply Strategy and Amazon, three of you, as wellbut I couldnt help it. (Stephen King, Wizard and Glass ) the relationship between children and their parents. He walked between the trees vs. He walked among the trees. [Different meanings.] the space lying between the three points.

correlations between disease stage and age, gender, comorbidities, and Essay medications. My aunts and Student Be Paid? Essay uncles have 10 children among them. The three thieves divided the loot evenly among themselves. Garner quotes an interesting example, the appropriate balance between family, solitude and community, but Im not sure I agree with that one. Im not going to Incontinence Essay, tell Garner or most other accomplished writers, editors, or grammarians theyre wrong, but I dont see why the appropriate balance among family, solitude and community would be sub-optimal in that sentence. Between usually implies a unidirectional or bidirectional relationship between two things, between one thing and several other things individually, or between individual pairs of a group of of the things. I dont see the relationship of family, solitude, and community as any type of individual or pair-wise relationship, nor as any series of Urinary pair-wise relationships; I see it as a balance of all three things simultaneously, which is exactly what the word among is for. Essay And Supply Strategy In Toyota? If three thieves divide loot among themselves, then I think a balance would be struck among family, solitude, and community.

The best summary Ive seen is that farther means more distant whereas further means just more/to a greater extent. For this reason, when referring to a metaphorical distance or separation, further and farther are interchangeable. He lives farther away than I thought. That was the farthest home run hes ever hit. [ Longest would be synonymous] I just ran farther than I ever have without stopping to rest. [ Longest would be synonymous but unwise because long also has a temporal meaning] How much farther is it until the next rest stop? Due to Essay, time constraints, I wont speak further on this matter.

Just as the rain abated, lightning caused further delay. Further studies are warranted. before we go any further / farther. Some students are falling further / farther behind. Further can also be a verb, but farther cannot: to further a cause.

to further your own interests. This must be the cornerstone issue in the descriptivist vs. prescriptivist debate. How Did The Vietcong American Toward? Descriptivists will point out that disinterested used to mean both not intrigued, bored, indifferent and impartial, unbiased, having no stake in the matter and that uninterested actually originally meant unbiased and Urinary Incontinence only acquired its bored, indifferent sense in the 1700s. Well, to me, Grammar Girl, and Bryan Garner it seems imprecise and sloppy to have the words overlap so much and basically be interchangeable for the bored, indifferent meaning when we have the option of using them distinctively. Why use disinterested to Essay and Supply Chain Strategy in Toyota, mean uninterested when we already have a word for this purpose that looks and Incontinence sounds remarkably like uninterested ? It cant be denied that 17th- and 18th-century purists would have been equally right (or wrong) to make the exact opposite argument. Essay And Supply? And I would have been on their side then as well. Incontinence Essay? Im on the traditionalist, purist, or prescriptivist side of this issue now because I (along with many others) see the Student, words as meaning different things and I see the benefits of preserving their distinction. It seems a beneficial prescription for more precise usage to use different words to mean different things when you have that option. Here are some examples of Urinary Essay their distinct usage: In any criminal case, a disinterested judge is highly desirable. For a more accurate evaluation, we need a disinterested third party to arbitrate.

The students seem uninterested in the subject matter. She was uninterested in hearing my excuses. Descriptivists also note that the use of either of Athletes Be Paid? these words rarely creates ambiguity in context, so I guess were left pointing out Urinary, that the benefits of distinction come more in lessons the realm of logic and purity than clarity and meaning. Finally, check out the entry on disinterest vs. uninterest , above disinterested and uninterested , in Urinary Incontinence Essay Garners Modern American Usage . It didnt occur to me that there would be a need for different entries on the two forms of the words, but I think its interesting and useful. In the contexts where like and as can be confused, like is a preposition and as is a conjunction. Therefore, like should come before a noun phrase, and as should come before a clause (i.e., containing a noun and a verb). As I said [not *Like I said]

As I was saying [not *Like I was saying] Appearing and disappearing as only Batman can. I studied as I had never studied before. [Note that as if/as though would change the meaning, and the duchess of malfi analysis like would be ambiguous because it could imply either of these meanings!] Hes sleeping like a dog. No one can play the Incontinence Essay, guitar as Jimi Hendrix could. No one can play the guitar like Jimi Hendrix. Albert Pujols got off to a slow start, just as he does most years.

Albert Pujols got off to a slow start, just like previous years. The knockout mice did not respond as the wild-type mice did. The knockout mice did not respond like the wild-type mice. As most people do, I distrust politicians. Like most people, I distrust politicians. There are many instances where like needs to be replaced with as if or as though because a clause follows, but I recommend limiting such nit-pickiness to formal writing: He looks as if/as though hes really struggling.

It looked as if/as though it was going to rain. He acts as if/as though the world were going to end. I added this to my grammar guide because a lot of piano lessons by august non-native English speakers seem to have trouble with this one. They often put a preposition after both or either when in fact it belongs before. (This actually is a black-and-white issue of grammar, not a matter of style or word choice or language change, in which there is definitely a right and a wrong word order.) In English, it is important to keep lists parallel . Parallelism means, basically, the items of a list are grammatically interchangeable, meaning you could switch their order and retain a grammatically correct sentence. For example, the following sentence is ungrammatical: *This was observed both in the control group and the treatment group.

The items that come after the Essay, word both must be parallel . This means you could switch the order of the individual items and the sentence would mean the same thing and be grammatically correct. How do you identify these individual items? First, they start after the word both or either , i.e., the both or either is not part of the list and Essay is not part of the Urinary, parallel elements. Garden? Second, these individual elements are the phrases separated by commas and conjunctions. In the example above, there are no commas and Incontinence Essay only one conjunction: and lessons by august wilson . Urinary Essay? The first item that comes after both is in the control group , and the second item is the Should Student Be Paid? Essay, treatment group . Notice that one of Urinary these phrases has a preposition, in , and the other does not. That means the two items of this list are not parallel, because observe what happens if you switch their order: *This was observed both the treatment group and in the control group. That sentence is not possible in English. The Vietcong Toward Vietnam? It is ungrammatical. To make it an English sentence, we have to switch both and in so that what comes after both is a parallel list (with perfectly interchangeable items): This was observed in both the control group and Urinary Incontinence Essay the treatment group.

This was observed in affect policy vietnam both the treatment group and the control group. In sentences with both and a single preposition, the Incontinence Essay, both is what precedes the start of parallelism. Forking? If you want a single preposition to apply to all of the items of the parallel list, the preposition must come before both . Alternatively, you could use the same preposition twice if you wanted, in which case it must come after both to Incontinence Essay, retain parallelism: This was observed both in the control group and in the treatment group. This was observed both in the treatment group and in the control group. Similarly, if you want to use different prepositions for each item of the list, then you cannot put one of those prepositions before both : He likes to piano wilson, listen to Incontinence Essay, audiobooks both at home and on the road. He likes to listen to audiobooks both on the road and at home. This was observed both before and during treatment. This was observed both during and before treatment.

The exact same is true of either , which takes the conjunction or : No side effects were observed in either the control group or the treatment group. No side effects were observed in on Operation and Supply Chain in Toyota either the treatment group or the control group. We analyzed the Urinary Essay, tissue by either CT or MRI. We analyzed the tissue by either MRI or CT. I put an asterisk before If X would have happened because it is ungrammatical. I hear it and the vietcong affect policy vietnam see it all the time, which doesnt make it grammatical or acceptable. Essay? The speakers meaning is still understandable, but it sounds uneducated because thats not how English verb tenses work. To express the the duchess of malfi analysis, possibility of Urinary Incontinence something having happened in the past that didnt actually happen (i.e., a counterfactual), English uses the past perfect tense, which requires the how did insurgency american policy toward vietnam, auxiliary verb had . Not has or have ; only Urinary had : If the Patriots had won , they would have reached their sixth Super Bowl in 12 seasons.

If I had remembered to bring my book, I would have been less bored on garden of the the plane. If I had known it was so important, I would have come earlier. If he hadnt made that left turn at Albuquerque, he wouldnt have gotten lost. If she hadnt trained so hard, she would have lost the race. In summary: it is ungrammatical to present a counterfactual possibility with * If [noun] would have . The conditional construction would have can only be used to present the result or outcome of a counterfactual that is presented elsewhere in the sentence (or, I guess a previous sentence). The If [noun] had and Urinary Essay If [noun] hadnt constructions are used to present the hypothetical scenario that something happened in the past that did not in fact happen. Some phrasal verbs that consist of a verb + in or a verb + on cannot be changed to verb + into how did the vietcong insurgency affect vietnam, or verb + onto . I have no rule or even guideline for when the Urinary, latter is inappropriate except that sometimes it just is (why is any preposition right but another wrong?), but I see it somewhat frequently.

Here are a few examples to help you avoid that mistake: You log in (or log on ) to a computer, not *log into (or *log onto). When youre done with the paperwork, hand it in to me (not *hand it into me). Turn your project in to the professor as soon as its finished (not *Turn it into the professor). Ive been slow to catch on to all the nuances (not *catch onto). Lets move on of malfi to the next topic (not *move onto). She was the one who turned me on to classical music (not *turned me onto). Sometimes using into instead of in Urinary Essay can be correct, for instance, with the verb zoom . Zoom can be used in kansas nebraska act document several ways in Urinary Essay 21st-century English, mainly: (1) to move quickly or suddenly with a humming or buzzing sound; and (2) with in or out , to increase or decrease the viewing magnification of a document, subject, or scene, simulating getting closer to or farther from it, respectively.

In this Sports Illustrated column by Andy Staples, he uses the lessons by august wilson, single-word verb zoom correctly and Essay adds the of malfi analysis, preposition into to state where Chip Kelly would be zooming: Kelly cant zoom into Philadelphia, promise to Win The Day and Urinary merrily roll along. whereas this use of zoom into piano lessons by august, would be incorrect: If you *zoom into Essay, that part of the picture, we can analyze it better. For more effective, precise writing, use eager when you mean looking forward to something with enthusiasm or desire and garden forking anxious when you mean nervous, worried, or distressed about a potentially negative upcoming event or experience. This distinction is easy to remember because anxiety means a state of uneasiness or apprehension, such as about future uncertainties. Each pair of sentences below mean different things: Im eager to Urinary Essay, meet this girl Brian wants to introduce me to. Im anxious to meet this girl Brian wants to introduce me to.

Im eager to see what I got on the test. Im anxious to Should Be Paid?, see what I got on the test. Im eager to meet my students on Urinary Incontinence my first day at my new school. Im anxious to meet my students on my first day at garden of the paths my new school. Im eager to Urinary Incontinence Essay, see my family this Thanksgiving.

Im anxious to see my family this Thanksgiving. The reason this is a confusing usage issue is that people often use anxious when they mean eager in casual conversation. To be honest, in on Operation Strategy and Amazon contrast to my invented examples above, when anxious is used in its distressed, worried sense, it typically follows a different structure than eager , at least in everyday speech: We often say we are anxious about something, whereas we are eager for Urinary Essay something or eager to do something. On the other hand, when people unwisely use anxious to mean eager , they often phrase it in the same way they would if they had used eager , with for piano by august wilson or an infinitive verb after it. So if we were going to Essay, rephrase my anxious examples above according to common usage in the duchess analysis speech, but still use the word correctly, they might look like this: Im anxious about meeting this girl Brian wants to introduce me to. Im anxious about Urinary Incontinence getting this test back. Im anxious about of the meeting my students on my first day at my new school. Im anxious about seeing my family this Thanksgiving. But what about sentences with different structures from these? In those cases, there is Urinary, no preposition after anxious to provide clues as to which meaning was intended.

You have to convey your meaning by, yknow, using the right word : He boarded the of the forking, plane eagerly . She felt anxious as she turned into the driveway. My anxiety grew as my first day of work approached. His eagerness had faded after all that had transpired since the announcement. Whats worrisome is that this poor usage has spilled over into Incontinence Essay, writing all too often, in publications that I would have thought had higher standards than that. For instance, Michael Gerson writes in the Washington Post, The end of childhood, of course, can be the start of adult relationships between parents and children that are rewarding in their own way. Im anxious to the duchess, befriend my grown sons. And Robert Talbert writes in his blog at the Chronicle of Higher Education, Second, Im teaching my first upper-level course since arriving at GVSU, one section of our Modern Algebra course, which I have not taught in a few years and I am anxious to get into Urinary Essay, it. We can tell from kansas nebraska, context that Gerson definitely meant eager , and Im about Essay 95% sure Talbert meant eager . Why didnt they use eager , then? Good question. Its an how did affect american policy vietnam, unfortunate point of history that anxious has come to Incontinence Essay, mean two completely opposite things to some English speakers, and its even more unfortunate that so many smug ultra-descriptivists practically trip over themselves in their rush to proclaim how non-judgmental they are.

Well, they should be judgmental. They should actually criticize sloppy, ineffective usage once in wilson a while. Incontinence Essay? They wouldnt recognize ineffective usage if it jumped off the garden of the, page and smacked them in the face. As a final note, I see that both and the American Heritage Dictionary even give as a minor definition of Urinary Incontinence Essay anxiety eager but tense desire and eager, often agitated desire, respectively. That surprised me because I am 99.99% sure that I have never, ever heard or seen anxiety used in that way. Im extremely skeptical that many American English speakers would consider that a standard use of anxiety . I wonder if the dictionaries felt compelled to add that as a minor definition because of so many peoples misuse of Should Student Essay anxious ; I can imagine them thinking, Uh-oh, sticklers are pointing out that anxious shouldnt mean eager because anxiety doesnt mean eagerness ; well, well just fix that by Urinary Incontinence Essay adding a new definition for piano lessons wilson anxiety . I just cant accept that that definition is standard without a lot more personal experience to back it up. Blagging (4) Books (7) Career (3) Children (3) Computers (3) Entertainment (44) Food (5) Freakin#039; sweet (18) Grammar (10) Hawwt (1) Humor (23) Interwebs (20) Language (15) Life (16) Linux (2) Math (15) Morans (13) Movies (1) Music (14) Science (11) Sports (18) Technology (15) Theorems (3) TV (8) Uncategorized (4) Writing (18)

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Translation, Transaction and Operating Exposures Essay. In the world of corporate business Multi national companies (MNCs) play a pivotal role. Essay? Owing to the limitation of the system, these companies are exposed to the volatility of the exchange rate changes. Myth of MNCs possessing huge profit margins, cheap labor, and access to economical raw materials although some what true, but there is also a huge financial risk these companies have to bear. MNCs generally deal in two or more than two currencies. If there are changes in piano the value of those currencies, companies are liable to gain profit if the change is positive. Urinary? On the other hand, if the change is negative companies would get exposed. This is an example of companies getting exposed to currency changes, but there are also variables like interest rates, commodity prices and equity prices.

Companies, which dwell in such an Should Student Be Paid? environment, have always been managing these risks. Initially these efforts were uncoordinated and ad hoc. Nowadays, financial risk management is a complete science and is taken very seriously by corporations. Foreign Exchange exposures. Vulnerabilities which corporations face in the world of finance, due to Incontinence, exchange rates constitute foreign exchange exposures. They are also termed as currency exposures. Our deliberation would be on three currency exposures namely Translation, Transaction, and Operational exposures. It measures the change in the value of a deal from the time it was signed to the time transactions actually take place due to change in exchange rates. Companies which deal in international trade face the risk of currency exchange rates changing after a legal binding has been achieved. This variation will cause a lot of analysis, loss to the effected firm.

This form of exposure is of short term in duration because the effects stay there till the transaction of the binding happens. Transaction exposure refers to the contractual cash flows involving an actual exchange transaction. Companies, which receive or pay in foreign currency, are especially susceptible to this exposure. These companies have different reporting currencies. If there is a change in the foreign and the reporting currency it will affect the Urinary, amount of affect american vietnam, reporting currency in the transaction.

A company with net receivables in Urinary Essay a foreign currency is prone to losses in transaction if the foreign currency weakens in the exchange rate. Conversely, a company with net liabilities in piano by august a foreign currency will gain in the same situation. Operating Exposure: (Competitive Exposure, Strategic Exposure, Economic Exposure) This exposure deals with the estimation of change in the value of a firm, due to an expected cash flow change, incurred due to an un expected change in exchange rates (Change in Incontinence Essay prices, increase/decrease in insurgency affect toward sales volume etc). The extent to which the future trading of a corporation or its assets and liabilities may be affected by an unexpected change in Incontinence Essay its operating environment is on Operation and Supply Chain Strategy and Amazon, known as Operating Exposure. Operating exposure relies heavily on the relative pricing. If there is a change in the relative pricing because of any change in the exchange rate, the Urinary Incontinence Essay, operating change in the cash flow is referred to of malfi analysis, as economic exposure (operating exposure). The definition of operating exposure caters for the value of assets as well as flow of cash that is Urinary Essay, expected. Translation Exposure (Accounting Exposure) It is the change in the owners capital due to on Operation and Supply in Toyota and Amazon, translation of foreign currencies to a single one. Whenever a companys assets, debts, loans and income will change in its amount because of change in Urinary Incontinence Essay the exchange rate is known as Translation Exposure.

This is a particular phenomenon for how did the vietcong insurgency affect american, corporations, which have their denomination in foreign currency. Responsibility lies heavily with the accountants, which save the firm from Incontinence this exposure by giving a consolidated statement in the financial sheet. They also utilize cost accounting procedures. In many cases this exposure is Should Athletes Essay, recorded in the statements of the company as gain or a loss after an exchange rate. Translation exposure exists when the financial statements of a foreign branch must be translated into the currency in which the parent firm is operating, so they can be incorporated into the parent companys financial sheets by Incontinence Essay, consolidation, equity or the piano lessons, combination method. Translation exposure is Urinary Incontinence, also referred as accounting exposure. The root of this exposure is the difference in lessons exchange rates between the time of consolidation and there effect in the value of the companys assets and liabilities which are abroad. An exposed item is the one that is law bided by accounting rules to Urinary Incontinence Essay, be translated according to the current exchange rates or the rate of the consolidation date.

An unexposed item is piano lessons by august, bided by the exchange rate at which that item was acquired. A company with assets that are exposed surplus then the liabilities in a foreign land is vulnerable to translation losses from decrease in Urinary the value of the the vietcong american policy toward, foreign currency between two financial years. The situation would be the Urinary Incontinence Essay, same if the liabilities were more and there is an appreciation in the foreign currency. Distinction between the foreign exchange exposures. Although these exposures seem closely related, but on close examination they do have differences. Differences maybe in the definition as well as the their area of effect. The Duchess Analysis? Operating exposure is different from the translation exposure from the core. It involves giving a predetermined value to all the future cash flows, and Essay, then it measures fluctuations in the exchange rate on all operational cash flows, whether a transaction has taken place or not. Translation exposure has their profits and losses either directly on on Operation and Supply Chain Strategy and Amazon, the cash flow or indirectly on the stockholders equity, financial assets, whereas transaction exposure has direct bearing on Incontinence, the cash flow. In terms of american toward vietnam, effect Transaction exposure is of short term whereas Translation and Operating exposure have long-term effects. There is also a significant difference in the area that these exposures encompass.

Transaction exposure is limited to the particular deal, which has taken place. On the other hand, translation exposure focuses on Incontinence Essay, a wider spectrum like Stockholders equity, liabilities, and Strategy in Toyota and Amazon, assets which ever have to be converted in to Urinary Essay, a single currency. Operating exposures encompass the the vietcong insurgency affect vietnam, widest of the spectrum, assets, all future cash flows, liabilities and there effect is the longest. Understandably there are a variety of Urinary, factors, which can influence the insurgency affect american policy toward, operating exposures, like cost of raw material, pricing, and the volume of sales. The major distinction of the operating exposure is that, whereas Translation and Transactional exposures are limited to the individual corporation, but economic exposure has to Urinary, cater for the effects of the exchange rate on its competitors. Another major difference once comparing accounting and operating exposure is that the former represents an exposure, which has happened, and latter caters for future exposure. Measurement of how did affect american toward, Foreign Exchange exposures. Foreign exchange exposures measure the profit margin, net cash flow, and the market value of a firm to vary according to the change in Urinary Incontinence the exchange rates. Measurement of Transaction exposure.

Measurement of transaction exposure is fairly easy. It is measured from currency to currency. The amount of the contractually fixed list is calculated. The final payment according to the latest exchange rate for the currency in the vietcong affect american vietnam which the amount has to be paid is Incontinence Essay, calculated. The exposure is the difference between the two. Measurement of Operating Exposure. Measuring of the operating exposure is a tedious task and garden of the forking, requires a lot of planning. Measurement of the operating exposure requires that we analyze and forecast corporations future transaction exposures together with the future exposures that the Incontinence, corporations competitors and to be competitors will face. Essay And Supply Strategy In Toyota And Amazon? Let us assume that a company A has X number of Urinary Essay, transactions from its present and future dealings abroad. The sum of these future transaction exposures would give a strong indication of the cash flow, as the exchange rate changes.

Company As worth competitiveness depends upon its cash flow and whether or not it has the capability to manage these transactions better then its competitors. Operating exposures takes into of malfi analysis, account the long term goal of the Incontinence, firm. It measures two types of cash flows: Operating cash flow constitutes payments for services, goods, and kansas nebraska, rent. Incontinence? It also includes payments of how did insurgency affect american, royalties, license fees, and management fees. These are payments for the inter company loans and liabilities. They also include payment of stockholder equity. Measurement of Translation exposure. Accounting exposure is perhaps the easiest of exposures that can be measured.

For measuring the current exchange rate should be known, then the difference between the local and the reporting currency is calculated. Corporations possessing individual investors money are viable to exposure by fluctuations in all kinds of financial retailing, as a natural by-product of their financial activities. Urinary Incontinence? Financial retailing includes foreign interest rates, commodity prices, exchange rates, and equity prices. The effect of changes in these prices has a magnanimous effect on the reported earnings. Of The Forking? Its common knowledge companies reporting reduced or enhanced financial statements owing to fluctuating commodity prices or gain due to favorable exchange rates. Hedging in Urinary Essay the general sense is a company entering or creating a transaction, whose sensitivity to fluctuation in financial retailing offsets their vulnerability in their core business. Hedging involves a lot of planning and by no means is an easy exercise. Another major reason for hedging the exposure of the of the, firm to its financial risk is to increase or sustain the competitiveness of the corporation.

Its a world of financial competition and companies can not live in isolation.. they compete with other corporations domestically as well as internationally, especially between companies that produce similar products in Incontinence Essay the global market. Affect American Vietnam? Take the example of Incontinence Essay, a pharmaceutical company that has its competition with domestic firms and also competes with other international pharmaceutical companies. Simple hedging techniques can render a company to how did toward vietnam, effectively close in a deal or transaction at a predetermined exchange rate and Urinary Essay, minimize the risk of transaction profits and losses between the signing of transaction and the settlement date. To elaborate a US company was due for payment of 10 million pounds on May 1. Constant fluctuation of on Operation Chain and Amazon, exchange rate was a problem which company was likely to face. Risk could have given profit but on the other hand there was equal chance of loss. To alleviate this problem the company decided to hedge a forward contract with the bank for the conversion of 10 Million pounds at a fixed rate of 1.7$/pound.

So, after receiving the payment of 10 million pounds from its customers it simply got them converted on the pre determined contract with bank. Different hedging strategies are employed while different exposures are encountered. Urinary Essay? Below are mentioned few of the strategies employed while tackling Foreign exchange exposures. Hedging of piano lessons by august wilson, Transaction exposure. There are various ways of protecting against a transaction exposure including clauses in the contract, which keep prices fixed, forward contracts, various currency options etc. Forward market hedge : The above-mentioned example is of a forward contract where company had to receive payments in Urinary Incontinence a foreign currency. So, in Strategy the hindsight they make a deal with the bank on the conversion of the same amount, at Urinary Incontinence Essay, a fixed rate.

Money market hedge: In this hedge company refers to the money market, they either borrow or lend money from the money market, which is definitely interest tagged. Convert that amount according to the existing spot rate. Then invest that money for a specific time period, which generally coincides with receivables of the foreign currency. Analysis? Then give that loan + interest back. Incontinence? Thee are several variables attached with this transaction like the spot rate at which loan was converted, secondly the investment has to the duchess, be sound otherwise this method will backfire. Risk shifting : As the name suggests this method shifts the risk equally between the Incontinence Essay, companies in which transaction has to take place. Company will lay down the price of their export (generally strong currency), and import in weak currency. This is almost a foolproof method provided that the companies are well informed. This method has a net zero sum gain as exports and imports value are equal. Pricing decisions : This method is used where a company imports or exports on credit and the contractual obligation connects them with the forward rate but not spot rate.

Exposure netting : In this process MNCs choose to transact in how did insurgency american policy toward vietnam currencies where there are minimum chances of exposure. Choice of currencies is Urinary Incontinence Essay, determined by the amount of fluctuation they go through. Nebraska? In this case more stable currencies are preferred. Corporations perform netting (choosing currencies which are not related positively). Essay? Effect of one currency exposure is reduced by the exposure in another currency. Currency risk sharing : customizing a hedge contract that has a Price Adjustment clause evolves this type of Athletes, sharing.

Contractual partners draw a base price, which is decided in consensus. Base price caters for Incontinence Essay, most of the exchange fluctuations. Partners decide to share any exposure risk beyond a neutral zone. If the exchange rate fluctuation is lessons wilson, less and stays within the neutral zone then what ever profit or loss it would not be shared. Cross hedging : This method is Incontinence Essay, useful where a forward contract is not available in a desired currency.

Solution to the problem is of malfi, that a cross hedge is created in a currency which is related. Critical factor of this solution is that a correlation has to exist between the two currencies. Hedging of Translation exposure. Following are the methods by which translation exposure can be effectively curtailed. Adjusting fund flows : We already know that translation exposure encompasses cash flow, assets, liabilities which have to be converted to another currency for the purpose of reporting. A helpful method of hedging the cash flow problem is changing the currencies or their amounts of the currency, which is functional by the parent or its subsidiaries.

This method would reduce reporting currencies cash flow. Forward contracts : This method is similar to the one, which was employed while catering for Urinary Incontinence Essay, transaction exposure. The main difference is that instead of a transaction, an offsetting asset or liability is created for the loss or profit of wilson, translation respectively. Exposure netting : The method is similar to the one employed early for transactions. Incontinence? Another currency is employed to create an offsetting effect. The effect has to Should Athletes Be Paid? Essay, be opposite to the one created by translation. Hedging of operating exposure. Hedging of Urinary Incontinence Essay, operating exposure is far more important for a firms long health then transaction and translation exposure combined. Diversifying operations : Diversifying operations means increasing the breadth of the firm. It will give an early and the vietcong insurgency affect toward, comprehensive indication of changes in Urinary the world market, and thus giving better reaction time to the managers. Diversifying financing : Its synonymous to the previous point.

A firm should diversify its cash flow in more then one market and more currencies. Pro-active Management : Operating exposure demands that a paradigm shift in the policies should be done to remove any chances of currency exposures. Matching currency cash flows : If there is a continuous long exposure to a particular currency, then it can be solved by taking a loan in that currency. Risk sharing : The method is same as that was employed in transaction exposure. Back to back loans : This method is also known as credit swap. In this method two companies in different companies borrow each others currency for a specified period of time. The Vietcong Affect American Toward? This transaction is generally done on independent rates ( detached from Forex), but spot rates can be used. Currency Swaps : The major difference between this method and Urinary Incontinence, back-to-back loans is the documentation.

This method is not reflected in the balance sheet. Process is similar to credit swapping. Leads and Lags : This method caters for operating exposure by re-timing its payments of foreign currency. By lead it means that payment is made early and vice versa for lag. Re invoicing Centers : The method involves a middle-man (separate subsidiary), creating a link between the parent or related unit and its subsidiaries in garden of the forking close geographic region. It gives freedom to all subsidiaries to function in their currency and the transaction exposure is with the center. It is the era of globalization and international products are available at our doorsteps.

This is an opportune time for MNCs to prosper and strengthen their foothold. Consumers are also benefiting equally from this competitive environment, in Urinary Incontinence Essay terms of better quality of products and cheap prices. Exchange of currencies in this scenario is at an all time high for obvious reasons. Effect of these currency transactions is creating anomalies in the form of Should Student Athletes Essay, exposures. In places, where there are dealings in Urinary Incontinence Essay millions these exposures gain enormous importance. MNCs by now have realized these problems and are taking pro-active measures to resolve them. Those companies which have not given exposures there due importance will suffer and lag behind in this financial world. Choi, J.J.

1986. A model of firm valuation with exchange rate exposure. Journal of International Business Studies. Shapiro, A.C. 1975. Exchange rate changes, inflation, and the value of the multinational corporation.

Journal of Finance. Allen, Linda Christos Pantzalis. 1996. Valuation of the Operating Flexibility of Multinational Corporations. The Duchess? Journal of International Business Studies. Buckley, Peter Mark C. Casson. 1998. Models of the Urinary Incontinence Essay, Multinational Enterprise. Journal of International Business Studies.

Greene, William H. 2000. Econometric Analysis. 4th Edition, New Jersey: Prentice Hall. He, Jia Lilian Ng. 1998. The Foreign Exchange Exposure of Japanese Multinational Corporations. The Journal of Should Essay, Finance. Jesswein, Kurt, Chuck C. Y. Kwok, and Incontinence, William Folks, Jr. Corporate Use of Innovative Foreign Exchange Risk Management Products. Columbia Journal of World Business Fall 1995. Stulz, Rene, and Clifford Smith. The Determinants of Firms Hedging Policies. Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis ( December 1985)

University/College: University of California. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 4 March 2017. Let us write you a custom essay sample on Translation, Transaction and Operating Exposures. for only $16.38 $13.9/page.

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10 Resume Mistakes You Must Avoid. 1. OBJECTIVE: Theyre out of date. Theyre usually too short and too me focused. A better choice is Urinary a Profile which should be no more than 7 lines long (otherwise the paragraph is too dense), should combine your skills with your personality, and should describe you. Think about what makes you unique. If you find yourself writing proven ability, or team player, highly motivated and other generic, unoriginal and non-descriptive phrases, try asking your references or previous co-workers what makes you good at piano by august wilson, what you do. 2. Urinary Incontinence Essay. BLAND DETAILS: #8220;Responsibilities included overseeing construction of four hotels in Tri-City area, each 50 floors high.#8221; So what? Did they go up on schedule? Did you bring them in under budget? Did you take all four from site work up or did you pick up two of them mid-project?

If you don#8217;t tell the hiring company why youre the analysis best choice, how will they know? 3. ANOTHER JOB, ANOTHER PARAGRAPH: Don#8217;t keep adding on to your resume job after job, year after year. By the time you#8217;re in Incontinence Essay, your 40s, you need to have weeded out your earlier, unrelated jobs and the duchess of malfi just list the Essay company and the duchess analysis title. Drop your college activities, and leave your degree. 4. REFERENCES: Shouldn#8217;t be listed on your resume, nor should it say #8220;References available on request#8221;. Present them separately when they#8217;re requested. This isn#8217;t about protocol. This is about protecting your references so they aren#8217;t called until you and the company are serious about each other.

5. IT#8217;S NOT A STORY!: Don#8217;t write your resume in the third person, this includes using your name, or the Incontinence pronoun I anywhere. Thats its you is implied because its your name on top! 6. SKIP THE PERSONAL INFO: You might think your baseball coaching or church choir participation shows you#8217;re a well-rounded person, but they#8217;re irrelevant. Affect American Vietnam. If the interviewer wants to know who you are aside from your qualifications, he#8217;ll ask. 7. DEGREE DATE: No matter how old you are, don#8217;t leave the Essay date of when you were graduated off your resume. It looks like you#8217;re hiding something (well, you are, aren#8217;t you?), and then everyone does the math to figure out how old you are.

If you#8217;re trying to hide your age by not stating the date, what else might you not be forthcoming about? 8. SPELL CHECK, SPELL CHECK, SPELL CHECK: Spell checking visually by you and someone else, any fewer than three times, isn#8217;t enough. And don#8217;t forget to check your punctuation. 9. GETTING IT OUT THERE part one: If it#8217;s an Athletes ad, you probably have instructions as to how to Urinary Incontinence Essay, send it. If it says email, cut and paste it in the form, and attach it as a .pdf. You dont know what it will look like on the other end because of the Essay on Operation and Supply variety of settings available to Urinary, each user.

Quite frankly, you#8217;re better off not emailing it at all, but unfortunately besides not sending it sometimes that#8217;s your only choice. Emailing your resume takes any option for further participation right out of your hands, because often there#8217;s no name given for kansas nebraska, a follow up contact. You#8217;ve no other option than to wait and wonder. 10. Urinary Essay. GETTING IT OUT THERE part two: If you know the name of the company, call and ask if they prefer email, fax, or snail mail. I know a recruiter whose email was listed in The Kennedy Guide to Executive Recruiters.

He received hundreds of resumes emailed to him cold (so not pro-active!) and how did the vietcong affect american simply mass deleted them every morning. I#8217;ll bet less than 10% of those people bothered to follow up to see if it was received (this isn#8217;t a numbers game)! Candidates he contacted for a specific search received an Urinary Incontinence entirely different email address. The Duchess Of Malfi. How about Urinary that? 11. VISUALS: Ivory paper. Black ink. Individual pages.

No plastic. Your resume is kansas nebraska a professional document, not a school book report or an art project. Until every resume is done this way, yours will still stand out in the crowd. You are the product, and your resume is the brochure. To find your perfect job you must differentiate yourself from the others who are also vying for attention. Urinary Incontinence. Your resume tells your story of who you are, how you make decisions and how well you do what you do. Your resume must be specific, individualized, easy to skim to invite a closer reading, and focused on the accomplishments you#8217;ve achieved with and for Athletes, each previous employer.

This tells the Urinary Incontinence hiring company what you can do for Essay and Supply Strategy in Toyota, them and it is Urinary Essay about the hiring company, not you. The resume is what gets you in the door. If its poorly written, looks sloppy, is difficult to read, is of the forking cryptic, or necessitates being slogged through, youll be tossed aside and Essay forgotten. And how can you decide if you want the company, when they#8217;ve already decided they don#8217;t want you? Judi Perkins, the How-To Career Coach, was a recruiter for 22 years and Student Athletes Be Paid? worked with hundreds of Incontinence Essay, hiring authorities on Essay and Supply Strategy in Toyota and Amazon, entry level through CEO. She set up over 15,000 interviews, and has seen over half a million resumes. Her clients often find jobs 8 12 weeks because she brings them sequence, structure and Urinary Essay focus, and and Supply Strategy in Toyota shows why typical strategies often fail. Urinary. Shes been on PBSs Frontline, Good Morning Connecticut, in Smart Money magazine, CareerBuilder, MSN Careers, Yahoo Hot Jobs, New York Times, New York Daily News, multiple radio shows including a regular Thursday morning gig, and quoted in numerous career books.

Sign up for garden paths, her free newsletter at If you are going to email your resume, make sure you send it as a PDF instead of a Word document. You#8217;ll know that the spacing remained the Urinary Essay same and that it looks the way you want it to look. Thanks for bringing that up it#8217;s a good point. For example, I have a client who originally emailed her resume in a word doc format. She#8217;s on the creative side of piano lessons, things and does design work etc. Urinary Incontinence. I don#8217;t know what her original resume looked like becuase it came out the vietcong affect my end on Urinary Incontinence Essay, courier or helveticaw hich. is what usually happens if the font doesn#8217;t match on of the paths, the other side. Consequently her resume looked. even worse than it would have anyway (spacing, formatting, some other things).

There seems to be a difference of opinion on Urinary Incontinence, whether to include year of graduation on the resume. Some professional recruiters discourage including this info. It can distract the Essay Chain in Toyota and Amazon resume reader from focusing on Urinary Incontinence, your relevant job experience and of malfi analysis other key parts of the resume as they mentally calculate how old you are from the year of graduation. Yes, that#8217;s true. And in this, like in so many other things conventional wisdom advocates, I disagree. Incontinence. The other part of the broad overview of why I recommend putting your date on there is that if a company isn#8217;t going to hire someone who#8217;s over a certain age, then bringing you in and visually seeing that you#8217;re over nebraska act document, the age they want isn#8217;t going to change that. #8220;But what if I can wow them with my experience?#8221; you ask.

Good question. That just cemented they won#8217;t hire you. Age isn#8217;t about Incontinence age it#8217;s about salary. And if you#8217;re #8220;old,#8221; then you#8217;re #8220;overqualified#8221; which means you#8217;re going to want more than they want to pay. And if you don#8217;t go the #8220;overqualified#8221; route and wow them with your experience, then if that#8217;s too different from Should Be Paid? Essay what#8217;s on yoru resume, they#8217;ll be wary of hiring you becuase you#8217;re willing to take a cut in pay and Urinary will conclude you#8217;ll keep looking and won#8217;t be around long. Of Malfi. So why not just be who you are, put the date on Urinary Incontinence, there, and go look for Chain Strategy and Amazon, the companies who are looking for experience, and let the rest of them weed you out? (BTW that#8217;s a rhetorical question) William, did you join my community? I#8217;ve got a very loyal following and lots of people refer others to me because while I#8217;m off center from conventional wisdom, my clients, and other people from my community, are getting hired, some in just a few weeks or months, depending on how much the work with me. Plus you#8217;ll get a cool resume report based on the half million I#8217;ve seen! Thanks for your comment William. I have read many resumes over the years and your comments are on target.

With so many companies using e/m resume sorting I would also suggest infusing key search words. Thanks for that! Yes, key words are essential but in some cases, hard to avoid anyway. If you#8217;ve been doing the work in Urinary Incontinence Essay, that function or industry, they#8217;re going to be there to some degree. But they should be infused naturally within the resume, not glopped on the top like so many professional resume writers do it. Additionally, I#8217;ve worked with a lot of how did the vietcong insurgency vietnam, clients who have paid to have their resumes done (by someone else), and either a) it hasn#8217;t been working or b) they#8217;re uncomfortable with the finished product. The first one A is Incontinence a different reason from key words, and Essay in Toyota and Amazon thus irrelevant in this post. But B is often because in those keywords glopped on top there are a whole bunch that aren#8217;t really true, or in context, with the person who owns the Essay resume. They#8217;re overstated.

Or overdone. Or both. And so I work with them to the duchess analysis, reshape their resume and help them to understand better how and why the first one didn#8217;t work and the reshape (so to speak) will. Urinary Incontinence. As a result, they feel more comfortable with the resume, because it better represents who they are and kansas nebraska act document they begin to see the results they weren#8217;t seeing before they came to me. I appreciate your comment and Urinary Incontinence Essay bringing up the importance of keywords, a word which by itself, can freak people out as they#8217;re usually not sure if they have enough! But if the resume is done well and done right, and analysis really represents who the Incontinence person is, then it#8217;s almost impossible to write a resume without keywords. What do you think, Ralph?

And by the way, how#8217;s your resume? #128578; And as I mentioned to William above (and forgot to ask Mary) please join my community! Piano Lessons By August. Thanks for your comment. How to Incontinence, Leverage Alumni Networking on LinkedIn to Find a Job. Personal Branding: Where to Start When You Don#8217;t Know How.

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Child Observation Birth to 12 Month. I had an opportunity to carefully observe an infant who was 10 months old boy for about 2 hours in the infant and toddler classroom at Friends Center for Urinary Incontinence Children. Before entering the kansas nebraska, classroom, I washed my hands and left my shoes on the door step. You were not allowed to wear your shoes inside, because the kids are young and still crawl on the floor. When I entered the room, it was a small room where few babies were sleeping in their cribs and some were ready for their snacks. The infants were surrounded by different textures and brilliant colors. There was only one rocking chair so that the caregiver could feed and rock the babies comfortably. The walls were decorated with animals cutouts.

On the other side of the room there were cabinets and Urinary Incontinence drawers with the sink in between. The Vietcong Affect American Vietnam. All the cabinets were child proof and each cabinet had bins that were filled with the babies extra clothes, diapers, and wipes. There was a small changing table where caregivers changed the Urinary Essay, babies diapers. The room floor was mostly carpeted. The kids art work was displayed on their eye level. Age appropriate toys like touch and forking paths feel puzzles, dolls, mirror blocks and touch and Urinary feel books were on the shelf.

Outside of the lessons wilson, room there was a cubby area where babys jackets were hanging. All the cubbies were labeled with each childs name, picture and their family pictures. The classroom environment provides many choices for different activities. The infant classroom provides a safe, comfortable, clean and attractive environment in which children can spend and enjoy their day with their friends and caregivers. I observed a 10 month old boy. He had just waked up from Incontinence Essay, his nap time. He was smiling to his caregiver.

He had black round eyes and had curly, short black hair. The caregiver called his name and he started moving his hands round and round. He was lying down on his. . confident: a sanguine disposition. American Toward. He was a very sanguine person, always happy. Essay. 12.

Benign- having a kindly disposition; gracious- He was a very benign king, always giving to garden of the, the poor. Incontinence Essay. 13. Felicity- the state of being happy, especially in Essay on Operation Chain Strategy in Toyota and Amazon, a high degree. He was filled with felicity because he passed his test. 14. Avouch- to make frank acknowledgment or affirmation of; declare or assert with positiveness. She avouched that she herself was innocent 15.

Vintner- a person who makes wine or sells wines. Urinary Incontinence. He was a vintner and had a wine shop. 16. Effigy- a representation or image, especially sculptured, as on a monument. The old church, which was much larger, contained the mutilated effigy of piano, a man in armor, with his sword sheathed. 17. Essay. Superfluity- something superfluous, as a luxury. I sensed a hint of superfluity in him 18. Tithe- any tax, levy, or the like, especially of one-tenth.

In the how did the vietcong affect vietnam, Bible, it says that Christians should give tithe to the church. 19. Benefice- a position or post granted to an ecclesiastic that guarantees a fixed amount of property or income. He made a Beneficent amount of Essay, money for how did the vietcong american policy vietnam the homeless 20. Buffoon- a person who amuses others by tricks, jokes, odd gestures and Urinary Essay postures, etc.

He was a buffoon in school, always amusing people with tricks. 21. Abstruse- hard to understand; recondite; esoteric He had an abstruse theory. 22. Carbuncle- a gemstone, especially a garnet, cut with a convex back and a cabochon surface. She had. Words: 636 - Pages: 3. . Dyslexia Basic Dyslexia is piano lessons by august wilson, a language learning disability. Incontinence. The earliest clues mostly spoke language. The very first clue to how did the vietcong insurgency, a language and reading problem may be delayed language.

Once the child being to Urinary, speak theres different ways to see if the child has learning problems and difficulties with rhyming, phonemic awareness and ability to read common one syllable words. The cause of dyslexia its not clear but anatomical and brain and studies show differences in the dyslexic person functions. It has found that people with dyslexia has more problems with identifying the garden of the, separate speech sound within a word. Essay. Studies indicate that almost half of the students with special education are classified as having learning disability. Dyslexia can occurs in all backgrounds and intellectual levels. Parents with dyslexia are most likely to have children whit dyslexia. People with dyslexia can also have problems with spoken language even after they have been exposed to garden forking paths, good language models. They may find it difficult to express them clearly, or to fully comprehend what others mean when they speak.

Kids with dyslexia think that they are dumb and they dont have the Urinary, capacity to learn like the others kids, but they have the same capacity to Essay on Operation and Supply Chain, do things maybe not the same thing but a different thing they are perfect. Today in day school has a new program called Response to Intervention to identity if children with learning problems. When teaches see that the kid its not learning like. Words: 452 - Pages: 2. . Essay. NINE TO TWELVE MONTHS Between nine and twelve months of age, babies should ideally be sleeping 10 to 12 hours a night and be having two naps a day for about one to act document, two hours each. Babies at this age can be awake for 3 to Urinary Incontinence Essay, 4 hours at a time but it is Student, wise to watch for Urinary Essay tired signs and dont let your baby get overtired. Lessons. It is a transitional time for them and Urinary Incontinence Essay they are probably starting to crawl and walk so they can get very tired very quickly. Eating well is vitally important for kansas nebraska act document routine and sleeping, and babies should now be eating three solid meals a day plus morning and afternoon tea snacks, and be reducing their milk feeds to only having three per day.

This is also the time where food starts to become more important that the milk feeds so food should be given first rather than the milk. Your baby should also be sleeping through the night and Urinary should not require any sort of piano lessons wilson, feeding at night. Routine and ritual is also a very important part of your childrens lives. Routine and Essay ritual enable a child to understand whats coming next, what they can expect and what is expected of them. It helps them make better sense of the garden paths, world around them. So be very conscious of the routine and ritual that makes up yours and your childs life and if you dont have a routine as yet, it is Essay, a great time to start one. 24 HOUR IDEAL ROUTINE 6am 7am Breast or bottle feed (If baby wakes at 5am she may go back to sleep for an hour or so after her feed, this is okay) Breakfast Give a drink of. Words: 456 - Pages: 2. . 1. Red, White, and Should Student Athletes Be Paid? Blue. 2.50 3. White. 4. One for each state in the Union.

5. 13 6. Red and Urinary Incontinence Essay White. 7. Kansas Nebraska Act Document. They represent the original 13 states. Urinary Incontinence. 8. 50 9. Independence Day. Wilson. 10. July 4th 11. Urinary Incontinence Essay. England 12. England 13. And Supply Chain Strategy. George Washington 14. Urinary Incontinence Essay. Currently Barack Obama 15.

Currently Joseph Biden 16. The Electoral College 17. Vice - President 18. Four years 19. The supreme law of the land 20. On Operation Strategy In Toyota And Amazon. Yes 21. An Amendment 22. 27 23. 3 24. Incontinence Essay. Legislative, Executive, and Judiciary 25.

Congress 26. Congress 27. The Senate and the House of Representatives 28. To make laws 29. The people 30. 100 31. Ted Kennedy and John Kerry 32. 6 years 33. 435 34. 2 years 35.

The President, vice president, cabinet, and departments under the cabinet members 36. The Supreme Court 37. To interpret laws 38. The Constitution 39. The first 10 amendments of the Constitution 40. Tallahassee. 41. Rick Scott.

42. Speaker of the House of Representative 43. William Rehnquist (or whoever is next) 44. Connecticut, New Hampshire, New York, New Jersey, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Rhode Island, and Maryland. Policy Toward. 45. Patrick Henry 46. Urinary Incontinence. Germany, Italy, and Japan 47. Alaska and Hawaii 48. 2 49. A civil rights leader 50.

The mayor or Commission Chairman. By August Wilson. 51. Urinary Essay. Must be a natural born citizen of the United States; must be at least 35 years old by the time he/she will serve; must have lived in the United States for at least 14 years. 52. Two.

Words: 548 - Pages: 3. . Observation Becky woke up from her morning nap. Garden Of The. She cries and slowly crawls down her bed to find her mom. Mommy, then cried again. Aunty, where mommy go? she asked. I replied, mommy go work. She come back later okay? She replied, okay aunty. Incontinence Essay. She went to play in the playroom. Becky grabs her teapot and by august cups. She sat down on the picnic table.

She sat a teddy bear in one chair, and Urinary a doll on another. She drinks the cup. Put the of the forking, cup down and Urinary Essay poured the tea around the the duchess of malfi, table. As her younger sister woke up; she asked Bella, you play with me? Bella smiled and Urinary Incontinence sat down. Becky poured tea around the piano by august wilson, table and said, everybody drink. Becky handed Bella a cup and a plate with toy vegetables. Urinary Essay. Bella ate it. Becky stopped Bella and pushes Bellas hand, and said Bella that ew. You no eat it. Are you guys hungry, you two? I asked, If you two are, come here. Becky replied, Yes aunty. I coming.

Becky grabbed all the toys and put it in piano by august wilson, the toy box. Becky ran to me and Incontinence Essay Bella followed. Becky sat down on the floor. Bella followed along with Becky and sat down too. I handed them both a plate of food. Becky said, Aunty I dont like it. I dont like green. By August. I dont like orange. What do you like them? I replied. Urinary. Rice and Athletes Be Paid? Essay juice only. If you eat the green and orange one, youll be big and beautiful like a princess. I said. Um okay then.

I like it more now. I want big house and mommy and daddy and Bella and aunty and uncle and grandma and grandpa live here and smile back at. Words: 1395 - Pages: 6. . | Abortion vs. Child Birth | An Individuals Cost and the Cost to Society | | | Abortion vs. Child Birth An Individuals Cost and the Cost to Society The ability of women to participate equally in the economic and social life of the Incontinence Essay, nation has been facilitated by Essay on Operation Chain in Toyota their ability to control their reproductive lives. Justice Sandra Day OConnor (Boonstra, et al., 2006, p.6) Introduction A woman typically spends roughly five years pregnant, postpartum or trying to become pregnant and three decades trying to avoid pregnancy. (Boonstra, et al., 2006 p.6) This is more true today than any other time in Essay, history.

The role women have played throughout history has been that of nuturer. In society today, she must also be provider. With this added duty placed on her, todays women have had to adjust. One of these adjustments are the number of children she is willing and insurgency american vietnam able to provide for. Advancements in technology in Incontinence Essay, the past century has enabled her to control this, specifically abortion and the use of contraceptives. Hypothesis Changing roles in the family unit have caused the dynamic to change. Women have become the sole provider to the family in the vietcong insurgency affect american toward vietnam, many households forcing them to earn a living as well as take care of the children. Conflicting sets of moral and Incontinence ethical values within society have made their choices more difficult. By controlling which options she has availible, is society choosing for her? When does a.

Words: 3773 - Pages: 16. . Tyler is 21 months old and has brown, mid-length, soft and curly hair. She has almond shaped brown eyes, and kansas act document a dark complexion. She is in her back yard with her 6-year-old sister. Today is a warm day with lots of Urinary Incontinence Essay, sunshine. The children are dressed in shorts and tank tops. Should Be Paid?. Tyler walked out of the familys back door first and went straight to her tricycle. Her oldest sister, Dyari immediately followed her and began to help her onto Incontinence the tricycle, as directed by piano wilson Tyler, non verbally. Her sister, Mya, 4, went straight to the flower bed to dig with the shovel and buckets that were sitting there.

Tyler has just finished a snack eaten at Incontinence her kitchen table. She seems in a happy mood and ready to play. When Tyler goes into her back yard she immediately goes towards her tricycle followed by her sister. There are several toys in Student Athletes Essay, the back yard. There is a child size pool, two push toys, a large ball a few buckets with shovels sitting next to the flower bed and various other cars and a doll. Tyler chose the Urinary Incontinence Essay, tricycle first, possibly because it was the toy nearest to the back door. Tyler and her two sisters ages 4 and 7 are present. yler at the vietcong insurgency affect policy vietnam first seems to Incontinence Essay, be the one controlling the play. She approaches the tricycle and is followed by her oldest sister, Dyari. Tyler directs her sister, nonverbally to help her get on the tricycle. Tyler is on the tricycle and Dyari is standing close as if she is ready to protect her is Tyler falls off.

Tyler is wiggling the handle bars back and forth making. Words: 654 - Pages: 3. . Through Younger Eyes Child Observation Paper Courtney Beck Spoon River College Through Younger Eyes Child Observation Paper On May 5th, 2009, I was blessed with my son, I will call him Timmy for Should Student Be Paid? this paper. He is now five and a half years old, has brown hair, hazel eyes, average weight and a little taller than his classmates. He is my only child and I am sure there are many great excuses I could use in order to Urinary Incontinence Essay, explain our circumstances, but the main factor is I had him at a young age before I was ready or had any idea how raising a child can make you, break you, shake you and wake you up, especially going at it alone. I suppose many choose their children as an on Operation Strategy easy way out or a more convienient way to Essay, get an assignment done in situations such as this one, however I decided to Essay and Supply in Toyota, observe my son so I can grow as a mother.

It also gave me the opportunity to learn more about him on a deeper level. Of course we observe our children everyday as parents, but do we really take it all in or just do it by Urinary natural force. With that being said, now it is time to get down to it. Observing a child, we can see how a young person thinks, plays and interacts with the world around them. Observing him while playing with his toys was an easy route because it is the only activity that allowed me to watch him for a longer period of time without him noticing persay. I observed his physical attitute, his individual way of thinking along with memory skills and what his likes and dislikes were. Words: 326 - Pages: 2. . This essay will focus attachment and a definition will be offered. For this essay my research will be based on different types of attachment and analysis experiment used and the effects of Essay, maternal deprivation socially and emotionally. I will explain and evaluate different experiment and discuss my finding in conclusion. Attachment is a strong, long lasting emotional tie or bond to a particular individual (Haralambos et al, 2000). Attachment in infancy have some characteristics which include: seeking proximity i.e. wanting to Should Athletes Essay, be near each other, seeking anxiety a mutual feeling of upset if separated and pleasure when reunited.

General orientation towards the primary care giver the Urinary Essay, infant is garden of the forking paths, always aware of the attachment figure and seek reassurance that they are there (Brody Dwyer, 2002). These attachments behaviours can also be seen in Urinary Essay, older people who have an of malfi analysis attachment. Adults have more sophisticated ways of maintaining proximity such as sending text messages and Urinary Incontinence the underlying need to stay in touch is still the same. Attachments are formed in human and in many species of animals such as sheep and ducks, attachments are formed rapidly soon after birth. This process was first investigated by Konrad Lorenz. And Supply Chain In Toyota And Amazon. In his observation of animals, Lorenz noticed the tendency for new born, orphaned animals to form an attachment to any animal that happened to be present and to follow it as if it were their real mother. This can often be seen on farms where orphaned lambs will attach. Words: 1413 - Pages: 6. Child Observation Birth to 12 Month. . big block bead.

He started banging the Incontinence, bead on the floor. He was sitting with his both legs wide out. Athletes Essay. He was leaning forward with his stomach to the floor to Urinary Incontinence, grab another bead. The Duchess. Then he started crawling across the floor with his hands flat on the ground and fingers spread wide. Urinary. He crawled back again to the carpet area and started observing his other friends.

Then he picked some alphabet shaped like crabs and put it in his mouth. He looked at his caregiver who was saying no, then he nodded his head and reached to get another alphabet crab. Essay. He smiled at her and she smiled back. It was a very positive relationship between them. A few minutes later the caregiver turned on the music. Incontinence. The baby started bouncing and shaking his arms all around. He was sitting on the floor with his toys around him. At the same time his mom came inside to pick him up.

He saw his mom and lifted his both arms with a big smile on his face. His mom picked him up and gave him a big hug. Then he was standing with the support of his mom and she was putting on garden of the paths, his jacket. He waved his both hands to Incontinence, his caregiver to the duchess of malfi analysis, order to say bye. Section 3 Physical Development: From birth to 12 months, the Urinary, most important changes take place within the child. This is the period when he will learn how to use his senses and increase motor abilities to develop skills like grasping, rolling, sitting up and even crawling. Garden Of The. Based on my observation the child showed his head control. Roll over in Incontinence, both directions. Kansas Act Document. He can also. Words: 1107 - Pages: 5. . Child Observation Report Lecturer: Dr.

Stephanie L. Knight Observer: Afra Mohamed Taha Observant: 3-4 year old boy Topic: Entire Observation Setting: Airport. A family consists of a father, a mother, three daughters and a son. Goal: Observing the Incontinence Essay, boy to see his entire behavior, in addition to his reaction to lessons by august wilson, reinforcement and punishment. Time: 52 minutes Method used: Systematic Observation (Specimen Record and Event Sampling) Data collection: This report is based on a Systematic Observation (Berk, 2003, p.44). Incontinence Essay. I designed a simple form to record the data based on specimen record and event sampling in which the researcher records a description of the particular entire steam of behavior, in addition to the duchess of malfi, all instances of particular behavior during a specified time period. (Berk, 2003, p.44-45) Analysis and Discussion: According to Piaget Cognitive Development Theory (Berk, 2003, p.133), this child is in the preoperational stage (2-7 years), and he behaves normally.

When the father left he was upset. His mother asked him to Urinary, sit still in paths, one of the chairs. Essay. He was lying in an arm chair, moving his legs up and kansas down. Then he put his feet on Urinary Essay, the armrest of the piano by august, chair next to Urinary, him, where his sister was sitting. He repeated this behavior several times in attempt to hit his sister. That made his mother tell him off. However, he still didn't respond. Nebraska. Then he put.

Words: 1126 - Pages: 5. . Urinary Incontinence. Observation/Reaction/Reflection paper Marriage and Family Therapy * Ala-non 6/6/2015 Saturday 8:00 P.M Alanon Meeting Hall 17751 Sherman W ay Reseda * Adult Child of Alcoholics 5/10/2015 Sunday 1:15 PM ACA SOS meeting Hall Daily Affirmation Book Meeting - Meeting Based on Our Daily Meditation Book * Alcoholics Anonymous 5/11/2015 Monday 8:00 PM AA Young People North Hollywood Hall 6/8/2015 Tuesday 7:30 PM AA New Start Beginners Meeting 20440 Lassen St (Church) 6/15/2015 Monday Noon Old Timers Mtg at Valley Club * Narcotics Anonymous 5/31/2015 Sunday 3:00 PM NA meeting Radford Hall * Codependents Anonymous 6/16/2015 Tues 7:30 pm CODA Womens Meeting Granada Hills 6/18/2015 Thurs. 7:30 pm CODA Tarzana Group Thursday Alcoholics Anonymous came into being in the vietcong insurgency affect american vietnam, June 1935.The fundamentals of the 12 step programs has remained the same since 1935, however today the twelve steps are helping people with more than alcohol. Today many 12 step program have form and also alternative 12 step programs with more God or God being removed but at the basis level it is the twelve steps. Urinary Essay. I also believe the twelve steps are just basic tools that all people need or most people have received the basis tools when growing up in a healthy family system. The 12 steps teach humility, respect, honest, caring, and to be of service, these are the essential for all people.

I always share with people who want to DO the twelve steps but dont know which program they qualify. Words: 1334 - Pages: 6. . David Lockett CD 101 FH Professor Janvier Jones, M.S. March 4, 2016 Observation: Birth 18 Months The Child observed here is called JD. At the time of the observation the child was 15 months old. The observation began at 3p.m. on affect policy vietnam, February 21, 2016. Essay. The child was at his place of residence with his mother, aunt, and his two sisters ages 9 and 12. As a playroom, the Student Essay, children of the home uses the family room because that is Incontinence, where all the toys are along with the piano, laptops and learning aids for the older children. The beginning of the observation started with JD standing inside of the toy chest with nothing inside but his basketball.

There were several toys on the floor near JD. Essay. The toys consisted of several trucks, a VTech alphabet activity cube, and a VTech Turn and Learn Driver. The VTech Turn and Learn Driver was sitting on a stand directly in front of the Should, toy chest which JD was standing inside of. JD had his left hand on Urinary, the steering wheel turning the wheel left and right and with his right hand he was hitting center of the the duchess of malfi analysis, wheel making it go beep, beep. As the toy produced the beep, beep sounds, JD would imitate them saying beep, beep also.

At different times between the simulated driving, JD would press different buttons on the console of the toy and imitate those sounds also. JD looked up several times at Urinary his mother and smiled only to repeat the process again and Be Paid? again. This went on for approximately 15 minutes. JD would. Words: 1313 - Pages: 6. . David Lockett CD 101 FH Professor Janvier Jones, M.S. Urinary Essay. March 4, 2016 Observation: Birth 18 Months The Child observed here is kansas nebraska, called JD. Incontinence Essay. At the time of the observation the by august wilson, child was 15 months old. The observation began at 3p.m. on February 21, 2016. The child was at Urinary Essay his place of residence with his mother, aunt, and his two sisters ages 9 and 12. As a playroom, the children of the home uses the family room because that is where all the toys are along with the garden paths, laptops and learning aids for the older children.

The beginning of the observation started with JD standing inside of the Incontinence, toy chest with nothing inside but his basketball. Piano Lessons By August Wilson. There were several toys on the floor near JD. Essay. The toys consisted of several trucks, a VTech alphabet activity cube, and a VTech Turn and Learn Driver. The VTech Turn and Learn Driver was sitting on a stand directly in front of the toy chest which JD was standing inside of. JD had his left hand on the steering wheel turning the wheel left and right and with his right hand he was hitting center of the wheel making it go beep, beep. As the toy produced the garden of the forking, beep, beep sounds, JD would imitate them saying beep, beep also. At different times between the simulated driving, JD would press different buttons on the console of the toy and imitate those sounds also. JD looked up several times at his mother and smiled only to repeat the process again and again. This went on Urinary, for approximately 15 minutes. JD would. Words: 1313 - Pages: 6. . Prepared Childbirth (What is it and why is Strategy, it important) Tuesday March 15, 2016 By: April Soto Prepared Childbirth Childbirth is not as simple as most may seem that it can be.

In society women when wanting a baby has to go through childbirth. Child birth is when the Urinary Incontinence, mother to be gives birth which there are different ways to have a baby and also different ways to analysis, give birth. In this paper it will discuss what child birth is and why child birth is important. Education on Childbirth Some people may not me educated enough on childbirth so , please before you plan on making this decision to give birth educate yourself and your partner so that you can have a better feel about the life changing experience that is about to Incontinence, happen, think for the worst prepare yourself and , hope for the best. Watch video, search the web, read books and Strategy and Amazon magazine. By education yourself with all the resource that are available nowadays you will have at ease birth if everything goes well. During Labor and Delivery in which both parents prepare there selfs for this is also called cooperative childbirth. The concept for all methods of prepared childbirth is Urinary Incontinence Essay, education of the parents so they can participate and share the affect policy, wonderful experience of childbirth.

The benefits of Incontinence Essay, this approach are believed to be a more comfortable pregnancy, a shorter period of labor, and for mom to have a less trauma during birth, and a decrease the stress level while giving birth to her new born. One.

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Dreams 2 Essay Research Paper DreamsIn this. Dreams 2 Essay, Research Paper. In this information age, the more one knows the Incontinence Essay, better will be his response to his. world. What better way to know oneself than through ones dreams and their.

interpretations. Take Joe for example. He dreamt that he was lying in the vietcong insurgency american bed crying. When. his mother came in to Urinary Incontinence Essay see what was wrong they had sex. Initially Joe woke up, thinking he. was in the middle of of the a nightmare. Urinary Incontinence! Now there are two choices for Athletes Essay Joe. He could either feel. weird, that he had feelings about his mother, or he could look at what symbols were in his.

Joe decided to analyze his dream. Since he was in Urinary Incontinence Essay his own bed, it showed that he is. comfortable in forking his life. Secondly Joe, needed to decipher if there was a predominant color, and yes it was deep brick red, that meant Joe was going to experience good things in Incontinence the.

near future. Next Joe needed to understand that he was showing signs of regression, by. sitting and crying. Once he realizes that, Joe remembers being reprimanded at work, where he felt like crawling under a rock.

Lastly, Joe needs to understand that just because. he was with his mother in his dream doesn t mean that he feels for policy vietnam her in that way. Because he was having sex with his mother most likely means that, he needed to Incontinence Essay take on. some of the the vietcong affect american policy, qualities that she possesses. Although it is a matter of interpretation, many feel. they have found the right way to understand theirs and others dreams.

Dreams have been a curiosity since ancient times. Recently psychologists like. Sigmund Freud and Karl Jung have become well known for Urinary Incontinence Essay their studies. There are many. reasons to study dreams.

At dreams research laboratories, they use machines, electroencephalographs (EEG) to tell when dream sleep occurs. Dreams have been studied since ancient times. For many centuries dreams have. been interpreted, and each culture has its own set of guide lines. During ancient Greek. times men believed that gods used dreams as a matter of communication, so they could.

speak to humans. Ancient Roman culture looked at dreams as real. They saw phantoms, who took on many forms to convey the message. Many people, because of the ancient. Romans, had trouble differentiating between dreams and reality. They believed dreams. were as real as waking events. Theoretically ancient Oriental people didn t see a difference.

between the two, either. As one moved geographically west and to more recent times, people began to understand the meanings of dreams better. Most Westerners, as opposed. to Asians, are better able to distinguish between dream and reality. Psychologists like Sigmund Freud and Essay and Supply in Toyota and Amazon Karl Jung are famous for their dream. studies. Freud s most famous work, The Interpretation Of Dreams, argues that the. unconscious drives and desires contributed to conscious behavior.

Freud also felt that a. dream was the fulfillment of a wish. Psychologists like Robert Van de Castle, Ph D., have. concluded that children and adults dream in the same way. Though their dreams may be.

different, they also serve the same purpose (Short 30). Urinary! Oona Short, author of Sweet and. Not So Sweet Dreams from Working Mother, says that small children, mainly infants. dream more often than adults do. While adults only of malfi spend about Incontinence twenty percent of garden of the forking their. nights in dream sleep, infants spend nearly half of Urinary Essay all sleep time dreaming (30). How Did The Vietcong Insurgency Affect American Toward Vietnam! Dreams are.

put in two categories: good dreams and nightmares. Between the ages of Incontinence Essay three and seven, one begins to develop good dreams (Short 30-1), which are simply characterized as what. makes the on Operation and Supply Chain Strategy in Toyota, individual happy. Incontinence Essay! Once they have established these dreams, they last. throughout one s life.

In one year some have as many as 1000 dreams, but remember very. few. For that reason many people claim to be nondreamers (Faraday 19). Remembering dreams can be difficult for some, but dreams are remembered like all other. memory.

People only recall the things they are interested in. When trying to recollect a. dream, it is much easier to forget a good dream rather than a nightmare. According to. Ann Faraday, Ph, D., women are more likely to Should Student Be Paid? remember their dreams, due to the sex. roles that are placed upon one as a child. (21) She means that because much of. interpretation is based on feelings, and Essay the nurturing side of people, which is characteristic. of females, it is kansas, easier for them to explain and recall dreams. It is also easier to remember. dreams when one is awakened during that period of Urinary Incontinence sleep.

Dreams are studied for Student Athletes Be Paid? Essay many reasons. Most dreams are, to Urinary Essay a certain degree, oneiromancy, more commonly known as dream deviation (Time Life 26), which is a main. reasons scientists choose to study dreams. Not a bad thing, oneiromancy is easily defined. as dreams that vary from the accepted norm.

Dreams vary from individual to individual, but some feel they understand what dreams are about. Forking Paths! Faraday says that dreams are what. has been on one s mind, or the feelings that one was unable to pick up on, the day of and. prior to Incontinence the dream (3). Basically, dreams are messages forms one s subconscious, where the. true you is defined. On Operation And Supply Chain! Dreams also let one know their real, or hidden talents, dreams show. people how special they truly are (Faraday 10). Dreams are not merely about what has.

already happened. Through their dreams many feel the Urinary Essay, ability to see what will happen in. the future (Time-Life 26). Many also claim that their dreams inspire them to write, poems, songs, etc., and invent things (Faraday 160). Essay! Dreams are also a defense mechanism, they.

help one express regression and/or displacement. (Fosshage 24). Urinary Incontinence! An example of showing. regression would be, to dream of lying in a bed crying until a parental figure comforts the. dreamer. Displacement can be shown in many forms, hitting or beating something, other. than who upset them, or just a yelling match for piano no apparent reason. Whatever the Essay, cause, message, or interpretation style, dreams are where reality meets illusion (Time-Life 22). The electroencephalograph is used to insurgency vietnam monitor when dream.

Since ancient times, psychologists have come up with alternate ways to tell if someone was dreaming. Incontinence Essay! Thus. inventing EEG s. At sleep laboratories doctors hook up patients, to Chain in Toyota and Amazon EEG s which detect. eye movement (REM) and brain wave activity.

Once that information is taken, the doctor. then interprets when dreams have occurred. REM, rapid eye movement, or light sleep, is. the point in sleep when the brain becomes very active, it alternates in Incontinence occurrence with deep. sleep (Altered State 50). Of The Paths! Usually beginning an hour after falling asleep, REM sleep. lengthens each time it occurs, on that particular night. Not everyone agree on Urinary, what dreams mean, so many things have more than one. meaning. Colors can give a great deal of insight into a dream, sometimes more so than the.

dream itself. The shapes in dreams can have several meanings, depending on who I. The colors in one s dreams may be more informative than the Student Athletes Essay, actual dream. Certain colors can lead once to have a reaction to Essay or memories about a particular dream. Colors can dominate dreams, and each color can represent a different feeling or action. Bright red has many meanings. One is a forewarning, for piano lessons by august people to control their tempers, but deep red is also a sign that good news is in store for Essay the dreamer. Some colors are very. specific, like brown mean financial success, and white leads to success with other and/or.

society, and pink just hints towards success in general. Tony Hazzard author of, Dreams. and Their Meanings, says that green signifies either travel, or news from foreign places. (42). Shades of purple predict happy times, but lilac, forecasts temporary bad times. (Hazzard 42). Black is garden of the forking paths, a hard color to interpret, and Incontinence Essay is only good to have in a dream if one. is in kansas nebraska mourning, during that time, it shows, triumphs over Urinary Incontinence Essay problems and eventual. success (Hazzard 42). Usually happy colors can have totally opposite connotations when it. comes when it comes to dreams.

Bright colors like yellow, and the vietcong vietnam orange symbolize delays, that for every step forward, one has to Essay take two steps backwards (Hazzard 42). Although. orange and Chain in Toyota and Amazon yellow predict delays, they are only temporary. Urinary Incontinence Essay! Blue has many significant.

meanings, it shows one that they are close to how did insurgency affect overcoming difficulties, but for them to be. completely successful in that endeavor, they must seek help. Urinary Incontinence! Though colors are significant. in trying to understand dreams, there are two other factors that must be addressed here, the next one being shapes and figures.

Many shapes and figures have several meanings also. Garden Of The Paths! Not everyone agrees on Incontinence, the. meanings behind certain symbols, and some even consider dream dictionaries to Essay Strategy in Toyota be useless, but there are common themes that do have similar meanings in dreams. One figure in. particular has been around since ancient Egyptians, yet still has the same two connotations. today that is the snake. The snake has a duel meaning; one is that an evil temptation is. near, while the other is that the Incontinence Essay, dreamer will show a more nurturing side. Seems like the. two opposite piano by august wilson ends of the spectrum, but dreams are like that, they don t always make sense,

it is up to the dreamer how to react to the information given in the dream. The symbols in. a dream, are a form of displacement (Fosshage 24). Dreams about houses can explain a. great deal about the Urinary Incontinence, personality of the dreamer. In Toyota And Amazon! Each room of the house represents new or. different feelings or actions, that the dreamer possess (Hazzard 28). Telephones are.

another popular topic, especially ones when the caller can not get through. This type of. dream may mean that the dreamer and Incontinence who they are trying to call are having a. communication breakdown (Faraday 213). Water in garden forking a dream can have more than one. meaning depending on Urinary Incontinence Essay, how it is depicted. If it is rising, then the dreamer usually feels. overcome with uncontrollable emotions. However, diving into water, is usually showing the.

dreamer diving into the unconscious (Hazzard 30). There are other factors in kansas nebraska act document determining the meaning of a dream, than colors and. figures. Sex is another main topic of dreams, according to Incontinence Freud, everything that we think. about is related to sex, and repression. When people dream about sex they are not limited.

to feelings of unfulfilled desires. Another common thought with sex dreams is that the. dreamer needs to be more unified with their partner. A sex dream can meant that the. person should try to take on the characteristics of the person who they are with during. their dream (Hazzard 29).

Things that have a negative meaning in conscious life, are not. always taken as bad omens in dreams. Death is one that can be both good or bad. Essay On Operation Chain In Toyota! Death. in a dream can mean that something is going to Incontinence come into one s life, it may signify a birth,

or just good luck approaching. On the other side of the spectrum, it can also mean that. one s ego is having trouble dealing with a change. Travel is a very general theme to piano have in. a dream, as it refers to Essay the journey through life. The type if transportation can be.

significant, as well. If they are operating a car, or train or plane, then it is Essay on Operation and Supply Strategy and Amazon, usually means. that the dreamer is in charge of their lives. Incontinence Essay! It can also represent whether or not one is. going to crash (Hazzard 30). A dream of trying, unsuccessfully, to get somewhere, is a way. of expressing frustration.

More often than not dreams are usually full of forking paths weird. characteristics, or strange images. Generally the Urinary Incontinence Essay, images in ones dreams are not going to fit. together like a puzzle, but may be connected in a more disjointed form. Dreams are bound. to be filled with puns (Faraday 111). Though they may seem to be abstract, dreams often. act as advisors about everything. For many years people have wondered whether or not they should interpret dreams. There are many advocates for lessons by august the interpretation of dreams. As well, many feel dreams are.

better left uninterprated. Many have wondered whether or not one should interpret dreams. There are six. main types of dreams, instinctive, digestive, integrative, creative, true-dreaming, and lastly. big dreams (Wilde 14). An instinctive dream is usually associated with primary life. functions, digestive dreams related to remembering the Incontinence Essay, previous days. In some dreams one. learns how to cope with conflict, dreams such as these are called integrative dreams. In. such dreams one may struggle with a decision, in the dream however, it is the conflict that.

would have been greatly dramatized. In Toyota And Amazon! Creative, true, and Urinary Incontinence Essay big dreams are easily explained, there is not much more to them than what their name implies. On Operation! There are two ways to. interpret dreams, literally and symbolically. Taking a dream for what it is, waking up in a. strange place, that is all it is, but one could also understand that to Urinary mean that something. new or interesting is Should, going to Urinary Incontinence Essay happen. When people interpret dreams they should try to.

understand what face they are using, because there are three faces of dreaming. (Faraday 139). Looking outward is making the topics of ones dream, relevant to act document their life, through the looking glass means that one is looking at their dreams subjectively, and to. look inward would be to interpret the dream, try to understand each characteristic of what. happened during their dream (Faraday 139). Psychologists, though they feel children and. adults dream for Urinary Incontinence the same reason, as previously stated, believe that children s dreams are. more significant.

Children are just small people living in a big world Van de Castle. stated there fore causing children to vent their anger, fear, or resentment in Essay on Operation Chain and Amazon dreams. better, because they feel powerless (Short 30). Many feel that dreams should be analyzed. Essay! Like an urgent fax from your. subconscious, a recurring dream contains an important message (Graves 191). Piano Lessons! If not. understood, one could miss a lot of Incontinence Essay vital information about himself, through dreams.

One. can learn his true feelings, and thoughts through the understanding of the dreams he has. But, to make dreams relevant to one s life, they must look inward (Faraday 139). Recurring dreams are basically reinforcing the significance of a particular there in the. dream. In the Hebrew Talmud, it is written A dream not interpreted is like a letter to and Supply Chain and Amazon the. self not read (Time-Life 23). Incontinence! The ability to learn from one s dreams is Should Student, there, it is up to. the dreamer to follow certain guide lines about how to interpret them.

Short says that to. be able to learn from Urinary Incontinence Essay dreams one must, share dreams.don t judge dreams.don t. impose your interpretation [on others].encourage dreams as a road to how did insurgency affect american policy toward vietnam understanding. Yet others feel dreams are better left uninterpreted. Many people feel dreams are. better left alone. Although there is a great deal of information on how to, these people. don t try to understand theri dreams. Many people feel that they don t have enough time. to read about dreams, and Urinary Incontinence Essay others just say it is too confusing.

Dreams are a matter of. interpretation, but many seem to think they understand dreams. They are na expression of. a person s inner self, a window to the soul. Proper interpretation of ones dreams can lead. to a sense of fulfillment. However, reading too much into ones dreams can be as destructive.

to one s psyche as any real episode. Dream interpretation can be and should be a tool. modern man can use to better understand himself. Works Cited Page. Altered State Of Awareness. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman, 1972. Faraday, Ann, Ph. D. The Dream Game. New York: AFAR, 1974.

Fosshage, James L., Ph. D., and Clemens A. The Duchess Of Malfi! Loew, Ph. D. Dream Interpretation: A. Comparative Study. New York: Spectrum, 1978. Graves, Ginny. What Your Dreams Are Trying To Tell You. Glamour, Aug. 1998:

Hazzard, Tony. Dreams and Urinary Incontinence Their Meanings. Insurgency Affect Policy Toward Vietnam! UK: Ward Lock, 1994. Short, Oona. Sweet and Not So Sweet Dreams. Working Mother. Feb. 1997: 30-32. Essay! New. Time-Life Books, editors.

Dreams and Dreaming. Alexandria, VA: Time-Life Books, 1990. Wilde, Lyn Webster. Working With Your Dreams. UK: Blandford, 1995.