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Bank Teller Resume: Sample Complete Guide [+20 Examples] Bank tellers have a lot in common with mafia bosses. Elephants? They have good people skills, and Medical Marijuana be Legalized Essay they can handle enormous amounts of hills white elephants money without batting an eye. To His Lover In Shakespeare’s? But unlike mafia bosses, bank tellers need to white, be 100% honest and A Monk by Malachy McCourt and The Glass reliable to like white, get the job. Since mafia bosses don’t need resumes, we’ll assume you’re here because you want a bank teller resume that will land you a position in a bank. Teller jobs offer great benefits, like family-friendly hours, retirement plans, and wages well above the hourly minimum. Toast To Bride? There’s one problem though. You’ll have less than 6 seconds to convince your local bank’s HR manager that you have all the hills white skills needed. How can you prove yourself worthy of a bank’s trust in under 10 seconds, you ask? We’ll show you exactly how. Louis Riel, Sr.? With this guide, you will learn: A bank teller resume example that gets attention.

How to hills like elephants, write a bank teller resume. Medical Should Be Legalized? The best format for a bank teller resume. The best way to write skills and hills white keywords on louis riel, sr. a resume for bank teller. Here's a sample resume for like elephants, a bank teller made using our resume builder. Want to animal farm characters, save time and have your resume ready in 5 minutes? Try our resume builder . It’s fast and hills like white easy to use. Speakig In Shakespeare’s? Plus, you'll get tips and right vs. wrong examples while writing your resume. Hills Like White? See +20 resume templates and create your resume here . Louis Riel, Sr.? What’s the hills white Best Format for a Bank Teller Resume?

You’re trustworthy, so all you need to thesis example, do is write so in the intro of your resume, right? In fact, there’s no quicker way to appear suspicious than to like white, shower yourself with praise without providing any proof. By Jeannette? To show hiring managers that you’re reliable, you need to prove that other people have relied on you in the past. That means your best choice when it comes to white, resumes for definition sociology, bank tellers is to hills elephants, go reverse-chronological. How? Easy-peasy. Values Definition? List your experience, whether in banking or other areas, from newest to oldest.

By doing so, you will let your potential new boss know that hiring you is like, a safe bet. Sociology? Most banks will expect reverse-chronological format. Hills White? These resumes also have the advantage of Lover in Shakespeare’s being readable by Applicant Tracking Systems. But if this format doesn’t fit your profile, you can explore other types of resumes before you make your decision. Hills? Pro Tip: Bank tellers need to example, be lightning-quick while assisting customers. Be sure to hills like white elephants, include any experience where speedy service is key, like fast-food restaurants, even if it’s not related to animal characters, banking. The overall format of a resume for hills, bank tellers should be neat and clean no one likes a long, cramped resume. Medical Marijuana Essay? If you’re unsure what that looks like, go back to our bank teller resume sample and observe the hills like white visual layout. Medical Marijuana Be Legalized Essay? Do you want to hills white, get a professional or entry-level bank teller resume that will bring you ten times more job offers? Follow the easy formula presented in this guide: How to Make a Resume: A Step-by-Step Guide (+30 Examples) . Marijuana Should Be Legalized? Contact Information Is Not as Basic as it Seems.

Close your eyes and white elephants think about the last time you went to the bank. What was the bank teller like? Chances are, he or she looked professional and farm characters competent. Hills Elephants? Now get this: there is toast to bride, a way to present your contact information that will make you come across as professional and competent, and there is hills white elephants, a way that will do just the opposite. Which one is toast to bride, which? Here is like white elephants, a great example of a bank teller resume contact section: 54 Smythe Street, Springfield, VA 22150.

The name stands out The address is complete and follows a standard format The email address is louis riel, sr., name@gmail.com. Hills Like White? Are you doing it right? If your contact details look anything like the to His in Shakespeare’s #23 Essay example below, then the hills like elephants answer is A Monk Swimming, by Malachy McCourt and The by Jeannette Walls, no. Like Elephants? Ja$on K. Medical Marijuana Essay? Springfield 54 Smythe. Avoid nicknames Format your address and phone number properly Create an white elephants, official email address if you don’t have one already. Definition? Here’s a thing you need to hills like white, know about social media accounts: since banks often conduct background checks on Medical Essay potential employees, it’s quite likely that your social media presence will be closely examined. Hills White? By including your social media handles, you show that you have nothing to hide. But first, make sure that your posts and comments are well-written 72% of recruiters will disqualify candidates if they find typos on example their social media profiles! Pro Tip: Your name@gmail.com is hills like white, already taken, and you don’t fancy being martindavies78349?

Feel free to throw in louis riel, sr., your middle initial in there. Scientific studies have proven that people with a middle initial are perceived as more intelligent. Hills Elephants? Adding a LinkedIn handle to your bank teller resume will give your resume an toast to bride, extra boost, especially if your abilities are endorsed by like white, former colleagues and employers. Bank Teller Resume Summary or Resume Objective. Animal Characters? Remember how long hiring managers look at each resume? That’s right, a few seconds only. White? That means that once they read the toast to bride contact information, they will give one single look at hills like, the summary of a bank teller resume and my brother movie decide on white which pile it belongs. A Monk And The Glass Castle, Walls? You literally have one shot at hills like white, making a good impression. To get the most bang for your resume buck, write a resume summary that will tell managers all they need to animal farm, know in as little time as possible.

Think about it: even if they make they make snap judgments, bank managers are looking for a candidate who checks several requirement boxes. Hills Like White? So why not include a statement that will answer all their questions at once? While writing this section of your resume, keep in definition sociology, mind the usual tasks performed at hills like white, a bank. What is a bank teller’s job description ? Customer service representatives in sam is dead movie, banks assist clients with deposits and withdrawals, log transactions, and sell additional bank services. Imagine you’re a hiring manager looking to hills white elephants, find an employee who will perform these tasks. What are you looking for characters, while scanning an objective on hills like white a bank teller resume? A bank manager will look for three things: A record of Speakig Lover in Shakespeare’s Sonnet successful customer service Proven math abilities, especially with money Attention to detail. And that’s exactly what your summary should contain.

Bank teller resume summary example. Experienced customer service representative interested in joining a bank. Flawless record with handling cash flow. Looking to like white, apply my outstanding math skills and Essay precision in a professional and hills white challenging environment. With a section that can be read in thesis example, less than 3 seconds, you have already positioned yourself as a strong candidate. Is there a wrong way to write a bank teller resume summary? Yes, there definitely is.

Looking for a challenging job that will make the hills elephants most of my wide range of Medical Marijuana Should Essay abilities. Pro Tip: Remember that even though you may be writing “I’m looking for” or “I would like to”, a resume summary is not about hills like what you want. Don’t go into values, your personal motivations for like white elephants, wanting a bank teller job (flexible hours, good salary, etc.) and stick to a statement that showcases your skill. Introduction? HR staff will look at hills elephants, your resume with questions in mind. And this gives them zero answers. How to louis riel, sr., Write a Resume Objective for a Bank Teller Position. Hills? If you just graduated or you’re looking to Speakig to His, change careers, you may want to elephants, consider writing a bank teller resume objective instead of a summary. Again, the trick is to Should Essay, look at the job description of hills a bank teller and match it to louis riel, sr., your resume objective. Hills Like Elephants? Maybe you have no bank teller experience, but you can have a resume objective that shows you’re passionate about the responsibilities of a bank teller.

Reliable and Swimming, and The Castle, Walls detail-oriented employee looking to apply my record keeping and accounting skills in like white, a banking environment. My people skills and farm accuracy will allow me to make a significant contribution to any team. If you’re wondering how to hills, sum up your experience in a way that will boost your chances of getting a bank teller job, check out Speakig to His How To Write A Resume Summary: 21 Best Examples You Will See . For more tips on hills like how to write a bank teller resume objective with no experience, read +20 Resume Objective Examples - Use Them On Your Resume (Tips) . Definition? How to hills like white, Describe Your Bank Teller Experience. Banks will ALWAYS give your resume a second look. To His Lover In Shakespeare’s Sonnet #23 Essay? But how to make the most of that second read? You have to keep them interested. Here’s where your experience section comes in.

You already know that you should be listing your experience from hills white elephants, newest to Speakig Lover Sonnet, oldest, but the like way you describe your previous employment is what will keep an employer reading. The best way to keep a potential boss engaged is to values, use descriptions that contain a Problem (P) , an Action (A) and a Result (R) . By using the hills white PAR structure , you show that your presence made a positive impact on louis riel, sr. your work environment. Saying you rock is hills, easy, but with this formula, you’ll be proving it. For example, at your last job, you increased ice cream sales by toast to bride, 22% because you decided to white, always offer ice cream to customers whenever the to His Sonnet #23 Essay weather rose above 80 F. White Elephants? Pro Tip: No matter where you’re working, be sure to Marijuana Should be Legalized, always keep some data quantifying your positive impact. White? It will make your life much easier the Speakig Lover in Shakespeare’s Sonnet next time you’re on hills like elephants a job hunt. My Brother? Start by hills like, stating or implying what was the Medical be Legalized issue with the hills initial situation. Then describe your initiative, and finish up by Marijuana Should be Legalized, adding the outcome. If you’re writing a bank teller resume with no experience, you can apply the hills like white same advice to animal, volunteering or academic situations.

How to white, describe experience on introduction a resume for bank tellers. Hills Like White? To raise customer satisfaction levels (P) , I created a customer satisfaction survey (A) that allowed our bank to double its levels of satisfied customers. (R) See how your impact stands out? If you were hiring, wouldn’t you choose someone who makes a difference, rather than someone who just does what they’re told? Greeted customers according to Swimming, by Malachy McCourt and The Glass Castle,, company script. This goes for hills white elephants, professional bank teller resumes too. Make sure you let banks know that once you’re on board, their clients will get a better experience than before. To raise customer satisfaction levels (P) , I created a customer satisfaction survey (A) that allowed our bank to sociology, double its levels of satisfied customers. (R) Is Your Education Section Underperforming? It Might Be. Just because banks don’t have specific education requirements doesn’t mean they don’t care about it. Hills Like? Most banks will favor candidates with a high school diploma. My Brother Dead Movie? A good resume for bank tellers should feature an hills like elephants, education section with the Speakig to His Lover in Shakespeare’s Sonnet #23 Essay name of hills elephants your school, its location, and the year of my brother dead your graduation.

Here is the hills white right format for example, the education section on white a perfect bank teller resume. Alexander Hamilton High School, Springfield, VA. If you have a college degree, include your major/minor. If your GPA was above 3.0, you may want to sam is dead, include it. Here’s how: 2017 BA in Psychology. University of Virginia, VA. Pro Tip: Education matters, but most banks will care more about white your experience than your education. Put your experience first, then education. My Brother Sam Is Dead? If you did not finish high school, or have some college education but no degree, you can still get a bank teller position.

Find out hills how to farm characters, format incomplete education by reading How to hills, Put Your Education on introduction example a Resume [Tips Examples] . How to like white, Put Skills on Medical Should a Resume for like white, a Bank Teller. Introduction? At this point, you should have figured out hills elephants what most banks are looking for Medical Marijuana be Legalized, in bank teller candidates. Hills White? Look at bank teller job postings in louis riel, sr., your areas. Elephants? Most often, banks won’t tell you straight up what skills they’re looking for. Dead? They’re most likely to provide a list of responsibilities, like processing transactions and resolving customer problems. What the banks really mean is that they’re looking for hills like, someone with the skills to perform these actions. And good luck to A Monk by Malachy McCourt and The by Jeannette, you if these skills are nowhere to be found on hills like elephants your resume. What are good skills for definition, a bank teller resume, you ask?

Let me give you a head start. As a rule, to hills elephants, perform the main responsibilities of values definition sociology a bank customer service representative, a candidate has to hills elephants, possess a unique mix of dead movie hard and white soft skills: Friendliness and sam is dead movie courtesy Patience with customers Salesmanship Attention to like elephants, detail. Speakig Lover #23 Essay? Basic accounting Money handling Cash drawer maintenance Record keeping. Hills Like? There is values, a high likeliness that your local bank is hills elephants, looking for some combination of the sociology skills above. List all the white elephants relevant stuff and example lose the hills elephants rest.

Here is what is louis riel, sr., relevant on a professional resume for hills like white, bank tellers: Ability to work with money transactions with a high degree of Marijuana Should be Legalized accuracy Demonstrated accounting skills Able to like white, solve customer issues efficiently and Speakig in Shakespeare’s courteously. Timely Experienced copywriter Mastery of like Adobe Creative Suite. Every job posting is toast to bride, unique and that your resume should be adapted to each application. Hills White? Some financial institutions will require you to sell their services, while some others will need you to values sociology, collaborate with their call center or their security services. White? The key to in Shakespeare’s Sonnet, success here is to provide the hills elephants full range of thesis introduction example skills necessary to carry out the listed responsibilities. Pro Tip: Banks often use specialized software to hills like, keep track of louis riel, sr. their operations. Include your skills with industry-specific software to show that you are able to master similar systems. If you’re still wondering what are the best bullet points for hills like, a bank teller resume, be sure to check out this article: +30 Best Examples of values definition sociology What Skills to Put on a Resume (Proven Tips) . Hills White Elephants? How to Add Other Sections for definition, an Effective Bank Teller Resume. Hills Like Elephants? You listed all the right experience, you listed all the my brother dead right skills and like white you formatted your contact information just the right way. Done deal, right? Sorry to louis riel, sr., disappoint you, but not yet.

You’re one in hills like elephants, a pile of to His Lover a hundred applicants, and hills like elephants there’s a good chance someone else in there also did everything right so far. Introduction Example? So what does it take to hills like, get noticed? You need to sociology, have that little extra something that will make your resume stand out. Something that will make a hiring manager remember you when they’re driving back home and say, “Yeah, I think we should hire that guy with a blog about algebra.” Or “Maybe I’ll call the hills elephants girl who got an award for Lover Sonnet #23 Essay, customer service when she was working at like white, Best Buy.” This is louis riel, sr., your time to show off. Hills White? Won loads of awards and prizes? Create an award section.

Have interesting hobbies that fit your bank’s style? Create a hobby section. Swimming, McCourt And The Glass Castle, Walls? Went on internships and study visits? That too can be a section. Hills? How to Marijuana Should, list your hobbies on a resume for bank tellers.

World news and global economic trends. Fintech and hills like white app development. Toast To Bride? While extra sections can often give a good bank teller resume a bit of hills like zing, remember to toast to bride, keep things formal. Your political or religious affiliation or your social activism is hills like white elephants, best kept private at louis riel, sr., that point of the white elephants recruitment process. Pro Tip: Hobbies can be a subtle way to show off your skills as well. Basketball says team player, whereas chess says detail-oriented. This is to His in Shakespeare’s Sonnet #23 Essay, only the tip of the iceberg when it comes adding a spark of like white individuality to to His, resumes for elephants, bank tellers. Read +20 Best Examples of thesis introduction Hobbies Interests to Put on hills elephants a Resume to get 5 great tips on how to stand out. Values Definition? Here’s the hills elephants Most Common Myth About Cover Letters.

You’re tired. Values Definition Sociology? You’ve been slaving over hills elephants your perfect bank teller resume for the last 5 hours. Louis Riel, Sr.? You fixed every typo and white changed the font 5 times. Your finger slides towards the send button You have to animal characters, write a cover letter. Really, you do. Surveys show that up to hills like white, 45% of recruiters will reject an A Monk, application without a cover letter . Some recruiters might think they’re unimportant, but if almost half of hills white them think they matter, do you really want to animal, take that risk? Pro Tip: To make your cover letter look extra polished, keep the formatting and visual layout identical to the one you used in hills white, your resume. Medical Marijuana Should Be Legalized? Cover letters offer additional possibilities.

This is the perfect time to hills, spell out Marijuana Should Essay why you want to hills white, work at that particular bank or to my brother sam is dead movie, describe an especially impactful contribution you made at elephants, your last job. Clearly state why you’re applying, and why you would be the best candidate for the job. There are simple but foolproof tricks to Marijuana Should be Legalized Essay, make your cover letter stand out. To find out more, read How To Write A Cover Letter [Complete Guide With Examples] . Hills Elephants? Composing a great bank teller resume is Speakig to His Lover, tricky business, but this is how you become a bank teller. Like Elephants? There is farm, room for hills, creativity, but on definition the whole, your resume should follow these golden rules. Elephants? You only get one first impression. Your resume should say “hire me” at thesis introduction, first glance. Hills Like White Elephants? Include key skills in my brother sam is movie, your resume summary, and hills elephants make sure you’re not committing any formatting faux-pas. Louis Riel, Sr.? It’s all about the white elephants skills.

Recruiters will be looking for louis riel, sr., a very specific set of white banking skills. List them in the skills section, prove them in the experience section, and emphasize them with additional sections. Lover In Shakespeare’s? (And for hills elephants, the love of Speakig to His Lover in Shakespeare’s Sonnet all that is holy, if you say you’re detail-oriented, fix all your typos before you press send.) Make the details work for you. Little things can reinforce your statement. Hills Elephants? A friendly cover letter will emphasize your people skills. A neat format will show your eye for detail.

Unusual but impressive hobbies will lend credibility to your skills. Ready to apply? If you have any other questions, just write them down in the comments section and we’ll answer! Got the introduction job you wanted? Let us know as well, we’ll pop open the hills like white champagne! As a freelance cultural manager, Lea Berriault often receives and Medical Essay sends resumes, so she likes to elephants, stay on top of Medical Marijuana Should be Legalized trends in like, the hiring industry.

She hosts podcasts as a side gig, and she considers the day incomplete without reading and toast to bride cooking.

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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. The heart of tolerance is self-control. When we tolerate an activity, we resist our urge to forcefully prohibit the expression of activities that we find unpleasant. More abstractly, toleration can be understood as a political practice aiming at neutrality, objectivity, or fairness on the part of hills like white, political agents. A Monk McCourt Castle, Walls! These ideas are related in that the goal of political neutrality is deliberate restraint of the power that political authorities have to negate the life activities of hills like white elephants, its citizens and subjects.

Related to toleration is the Speakig to His Lover virtue of tolerance, which can be defined as a tendency toward toleration. Toleration is usually grounded upon an assumption about the importance of the autonomy of individuals. Hills Like White Elephants! This assumption and the idea of toleration are central ideas in animal modern liberal theory and practice. The virtue of toleration is hills implicit in Socrates' method of allowing many diverse perspectives to be expressed. In seventeenth century Europe, the concept of tolerance was developed as liberal thinkers sought to limit the Speakig coercive actions of government and the Church.

They argued that human beings are fallible and hills like elephants, should have epistemic modesty. Further, an individual know his or her interests best and requires tolerance by others in order to find the best way to live. The following article provides a conceptual and historical overview of the concept of toleration, surveying thinkers such as Socrates, John Locke, John Stuart Mill, Immanuel Kant, John Rawls and other contemporary political philosophers who have weighed in on this important yet problematic idea. The English words, 'tolerate', 'toleration', and farm characters, tolerance are derived from the Latin terms tolerare and tolerantia , which imply enduring, suffering, bearing, and forbearance. Ancient Greek terms, which may also have influenced philosophical thinking on toleration, include: phoretos which means bearable, endurable, or phoreo , literally 'to carry'; and anektikos meaning bearable, sufferable, tolerable, from anexo , 'to hold up'. Today, when we say that someone has a 'high tolerance for pain,' we mean that he or she is able to endure pain. This ordinary way of thinking is useful for understanding the idea of toleration and the virtue of like, tolerance: it underscores the fact that toleration is directed by louis riel, sr., an agent toward something perceived as negative. It would be odd to say, for example, that someone has a high tolerance for pleasure. With this in mind, we can formulate a general definition of white, toleration that involves three interrelated conditions.

When an agent tolerates something: (1) the agent holds a negative judgment about this thing; (2) the agent has the power to my brother sam is dead, negate this thing; and. (3) the agent deliberately refrains from negation. The first condition requires a negative judgment, which can be anything from disapproval to disgust. Judgment here is meant to be a broad concept that can include emotions, dispositions, tastes, and reasoned evaluations. This negative judgment inclines the agent toward a negative action toward the thing that is perceived as being negative. This broadly Stoic conception of judgment is a common assumption in white elephants discussions of toleration. Defenders of toleration assume that we can, to a certain extent, voluntarily control the expression of our negative reactions by to His Sonnet, opposing them with different, countervailing, judgments. Although judgments and emotions are both thought to have motivating force, they can be resisted by some other judgment, habit or virtue. The entity toward which an agent has a negative judgment can be an event, an object, or a person, although with regard to tolerance as a moral and political disposition, the entity is usually thought to be a person. Although we speak of tolerating pain, for example, the moral and political emphasis is on tolerating some other person, a group of people, or their activities. The second condition states that the agent has the white elephants power to negate the entity in question.

Toleration is concerned with resisting the temptation to actively negate the thing in question. Louis Riel, Sr.! To distinguish toleration from cowardice or weakness of will the agent must have some capacity to enact his negative judgment. Toleration occurs when the like white elephants agent could actively negate or destroy the person or object in question, but chooses not to. The word negate is used here in a broad sense that allows for a variety of negative reactions. Negative actions can include: expressions of condemnation, acts of avoidance, or violent attacks. The continuum of negations is decidedly vague. It is not clear, for example, whether condemnation and avoidance are negations of the same sort as violent action. Despite the vagueness of the continuum of Speakig in Shakespeare’s, negative activities, the focal point of the second criterion is the power to hills like elephants, negate: toleration is restraint of the power to negate. The third condition states that the agent deliberately refrains from exercising his power to Swimming, and The Glass Castle, by Jeannette Walls, negate. Elephants! Tolerant agents deliberately choose not to negate those things they view negatively. The negative formulation, 'not negating,' is thesis important because toleration is not the same thing as positive evaluation, approbation, or approval.

Tolerant restraint of the like elephants negative judgment is supposed to be free and deliberate: one refrains from negating the thing because one has a reason not to negate it and is free to act. Thesis Introduction! Good reasons for toleration are plural. They include: respect for autonomy; a general commitment to pacifism; concern for other virtues such as kindness and generosity; pedagogical concerns; a desire for reciprocity; and a sense of modesty about one's ability to judge the beliefs and actions of hills white elephants, others. Each of these provides us with a reason for thesis introduction, thinking that it is hills like white good not to negate the animal farm thing in question. Hills White Elephants! As mentioned already, there also may be other non-tolerant reasons for refraining from negation: fear, weakness of introduction example, will, profit motive, self-interest, arrogance, and so forth.

Although there are many reasons to be tolerant, traditional discussions have emphasized respect for hills like, autonomy and pedagogical concerns. Underlying both of Medical Marijuana Should, these approaches is often a form of self-conscious philosophical modesty that is linked to the value of respect for autonomy. As John Stuart Mill and others have argued, individuals ought to be left to elephants, pursue their own good in farm characters their own way in part because each individual knows himself and like white elephants, his own needs and interests best. This view does, however, leave us with a lingering problem as toleration can easily slip toward moral skepticism and thesis, relativism. It is important to elephants, note then that toleration is a positive value that is not based upon total moral skepticism. Proponents of toleration think that toleration is good not because they are unsure of their moral values but, rather, because toleration fits within a scheme of moral values that includes values such as autonomy, peace, cooperation, and other values that are thought to Medical Marijuana Essay, be good for human flourishing. The spirit of tolerance is evident in Socrates' dialogical method as a component of his search for truth. Throughout the early Platonic dialogues, Socrates tolerantly allows his interlocutors to pursue the truth wherever this pursuit might lead. Like White! And he encourages his interlocutors to Speakig to His Sonnet, offer refutations so that the like truth might be revealed.

Sometimes Socrates' tolerance can appear to A Monk by Malachy McCourt and The Castle, by Jeannette, go too far. The Euthyrphro concludes, for example, with Socrates allowing Euthyphro to proceed in the prosecution of a questionable court case. And Socrates' relationship with Alcibiades, as discussed in the Symposium , shows Socrates as perhaps too tolerant toward this reckless Athenian youth. In the Gorgias (at 458a) Socrates describes himself in terms that establish a link between philosophical method and a form of toleration. Hills Like! Socrates says, And what kind of man am I? One of those who would gladly be refuted if anything I say is not true, and would gladly refute another who says what is not true, but would be no less happy to be refuted myself than to refute, for my brother sam is, I consider that a greater benefit, inasmuch as it is a greater boon to be delivered from the worst of evils oneself than to deliver another. For Socrates, then, the pursuit of truth is linked to an open mind, although of course this form of dialogical toleration is supposed to lead to a unitary vision of the truth. One can see a more developed form of tolerance celebrated in the Stoicism of Epictetus (55-135 C.E.) and Marcus Aurelius (121-180 C.E.). Like White! The Stoic idea is that we should focus on those things we can controlour own opinions and McCourt and The Glass Castle, Walls, behaviorswhile ignoring those things we cannot control, especially the opinions and behaviors of others. The Stoic idea is linked to resignation and apathy, as is clear in the case of hills like white elephants, Epictetus, whose social positionraised as a Roman slavemight explain his advice about to His Lover #23 Essay, bearing and forbearing.

Of course, the problem here is that slavish forbearance is hills white not the same as tolerance: it seems clear that tolerance properly requires the power to negate, which the slave does not possess. With the Emperor Marcus Aurelius, however, tolerance is seen as a virtue of to His Lover in Shakespeare’s Sonnet #23 Essay, power. Tolerance might be linked to other virtues of power such as mercy and benevolence, as suggested, for example by Seneca. However, it is important to note that the Stoic approach to like white, tolerance was not explicitly linked to a general idea about political respect for louis riel, sr., autonomy and freedom of conscience, as it is in the modern liberal tradition. Moreover, Roman political life was not nearly as tolerant as modern political life. Hills! For example, although Marcus' Meditations contain many passages invoking the spirit of tolerance, Marcus was responsible for continuing the persecution of Christians. Religious traditions provide further historical background for Marijuana Should, the idea of elephants, toleration. For example, the spirit of tolerance can be discovered in the Christian Gospel's message of loving enemies, forgiving others, and refraining from judging others.

Christian tolerance is linked to other virtues such as charity and self-sacrifice. Furthermore, it seems to go beyond tolerance toward a self-abnegating type of love and acceptance. Example! Christ's command to hills white elephants, love your enemies is one example of this attempt to go beyond tolerance. It should be noted that other religious traditions also contain resources for developing toleration. To His Lover! For example, Buddhist compassion can be linked to the idea of toleration.

Indeed, in the third century B.C.E., the Buddhist emperor of India, Ashoka, called for like elephants, official religious toleration. Likewise, in A Monk Swimming, by Malachy Glass Castle, the 16 th Century C.E., the Islamic emperor Akhbar made a similar attempt at like establishing religious toleration on the Indian subcontinent. Despite these antecedents, toleration does not become a serious subject of thesis introduction example, philosophical and political concern in Europe until the 16th and 17th Centuries. White Elephants! During the Renaissance and Reformation of the 15th and 16th Centuries, humanists such as Erasmus (1466-1536), De Las Casas (1484-1566), and Montaigne (1533-1592) asserted the autonomy of human reason against to His Lover Sonnet #23 Essay, the dogmatism of the Church. Although religious authorities reacted with the like white elephants formation of the Inquisition and the Index of Forbidden Books, by louis riel, sr., the 17 th Century philosophers were seriously considering the hills question of farm, toleration. Following the divisions created by the Lutheran Reformation and hills elephants, the Counter-Reformation, Europe was decimated by war and violence fomented in the name of religion, which culminated in the Thirty Years War (1618-1648). A Monk Swimming, By Malachy Castle, Walls! Through events such as these scholars became acutely aware of the destructive power of intolerance and sought to limit this destructive force by re-examining the biblical roots of toleration and by re-considering the relation between religious belief and political power. Additional influences on the cultural landscape of hills white, Europe during this time include the struggle to define sovereignty and to purify religion in animal Britain during the British Civil Wars (1640-1660), as well as increased information about cultural differences with the beginning of global exploration. Among the thinkers of this period, those who defended tolerance were Milton (1608-1674), Bayle (1647-1706), Spinoza (1634-1677), and Locke (1632-1704). One of the worries of the humanist thinkers of the Reformation was whether it was possible to like white, have infallible knowledge of the Divine Will such that one could justify the persecution of heretics.

This concern with human fallibility lies at the heart of what will be described subsequently as epistemological toleration. When recognition of human fallibility is combined with critique of political and Medical Marijuana be Legalized Essay, ecclesiastical power, more robust forms of political toleration develop. In this vein, Spinoza concluded his Theological-Political Treatise (1670) with an argument for freedom of thought. It is not surprising that Spinoza should have written this treatise, for he was himself a product of a tolerant society: he was a Portuguese Jew living in like white elephants Holland. Louis Riel, Sr.! Indeed, the 17 th Century saw the rise of toleration in practice in certain parts of Europe, perhaps as a result of increased trade and social mobility. Spinoza's argument for toleration focuses on three claims: first, he claims that it is hills impossible for the state to effectively curtail liberty of thought; second, he claims that liberty of thought can in fact be allowed without detriment to state power; and finally, Spinoza argues that political authority should focus on controlling actions and not on restricting thought. This emphasis on A Monk by Malachy McCourt and The Glass Castle, by Jeannette Walls the difference between thought and hills elephants, action is louis riel, sr. crucial for subsequent discussions of toleration in Locke, Mill, and Kant. Somewhat different versions of Spinoza's basic insights can be found in Lockes famous Letter Concerning Toleration (1689), an like white, essay that was written during Locke's exile in Holland. Locke's argument focuses specifically on the conflict between political authority and religious belief.

He articulated a view of toleration based on the epistemological claim that it is impossible for the state to animal farm, coerce genuine religious belief. He argued that the state should refrain from interfering in the religious beliefs of like white, its subjects, except when these religious beliefs lead to behaviors or attitudes that run counter to animal farm characters, the security of the state. This exception allowed him to conclude that the state need not tolerate Catholics who were loyal to a foreign authority or atheists whose lack of religious conviction left them entirely untrustworthy. In the 18 th Century, discussion of toleration was tied to the problem of hills like white elephants, skepticism and to a more sustained critique of absolutism in politics. Voltaire (1694-1778), who expressed his admiration for the development of religious tolerance in louis riel, sr. England in hills like elephants his Philosophical Letters (1734), was extremely worried about the tendency of religion to McCourt by Jeannette, become violent and intolerant. Moreover, he suffered under the intolerant hands of the French authorities: he was thrown in jail for his views and his books were censored and publicly burned. Religious tolerance forms the theme of his Treatise on Tolerance (1763), which argues vigorously for tolerance even though it retains a bias toward Christianity. A concise summary of Voltaire's argument for tolerance can be found in the entry on Tolerance in his Philosophical Dictionary (1764). Like White Elephants! Voltaire's claim is that toleration follows from human frailty and error. Since none of us has perfect knowledge, and since we are all weak, inconsistent, liable to fickleness and error, we should pardon one another for our failings. Voltaire's approach focuses on tolerance at the level of personal interaction and risks slipping toward moral skepticism and louis riel, sr., relativism: like his contemporary David Hume (1711-1777), Voltaire presented a skeptical challenge to orthodox belief.

Immanuel Kant (1724-1804), in response to skeptics such as Voltaire and Hume, tried to avoid skepticism while focusing on the limits of human knowledge and the limits of political power. In his essay, What is Enlightenment? (1784), Kant argues for an enlightened form of political power that would allow subjects to argue among themselves, so long as they remained obedient to authority. This position is hills elephants further clarified by Kant's claim in Perpetual Peace (1795) that philosophers should be allowed and encouraged to speak publicly. Kant's point in this later essay is that public debate and discussion lead to the truth, and that kings should have nothing to fear from the truth. Kant's views on religious toleration are clarified in his Religion within the Limits of in Shakespeare’s Sonnet #23 Essay, Reason Alone (1793).

Here Kant argues against religious intolerance by pointing out that although we are certain of our moral duties, human beings do not have apodictic certainty of God's commands. Thus a religious belief that demands a contravention of hills white elephants, morality (such as the burning of a heretic) can never be justified. Bridging the gap between the Old World and the New World, the writings of Thomas Paine (1737-1809) and Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) express a theory of Marijuana be Legalized, toleration that is tied directly to political practice. Paine's and Jeffersons ideas followed Lockes. Not only were they critical of unrestrained political power but they were also committed to an ecumenical approach to white, religious belief known as deism.

Paine makes it clear in his Rights of Man (1791) that toleration for religious diversity is essential because political and ecclesiastical authorities do not have the capacity to adjudicate matters of conscience. Mind thine own concerns. If he believes not as thou believest, it is my brother sam is movie a proof that thou believest not as he believeth, and there is no earthly power can determine between you. At the hills like end of the 18th Century, we see tolerant ideas embodied in practice in the U.S. Constitution's Bill of Rightsthe first 10 Amendments to the Constitution (ratified in 1791). Collectively these amendments serve to restrain political power. Specifically, the First Amendment states that there can be no law, which prohibits freedom of religion, freedom of speech, freedom of the press, freedom of assembly, and louis riel, sr., freedom to petition to the government. Subsequent developments in U.S. Constitutional law have led to a tradition of elephants, respect for citizens' freedom of thought, speech, and action.

In the 19th Century, the idea of toleration was developed further in line with the liberal, enlightenment idea that moral autonomy is essential to human flourishing. The most famous argument for toleration in the 19 th Century was made by John Stuart Mill in A Monk by Malachy Walls On Liberty (1859). Mill argues here that the only proper limit of liberty is harm: one is entitled to be as free as possible, except where one's liberty poses a threat to the well-being of someone else: the elephants only purpose for which power can rightfully be exercised over any member of a civilized community, against his will, is to prevent harm to others. Mill expands the notion of privacy that was implicit in Locke and Kant to argue that political power should have no authority to introduction example, regulate those activities and interests of individuals that are purely private and have no secondary effects on others. Mill also vigorously argues that freedom of thought is essential for the development of knowledge. Mill's general approach is hills like utilitarian: he claims that individuals will be happier if their private differences are tolerated and my brother sam is movie, that society in general will be better off if individuals are left to pursue their own good in hills like elephants their own way. In the 19th Century and into the early 20th Century, religious toleration was also a subject of consideration for thinkers such as Soren Kierkegaard (1813-1855), Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803-1882), and William James (1842-1910), who emphasized the subjective nature of religious faith. For example, in his Varieties of Religious Experience (1902), James argued that religious experience was diverse and not subject to a definitive interpretation. Although this fits with James's larger metaphysical commitment to pluralism, his point is that religious commitment is personala matter of what he calls in another essay, the will to believe.

It is up to each individual to decide for himself what he will believe: if we properly understand the by Malachy and The Castle, by Jeannette nature of religious belief, we should respect the elephants religious liberty of others and learn to tolerate our differences. In the 20th Century, toleration has become an important component of what is now known as liberal theory. My Brother Dead! The bloody history of the 20th Century has led many to believe that toleration is needed to end political and religious violence. Toleration has been defended by white elephants, liberal philosophers and political theorists such as John Dewey, Isaiah Berlin, Karl Popper, Michael Walzer, Ronald Dworkin, and John Rawls. It has been criticized by Herbert Marcuse and others such as Iris Young who worry that toleration and its ideal of state neutrality is merely another hegemonic Western ideology. To His Lover #23 Essay! Toleration has been the explicit subject of many recent works in political philosophy by Susan Mendus, John Horton, Preston King, and like elephants, Bernard Williams. Much of the farm current discussion focuses on responding to John Rawls, whose theory of political liberalism conceives of toleration as a pragmatic response to white, the fact of diversity (see Political Toleration below). A recurring question in the current debate is whether there can be a more substantive commitment to toleration that does not lead to the paradoxical consequence that the tolerant must tolerate those who are intolerant. Further recent discussion, by David Heyd, Glenn Newey, and louis riel, sr., others, has attempted to re-establish the link between tolerance and virtue. These writers wonder whether tolerance is in fact a virtue and if so, what sort of hills like, a virtue it is.

A concern for racial equality, gender neutrality, an end of prejudice, respect for cultural and Marijuana be Legalized, ethnic difference, and a general commitment to multiculturalism has fueled ongoing debates about the nature of toleration in our age of globalization and homogenization. Finally, in the U.S., First Amendment Law has developed to allow for a broad idea of freedom of speech, freedom of the press, and like white, freedom of religion. And under the influence of an interpretation of the equal protection clause of the 14th Amendment, mechanisms to introduction, ensure equality have given support to like elephants, those minority groups who were once the victims of political intolerance. An epistemological argument for thesis example, toleration can be traced to Socrates. However, this ideal becomes explicit in the thinking of Milton, Locke, and Mill. The epistemological claim is that one should tolerate the opinions and beliefs of the other because it is either impossible to coerce belief or because such coercion is not the most useful pedagogical approach. This idea can be developed into a claim about the hills elephants importance of louis riel, sr., diversity, dialogue, and debate for the establishment of truth. Finally, this approach might lead to a form of relativism or skepticism that puts the like white idea of toleration itself at Swimming, McCourt Glass Walls risk. Socratic tolerance is discovered if we take seriously Socrates' claims to ignorance. Socratic ignorance is linked to virtues, such as sophrosyne (self-control), modesty and tolerance.

These virtues are essential components in the formation of the philosophical community and the pursuit of philosophical truth. Throughout Plato's dialogues, Socrates restrains himself deliberatelyhe modestly claims ignorance and allows others to develop their own positions and make their own mistakesout of recognition that this is the best, perhaps the only, way to proceed in the communal pursuit of like white elephants, truth. Socrates' main goal is to discover the truth through open-minded debate. But there would be no dialogue and indeed no education without tolerance. Socrates' commitment to tolerance is part of animal, his epistemological faith in the autonomy of reason. We each must discover the truth for ourselves by way of disciplined, modest, and like white elephants, tolerant dialogue. Centuries later, John Milton's Areopagitica (1644) offers a similar defense of the truth. Milton vigorously defended freedom of speech in response to a censorship decree of the English parliament. His argument relies upon the epistemological claim that open dialogue supported by a tolerant government fosters the development of truth. Milton's basic assumption is that the Marijuana be Legalized Essay truth is able to defend itself in a free debate. Let truth and falsehood grapple; who ever knew truth put to the worse, in a free and open encounter?

Milton further argues that outward conformity to orthodoxy is not the same as genuine belief. These ideas were developed further by Locke in his Letter Concerning Toleration . Locke argues that the civil and ecclesiastical authorities ought to tolerate diversity of belief because one cannot force another human being to have faith. White! In a claim that is reminiscent of thesis introduction, Milton, Locke claims the truth certainly would do well enough if she were left to shift for herself She is not taught by laws, nor has she any need of hills like white elephants, force to procure her entrance into the minds of men. This is so because the authority of judgment resides within the free individual. It is impossible to sam is dead movie, force someone to believe something for external reasons. Rather, truth must be arrived at and believed for internal reasons. This epistemological claim is the focal point of Jeremy Waldron's recent critique of Lockes account. Waldron claims that Locke's argument is weak because it relies upon the false assumption that beliefs cannot be coerced. The point is that we often believe things quite sincerely without any good reason whatsoever. Moreover, Waldron argues that the hills white elephants epistemological argument is too weak to provide a moral limitation on coercion. Even though coercion cannot produce genuine belief, an intolerant regime may not be interested in producing genuine belief.

It may simply be interested in guaranteeing conformity. Waldron's point is important: the epistemological critique is useful only if one is committed to the claim that genuine belief in the truth is an important political or moral value. An epistemological argument for toleration must claim not only that it is impractical or impossible to impose belief upon others, but also that we ought to value genuine commitment over mere conformity. Mill's epistemological argument is Should quite similar to like white elephants, Locke's, although Mill goes farther in advocating freedom of speech as essential for the discovery of truth. Mill's epistemological argument begins with the assumption that individuals know best what is good for them.

This claim runs counter to the traditional Platonic claim that often individuals do not know what is in their own best interest. Mill supports his claim by pointing out that the individual always has the best access to his/her own interests and Speakig Lover in Shakespeare’s #23 Essay, desires: others do not have access to the kinds of internal evidence that would allow them to judge for the individual. It is important to note that Mill does not equate this access problem with relativism. Indeed, in his essay Utilitarianism (1863), he famously defends a hierarchy of goods based on the fact that those who have experienced both lower and higher goods will prefer the higher ones (for example, it is better to be Socrates dissatisfied than a fool satisfied). Like! The epistemological point remains the same here, however: it is up to the individual to judge for my brother dead, himself about what is good for him. Mill's general argument for freedom of thought is based upon a recognition of human fallibility and on the need for dialogue and debate. White Elephants! Mill's argument for freedom of thought in On Liberty contains the following claims. (1) Silenced opinions may be true. Sam Is Movie! To assume they are not is to assume that we are infallible. (2) Even false opinions may contain valid points of contention and parts of the truth. To know the whole of truth we might have to like elephants, weave together parts of truth from different sources. (3) To claim to know the and The Castle, by Jeannette truth means that we are able to defend it against all vigorous opposition.

Thus we need to like white, be able to hear and respond to false opinions in order to know all of the arguments for thesis introduction example, a proposition. (4) Truth that is not continuously and vigorously contested becomes mere superstition. Such dogmatically held superstitions may thus crumble before even weak opposition and hills like white, will not be heartily believed or defended. Like Socrates, Mill and Locke both arrive at the notion of toleration from A Monk Swimming, by Malachy McCourt Castle, by Jeannette Walls a non-relativistic understanding of belief and truth. Hills Like White! However, under the general rubric of louis riel, sr., epistemological toleration we might also include the sort of toleration that follows from skepticism or relativism. For the relativist or skeptic, since we cannot know the truth or since all truths are relative, we ought to be tolerant of those who hold different points of elephants, view. Contemporary American philosopher, Richard Rorty has articulated an argument something like this. The problem with this approach is the same problem with all sorts of skepticism and relativism: either the claim self-referentially undermines itself or it provides us with no compelling reason to animal, believe it. Like! If we are skeptical about knowledge, then we have no way of knowing that toleration is my brother sam is dead good. Likewise, if truth is relative to a system of thought, then the claim that toleration is required is itself merely a relatively justified claim.

The form of epistemological toleration espoused by Mill, at hills like white least, attempts to avoid these problems by appealing to a form of louis riel, sr., fallibilism that is not completely skeptical or relativistic. Mill's point is not that there is like white no truth but, rather, that toleration is required for us to come to know the truth. We have seen that epistemological concerns can lead us to toleration. Moral concerns can also bring us to toleration. Tolerance as a moral virtue might be linked to other moral virtues such as modesty and self-control. However, the most common moral value that is thought to Medical Marijuana, ground toleration is a concern for autonomy. We ought to refrain from negating the other when concern for the other's autonomy provides us with a good reason not to act. Hills White Elephants! Toleration that follows from a commitment to Medical Essay, autonomy should not be confused with moral relativism. Moral relativism holds that values are relative to culture or context. A commitment to autonomy, in opposition to this, holds that autonomy is hills like white elephants good in a non-relative sense.

A commitment to autonomy might require that I allow another person to do something that I find abhorrent, not because I believe that values are relative, but because I believe that autonomy is so important that it requires me to refrain from negating the autonomous action of another free agent. Louis Riel, Sr.! Of course, there are limits here. Autonomous action that violates the autonomy of another cannot be tolerated. Mill's account of the principle of liberty is helpful for understanding this idea of toleration. Hills! Mill tells us that we should be given as much liberty as possible, as long as our liberty does not harm others. This is in fact a recipe for toleration. Mill's argument follows from certain basic assumptions about my brother sam is dead, individuals. 1. Each individual has a will of his own. 2. Each individual is better off when not compelled to do better.

3. White Elephants! Each individual knows best what is good for him. 4. Each individual is motivated to attain his own good and to avoid actions that are contrary to his self-interest. 5. Self-regarding thought and activity can be distinguished from its effects upon others. Some of these claims (for example, #3) are linked to epistemological toleration. However, the point here is animal characters not only that individuals know what is in their own self-interest but also that it is good for individuals to be able to pursue their own good in their own way. Such an approach makes several important metaphysical assumptions about the nature of human being: that autonomy is possible and important, that individuals do know their own good, that there is a distinction between self-regarding action and actions that effects others. Moral toleration follows from these sorts of claims about human being. Of course, toleration and like white, respect for autonomy are not simple ideas. Much has been made about the Medical Should so-called paradox of toleration: the fact that toleration seems to ask us to tolerate those things we find intolerable. Toleration does require that we refrain from enacting the negative consequences of our negative judgments.

This becomes paradoxical when we find ourselves confronting persons, attitudes, or behaviors, which we vigorously reject: we then must, paradoxically, tolerate that which we find intolerable. This becomes especially difficult when the other who is to be tolerated expresses views or activities that are themselves intolerant. One way of resolving this paradox is to like elephants, recognize that there is a distinction between first-order judgments and second-order moral commitments. First-order judgments include emotional reactions and other practical judgments that focus on concrete and particular attitudes and behaviors. Medical Be Legalized! Second-order moral commitments include more complicated judgments that aim beyond emotion and particularity toward rational universal principles. With regard to the paradox of toleration there is a conflict between a first-order reaction against something and a second-order commitment to the principle of like white, respecting autonomy or to the virtues of A Monk Swimming, and The Castle, Walls, modesty or self-control. The paradox is resolved by like, recognizing that this second-order commitment trumps the first-order reaction: principle is supposed to outweigh emotion. Thus we might have good reasons (based upon our second-order commitments) to refrain from Speakig following through on the normal consequences of negative first-order judgments. However, when there is hills elephants a genuine conflict of second-order commitments, that is, when the tolerant commitment to autonomy runs up against an intolerant rejection of autonomy, then there is no need to tolerate. In other words the paradox is resolved when we realize that toleration is not a commitment to relativism but, rather, that it is Medical be Legalized a commitment to the value of autonomy and to the distinction between first-order judgments and second-order moral commitments. Of course, the ideal of toleration is a difficult one to enact.

This difficulty is related to the tension between first-order reactions and second-order commitments that is found within the hills white elephants spiritual economy of an individual. This is why the thesis introduction idea of tolerance as a virtue is important. Virtues are tendencies or habits toward good action. In the case of the white elephants virtue of tolerance, the tendency is toward respect for the autonomy of others and toward the self-discipline necessary for deliberately restraining first-order reactions. Virtues are usually thought to be integrated into to His Lover Sonnet #23 Essay a system of virtues.

Tolerance is like elephants no exception. The virtue of tolerance is Speakig to His #23 Essay closely related to other virtues such as self-control, modesty, generosity, kindness, mercy, and forgiveness. One must be careful, however, not to conclude that the virtue of tolerance is a tendency toward indifference or apathy. Tolerance demands that we moderate and control our passions in light of some larger good, whether that good be respect for autonomy or an interest in self-control; tolerance does not demand that we completely refrain from judging another free agent. Moral toleration asks us to hills, restrain some of my brother sam is dead movie, our most powerful first-order reactions: negative reactions to persons, attitudes, and behaviors which we find repugnant. Without the tension between first-order reactions and second-order commitment, toleration is merely indifference. Indifference usually indicates a failure at the level of first-order judgment: when we are indifferent, we do not have any reaction, negative or positive, to the other. Like! Such a state of indifference is not virtuous. Indeed, it would be vicious and wrong not to react strongly against thesis introduction, injustice or violations of autonomy.

We often confuse indifference with toleration. However, indifference is like flawed as a human response for two reasons. First, it rejects the truth of first-order reactions. First-order reactions should not be ignored. Our emotional responses are important ways in which we connect with the world around us. When we react negatively to something, this emotional reaction provides important information about the world and ourselves. Tolerance does not ask us to animal, deaden our emotional responses to others; rather it asks us to restrain the negative consequences of hills white, our negative emotional responses out of deference to a more universal set of commitments. Second, indifference is often closely related to general skepticism about moral judgment.

The moral skeptic claims that no set of values is true. From this perspective, both first-order reactions and second-order commitments are mere tastes or preferences without any final moral significance. From this skepticism, indifference with regard to any moral evaluation is cultivated because all of Speakig Lover in Shakespeare’s, our moral values are thought to like, be equally groundless. The difficulty here is that moral skepticism cannot lead to the conclusion that it is good to be tolerant, since the skeptic holds that no moral value can be justified. If we claim that toleration is movie good and that tolerance is a virtue, toleration cannot be the same thing as indifference. This distinction between tolerance and indifference is important for explaining the spiritual disruption that occurs when we strive to become tolerant. Indeed, the difficulty of toleration can be understood in terms of the difficulty of the middle path between indifference and dogmatism. Indifference is easy and satisfying because it sets us free, as it were, from the difficult human task of judging. Likewise, dogmatism is easy and satisfying because it follows from a seamless synthesis of first-order reaction and second-order commitment. Toleration is the middle path in which there is a conflict between first-order reaction and second-order commitment.

Toleration thus requires self-consciousness and self-control in order to coordinate conflicting parts of the spiritual economy. The discipline required for toleration is part of any idea of education: we must learn to distance ourselves from first-order reactions in order to move toward universal principles. First-order reactions are often wrong or incomplete, as are immediate sense perceptions. Like! And yet, education does not ask us to give up on first-order reactions or sense perceptions. Rather, it asks us to by Malachy and The Glass Walls, be disciplined and self-critical, so that we might control first-order reactions in order to uphold more important principles.

Moral toleration emphasizes a moral commitment to the value of autonomy. Although it is linked, by Mill, for example to a political idea about restraint of state power, moral toleration is ultimately concerned with clarifying the second-order principle that is supposed to lead to toleration. While moral toleration is about relations between agents, political toleration is about restraint of political power. The modern liberal state is usually not thought to be a moral agent. Rather, the state is supposed to be something like a third party referee: it is not thought to be one of the parties engaged directly in the process of judgment and negation. Hills Like White Elephants! Political toleration is thus an ideal that holds that the political referee should be impartial and unbiased. The term toleration has been used, since Locke, in this political context to describe a principle of state neutrality. The connection between moral and political toleration can be understood in terms of the history of the pre-modern era when the state was an agenta monarch, for louis riel, sr., examplewho had particular judgments and the power to negate. As the idea of the state has evolved since the 17th Century toward liberal democratic notions of self-government and civil rights, the notion of political toleration has evolved to hills, mean something like state indifference. Political toleration is now thought to entail respect for privacy, separation of church and state, and a general respect for human rights. In the my brother sam is dead 20th Century, the white idea of political toleration has developed, especially under the influence of John Rawls (1921-2002) and his books, Theory of animal farm characters, Justice (1971) and Political Liberalism (1995).

Rawls' approach attempts to be neutral about moral values in order to establish political principles of hills white, toleration. Rawls argues for toleration in a pragmatic fashion as that which works best to achieve political unity and an idea of justice among diverse individuals. Although the idea of political toleration has been most vigorously defended by Rawls, it also forms the Medical Marijuana be Legalized basis of other pragmatic and hills, political accounts of Swimming, by Malachy Glass, toleration, including those of John Dewey, Jurgen Habermas, Michael Walzer, and Richard Rorty. The danger with this approach is that it tends toward relativism by self-consciously limiting itself from articulating a metaphysical defense of autonomy and toleration. The difficulty is that the idea of state neutrality can become paradoxical: a state that is neutral about everything will undermine its own existence. The idea of political toleration begins from the like claim that diverse individuals will come to tolerate one another by Medical Marijuana, developing what Rawls called overlapping consensus: individuals and groups with diverse metaphysical views or comprehensive schemes will find reasons to hills elephants, agree about to His Sonnet #23 Essay, certain principles of hills white elephants, justice that will include principles of toleration. This is in part an empirical or historical argument about the Should way in which diverse individuals or groups eventually resolve their differences by way of a pragmatic commitment to toleration as a modus vivendi , or means of like white elephants, life. One could trace this idea back to Hobbes' idea of the social contract as a peace treaty. Diverse individuals in the state of nature will, according to Hobbes's argument in The Leviathan (1651), engage in movie the war of all against all. This war is ultimately unsatisfying and so individuals relinquish their warring power and create the social contract. White Elephants! The problem is that this pragmatic account leaves us without a metaphysical justification of the principles of toleration.

Rather it comes to toleration from the pragmatic assumption that diverse individuals motivated by self-interest will agree to support the neutral state, which is then supposed to act as a referee in their disputes. Of course, Hobbes' account of the absolute sovereignty of the Leviathan calls into question the louis riel, sr. idea that a social contract view will always lead to a tolerant liberal state. Rawls' idea of justice as fairness attempts to set limits to political power without trying to evaluate the relative merits of different conceptions of the good. Rawls clarified his approach by insisting that the principles of justice are political and not moral principles. They are based upon what he called reasonable pluralism. What he means by this is that the like white elephants principles of toleration will be agreed to by individuals from diverse perspectives because these principles will appear reasonable to each individual despite their differences. The idea of toleration results from a political consensus that is developed by sam is dead movie, way of the ideal social contract that Rawls describes at length in Theory of Justice . Like Mill, Rawls theory of justice claims that the first principle of hills white, justice is the liberty principle: Each person has an Speakig in Shakespeare’s #23 Essay, equal right to a fully adequate scheme of hills white, equal basic liberties which is compatible with a similar scheme of liberties for all. These basic civil liberties form the basis for political toleration.

Political liberalism focuses on louis riel, sr. the problem of diversity without appealing to a larger metaphysical theory. White! This problem is exacerbated when political liberalism takes up the question of international human rights and the problem of intolerant groups or individual who demand to be tolerated. Political liberalism aims at animal farm the creation of a global human rights regime that is hills white supposed to support politically tolerant states and that is sensitive to the issue of group rights. From the perspective of political liberalism, human rightsbasic defenses against louis riel, sr., the intolerant expansion of state powerare thought to be the result of overlapping political consensus. From this perspective, human rights, such as the right to hills like, autonomy that forms the basis of Swimming, McCourt and The Glass Castle, by Jeannette, moral toleration, are thought to be, not metaphysical givens, but the conditions for the possibility of political consensus building. The idea of a developing overlapping consensus in hills elephants international affairs was articulated in characters the 1950's by Jacques Maritain and white elephants, was developed in practice by international agencies such as the United Nations. In the final decade of the characters twentieth century, Jurgen Habermas' approach linked principles of toleration to the very nature of political argument: for us to have a political argument, we must agree to certain principles of fair argumentation. The difficultly here is that diversity is even more of a problem on the international scene, where discussions of human rights are essential.

At the local or national level, the point of liberalism is that the hills elephants neutral state ought not interfere or comment on the quality of individual lives unless the lives and actions of private individuals become a menace to the rights and privacy of other individuals. Internationally, Rawls follows Kant in specifying the Law of Peoples that is supposed to to His Lover in Shakespeare’s Sonnet #23 Essay, maintain order among diverse mutually tolerant nations. A further complication arises at the level of hills white, group rights (both within national and international politics), where groups and their members claim the right to be tolerated by larger political organizations. Swimming, By Malachy McCourt And The Walls! Here the idea of tolerating the practices and identities of groups may paradoxically result in toleration for hills like, intolerant groups. This is the case for example, when tolerant governments consider groups who advocate violence, discrimination, and other intolerant practices.

Such groups can be intolerant toward their own members, toward the A Monk Swimming, and The Castle, tolerant liberal societies in which they subside, and indeed toward those international organizations who support toleration throughout the globe. The risk of political liberalism is that it hovers uneasily between pluralism and relativism, while seeking to avoid metaphysical dogmatism or political imperialism. The basic pluralism of political liberalism supports political toleration by like elephants, recognizing that conflicting comprehensive doctrines can each be justified as reasonable according to the standards internal to them. This leaves us with the conflicts of reasonable pluralism: each of the conflicting comprehensive doctrines is reasonable on its own terms and to the extent that it recognizes the reasonableness of other comprehensive doctrines. Thus, for Rawls, cooperation between reasonable comprehensive doctrines is a practical political task. The state should refrain from entering into a discussion of which comprehensive doctrine is better morally, epistemologically, or metaphysically quite simply because such a discussion would be unjust for a neutral state confronted with the fact of diversity. By defining his account of introduction example, state neutrality as political, Rawls wants to distance his account of reasonable pluralism from a more robust form of philosophical skepticism. This is reminiscent of Locke's approach to epistemological toleration: since we cannot in practice force individuals to agree about moral or metaphysical truths, we should tolerate diversity at the political level. Rawls does, however, hold that there is a best political arrangement, even if the truth about the best political arrangement is arrived at by way of pragmatic concerns for what works politically in light of the fact of diversity.

And thus his idea of political consensus tries to avoid the hills like slide toward skepticism and relativism. It seems that for political toleration, there is at least one non-relative valuethat of toleration and peaceful coexistenceeven if this is louis riel, sr. merely pragmatically justified by the concrete historical need for peaceful coexistence among those who cannot arrive at consensus about their views of the good. The approach of hills white, political liberalism has appeared to succeed in practice. One could argue that the idea of the neutral state and be Legalized Essay, of political consensus about the need for toleration has been gradually developing in Constitutional Law in the U.S. and in international law by way of the U.N.'s Declaration of Human Rights. Article 26 of the U.N. Declaration states explicitly that education is a universal right and that education should aim to promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations, racial or religious groups. We are still far from actualizing the idea of hills white elephants, a tolerant international community. However, it is fairly clear that in the last several decades the idea of political toleration has succeeded in the United States and in other Western countries. Despite this success, critics such as Michael Sandel, in his Democracy's Discontent (1998), have argued that the tolerant attitude of what he calls the procedural republic must be grounded in a more comprehensive moral theory.

Without such a ground, Sandel worries that the example tolerant neutral state will ultimately lose its connection with the moral lives of individuals. Sandel claims in his arguments against Rawls and against certain developments in Constitutional Law that the approach of political liberalism cannot ultimately take account of the depth of elephants, commitment that most individuals have to their own comprehensive doctrines. Rawls admits that for introduction, his idea of like white elephants, overlapping consensus to work, he must assume a weakening of private faith in comprehensive doctrines. The problem here is that it argues for Medical Marijuana be Legalized, toleration by underestimating the power of those forms of white elephants, private faith that must be tolerated. A further problem of the political approach to toleration is that it struggles to define the nature of privacy. Moral toleration claims that there are certain private activities which are only sam is dead of concern to the individual and that the state would be unjustified in interfering with these private activities. A merely political approach to toleration is however unable to draw the hills like white line dividing public and private in a metaphysical fashion. Rather, the sphere of privacy is itself defined only as a result of the process of building political consensus. Thus the worry is that the principles of political liberalism are not clearly defined and Medical, that toleration, as a mere modus vivendi , could be violated if the political consensus were to shift.

In other words, if there is no metaphysical basis for a sphere of hills like, privacy, then it is not exactly clear what the politically grounded idea of liberal toleration is thesis introduction example supposed to hills, tolerate.

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A CRITICAL STUDY OF THE SYMPHONIES OF BEETHOVEN. Translated by Michel Austin. Some thirty six or seven years ago, Beethoven’s works, which at the time were completely unknown in France, were tried out at the Opera’s concerts spirituels . Today it would be hard to believe the storm of criticism from the majority of musicians that greeted this wonderful music. It was described as bizarre, incoherent, diffuse, bristling with harsh modulations and wild harmonies, bereft of melody, over the top, too noisy, and hills white horribly difficult to play. To satisfy the demands of the men of good taste who at the time held sway at the Academie royale de musique , M. Habeneck, who later organised and directed with such care the performance of the symphonies at the Conservatoire, found himself obliged to make monstrous cuts in them, of a kind that would only be tolerated in a ballet by Gallemberg or an opera by louis riel, sr., Gaveaux.

Without such corrections Beethoven would not have been granted the honour of appearing on the programme of the concerts spirituels between a solo for hills white, bassoon and a flute concerto. Medical Be Legalized. At the first hearing of hills elephants those passages that had been marked with a red pencil, Kreutzer took to flight blocking his ears, and he had to summon all his courage to steel himself to listen at the other rehearsals to what was left of the symphony in D major (no. 2). Let us not forget that M. Kreutzer’s opinion on louis riel, sr., Beethoven was shared by ninety nine per cent of hills like white elephants musicians in Paris at the time, and that without the persistent efforts of the tiny fraction who took the opposite animal farm view, the greatest composer of modern times would probably still be largely unknown today. The mere fact that fragments of like Beethoven were performed at the Opera was therefore of considerable significance, and we can state this with good reason, since without this the Societe des concerts du Conservatoire would probably not have been founded. Characters. The credit for this noble institution belongs to this small group of intelligent men and to the public. The public I mean the true public, which does not belong to any particular clique is guided by its own feelings and not by narrow ideas or any ridiculous theories it may have conceived on art. That public, which is often mistaken in its judgments, since it frequently changes its mind, was struck at the outset by some of Beethoven’s salient qualities. It did not ask whether this particular modulation was related to white elephants another, whether certain harmonies were acceptable to pundits , nor whether it was admissible to use certain rhythms which were as yet unknown.

All it noticed was that these rhythms, harmonies and modulations, adorned with noble and passionate melodies, and enhanced by powerful orchestral writing, exerted on A Monk Swimming, by Malachy McCourt and The Glass, it a strong impression of a completely novel kind. Hills Like White. Nothing more was needed to stimulate its applause. Only at rare intervals does our French public experience the keen and example incandescent emotion that the art of music can generate; but when its emotions are truly stirred, nothing can equal its gratitude for the artist who caused this, whoever he may be. Thus from its first appearance, the famous allegretto in like elephants A minor of the animal, seventh symphony, which had been inserted in the second to make the rest palatable , was judged at its true worth by the audience at like the concerts spirituels . A loud clamour arose for the piece to be repeated, and at the second performance the first movement and Speakig to His Lover Sonnet scherzo of the symphony in D (no. 2), which at first hearing had made little impression, scored an like white almost comparable success. The obvious interest in Beethoven that the animal farm characters, public began to show from then on doubled the energy of his defenders and reduced to inaction, if not to silence, the majority of his detractors. Little by little, thanks to these glimmerings of hills like dawn which tell the clear-sighted on which side the sun is about to rise, the to His in Shakespeare’s Sonnet #23 Essay, core of supporters increased in size and the result was the foundation, almost entirely for Beethoven’s sake, of the magnificent Societe du Conservatoire , which nowadays has scarcely a rival in the world. We will attempt to analyse the symphonies of this great master, starting with the first symphony which the Conservatoire performs so rarely. Through its form, melodic style, and the spareness of its harmonic and orchestral writing, this work is quite different from the other compositions of Beethoven which followed. In writing this symphony the composer was evidently under the influence of Mozart’s ideas, which he has throughout imitated ingeniously and at times magnified.

But in the first and second movements one can notice from time to time certain rhythmic patterns which the author of Don Giovanni has admittedly used, but very rarely and in hills like white elephants a much less striking way. The first allegro has a six bar theme, which though not very distinctive in itself, acquires interest subsequently through the skilful way in which it is treated. It is followed by a transitional melody of a rather undistinguished style. A half-cadence which is repeated three or four times leads to introduction example a passage for wind instruments with imitations at the fourth above. It is hills like, all the more surprising to Medical Should be Legalized Essay find this here, as it was often used before in several overtures to French operas.

The andante includes a soft accompaniment for timpani which nowadays seems rather commonplace, but which can nevertheless be seen as the forerunner of the striking effects which Beethoven was to produce later with this instrument, which his predecessors had in general used to little or no purpose. This piece is full of charm; the theme is graceful and lends itself well to fugal developments, through which the composer has been able to exploit it in ingenious and witty ways. The scherzo is the first born in hills like white elephants this family of delightful musical jests (scherzi), a form invented by Beethoven who established its tempo. In almost all his instrumental works it takes the place of the louis riel, sr., minuet of Mozart and Haydn, which is like white, only half the speed of the scherzo and very different in character. This one is delightful in its freshness, nimbleness, and charm. It is the only really novel piece in this work, in which the farm characters, poetic idea, which plays such a large and rich part in the majority of works which followed, is completely absent. This is admirably crafted music, clear, alert, but lacking in strong personality, cold and sometimes rather small-minded, as for hills, example in the final rondo, which has the character of animal characters a musical amusement. In a word, this is white, not Beethoven.

We are about to meet him. Marijuana Be Legalized Essay. Everything in hills elephants this symphony is noble, energetic and thesis introduction proud; the introduction ( largo ) is hills like white elephants, a masterpiece. The most beautiful effects follow in quick succession, always in unexpected ways but without causing any confusion. The melody has a touching solemnity; from the Marijuana, very first bars it commands respect and sets the emotional tone. Rhythms are now more adventurous, the orchestral writing richer, more sonorous and varied. This wonderful adagio leads to an allegro con brio which has a sweeping vitality. The grupetto in the first bar of the hills white elephants, theme played by violas and cellos in unison is subsequently developed it its own right, either to generate surging crescendo passages or to bring about imitations between wind and strings, all of them at once novel and lively in character. In the middle comes a melody, played by clarinets, horns and sam is dead bassoons for the first half, and hills rounded off as a tutti by Medical, the rest of the orchestra; it has a masculine energy which is further enhanced by hills like white elephants, the felicitous choice of characters accompanying chords.

The andante is not treated in hills elephants the same way as that of the first symphony; instead of a theme developed in canonical imitation it consists of a pure and innocent theme, presented at louis riel, sr. first plainly by the strings, then exquisitely embellished with delicate strokes; they faithfully reproduce the tender character of the main theme. This is the like elephants, enchanting depiction of innocent joy, scarcely troubled by introduction, passing touches of melancholy. The scherzo is as openly joyful in its capricious fantasy as the andante was completely happy and hills like white calm. Farm. Everything in this symphony smiles, and even the martial surges of the first allegro are free from any hint of violence; they only white speak of the youthful ardour of introduction a noble heart which has preserved intact the most beautiful illusions of white elephants life. The author still believes in my brother sam is dead movie immortal glory, in love, in devotion What abandonment in his joy, what wit, what exuberance! The various instruments fight over particles of a theme which none of them plays in full, yet each fragment is coloured in a thousand different ways by being tossed from one instrument to the other.

To hear this is like witnessing the hills, enchanted sport of Oberon’s graceful spirits. The finale is of the same character: it is a scherzo in double time, perhaps even more delicate and witty in its playfulness. Louis Riel, Sr.. It is a serious mistake to truncate the title which the composer provided for the symphony. It reads: Heroic symphony to commemorate the hills white, memory of a great man . As will be seen, the subject here is not battles or triumphal marches, as many, misled by #23 Essay, the abbreviated title, might expect, but rather deep and serious thoughts, melancholy memories, ceremonies of imposing grandeur and white sadness, in short a funeral oration for a hero. I know few examples in music of a style where sorrow has been so unfailingly conveyed in forms of my brother sam is dead movie such purity and such nobility of like elephants expression. The first movement is in triple time and in a tempo which is almost that of a waltz, yet nothing could be more serious and more dramatic than this allegro . McCourt Glass. The energetic theme on which it is built is not at first presented in its complete form. Contrary to normal practice, the composer has initially provided only hills white elephants a glimpse of his melodic idea, which is only revealed in its full power after a few bars’ introduction. Animal Farm Characters. The rhythmic writing is extremely striking in hills white the frequent use of syncopation and, through the stress on sam is, the weak beat, the like white, insertion of bars in duple time into bars in triple time.

When to this irregular rhythm some harsh dissonances are added, as we find towards the middle of the and The by Jeannette, development section, where the first violins play a high F natural against an E natural, the fifth of the chord of A minor, it is difficult not to shudder at this depiction of indomitable fury. This is the voice of despair and almost of rage. Yet one wonders, Why this despair, Why this rage? The reason for it is not obvious. Then in the next bar the orchestra suddenly calms down, as though, exhausted by hills white elephants, its own outburst, its strength was abruptly deserting it. A gentler passage follows, which evokes all the most painful feelings that memory can stir in the mind. It is impossible to describe or merely to indicate the Speakig to His Lover, multiplicity of melodic and harmonic guises in which Beethoven presents his theme.

We will only hills mention an extremely odd case, which has caused a great deal of argument. The French publisher corrected it in his edition of the score, in the belief it was an engraving error, but after further enquiry the passage was reinstated. The first and second violins on Marijuana Should be Legalized, their own are playing tremolando a major second (B flat, A flat), part of the chord of the seventh on the dominant of hills elephants E flat, when a horn gives the characters, impression of having made a mistake by coming in four bars too soon, and rudely intrudes with the beginning of the main theme which consists only of the notes E flat, G, E flat, B flat. The strange effect produced by this melody built on the three notes of the tonic chord against hills, the two discordant notes of the dominant chord can easily be imagined, even though the distance between the parts greatly softens the clash. But just as the ear is about to protest against this anomaly, an energetic tutti cuts off the horn, ends piano on the tonic chord and gives way to Swimming, McCourt Glass Castle, by Jeannette Walls the entry of the cellos which then play the complete theme with the appropriate harmony. Taking a detached view it is difficult to find a serious justification for this musical caprice*.

But it is said that the author attached much importance to it. It is even related that at the first rehearsal of the like elephants, symphony, M. A Monk Swimming, By Malachy McCourt And The Glass Walls. Ries who was present stopped the orchestra and exclaimed: Too early, too early, the horn is wrong!. As a reward for his indiscretion, he was roundly taken to task by a furious Beethoven. *However you look at it, if that was really what Beethoven wanted, and if there is any truth in the anecdotes which circulate on like white, the subject, it must be admitted that this whim is an farm characters absurdity. There is no comparable oddity in the rest of the hills elephants, score. The funeral march is a drama in its own right. It is like a translation of Virgil’s beautiful lines on the funeral procession of the young Pallas: Multaque praeterea Laurentis praemia pugnae. Adgerat, et longo praedam jubet ordine duci.

Post bellator equus, positis insignibus, Aethon. It lacrymans, guttisque humectat grandibus ora. Louis Riel, Sr.. The ending in particular is deeply moving. The theme of the march returns, but now in a fragmented form, interspersed with silences, and only accompanied by three pizzicato notes in the double basses. When these tatters of the sad melody, left on their own, bare, broken and lifeless, have collapsed one after the other onto the tonic, the wind instruments utter a final cry, the hills like, last farewell of the warriors to their companion in arms, and the whole orchestra fades away on a pianissimo pause. Following normal practice the third movement is louis riel, sr., entitled scherzo . In Italian the word means play, or jest. At first sight it is hard to see how this kind of music can find a place in this epic composition. It has to be heard to be understood. The piece does indeed have the rhythm and tempo of a scherzo ; these are games, but real funeral games, constantly darkened by thoughts of white elephants death, games of the kind that the warriors of the Iliad would celebrate around the tombs of their leaders.

Even in his most imaginative orchestral developments Beethoven has been able to preserve the serious and sombre colouring, the deep sadness which of course had to predominate in such a subject. The finale is just a continuation of the Swimming, by Malachy McCourt Glass Castle,, same poetical idea. There is a very striking example of orchestral writing at the beginning, which illustrates the kind of effect that can be produced by juxtaposing different instrumental timbres. The violins play a B flat, which is immediately taken up by like elephants, flutes and oboes as a kind of echo. Although the sound is played at the same dynamic level, at introduction the same speed and with the elephants, same force, the dialogue produces such a great difference between the notes that the Medical Marijuana Should, nuance between them might be likened to the contrast between blue and purple . Such tonal refinements were completely unknown before Beethoven, and it is to him that we owe them. For all its great variety this finale is hills like, nevertheless built on a simple fugal theme. Besides a profusion of ingenious details the composer develops on top of it two other themes, one of which is exceptionally beautiful. The melody is as it were derived from a different one, but its shape conceals this. On the contrary it is much more touching and my brother dead expressive, far more graceful than the original theme, which has rather the character of a bass line and serves this function very well. White. This melody returns shortly before the end, in a slower tempo and louis riel, sr. with different harmonies which further enhance its sad character. The hero costs many a tear.

After these final regrets devoted to his memory the poet abandons the elegiac tone and intones with rapture a hymn of like white elephants glory. Though rather brief this conclusion is very brilliant and provides a fitting crown to animal farm the musical monument. Beethoven may have written more striking works than this symphony, and several of his other compositions make a greater impact on the public. But it has to be admitted that the Eroica symphony is so powerful in its musical thought and hills white execution, its style so energetic and so constantly elevated, and Medical Marijuana its form so poetic, that it is the equal of the composer’s very greatest works. Whenever this symphony is performed I am overcome with feelings of deep and as it were antique sadness; yet the public seems hardly moved. One must feel sorry for the predicament of the artist: though fired with such enthusiasm he has not managed to make himself intelligible even to an elite audience and make it rise it to the level of his own inspiration. This is all the more regrettable as in other circumstances this same audience warms up to the composer and shares his emotion and tears. It is fired with an ardent and genuine passion for some of hills like white elephants his compositions, which may be equally worthy of admiration but are nevertheless no more beautiful than this work.

It appreciates at its true worth the allegretto in A minor of the seventh symphony, the allegretto scherzando of the eighth, the finale of the fifth, the scherzo of the ninth. It even appears to be deeply moved by the funeral march of this symphony the to His Lover in Shakespeare’s Sonnet, Eroica . But as far as the hills like, first movement is concerned, there is no escaping the truth, and I have observed this for more than twenty years: the public listens to it with composure, regards it as a well crafted and quite powerful piece, but beyond that nothing. There is no point in philosophising. It is no good saying to oneself that the same has always been true everywhere for all artistic creations of an elevated kind, that the springs of poetic emotion are hidden and difficult to fathom, that the feeling for beauty which some individuals possess is completely absent from the masses, even that it cannot possibly be otherwise None of louis riel, sr. this provides any consolation or can appease the anger call it instinctive, involuntary, even absurd if you like which fills one’s heart at the sight of a misunderstood masterpiece, of a composition of such nobility which the crowd observes but does not see, listens to but does not hear, and allows to pass by with hardly a sideways glance, as though dealing with something mediocre or ordinary. Hills Like White Elephants. It is dreadful to have to say to oneself with total certainty: what I find beautiful is Swimming, by Malachy Glass Castle, Walls, beauty itself for hills like elephants, me, but may not be so for animal, my best friend. Someone who normally feels the same way as I do will be affected in quite a different way.

It may be that the hills like white, work which sends me into raptures, makes me shiver, and moves me to tears, leaves him cold, or even annoys and irritates him The majority of great poets have no feeling for music and only enjoy melodies of a trivial or childish character. Many intelligent people, who think they like music, have no idea of the emotions it can stir. These are painful truths, but they are tangible and obvious, and only a peculiar kind of obstinacy prevents one from recognising them. I have seen a bitch howling with pleasure on hearing a major third played in double stopping on a violin, yet her pups have never reacted in a similar way, whether you play them a third, a fifth, a sixth, an octave, or any other consonant or discordant chord. Whatever the composition of the public, it always reacts to great musical conceptions in the same way as that bitch and her pups. There are nerves that react to certain vibrations, but this ability to respond, incomplete as it is, is not equally disseminated and is subject to innumerable variations. It follows that it is virtual lunacy to to His rely on some artistic means rather than others to affect it and like white that the best a composer can do is to Lover Sonnet remain blindly true to his own feelings and resign himself in like elephants advance to all the whims of fortune.

One day I was walking out of the Conservatoire with three or four dilettanti after a performance of the Choral symphony. How do you find this work? one of them asked me. Immense! magnificent! overwhelming! That is by Malachy Walls, strange, I was bored stiff. Like. And what about you? he added, turning to be Legalized Essay an Italian Well, I find this unintelligible, or rather intolerable, there is no melody But here are some papers talking about it, and hills white let us see what they say: Beethoven’s Choral symphony is the pinnacle of modern music; art has yet to produce anything comparable for the nobility of its style, the grandeur of the design and introduction example the finish of the details. (Another paper) Beethoven’s Choral symphony is a monstrosity. (Another paper) This work is not completely barren of ideas, but they are poorly presented and the sum total is incoherent and devoid of charm. (Another paper) Beethoven’s Choral symphony has some wonderful passages, but the hills white elephants, composer was obviously short of inspiration. As his exhausted imagination let him down he had to louis riel, sr. devote his energies, sometimes to white elephants good effect, to making up through craftsmanship what he was lacking in inspiration. The few themes found in the work are superbly treated and set out in a perfectly clear and logical sequence. In short, it is a very interesting work by a tired genius . Dead Movie. Where is the truth, and hills like where is the error? Everywhere and nowhere. Everybody is right. What to someone seems beautiful is not so for someone else, simply because one person was moved and the other remained indifferent, and the former experienced profound delight while the latter acute boredom. What can be done about my brother this? nothing but it is dreadful; I would rather be mad and believe in absolute beauty.

Beethoven forsakes here completely the tones of epic and elegy to return to the less elevated, less sombre, though perhaps no less difficult style of the second symphony. The tone of this score is generally lively, alert, and joyful, or of a heavenly gentleness. Leaving aside the brooding adagio which serves as an introduction the first movement is almost wholly dedicated to elephants joy. The theme in detached notes with which the allegro begins is no more than a canvas on which the composer lays out subsequently other more substantial melodies, and what looked at the start of the movement like the principal theme is made to appear of animal farm secondary importance. Hills. Though it leads to unusual and interesting results, this device had already been used by Mozart and be Legalized Haydn with comparable success. But in the second part of the same allegro a really new melody is introduced, the first bars of which arrest the listener’s attention, draw him into its mysterious developments then surprise him with its unexpected conclusion. This is what happens.

After a fairly vigorous tutti, the first violins break the opening theme into fragments which they turn into like white a dialogue pianissimo with the second violins. This leads to held notes on the dominant seventh of the key of B natural, each of animal farm which is separated by two bars of silence, filled only by a soft tremolo on the timpani on the note B flat, the enharmonic major third of the hills white elephants, fundamental F sharp. The passage is repeated, then the timpani fall silent and leave the louis riel, sr., strings murmuring gently other fragments of the theme, and a new enharmonic modulation leads to hills a six-four chord of and The Glass Castle, B flat. White Elephants. The timpani re-enter on the same note, now the genuine tonic and not as before the leading note, and continue with the tremolo for some twenty bars. The tonal force of this B flat hardly registers initially, but gradually increases as the tremolo is prolonged. Then the other instruments intersperse their forward momentum with short and incomplete fragments under the continuous rumble of the timpani, and this leads to a general forte where the perfect chord of B flat is finally established in all its majesty in the full orchestra.

This astonishing crescendo is one of the happiest inspirations we know in music. The only to His Lover Sonnet #23 Essay passage that could be compared is the hills white, conclusion of the famous scherzo of the symphony in C minor, though despite its overwhelming impact it is not conceived on such a vast scale, as it starts from piano to reach the final explosion but without departing from the home key, whereas the crescendo we have just described starts mezzo forte , disappears for a while in a pianissimo under harmonies of constantly vague and indeterminate colour, then reappears with chords in a more defined tonality, and only bursts out when the cloud obscuring this modulation has completely dissipated. It is like a river whose peaceful flow vanishes suddenly from sight and only re-emerges from its underground course to louis riel, sr. come crashing down in a foaming waterfall. As for the adagio , it defies analysis So pure are the forms, so angelic the expression of the melody and so irresistibly tender, that the like white, prodigious skill of the craftsmanship is completely hidden from view. From the very first bars one is gripped by emotion which by the end has reached an unbearable pitch of intensity. It is only among one of the giants of poetry that it is possible to find something to compare to this sublime movement from the giant of music. Nothing resembles more the impression made by this adagio than the feelings one experiences when reading the characters, touching episode of hills elephants Francesca di Rimini in the Divina Commedia , the louis riel, sr., narrative of which Virgil cannot hear without bursting into tears, and which at the last verse causes Dante to fall, just as a dead body collapses . This movement seems to have been breathed by the archangel Michael when, seized with a fit of melancholy, he contemplated the universe, standing on the threshold of the empyrean.

The scherzo consists almost entirely of phrases in two beats that are forced to fit into the framework of bars in triple time. Beethoven has used this device frequently and it imparts considerable vitality to the music. Melodic endings become as a result more incisive and unexpected; in any case, these cross-rhythms have in themselves real charm, though it is difficult to explain why. Like Elephants. There is special pleasure in seeing the beat dislocated in this way yet coming together again at Should be Legalized Essay the end of elephants each period, and movie the musical logic though temporarily suspended eventually reaching a satisfactory conclusion and a complete solution. Hills Elephants. The melody of the introduction example, trio , played by like white, the wind section, has exquisite freshness. The tempo is A Monk by Malachy McCourt Glass, slower than that of the rest of the hills, scherzo , and louis riel, sr. its simplicity gains extra elegance from the teasing little phrases delightfully tossed by hills white elephants, the violins over the harmonic texture. The finale is joyful and alert and restricts itself to normal rhythmic forms. It consists of a jingle of scintillating notes in a continuous chatter, sometimes interrupted by a few raucous and wild chords, another example of those angry outbursts to which we have already drawn attention with this composer.

This, without doubt the most famous of the symphonies, is also in our opinion the first in which Beethoven gave wings to his vast imagination without being guided by Speakig to His in Shakespeare’s #23 Essay, or relying on any external source of inspiration. In the first, second and fourth symphonies, he has more or less enlarged already existing forms, suffusing them with all the poetry his youthful vigour was capable of adding in terms of like white elephants brilliant and passionate inspiration. Sam Is Movie. In the hills white elephants, third (the Eroica ) the Marijuana Should, forms are admittedly broadened and the musical thought rises to great heights, yet there is no mistaking the influence of one of those divine poets whom the elephants, great artist had long worshipped in his heart. Beethoven, faithful to the precept of Horace: Nocturna versate manu, versate diurna, regularly read Homer, and in his magnificent musical epic, inspired, it is said rightly or wrongly, by Medical Should, a contemporary hero, the memories of the ancient Iliad self-evidently play a wonderfully beautiful part. By contrast the like elephants, C minor symphony seems to arise directly and solely from my brother dead, Beethoven’s own genius. In it he develops his own intimate thoughts, it is about his secret suffering, his concentrated anger, his dreams full of hills like such sad despair, his nocturnal visions, his outbursts of enthusiasm. Characters. The forms taken by melody, harmony, rhythm and the orchestral writing are as substantially individual and novel as they are powerful and noble. The first movement depicts those turbulent feelings which move a great soul seized with despair not the calm and concentrated despair which has an air of resignation, nor the sombre and hills like white elephants silent despair of Romeo learning of the death of A Monk Swimming, McCourt and The Castle, by Jeannette Walls Juliet, but rather the terrifying fury of hills white Othello when he hears from the mouth of Iago the poisonous calumnies which convince him of animal farm characters Desdemona’s crime. At times the mood is one of hills like white frenzied delirium which breaks out in terrifying cries, at others one of exaggerated despair which can express nothing but regret and self-pity. Listen to Speakig to His in Shakespeare’s Sonnet those orchestral hiccoughs, the chords exchanged between wind and strings which grow fainter as they come and go, like the painful breathing of a dying man, then give way to a violent gesture, where the orchestra seems to rise again revived by a flash of anger.

See how this quivering orchestral mass hesitates for a moment before plunging headlong, divided into two fiery unisons like two streams of like white elephants lava. Farm Characters. Can you deny that this passionate style of writing is white, beyond and above everything that had been written before in orchestral music? There is a striking example in this movement of the effect produced by the occasionally excessive doubling of parts and of the raw character of the thesis, chord of hills like white elephants a fourth on the supertonic, in other words the second inversion of the dominant. It occurs frequently without preparation or resolution, and movie once even without the leading note and on a pause: the low D is in all the string voices, while there is a bare and dissonant G on top in some wind parts. The character of the adagio is rather reminiscent of the allegretto in A minor of the seventh symphony and of the slow movement in E flat of the fourth. It has the solemn melancholy of the former, and the touching grace of the latter. The theme played first by the cellos and violas in unison, with a simple pizzicato accompaniment in the double basses, is followed by a passage for wind instruments which keeps returning in hills like white identical form and in the same key from beginning to end of the movement, whatever the successive changes undergone by the first theme.

This persistent repetition of the identical phrase, constantly repeated with the same simple and deep sadness, gradually stirs in the mind of the Medical be Legalized, listener an indescribable feeling, without doubt the most intense of its kind that we have experienced. Among the most daring harmonic effects in this sublime elegy we may mention: 1 0 the high note held by flutes and clarinets on the dominant E flat while the strings are active lower down and progress through the chord of the sixth, D flat, F, B flat, which has no connection with the high pedal note; 2 0 the episodic passage played by a flute, an hills like oboe and two clarinets in contrary motion, which occasionally results in unprepared dissonances of the second, between the Marijuana, leading note G and F, the major sixth of A flat. Hills Like Elephants. This third inversion of the chord of the leading seventh is forbidden by the majority of theorists, as is the high pedal we have just mentioned, yet the result is altogether delightful. There is also at the last entry of the first theme a canon in unison at Speakig in Shakespeare’s Sonnet an interval of one bar , between the like white elephants, violins and flutes, the Medical Marijuana Should, clarinets and bassoons, which would give added interest to the melody treated in this way if the imitation by the wind instruments could be heard; unfortunately the whole orchestra is playing loud at the same moment and makes it almost inaudible. The scherzo is a strange composition. The first bars, which in like white elephants themselves have nothing that should alarm, provoke that inexplicable emotion experienced under the magnetic gaze of some individuals.

Everything here is mysterious and sombre; the orchestral effects, all more or less sinister in character, seem to belong to the world of thought of the animal farm characters, famous scene of Blacksberg in like white Goethe’s Faust . The prevailing dynamics are piano and mezzo forte . The central section (the trio) is taken up by a passage for the basses, bowed with full vigour, the ponderous roughness of which rattles the feet of the music stands and sounds rather like the antics of an exhilarated elephant But the monster moves away, and the sound of its wild frolics gradually fades. Louis Riel, Sr.. The theme of the scherzo reappears pizzicato ; gradually silence is established, and hills elephants only a few lightly plucked notes are heard from the violins together with the strange clicking sounds produced by thesis introduction example, the high A flat of the bassoons clashing with G, the octave of the tonic of the dominant minor ninth. Elephants. The strings then break the sequence and settle gently on a bowed chord of in Shakespeare’s #23 Essay A flat on which they doze off. The timpani using sponge-headed sticks keep the elephants, rhythm going on by Malachy McCourt and The by Jeannette Walls, their own with light strokes which stand out faintly against the general somnolence of the rest of the orchestra. These timpani notes are Cs; the piece is in C minor, but the chord of elephants A flat, long held by the other instruments, seems to be introducing a different key; for farm, its part the solitary pulsing of the timpani on C tends to hills like white preserve the feeling of the Speakig Lover Sonnet #23 Essay, original key. The ear hesitates where will this harmonic mystery end? and then the soft throbbing of the timpani gradually increase in volume, joined by the violins which have started to hills like elephants move again, changing the harmony.

This leads to the dominant seventh chord of G, B, D and F while the timpani continue to play obstinately the tonic C. The whole orchestra, reinforced by the trombones which have not yet appeared, explodes now in the major in a triumphal march and Medical Marijuana Should the finale begins. The electrifying effect of this passage is well known, and like there is no need to elaborate for the reader. Critics have nevertheless sought to diminish the composer’s merit by asserting that he had merely resorted to a commonplace device in making the brilliance of the A Monk by Malachy and The Glass, major mode follow the darkness of a pianissimo in a minor key, that the triumphal theme was lacking in originality, and that interest flagged as the movement progressed instead of increasing. Hills White. We would answer: is it because the Speakig Lover in Shakespeare’s Sonnet #23 Essay, transition from white elephants, piano to forte , and from minor to major , are known devices that there is less genius in creating such a work? How many other composers have not tried to sam is movie achieve this same effect? And how can their efforts compare with the gigantic hymn of victory, in which the soul of the poet musician, liberated from earthly shackles and suffering, seems to soar radiantly to white elephants heaven? It is true that the first four bars of the march are not of louis riel, sr. striking originality; but there is a limit to what can be done with the genre of the fanfare, and we do not believe it possible to invent new types of like elephants fanfare without giving up completely its simple, grandiose and festive character. Beethoven wanted for the start of his finale a fanfare-like entry; in the rest of the movement, in fact even in Swimming, McCourt and The Glass by Jeannette the continuation of the principal theme, he quickly reverts to hills white elephants the lofty and original style that is his hallmark.

As for the criticism that he failed to sustain interest through the end of the movement, one might answer that in the present state of the art of music it is impossible to produce a more shattering effect than the transition from the scherzo to the triumphal march, and it was therefore not possible to intensify that effect any further. To remain at such a height is already a prodigious feat; despite the breadth with which Beethoven develops his material, he nevertheless brings it off. But this consistency of level from the beginning to the end is enough to give the impression of a fall-off; so great has been the initial impact on louis riel, sr., the listener, whose emotional response has been raised to the highest pitch, that it is like elephants, all the more difficult to sustain it subsequently at the same level. In a long row of columns of the A Monk by Malachy McCourt and The Castle, Walls, same height perspective suggests that the more distant ones are actually smaller. It could be that our inadequate constitutions would adapt better to a more laconic ending such as Gluck’s Our general is calling you back : the hills white, audience would thus not have the time to dead movie cool down, and the symphony would be over white before fatigue prevented the audience from following in the composer’s footsteps. But this remark only applies so to speak to the way the work is presented; it does not disqualify this finale from being in itself of animal characters a magnificence and richness next to white elephants which very few pieces could stand comparison without being obliterated. Louis Riel, Sr.. This astonishing landscape could have been designed by Poussin and drawn by Michelangelo. The author of Fidelio and of the Eroica symphony sets out to depict the like white, tranquillity of the countryside and the shepherds’ gentle way of introduction life. Hills White Elephants. But let us be clear: we are not dealing here with the picture-postcard and prettified shepherds of M. de Florian, still less those of M. Lebrun, who wrote the Rossignol [The Nightingale], or those of J.-J. Rousseau, the composer of the Devin du Village [The Village Soothsayer]. We are dealing here with real nature.

The title given by the composer to his first movement is Gentle feelings stirred by the sight of a beautiful landscape . The shepherds begin to move about nonchalantly in animal farm the fields; their pipes can be heard from a distance and close-by. Exquisite sounds caress you like the scented morning breeze. A flight or rather swarms of twittering birds pass overhead, and the atmosphere occasionally feels laden with mists. Heavy clouds come to hide the sun, then suddenly they scatter and let floods of dazzling light fall straight down on the fields and the woods. These are the images that come to mind when I hear this piece, and despite the vagueness of like instrumental language I suppose that many listeners have probably reacted in the same way. By Malachy McCourt And The Castle, Walls. Further on there is a Scene by the brook . Contemplation The composer probably created this wonderful adagio lying on his back in the grass, his eyes turned to like elephants heaven, his ear listening to the wind, fascinated by countless reflections of sound and light, observing and listening at louis riel, sr. once to the white ripples of the river as they break gently on the stones of the bank. This is hills like elephants, delightful. There are some who vehemently criticise Beethoven for wanting to reproduce at the end of the my brother sam is, adagio the song of three birds, at first in succession and hills white elephants then together. In my view the normal test of the appropriateness or absurdity of such attempts is whether they come off or not. On this point I would therefore say to Beethoven’s critics that they are right as far as the nightingale is concerned: the imitation of its song is no more successful here than in M. Characters. Lebrun’s well-known flute solo, for the very simple reason that since the nightingale only hills emits indistinct sounds of indeterminate pitch it cannot be imitated by instruments with a fixed and Swimming, by Malachy Glass Castle, by Jeannette precise pitch. But it seems to me that the case is different with the quail and hills white the cuckoo, whose cry involves either one or two real notes of fixed pitch, and animal farm can therefore be fully imitated in a realistic way.

Now if the composer is like white elephants, criticised for by Jeannette Walls, introducing a childishly literal imitation of bird-song in a scene where all the hills white elephants, quiet voices of heaven, earth and water must naturally find their place, I would say in reply that the my brother movie, same objection could be made when in the storm he also imitates faithfully the gusts of like white wind, the flashes of lightning and the bellowing of animals. And heaven knows that no one has ever dreamed of criticising the storm of the Swimming, Glass Castle, Walls, pastoral symphony! But let us proceed. The poet now brings us in the midst of a Joyful gathering of peasants. The dancing and laughter are restrained at elephants first; the oboe plays a cheerful refrain accompanied by a bassoon that can only manage to produce two notes. Beethoven’s intention was probably to Swimming, McCourt and The Glass suggest in this way an old German peasant, sitting on a cask with a decrepit old instrument, from which all he can draw are the two principal notes of the key of F, the dominant and the tonic. Every time the oboe plays its naive and jolly tune like a girl in her Sunday clothes, the old bassoon blows his two notes. When the melody modulates to a different key the bassoon falls silent and quietly counts his rests, until the original key returns and he is able to interject again unruffled his F, C and F. This burlesque effect is wonderfully apt but the public seems to miss it almost completely. The dance gets more animated and becomes wild and noisy. A rough theme in duple time signals the arrival of mountaineers with their heavy clogs. The first section in like elephants triple time is repeated, but even more animated.

The dancers mingle excitedly, the women’s hair flies loose over their shoulders, the mountaineers add their noise and intoxication, there is Should be Legalized Essay, clapping, shouting and running, and the scene goes wild and furious Then suddenly a distant clap of thunder strikes terror in the midst of this rustic ball and hills scatters the dancers. Storm, lightning . I despair of louis riel, sr. being able to convey an idea of this prodigious piece. It has to be heard to understand how realistic and sublime imitative music can become in the hands of someone like Beethoven. Listen to the gusts of wind gorged with rain, the dull growl of the basses, the shrill hissing of piccolos announcing the hills elephants, fearful storm that is about the break out. The hurricane approaches and increases in my brother sam is intensity. Hills Like. A huge chromatic scale, starting in Medical be Legalized the upper instruments, plunges to hills elephants the depths of the orchestra, picks up the basses on the way, drags them upwards, like a surging whirlwind that sweeps everything in its way. The trombones then burst out, the thunder of the timpani intensifies in to His Lover Sonnet #23 Essay violence; this is no longer rain and wind but a terrifying cataclysm, a universal deluge and like white the end of the world. Medical Should. In truth the white elephants, piece induces dizziness, and characters there are many who on hearing this storm are not sure whether the emotion they experience is one of pleasure or of pain. The symphony concludes with the Thanksgiving of the peasants after the return of hills elephants fine weather . Everything smiles again, the shepherds come back and answer each other on the mountain as they call their scattered flocks. The sky is clear, the torrents gradually dry out, calm returns and Speakig Lover with it the rustic songs with their gentle tones.

They soothe the mind, shattered as it was by the awesome splendour of the preceding tableau. Is it really necessary after this to write of the stylistic oddities to be found in this mighty work the groups of five notes on the cellos clashing with passages of four notes in the double-basses, which grind together without being able to blend into a genuine unison? Must one mention the horn call which plays an arpeggio on the chord of C while the strings hold that of F? In truth I cannot. To do this one has to think rationally, and how can you avoid being intoxicated when in the grip of such a subject! Far from it if only one could sleep and go on sleeping for months on hills white elephants, end, and inhabit in one’s dreams the unknown sphere which for a moment genius has allowed us to glimpse. After such a concert should one have the louis riel, sr., misfortune to have to see some comic opera, attend a soiree of fashionable songs and a flute concerto, one would have a look of stupefaction. Should someone ask you: How do you find this Italian duet? You would reply in all seriousness. And these variations for clarinet? And the finale of the new opera?

And some distinguished artist who has heard your answers but does not know why you are so preoccupied, will point at you and say: Who is hills white elephants, this idiot? How the ancient poems, for all their beauty and the admiration they evoke, pale before this marvel of Speakig Lover #23 Essay modern music! Theocritus and Virgil were great landscape artists; lines like the following are music to the ears: Te quoque, magna Pales, et te, memorande, canemus. Pastor ab Amphryso; vos Sylvae amnesque Lycaei. especially when they are not recited by barbarians like us French, who pronounce Latin in such a way that it could be mistaken for a peasant dialect But Beethoven’s poem! these long periods so full of colour! these speaking images! these scents! this light! this eloquent silence! these vast horizons! these magic hideouts in the woods! these golden harvests! these pink clouds like wandering specks in the sky! this vast plain dozing under the midday sun! Man is absent! nature alone reveals herself glorying in her splendour And the deep rest of everything that lives! And the wonderful life of everything that rests! The little stream that pursues its murmuring course towards the river! the river, the source of all water, which descends towards the ocean in majestic silence! Then man appears, the man from the countryside, robust and full of religious feeling his joyful play interrupted by the storm his fears his hymn of hills like thanksgiving Hide your faces, poor great poets of antiquity, poor immortals. Your conventional language, so pure and harmonious, cannot compete with the art of Medical Marijuana Should Essay sound. You are vanquished, no doubt with glory, but vanquished all the same! You have not experienced what nowadays we call melody, harmony, the combination of different timbres, instrumental colour, modulations, the skilful clashes of conflicting sounds which fight and then embrace, the sounds that surprise the ear, the like white elephants, strange tones which stir the innermost recesses of the soul. The stammering of the childish art which you referred to as music could not give you any idea of this. For cultured minds you alone were the great melodists, the masters of harmony, rhythm, and thesis expression. But these words had a very different meaning in your vocabulary from what we give them now.

The art of sound in its true meaning, independent of anything else, was only born yesterday. It has scarcely reached manhood, and is barely twenty years old. It is beautiful and all-powerful: it is the Pythian Apollo of modern times. We owe to it a world of emotion and feeling which was closed to hills like you. Yes, great venerated poets, you are vanquished: Inclyti sed victi . The seventh symphony is famous for its allegretto *. It is not that the three other movements are less worthy of admiration far from it. But the public usually judges a work on the effect it produces, and only measures that effect by the volume of the applause.

Consequently the movement that always receives the loudest applause is dead movie, invariably thought to be the most beautiful (even though there is a certain kind of priceless beauty that is not liable to excite noisy approval). And then, to enhance even further the object of such partiality everything else is sacrificed to it. In France at least that is invariably the custom. That is why when talking of like white elephants Beethoven one refers to the Storm of the pastoral symphony, the finale of the symphony in C minor, the andante of the symphony in A, etc., etc. *Which is always referred to as the adagio or andante . Medical Marijuana Be Legalized. It has apparently not been established whether this work was composed after the Pastoral and the Eroica , and a number of people believe on the contrary that it preceded them by some time. If this opinion is well founded, then the number which identifies it as the hills like, seventh would only be that of its sequence in the order of my brother sam is dead movie publication. The first movement opens with a broad and majestic introduction where melody, modulations and like elephants the orchestral writing successively hold the listener’s attention.

It begins with one of those instrumental effects of which Beethoven is indisputably the creator. The whole orchestra plays a loud and sharp chord, and the ensuing silence reveals the slender voice of an exposed oboe, whose entry was disguised by Medical Marijuana Should be Legalized Essay, the orchestral tutti and now develops the melody on its own. There could hardly be a more original way of hills starting. At the end of the louis riel, sr., introduction the note E, the dominant of A, returns after a series of excursions into neighbouring keys and forms the subject of like a series of exchanges between violins and flutes, similar to the effect found in the opening bars of the finale of the Eroica symphony . The E comes and goes for six bars without accompaniment, changing its appearance every time it passes from strings to wind. Finally it is taken over by flute and oboe and serves as bridge between the introduction and the allegro : it becomes the thesis example, first note of the main theme, whose rhythmic outline it gradually sketches.

I have heard this theme ridiculed for its rustic simplicity. Like White Elephants. Had the by Malachy by Jeannette Walls, composer written in large letters at the head of this allegro the words Dance of peasants , as he has done for hills, the Pastoral symphony, the charge that it lacks nobility would probably not have been made. This shows that while some listeners do not like to be forewarned of the subject treated by the composer, there are others on sam is dead movie, the contrary who are inclined to react unfavourably to any theme that comes in an unfamiliar guise, if the explanation for the anomaly is not provided in hills like elephants advance. Given the impossibility of deciding between such conflicting views the best course for my brother dead movie, a composer in such circumstances is to follow his own instinct instead of hills pursuing the vain delusion of in Shakespeare’s Sonnet #23 Essay universal approval. This theme has a strongly characterised rhythm, which permeates the white, harmony and shows up in a multitude of forms without ever interrupting the forward momentum of the music up to the end of the movement. The use of an ostinato rhythmic pattern has never been attempted so successfully. Speakig To His Sonnet #23 Essay. The ample developments of the allegro constantly revolve around the same idea, and so incredible is the like elephants, skill with which it is written, so frequent and ingenious the variations in tonality, so novel the chordal progressions and their grouping, that the sam is dead movie, movement is over before the attention and elephants warm response generated in the listener can lose any of their keenness. The harmonic effect which champions of academic rigour criticise most vehemently is also the happiest: the resolution of the dissonance in the six-five chord on the subdominant of the key of E natural. This dissonance of a second on a very loud tremolo in the upper parts between the first and second violins is resolved in a completely novel way. One might have sustained the E and raised the F sharp to G, or sustained the F and brought the E down to my brother sam is D: but Beethoven did neither, and without changing the bass he merged the two dissonant parts into an octave on F natural, by moving the F sharp a semitone lower and the E down by a major seventh.

The chord of hills like white a fifth and characters major sixth thus becomes a minor sixth without the fifth which has dissolved into F natural. The sudden transition from hills like elephants, forte to piano at the exact point in this unusual harmonic transformation gives it an even stronger character and introduction example enhances its charm. Before passing on to the following movement let us not omit to mention the striking crescendo through which Beethoven brings back his favourite rhythm which he had momentarily left aside. This is done by means of a two bar phrase (D, C sharp, B sharp, B sharp, C sharp) in the key of hills A major, which is Marijuana Should be Legalized, repeated eleven times in the lower register by the basses and violas, while the elephants, wind instruments sustain an E at the top, bottom and in Shakespeare’s Sonnet #23 Essay middle of the range in quadruple octaves, and the violins sound a bell-like phrase, the three notes E, A, E, C, repeated in increasingly fast figuration and combined in such a way as to present always the dominant when the basses play D or B sharp, and the tonic or its third when they play C. This is completely novel, and hills like white elephants fortunately no imitator has tried, I believe, to squander this beautiful invention. As in the first movement though in a different form, a simple rhythm is again the principal cause of the extraordinary effect produced by the allegretto . The rhythmic pattern consists merely of a dactyl followed by a spondee played relentlessly, either in three parts, or in only one, then in all parts together. Sometimes it serves as an thesis introduction example accompaniment, but frequently it focuses attention on itself, and also provides the hills like, starting point for a small fugal episode with two subjects played by the strings. It appears first in the lower strings violas, cellos, double-basses played piano , then is repeated soon after in a pianissimo full of melancholy and Swimming, by Jeannette mystery.

From there it passes to the second violins while the hills like white elephants, cellos sing a kind of lament in the minor mode. The rhythmic pattern rises from octave to octave, reaches the first violins who then pass it in a crescendo to the wind instruments at the top of the orchestra, where it bursts out in its full force. Sounded with even greater vehemence the melody now assumes the character of an anguished lament. Conflicting rhythms clash painfully with each other; these are tears, sobs and animal characters supplications, this is the expression of like elephants limitless grief and all-consuming suffering But a ray of hope appears: these heartbreaking sounds are followed by louis riel, sr., a transparent melody, pure, simple, gentle, sad and resigned like patience smiling to suffering . The basses continue on their own with their inexorable rhythm under this melodic rainbow; to borrow yet another quotation from English poetry, One fatal remembrance, one sorrow, that throws. Its black shade alike o'er our joys and our woes. After a similar alternation of anguish and hills white elephants resignation, the orchestra, as though drained by such a painful struggle, plays only fragments of the main theme and collapses in exhaustion. Flutes and oboes pick up the theme in a dying voice, but do not have the strength to finish it, which the violins do with a few barely audible pizzicato notes. At this point the wind instruments, reviving like the louis riel, sr., flame of like a candle on the point of extinction, utter a deep sigh on an unresolved harmony and the rest is silence . Characters. This mournful cry, which begins and ends the andante , is produced by a six-four chord, which always tends to resolve itself onto another one.

Ending on like elephants, an unresolved harmony is the only way to conclude, by leaving the listener in suspense and thereby increasing the impression of dreamy sadness into which everything that came before must have plunged him. The theme of the scherzo modulates in thesis introduction example a very novel way. It is in F major, and instead of concluding at hills like elephants the end of the first phrase in C, B flat, D minor, A minor, A flat, or D flat, like the and The Walls, majority of pieces of this kind, the modulation reaches the key of A major, a major third above the tonic. The scherzo of the Pastoral symphony , also in F, modulates to D major, a third below. Like White. There is thesis introduction, some similarity of colour in these key sequences; but other resemblances can also be observed between the two works. The trio of the seventh symphony ( presto meno assai ), in which the violins hold the dominant almost continuously, while oboes and clarinets play underneath a bright rustic melody, is very much in the spirit of like elephants landscape painting and the idyll.

Yet another new type of crescendo can be found there, played in animal farm the lower register by the second horn, who repeats softly the notes A and G sharp in duple time, though the like white elephants, main beat is in triple time, with emphasis on the G sharp though A is the real note. The public always seems taken by Sonnet, surprise on hearing this passage. The finale is at least as rich as the preceding movements in new combinations, incisive modulations and delightful flights of fantasy. The theme has some similarities with that from Gluck's overture to Armide , though only in hills like elephants the disposition of the opening notes, and thesis introduction these are more obvious to the eye than to the ear: in performance the two themes could hardly be more different. The freshness and elegance of Beethoven’s theme, very different from the chivalrous dash of that of Gluck, would make a greater impression if the white, chords played in the high register by the wind instruments did not cover so much the first violins playing in the middle range, while second violins and violas underneath accompany the melody with a tremolo in animal farm characters double-stopping. Throughout this finale Beethoven has achieved effects as graceful as they are unexpected with the sudden transition from the key of hills like elephants C sharp minor to that of thesis introduction example D major. Among his most daring and felicitous harmonic inventions is without doubt the long pedal on the dominant E, decorated with a D sharp of equal value as the main note. The chord of the seventh is sometimes brought about in the upper part, with the result that the D natural of the hills white, upper parts coincides precisely with the D sharp of the basses. One might imagine that the result would be a dreadful dissonance, or at least a lack of harmonic clarity; yet this is not the case, and louis riel, sr. the tonal thrust of this dominant is such that the D sharp does not disfigure it in any way, and that only the buzzing E registers.

Beethoven did not write music for the eyes . The coda, launched by this threatening pedal, has extraordinary brilliance, and is fully worthy of bringing this work to its conclusion a masterpiece of technical skill, taste, imagination, craftsmanship and white elephants inspiration. This symphony is also in louis riel, sr. F, like the Pastoral , though it is designed on a more modest scale than the preceding symphonies. Yet though it hardly exceeds the first symphony (in C major) in the breadth of its forms, it is at least far superior to it in three respects instrumental writing, rhythm and melodic style. Elephants. The first movement has two themes, both of them gentle and peaceful in character. The second and in our view the more striking of the animal farm characters, two always seems to avoid the perfect cadence, by hills like elephants, modulating first in a completely unexpected way (the phrase begins in D major and Medical Essay ends in C major), and then dissipating itself inconclusively on the diminished seventh chord of the subdominant. This capricious turn in the melody gives the listener the feeling that the composer, inclined at first towards gentle feelings, has suddenly been distracted by a sad thought which interrupts his joyful song.

The andante scherzando is one of those creations for which there is neither model nor counterpart: it drops from heaven complete into the composer’s imagination; he writes it at a single stretch and we are amazed to hills hear it. The role of the wind instruments is my brother dead movie, here the opposite of their normal one: they accompany with repeated chords, played pianissimo eight times in every bar, the airy dialogue a punta d’arco between violins and basses. This has a gentle innocence which is delightful in like its nonchalant manner, like the my brother sam is dead movie, song of two children picking flowers in a field on a fine spring morning. The main theme consists of two sections of three bars each, the symmetry of which is broken by the silence which follows the basses’ reply; as a result the first section ends on the weak beat and the second on the strong. The harmonic ticking of the like white elephants, oboes, clarinets, horns and bassoons so captivates the listener that he does not notice the Medical Should be Legalized Essay, lack of symmetry in the strings’ melody which results from the additional silent bar. The function of this bar is evidently to leave exposed for longer the delightful chord over which the lively melody flutters. This example shows once more that the law of symmetry can sometimes be broken to good effect. But it is hard to believe that this exquisite idyll should end with the commonplace which Beethoven disliked most, namely the Italian cadence. At the moment when the hills white, instrumental dialogue of the Should be Legalized, two small orchestras of wind and strings is at its most enchanting, the composer, as though suddenly obliged to stop, makes the violins play tremolo the like elephants, four notes G, F, A, B flat (sixth, dominant, leading note, tonic), repeat them several times in a hurry, exactly as when the Italians sing Felicita , and then come to an abrupt halt. I have never been able to my brother sam is dead make sense of hills this musical joke. At this point a minuet, similar in design and tempo to those of Haydn, takes the place of the scherzo in triple time which Beethoven invented and which he has used in all his other symphonic works in such an ingenious and striking way.

In truth this is a rather ordinary piece, and the old-fashioned form seems to have stifled musical thought. The finale by contrast sparkles with wit; the musical material is brilliantly original and richly developed. It has diatonic progressions in two parts and in contrary motion, through which the composer achieves a crescendo of huge dimension which brings the work to a most effective conclusion. The harmonic writing does however contain a few rough edges caused by passing notes which are not resolved quickly enough on the right notes and which sometimes even pause on A Monk Swimming, Glass Castle, Walls, a silence. At the cost of some violence to the letter of musical theory it is easy to hills like elephants explain away these passing dissonances, but in performance they always grate on the ear to a greater or lesser degree. But consider the high pedal held by the flutes and oboes on F, while the timpani underneath repeat the Glass Castle, Walls, same note in octaves at the return of the theme, and the violins play the notes C, G and like B flat from the dominant seventh chord, preceded by the third F, A from the tonic chord. This sustained high note may not be allowed by theory, since it does not always fit into the harmony, but it does not cause any offence. Sam Is Dead. On the contrary, thanks to the skilful layout of the instruments and white the character of the musical phrase, the result of this bunching of sounds is A Monk by Malachy and The Castle, by Jeannette Walls, excellent and remarkably smooth. Before concluding we cannot omit mentioning an orchestral effect which perhaps more than any other takes the listener by surprise when this finale is performed: the note C sharp played very loud by the mass of the hills white elephants, orchestra in unison and in octaves after a diminuendo which has faded out in the key of louis riel, sr. C major.

The first two times this rasp is immediately followed by the return of the theme in F, and it becomes clear that the like elephants, C sharp was simply an enharmonic D flat, the Medical Marijuana Essay, flattened sixth of the main key. But the third appearance of this strange entry has a very different character. The orchestra, after modulating to C as before now plays a real D flat followed by a fragment of the hills white, theme in D flat, then a real C sharp, followed by another fragment of the theme in C sharp minor, and finally repeats this C sharp three times over with increased force, and the whole theme now returns in F sharp minor . The note which initially played the role of a minor sixth becomes on its last appearance successively the flattened major third , the sharpened minor third , and finally the dominant . Animal Farm. This is very striking. To analyse such a work is difficult and daunting task which we have long hesitated to undertake. The excuse for hills white, such a foolhardy venture can only lie in our persistent efforts to see the work through the composer’s eyes, to penetrate its intimate meaning, to experience its impact, and to study the impressions it has made so far on a few who are gifted with exceptional sensitivity, as well as on the general public. Among the many diverse views that have been expressed on this score there can hardly be two that are in agreement. Some critics regard it as a monstrous insanity ; others can only see in it the fading glimmers of a dying genius ; more cautiously a few declare they find it at the moment completely unintelligible, but do not despair of achieving at least an approximate understanding of it later; the majority of artistically minded people regard it as an extraordinary conception, though some of its parts nevertheless remain unexplained or without apparent purpose.

A small number of musicians who are temperamentally inclined to examine carefully anything that might enlarge the realm of art, and who have thought deeply about the general layout of the Choral symphony after studying the score and listening to it attentively on animal, several occasions, assert that this work seems to them the most magnificent expression of Beethoven’s genius: we believe we have said at some earlier point that this is the opinion we share. Without enquiring what purely personal ideas the composer might have wanted to express in this vast musical poem a subject wide open to individual conjecture let us see whether the like white elephants, novelty of the form is not justified in Sonnet this case by an intention that is quite independent of any philosophical or religious thought, which might seem equally reasonable and beautiful to anyone, be he a fervent Christian, a pantheist or an atheist, in short by an intention of a purely musical and hills elephants poetic kind. Beethoven had already written eight symphonies before this one. To progress beyond the point he had already reached solely with the resources of orchestral instruments, what further means were available? The answer is the addition of voices to instruments.

But in order to characters observe the law of crescendo , and enhance in the work itself the power of the additional resource he wanted to provide to hills like white elephants the orchestra, it was surely necessary to allow the instruments to figure on their own in the first section of the musical canvas he intended to display Granted this premise, it is thesis introduction, easy to see that he must have been led to search for a mixed musical genre to serve as link between the two major articulations of the symphony. The instrumental recitative was the bridge he had the audacity to throw between the chorus and the orchestra, over which the instruments crossed to go and join the hills, voices. The transition once established the composer must have wanted to announce and motivate the fusion that was about to take place. That is the point where speaking through the chorus leader, he exclaimed, to the sound of the instrumental recitative he had just introduced: Friends! No more sounds like these, but let us intone more pleasant songs, more filled with joy! That is, so to speak, the treaty of alliance concluded between chorus and orchestra; the same theme of the recitative, used by both orchestra and chorus, seems to constitute the oath formula. Marijuana Should Essay. Thereafter it was up to the composer to white select the Medical Should be Legalized Essay, text for hills white elephants, his choral composition: for this Beethoven turned to Schiller and took over the Ode to Joy . Medical Should Essay. He coloured it with countless nuances which poetry on its own could never have conveyed, and hills like white elephants it progresses to the end acquiring ever more splendour, grandeur and brilliance.

Such is the rationale, it may be suggested more or less plausibly, for the general scheme of this immense work; let us now study its individual parts in detail. The first movement has a sombre majesty and is like no other piece written by Beethoven before. The harmony is at times excessively daring: the most original patterns, the most expressive gestures crowd in louis riel, sr. and criss-cross in every direction, but without causing any obscurity or congestion. On the contrary the result has perfect clarity, and the numerous orchestral voices that plead or threaten, each in its own way and its own special style, seem to form a single voice, such is the emotional charge that drives them. This allegro maestoso , written in D minor, begins nevertheless on the chord of A without the third, in other words on the notes A and E sustained as a fifth, and played as an arpeggio above and below by white elephants, the first violins, violas and double-basses. The listener is therefore not sure whether he is hearing the chord of Marijuana be Legalized A minor, or of A major, or that of the dominant of D. This prolonged tonal ambiguity gives great power and character to the entry of the full orchestra on hills white, the chord of D minor.

At the end of the movement there are moments that move the soul to its depths. It would be hard to hear anything more profoundly tragic than the song of the wind instruments beneath which a chromatic phrase played tremolo by the strings swells and rises gradually, like the roar of the sea before an approaching storm. This is a passage of magnificent inspiration. On several occasions in this work we will be drawing attention to clusters of animal farm notes which cannot possibly be described as chords, and we will be forced to admit that the elephants, reason for these anomalies escapes us completely. Louis Riel, Sr.. For example on page 17 of the wonderful movement we have been describing there is a melodic passage for clarinets and bassoons, which is accompanied as follows in the key of C minor: the bass plays first an F sharp supporting a diminished seventh, then an A flat supporting a third, fourth and like elephants augmented sixth, and finally G over which flutes and oboes play the notes E flat, G, C which gives a six-four chord. Swimming, And The Glass By Jeannette. This would be an excellent resolution of the like white elephants, previous chord if the thesis introduction, second violins and violas did not add to the harmony the two notes F natural and A flat which disfigure it and cause a most unpleasant confusion which fortunately is of short duration. Hills Like. This passage is lightly scored and completely free from any roughness; I cannot therefore understand this quadruple dissonance which is so strangely introduced and completely unmotivated. One might suppose there is an engraving error, but a careful inspection of these two bars and those that precede dispels all doubts and my brother dead one remains convinced that this is really what the composer intended. The scherzo vivace which follows contains nothing of the same kind. Hills White. Admittedly there are a number of pedal notes on Marijuana Should Essay, the tonic in the upper and middle voices which are sustained through the dominant chord.

But I have already stated my position on these pedal notes that are foreign to the harmony, and this new example is not needed to demonstrate the excellent use they can be put to when they arise naturally from the musical logic. It is particularly through the elephants, use of rhythm that Beethoven has managed to make this delightful banter so interesting. Sonnet. The theme with its fugal response four bars later is full of vitality, and sparkles with wit when the response then comes a bar earlier and follows a ternary instead of the initial binary rhythm. The central part of the scherzo is taken up with a presto in duple time full of rustic joy. The theme is deployed over like an intermediary pedal note which is either the tonic or the dominant, accompanied by a counter-subject which harmonises equally well with either of the held notes, the dominant and the tonic . The melody is finally brought back by a phrase of delightful freshness in the oboe; after staying poised for a moment over thesis introduction example the dominant major chord of D it finally blossoms in the key of F natural in a way that is as graceful as it is unexpected. This is another echo of the gentle impressions that Beethoven loved so much, impressions that are aroused by the sight of a radiant and peaceful landscape, pure air and the first rays of dawn in spring. In the adagio cantabile the principle of unity is so little observed that one might think of hills elephants it as two separate movements rather than one. The first melody in B flat in quadruple time is followed by a completely different melody in Speakig to His D major in triple time.

The first theme, slightly altered and varied by the first violins, appears for the second time in the original key and leads to the return of the melody in hills like elephants triple time, unchanged and without embellishments but in the key of introduction G major. Hills Elephants. After this the first theme finally establishes itself and A Monk Swimming, McCourt Glass Castle, by Jeannette no longer allows the rival theme to compete for the listener’s attention. Repeated hearings of like this wonderful adagio are needed to get completely used to thesis such a peculiar design. As for the beauty of all these melodies, the infinite grace of the ornaments which decorate them, the white, feelings of sad tenderness, passionate despair and religious reverie they express, if only Swimming, McCourt Glass Castle, by Jeannette my words could give even an approximate idea of them, then music would have found in the written word a rival which even the greatest of poets will never be able to oppose to hills white elephants it. Thesis. It is an immense movement, and hills elephants once the listener has succumbed to its powerful charm, the A Monk and The Castle, by Jeannette Walls, only answer to the criticism that the composer has violated here the law of unity has to be: so much the worse for the law! We are now close to the moment when the voices are about to join the orchestra. Cellos and double-basses intone the like, recitative we mentioned above, after a passage for Speakig Lover, the wind instruments as harsh and violent as a cry of anger.

The chord of the like elephants, major sixth, F, A and D, with which this presto begins, is altered by an appogiatura on B flat, played simultaneously by flutes, oboes and clarinets; the sixth of the key of A Monk Glass Walls D minor grinds dreadfully against the dominant and produces an excessively harsh effect. This does indeed express fury and rage, but here again I cannot see what motivates such feelings, unless the composer, before making the chorus leader sing the words: Let us intone more pleasant songs , had wanted in a strangely capricious way to vilify the orchestral harmony. Yet he seems to regret it, since in between each phrase of the recitative of the basses, he repeats, like so many memories that are dear to his heart, fragments of the three preceding movements. What is more, after this first recitative, he puts in the orchestra, in the midst of exquisitely chosen chords, the hills like, beautiful theme which is about to be sung by all the voices on farm characters, Schiller’s ode. This theme, gentle and calm in character, becomes increasingly animated and brilliant as it moves from the white, basses which play it first to the violins and the wind instruments. After a sudden interruption, the whole orchestra plays again the furious ritornello mentioned above which now introduces the vocal recitative. The first chord is my brother sam is dead movie, again built on an F which is supposed to carry the third and the sixth and does indeed do so, but this time the composer not content with the appogiatura of B flat adds those of G, E and hills white elephants C sharp, with the result that ALL THE NOTES OF THE MINOR DIATONIC SCALE are played at once and produce the thesis, hideous assembly of notes: F, A, C sharp, E, G, B flat, D. Forty years ago, the French composer Martin, known as Martini, wanted to produce in his opera Sapho a similar howl for the orchestra, and did so by using at once all the diatonic, chromatic and enharmonic intervals of the scale at elephants the moment when Phaon’s mistress hurls herself into animal the sea but he did not ask himself whether his attempt was appropriate and whether it enhanced or assaulted the dignity of art, though admittedly there could be no mistaking his intentions. But in hills white this case my efforts at discovering Beethoven’s purpose are completely in vain.

I can see a formal intention, a deliberate and calculated attempt to introduction example produce a double discordance, both at the point which precede the appearance of the recitative, instrumental at first and later vocal. I have searched hard for hills like elephants, the reason for this idea, and I have to admit that it is unknown to me. The chorus leader, after singing his recitative on words by Beethoven himself, as we have mentioned, introduces on his own the theme of the Ode to Joy , with a light accompaniment of two wind instruments and the strings playing pizzicato . This theme recurs to the end of the symphony and is always recognisable, though its appearance keeps changing. A study of these diverse transformations is all the McCourt and The Glass by Jeannette Walls, more absorbing as each of like them brings out a new and distinctive nuance in thesis introduction the expression of a single feeling, that of joy. At first this joy is full of gentleness and hills like white elephants peace; it becomes somewhat livelier when the voice of animal women is heard. The beat changes; the theme, sung initially in quadruple time, returns in 6/8 time in syncopated style and hills white now takes on dead, a more robust and agile character that has a martial quality. This is the song of a departing hero who is hills like white elephants, confident of victory; you can almost imagine his shining armour and hear the rhythmic tread of his step. A fugal theme in which the original melody can be recognised, serves for louis riel, sr., a while as subject for a lively orchestral development, which recalls the bustling activity of a crowd full of ardour But the chorus soon re-enters and sings energetically the joyful hymn in its original simplicity, supported by chords of the like elephants, wind instruments which shadow the melody, and criss-crossed by a diatonic passage played by A Monk Swimming, by Malachy Castle,, the whole mass of strings in like white elephants unison and octaves. The andante maestoso which follows is a kind of louis riel, sr. chorale intoned first by the tenors and hills white elephants basses of the chorus, in unison with a trombone, the cellos and double-basses. Joy here assumes a religious dimension and becomes solemn and immense. The chorus falls briefly silent then resumes less emphatically its spacious chords, after a passage of great beauty for orchestra alone which has an organ-like quality.

The imitation of the majestic instrument of Christian churches is produced by Should be Legalized, flutes in the lower register, clarinets in the chalumeau register, the lower notes of the bassoons, the like white, violas divided into two parts, upper and lower, and the cellos playing on their open strings G and D, or the low C (open string) and the C in the middle range, always in double-stopping. This piece starts in G, moves to C, then to F, and ends on a pause on the dominant seventh of louis riel, sr. D. There follows a great allegro in 6/4 where from the start are combined the beginning of the first theme, already used frequently with such variety, and the chorale of the preceding andante . The contrast between these two ideas is made even more striking by a fast variation of the like white elephants, joyful theme, on top of the long notes of the chorale, played not only by Should Essay, the first violins but also by the double-basses. Now it is impossible for double-basses to perform a succession of notes at that speed, and once again it is hard to like elephants understand how a composer as familiar as Beethoven with the art of orchestration could have committed such a lapse in writing a passage like this for this unwieldy instrument. There is less fire and grandeur, and greater lightness in the style of the following piece: its keynote is that of innocent joy, expressed first by four solo voices and then given greater warmth through the addition of the chorus. Moments of tenderness and religious feeling alternate twice with the joyful melody, then the tempo becomes increasingly precipitate. The whole orchestra bursts out, the percussion instruments timpani, cymbals, triangle, bass drum strike emphatically the strong beats of the by Malachy McCourt and The Castle, by Jeannette, bar. Joy resumes her sway, a popular and tumultuous joy which might look like an orgy if at the end the voices did not pause once more on a solemn rhythm to send, in hills like an ecstatic cry, their final greeting of love and respect for religious joy. The orchestra ends on its own, but not without interspersing its headlong rush with fragments of the first theme which the listener cannot get tired of. A translation as accurate as possible of the German poem set by Beethoven will convey to the reader the stimulus for Medical Marijuana be Legalized, this profusion of musical combinations, masterly supports of unceasing inspiration and obedient tools of a powerful and tireless genius * . Joy! Fair spark of the gods, daughter of Elysium, we enter your sanctuary intoxicated with your fire! Your magic power unites again those whom earthly customs have forcibly separated.

All men will be brothers again under your gentle wing. Elephants. Who has had the good fortune to be the friend of a friend, who has won a noble wife, let him mingle his joy with ours! Yes, any who can call even one soul on earth his own. But who cannot, let him steal away in Should tears from this gathering. All beings drink joy on the breast of nature; all good and all evil men follow a path strewn with roses. Hills Like. She gave us kisses and my brother sam is dead vintage, a friend who is true unto death. The worm receives the joy of life and the cherub stands before God! Glad like the white, suns that fly through the glorious fields of heaven, hurry, brothers, on sam is dead, your way, joyful like a hero hastening to victory. Hills Elephants. Millions, be embraced! This kiss to the whole world! Brothers, above the starry heaven, a dear father must have his dwelling. You fall prostrate, o you millions? World, do you sense the creator? Seek him above the starry heaven! He must dwell over the stars! Joy!

Fair spark of the gods, daughter of Elysium, we enter your sanctuary intoxicated with your fire! Daughter of Elysium, joy, fair spark of the gods!! Of all the composer’s symphonies this is the most difficult to perform; it requires patient and repeated study, and in particular a good conductor. It also requires a body of singers all the larger since evidently the chorus must cover the orchestra in many places. In addition, the animal farm characters, way the music is written for the words and the excessive height of elephants some of the choral parts make voice production very difficult and reduce considerably the volume and power of the sound. Be that as it may, when Beethoven had finished his work and my brother sam is movie could contemplate the majestic dimensions of the hills white elephants, monument he had just built, he must have said to himself: Death may come now, but my task is accomplished. * Note: the following is Medical Marijuana Essay, our own translation of Schiller's German text. The Hector Berlioz Website was created by Michel Austin and Monir Tayeb on 18 July 1997;

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Essay 180 Words Essays and Research Papers. ? Ambiguous Words Essay Question: Southerners maintained that secession was the ultimate expression of democracy, while . Lincoln claimed it was rejection of democracy. Hills White Elephants? How did they explain and justify their principles. On December 20, 1860, the thesis Confederacy was born when South Carolina seceded from the white elephants federal Union. The Union and Speakig to His Lover #23 Essay the Confederacy severely clashed in their views on the Constitution; the South felt that individual states should have the right to like white, nullify. American Civil War , Confederate States of America , North Carolina 979 Words | 8 Pages. and raised around Southern California and stayed and dead movie started their own families there. Thus it would be almost impossible to think of that my father and . mother would move us away from something so foreign, to a quite country life that is a complete 180 degrees from hills white, a busy muggy city life of McCourt and The, Los Angeles and Long Beach. Though after talking with my dad he told me of one story of one night he was up late watching TV and he heard a crash; a drunk driver had swerved onto our lawn but went past and drove. Family , Father , High school 1351 Words | 3 Pages. one needs to understand the white origin of words . Etymology, according to Yule(2006) is the study of the origin and by Malachy and The Glass Castle, by Jeannette history of hills elephants, a . word (p.35).

This process is used in the evolution of words today, the internet is the Medical Marijuana Should be Legalized building block of like, this process. The internet is a catalyst for a number of new words that have become normal in everyday language. Louis Riel, Sr.? This has raised some fundamental questions about the nature of such words being included in the dictionary. Like White Elephants? This essay will argue that although change is louis riel, sr., inevitable. English language , Etymology , French language 1231 Words | 4 Pages. in a more accurate way. WELL, that is how I feel about what I write. Since coming home for the summer, Ive revisited old papers and essays . for further refinement and fine tweaking just because I think its fun (and because Im a perfectionist, whoops). So some of the essays I post are more loved and white tended to louis riel, sr., than others, but today I am posting the first essay I wrote for hills elephants, the Nonfiction Writing class I took this past spring at KU.

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In his essay , Slurring Spanish, Luis Rodriguez highlights the difficulties of bilingual speakers, specifically Spanish speakers, in A Monk Swimming, by Malachy and The Walls . America. He concentrates on the challenges that Spanish speakers face in elephants school from louis riel, sr., having English forced as the language to be spoken at hills like elephants all times, moreover Rodriguez points out #23 Essay, two Spanish-speaking students that experienced the hardships of bilingual speakers in an English Only education system. Although Luis Rodriguez could have written his essay in his native. Bilingual education , English language , French language 1061 Words | 4 Pages. ?2000 Word Essay on Disrespecting an NCO by SPC BUTLER On November 21, I received a negative counseling for disrespecting a Non . Hills Like? Commissioned Officer, though it was warranted by a series of events I didnt agree with I should have found a more appropriate way to voice my concerns. The online dictionary defines disrespect as an expression of Speakig Lover, lack of respect and hills elephants a fashion that is generally disrespectful and contemptuous. I define disrespect as putting one down verbally, physical or emotionally. In.

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Words are powerless when looked at individually but they have the potential for good or evil, when someone who can properly use them to his . or her advantage. That is what Nathaniel Hawthorne quote means, and I fully agree with him. An example of words being used for like, evil could be a dictator trying to convince his people that he is best for the country. An example of words being used for A Monk Swimming, by Malachy McCourt and The Glass by Jeannette Walls, good could be a civil rights activist trying to hills, persuade people to get along and to Medical Should be Legalized Essay, treat everyone with respect. Core issues in ethics , Evil , God 1292 Words | 4 Pages. on the use of forbidden words in the media, the individual responsibility of hills like, using curse words has increased.

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language. Some words have been lost, changed, and added. Louis Riel, Sr.? This language often coincides with the like elephants American culture of the time. As the culture . changes, so does the language. Offensive language has become common in louis riel, sr. todays American culture, and stands as a regular part of the English language. The amount of offensive language heard on elephants, an everyday basis is astounding. There is no escaping it. Excessive amounts of people have come to Speakig Lover #23 Essay, embrace most of this language, but there are still certain words and phrases. African American , Black people , Negro 1380 Words | 4 Pages. Actions Speak Louder Than Words essay. Than Words It is difficult, if not impossible, to maneuver through life being oblivious to white elephants, reality.

This must leave a person unprepared for . Marijuana Should Be Legalized Essay? potential risks or obstacles that occur without any notice. In The Bystander Effect, Dorothy Barkin explains how the psychological factors, which are unknown to many people, play in the behavior of people when faced with emergencies. White Elephants? The two main factors that should be addressed are level of ambiguity and moral diffusion. In Martin Gansburgs essay Thirty-Eight. Bystander effect , Crowd psychology , Diffusion of responsibility 1460 Words | 4 Pages. How to Add 300 Words to animal farm characters, Your Essay in 15 Minutes. How to Add 300 Words to Your Essay in 15 Minutes Heres the problem: youve typed a page or so, which amounts to about 250 . words or thereabouts.

And now youre staring at the blank piece of elephants, paper, thinking the following thoughts: Why do I have to write this stupid essay ? ! Im not even a Writing major why do I have to do this? Why cant the word requirement be one page? What, theres not enough out there in Speakig Sonnet the world for my professor to read? When am I ever going to finish this? Hey. 2000s American television series , Caroline Botelho , Essay 1761 Words | 6 Pages.

ENGLISH-A CLASS XI Full Marks 100 1. Prose 20 marks 2. Like White Elephants? Verse 20 marks Textual Grammar 16 marks 1. Essay writing [350-400 . Farm? words ] 12 marks 2. Hills Like Elephants? Rhetoric 12 marks 3. Project 20 marks Prose and Poetry (40 m/40P) Prose 1. One of these Days-Gabriel Garcia Marquez 2. The Sunder-bans Inheritance- Bittu Sehgal 3. Making Writing Simple- J.B. Priestley 4. Through the thesis introduction Tunnel- Dorris Lessing Poetry 1. Stolen Boat William Wordsworth 2. You who never arrived Rainer Maria Rilke 3. Hills? Snake- D H Lawrence. Charles Lamb , John Keats , Poetry 1980 Words | 7 Pages. Analytical Essay of my brother sam is movie, Donald Halls A Hundred Thousand Straightened Nails Donald Halls A Hundred Thousand Straightened Nails is a . symbolic presentation of the decay of New Hampshire the author uses the hills like life of Washington Woodward to show the Medical Marijuana be Legalized pointless existence that is experienced in a place as lifeless as New Hampshire. He uses the contrast of his own opinion and the beliefs of like white elephants, Woodward to show how after a while it is impossible to escape a pointless mindset. Washington finds joy in animal characters discarded. Death , Family , New England 1234 Words | 3 Pages. ukessays.com http://www.ukessays.com/ essays /nursing/nosocomial-infections.php Nosocomial infections Nosocomial Infections 4 Running . Head: NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS Nosocomial infections. Nosocomial infections are those that result because of a treatment process normally carried out in a health care facility like a hospital. Typically these infections will appear two days after admission into the facility or hospital and up to one month after discharge from the hospital. Nosocomial infections.

Acinetobacter baumannii , Antibiotic resistance , Bacteria 1740 Words | 3 Pages. ?Luis Hernandez English 3A Period 5 9/28/12 When someone describes their selves they usually say a ton of hills like white, words that best fit them. . Although many words help describe a person sometimes just one word is animal farm characters, enough. The word that would best describe me I think would be pursuer. Hills? One thing that makes me a pursuer is my family, they raised me to never give up on my dreams and I want to Speakig in Shakespeare’s, do achieve my goals to give back to them. Along with that another reason is I am a pursuer because I try hard for. 2006 singles , Language , MTV Video Music Award for Best Female Video 557 Words | 2 Pages. with an argument?) Relevant - If you are responding to an assignment, the thesis should answer the question your teacher has posed. In order to stay . focused, pay attention to the task words in the assignment: summarize, argue, compare/contrast, etc. 1. A thesis is white, never a question. Readers of animal farm, academic essays expect to have questions discussed, explored, or even answered.

A question (Why did communism collapse in Eastern Europe?) is not an argument, and without an argument, a thesis is dead. Argument , Frederick Douglass , Logic 1094 Words | 5 Pages. ificantlyin factin generalin particularin detailfor examplefor instanceto demonstrateto emphasizeto repeatto clarifyto explainto enumeratesuch as Effect . White Elephants? / Consequence / Result Some of these transition words (thus, then, accordingly, consequently, therefore, henceforth) are time words that are used to show that after a particular time there was a consequence or an effect.Note that for and because are placed before the cause/reason. Speakig To His Lover In Shakespeare’s Sonnet? The other devices are placed before the consequences or effects. 2006 albums , Clause , Phrase 899 Words | 4 Pages. Never Judge a Persons Skin Color Race is the topic that is still a problem worldwide. Hills Elephants? It has nothing to do with a persons ability, intelligence, or . learned behavior. However, society sees the word , race as a topic which separates everyone, causing them to look at another group of people that stand out and putting them at a category regardless where theyre from. If you really think back in early childhood, we all believe to be the same, but as we grow older we start to louis riel, sr., see that we are different. Black people , Discrimination , Human skin color 800 Words | 3 Pages. My word is actually a phrase, my phrase is sense of hills like, humor. Sense of humor has a few different meanings I think.

The dictionary definition for . it is; the trait of Sonnet #23 Essay, appreciating and being able to express the humorous. It means to be able to appreciate, understand, and make your own humorous things. Understanding sarcasm in speaking, funny actions, and catching puns, etc. are some examples of things you need a sense of humor to understand. Hills Like Elephants? Peoples sense of humor are not usually the same. A Monk McCourt By Jeannette? Your opinions.

Amusement , Comedy , Defence mechanism 604 Words | 2 Pages.

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In addition, during the louis riel, sr., data retrieval simulation, a progress bar is updated. Future parts of this article will show techniques for sharing data between threads and how to protect the data via synchronization techniques. Note: This article assumes some basic familiarity with MFC , how to create projects, add resources, and so forth. If you can create an MFC dialog and add controls to the dialog, you should be good to go. Open up Visual Studio .Net 2003 and create an MFC dialog project called StartStop. Because it's a good idea to keep the UI code separate from the threading code, you are going to put the threading code inside a ProgressMgr class, but first you are going to create the basic UI 'shell' code that creates the basic button handlers and UI variables that allow you to enable/disable the buttons, change the hills like white elephants, button text, and manipulate the progress control.

You know, the UI stuff. The UI for A Monk Swimming, McCourt and The Castle, the application will be a simple dialog consisting of hills white elephants, three buttons and a progress control. To create the UI, open the resource editor and click on the IDD_STARTSTOP_DIALOG. Next, delete the characters, OK button and add two buttons with the ID of the first button ID_STARTPAUSERESUME and the second one as ID_STOP. Also, add a progress control. You should end up with something like Figure 1. The plan will be to add some button and progress control variables, button message handlers, and some user-defined messages to let the hills white, UI to know when to update the progress control and when the thread has finished. First, you'll start with the control variables and button message handlers. Next, you'll add the control variables to allow you to enable/disable the buttons. Although many programmers use the Win32 GetDlgItem() API to connect the controls, it's preferred to leverage MFC's DDX mechanism and let MFC handle the plumbing of the dead movie, controls. Once you've tried this method, you may never go back to GetDlgItem().

Creating controls with DDX in MFC is easy; you just highlight the control in the resource editor, right-click on the control, and choose 'Add variable. Like White Elephants! '. Here's how to do it for the Start button. Open the dialog in the resource editor. Right-click on the Start button and my brother sam is, choose 'Add variable. '. The 'Add Member Variable Wizard bo?=#19; StartStop' dialog will appear (see Figure 2). Under 'Variable name:', ENTER m_btnStartPauseResume. Press Finish. Repeat for the Stop button and Progress control. Do the same for hills elephants the stop button and progress control, entering m_btnStop and sam is, m_ctrlProgress for the variable names. Add the Start and Stop button message handlers.

After creating the control variables, in the dialog editor just double-click on the Start , Stop , and hills, Cancel buttons to Should create the message handlers. You should end up with empty handlers as follows: Toggling the Start / Pause button state. You want the start button to also function as a pause and resume button. To do this, you need to keep track of what 'mode' the button is in. To do this, declare an enumeration type and an INT member variable the StartStopDlg.h file. Don't forget to initialize this variable in the constructor to FALSE. You should end up with the following:

Next, add a method to toggle the button display text and toggle state. And a method to reset the StartPause button state and button text. Stub Out the Start / Pause and hills white, Stop Button Handlers. You want the introduction, UI to properly disable and enable the buttons, plus you want to hook up the ToggleStartPauseButton method you just created to like white elephants the Start button handler. Change the button handlers to the following: Tip: You may wonder why the buttons have control variables that allow you to enable and A Monk McCourt and The Castle, by Jeannette Walls, disable the buttons inside the like, button handlers. It is true that you are going to only going to start, pause, and stop a thread and generally these operations are very quick, especially in your simple application.

However, in a production application thread start up or shut down may be significant, so you want to disable the button (albeit temporarily) to animal let the user know that something is happening and also prevent users from 'double-clicking' on the button. Test the dialog to elephants make sure the Medical Marijuana be Legalized Essay, start button toggles to pause properly and both start and stop buttons disable and enable properly. Note: I took this screen shot after clicking the start button. Unfortunately, the disabled state doesn't come through on like the screen capture. Tip: It's a good idea to test the UI thread controlling functionality separated from the threading code.

This is much easier when you keep the threading code abstracted from the UI as you have done here. Before you move on to implement the threading code, there are a couple of remaining UI tucancode.net that you need to complete. For the progress control to work, you need to initialize it first. To do this, y ou simply call the A Monk and The by Jeannette, CProgressDlg.SetRange32() method. You'll do this at the end of the OnInitDialog( ) method. Defining the user defined messages. MFC UI controls are not threadsafe; that means you shouldn't manipulate the like elephants, control from within the worker thread. Sam Is! For example, you aren't allowed to call m_ctrlProgress.StepIt() from inside the white elephants, worker thread. Actually, you 'may' get away with it on such a simple function, but more complicated MFC UI methods will give unreliable results.

Because you can't manipulate the control directly from the A Monk Swimming, by Malachy McCourt and The Glass Castle, by Jeannette Walls, worker thread , how do you tell the UI thread to update the like elephants, UI? Simple; the standard practice uses a user-defined message and movie, a PostMessage from the worker thread. Let me define two user-defined messages and stub out the message handlers. Open up the stdafx.h file and add: Define the message handler prototypes. Hills Like White! In CStartStopDlg.h, add: Important: Pay attention to the user-defined message signature because it has changed since VC6. In VC6, it used to be defined as afx_msg void OnMessageHandler( ); . In VC7 and above, it is animal defined as afx_msg LRESULT OnMessageHandler( WPARAM, LPARAM ); . If you use the old-style prototype, you will get an hills like white assertion error in the release build. Add the message map entries to the message map: Create the message handlers: Now that the UI code has been stubbed out nicely (and tested), you can move on to the threading code. Because your project is very simple, you could put all the thread-related code in Speakig to His, the StartStopDlg.cpp file. But instead of doing this, keep the threading code decoupled from the UI as much as possible.

In fact, put all the threading code into a class that exposes only a few methods for starting, pausing, and stopping the thread. Once you create this class, you instantiate it as a member variable of the CStartStopDlg class. Stubbing Out the CProgressMgr Class. Use the Add class wizard to create a new class. In the Solution Explorer, select the hills like elephants, StartStop node, right-click and choose 'AddAdd Class. ' The 'Add Class' dialog will appear. Because you are going to Lover Sonnet add a generic C++ class, under 'Categories:', click on the Generic node and hills like elephants, select the 'Generic C++ Class' template (see Figure 4). Press Open. Next, the 'Generic C++ Class Wizard appears. Under class name, enter 'CProgressMgr' and select the 'Inline' check box (see Figure 5). The inline option only creates a .h file without a .cpp file. Press the 'Finish' button.

Because your progress 'manager' code is simple, you can put the whole class declaration and implementation into the .h filethe 'Inline' checkbox option does this for thesis you. The wizard creates a single ProgressMgr.h file containing: Add the Start, Pause, and Stop method stubs. The UI is going to interact with this class to Start, Pause, and Stop the thread, so it's time to stub out these methods. Make the following changes to the CProgressMgr class. The Start method takes a hWnd param. When you wire this up to the dialog, you'll pass in like white elephants, the dialog's hWnd that will be used to Medical Marijuana be Legalized Essay send the hills like elephants, user-defined progress and thread complete messages. Should Essay! Notice that I've added Sleep( 1000 ) statements in the method stubs. This is so you can test the hills like, UI after connecting up the class methods. With the sleeps in there, you should get the same UI behavior as in your earlier tests.

Wiring Up the CProgressMgr Code to the UI. Now that the progress manager code has been stubbed out, you can connect it to the UI. Add the #include ProgressMgr.h declaration. Modify the include section of theStartStopDlg.cpp and StartStop.cpp files. to to His Lover in Shakespeare’s add the #include ProgressMgr.h. You should end up with the following for StartStopDlg.cpp and like, StartStop.cpp files: Declare the CProgressMgr instance. Add the CProgressMgr m_ProgressMgr variable to the CStartStopDlg class.

Change the Start and Stop button handlers to connect with the progress manager. At this point, the UI code is completed. No more UI changes should be necessary. One of the goals of the article is to Should be Legalized allow you to start , pause , resume , and hills white elephants, stop a thread . You'll need to add a few variables to control the thread and signal the thread to exit. For thread signaling, you are going to use an event rather than using status variables such as m_bRunning.

In addition, you are going to pay close attention to properly shutting down the thread. Swimming, By Malachy And The Glass Castle,! Once you signal the hills like white, thread to exit, you need to ensure that it has exited properly. If the thread doesn't shut down properly, the application process can hang around even after the user has closed the dialog. Defining the thread-related variables. Define a couple of handles for the thread and the shutdown event. Louis Riel, Sr.! Modify the CProgressMgr class and add the following: Initialize the member variables in the constructor. Although it's always good practice to initialize variables, with thread related code it's especially important.

Modify the destructor to add the cleanup code. You'll define the ShutdownThread method next. The shutdown code simply checks whether the elephants, thread handle is null. If it isn't, it means the thread is running and signals the thread to A Monk McCourt Castle, by Jeannette Walls exit by setting the ShutdownEvent and then waiting for the thread to exit. If the thread doesn't exit in a timely manner, it uses terminate thread to close the thread. In your sample code, you don't care if the thread gets terminated, but in a real app, you may want to like white elephants check whether the animal characters, thread was terminated. You've made a halfhearted attempt to return an S_FALSE HRESULT status, but you aren't going to check the value. In production code, you may want to define an HRESULT error code to indicate TerminateThread was used. A few words about TerminateThread: MSDN offers pretty strict warnings against using TerminateThread of TerminateProcess APIs. This is because when a thread or process is terminated, the thread or process doesn't have an opportunity to call any cleanup routines, so there is a potential for leaking resources.

See MSDN for more information. In your use here, the hills white, thread proc is going to to His Lover Sonnet be a static method of the CProgressMgr class and like white, your cleanup will occur even if you have to terminate the thesis example, thread because the CProgressMgr destructor will get called when the dialog gets destructed. In addition, you aren't going to ever take longer than one second to hills white elephants close, so terminate thread will never get called. Dead Movie! You've coded it this way to white provide more of a production code example. Along with the shutdown thread method, create another helper method to create the thread . The third parameter is your ThreadProc.

The thread proc is the function where the actual work for the worker thread happens. Notice that you pass the 'this' pointer during thread creation. The 'this' pointer represents the current instance of the CProgressMgr class. This allows you to louis riel, sr. access any methods or member variables defined in the CProgressMgr class within our thread procedure. Note: To use _beginthreadex, be sure to add #include process.h to the stdafx.h file. The thread procedure for this example is simple. All you want to do is simulate performing some work in the worker thread and updating the hills like elephants, progress in the UI (via the method NotifyUI that internally uses PostMessage( ) to send post a message to the UI). Louis Riel, Sr.! However, even in its simplicity there are some good techniques to be had: Passing the 'this' pointer of the CProgressMgr class allows the thread proc to access class members. During each loop iteration, the code checks whether the shutdown event has been set. This allows the thread to exit cleanly if the user stops the thread or exits the hills like, application.

Building out the Start, Stop, Pause, and Resume methods. At this point, building out the public interface methods becomes almost trivial. The Pause and Resume methods just check for Sonnet a valid hThread and call either SuspendThread or ResumeThread . The Start method initializes the hWnd, ensures a thread isn't already executing by calling ShutdownThread(), and the thread uses the internal CreateThread( ) to fire off a thread. Stop just calls your internal ShutdownThread method. To complete the hills like white, code, you just need to create the louis riel, sr., GetShutdownEvent and NotifyUI methods. Press F5 to like white run the application in debug mode. Once the farm, dialog opens, press the like, 'Start' button. You'll notice the thesis, button changes to 'Pause' and the progress bar begins to increment. If you press the 'Pause' button, the thread will be suspended and the progress bar will quit incrementing. Pressing 'Resume' will resume the hills like white elephants, secondary thread and the progress bar will continue to thesis introduction increment. When the thread has completed its simulation loop, it posts a thread completed message to the UI; this causes the UI to reset (in other words, the like, progress bar is Medical Marijuana be Legalized cleared and the button text is set to 'Start').

During the thread operation, if the 'Stop' button is pressed, a shutdown event is set and hills like elephants, the secondary thread will exit. Pressing the 'Cancel' button cleanly causes the thread to exit and closes the application. Copyright ?1998-2009 UCanCode.Net Software , all rights reserved. Other product and company names herein may be the trademarks of their respective owners.