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Ashbourne College#039;s Psychology Blog. Prosthetics Essay? Q1. By Joy? Outline and evaluate two social psychological theories of aggression (e.g. social learning theory, deindividuation) Social learning theory= originated from Prosthetics work of Essay Edward Said - Orientalism Gabriel Tarde (1912) Learning= relatively permanent change in Prosthetics, behaviour due to experience. Classical behaviourism= direct experience (classical/operant conditioning)/ Neo-behaviourism= indirect/vicarious experience (observational) Theory claims we learn aggression primarily through observation of significant people around us= Modelling people who are similar (age/sex) or higher status (parent/teacher) Key characteristics of Imitation: 1. By Joy? Behaviour of role models. 2. Prosthetics Essay? Copying behaviour of a higher status. 3. Being By Homosexual Parents Or By Traditional Heterosexual? Degree of Essay contact with role model. Euthanasia:? 4. Degree of understanding of the behaviour. Tarde= these are ways social behaviour and Essay, responses could be influenced by co the actions of others. Tarde combines both logic of social/cognitive psychology in Prosthetics Essay, social cognitive perspective of Euthanasia: to Die human behaviour-= behaviour motivated by inherent psychological factors/ socio-environmental factors: Individual and social environment linked= reciprocal determinism. SLT consists of Essay four basic processes: 1. Essay On Edward? Attention= observation- watching the behaviour. 2. Retention= cognitive process schema- storing the Prosthetics Essay behaviour. Between Being Raised By Homosexual Traditional Couples? 3. Reproduction= behaviour- copying behaviour.

4. Prosthetics Essay? Motivation= state- having reason for displaying behaviour. Surprised By Joy Wordsworth? SLT= helps in explaining inconsistencies of aggressive behaviour=where we learn to Essay act/or not- be aggressive depending on about community service different situations/contexts e.g. aggressive + domineering at home/ meek + submissive at Prosthetics Essay, work. Being Raised By Homosexual Parents Or By Traditional? Explanation of Prosthetics Essay SLT based on - Orientalism research= Bobo doll studies KEY STUDY-Bandura, Ross and Prosthetics Essay, Ross (1961) Experiment firstly involved: 72 child participants= different groups of children: experimental group witnessed adult model kick/punch Bobo doll/ control group- witnessed non-aggressive behaviour = After- different groups were put into the toy room with Bobo doll- their behaviour was observed. Service? They found children who had witnessed aggressive behaviour were more likely to show aggression. Experiment had a well-defined way of Prosthetics Essay coding the behavioural responses of the children to a measurable outcome. Himalayan Drug? Laboratory research- artificial setting/lacks ecological validity. Childrens behaviour- may have produced demand characteristics (wanting to Prosthetics please the about community service experimenter) Confidentiality- names of those involved maintained private- but films widely available on Prosthetics internet of by Oates experiment suggest compromise of Prosthetics confidentiality.

Lack of informed consent- parents/guardians of children were not fully informed + children would have been unaware they were being filmed. Study has face validity to explain children copying through imitating role models/ the media influence on himalayan co aggression- such as influence of Prosthetics Essay behaviour from t.v. personalities/ celebrities: e.g. About Community Service? two boys (aged 10/11) murdered young boy Jamie Bulger-watched horror/violent film Childs Play 3 before the murder. Banduras research focuses societys attention on Prosthetics Essay the power of the media- in areas of Euthanasia: The Right Essay aggression and other related areas e.g. health (anorexia/bulimia) Criticism of imposed etic/generalisibility- by assuming that processes of learning are the same for Prosthetics people in all countries/cultures universally. Cultural bias= Bandura: a western researcher working in Euthanasia: Essay, a western society. Prosthetics? Deterministic approach- to Where Are You Going, Where Essay suggest child would passively absorb the observed behaviour and Prosthetics, imitate it without logical thought for drug co the implication of Prosthetics it. Officer? Process of decreased self-assessment/ awareness- in situations where individual identification is Prosthetics, difficult/impossible= e.g. child with a toy mask/individual football supporter amidst a large crowd of supporters/individual in co, a crowded music arena. Situations were individual identification is restricted ensures changes in the normal standards of behaviour/ inhibitions are lowered- Singer, Brush and Essay, Lublin (1965): Group situation-Inhibitions reduced- Change in normal standards of behaviour/anti-social behaviour: Milgram (1964/1965) study of the essays situational determinants of destructive obedience= found participants were more likely to Essay give higher levels of about community service electrical shocks when they could not see/be seen by their victim. Essay? Similar to this study: Zimbardo (1969)- study showed the effect of Differences Being Raised by Homosexual Parents or by reduced inhibitions: He used female undergraduate participants in Prosthetics, a study of learning. The female participants play teacher/ a stooge is One Nation, examples, used to Essay play student. Student has to Where Are You Going, Where Have by Oates complete a set of tasks/ if completed wrongly= teacher gave electric shock to Essay student. Half the officer participants wore large laboratory coats/hoods to cover their faces/never referred to by name= deindividuated group.

Other group wore their normal clothes/given large name tags/ introduced to Prosthetics each other formally. All participants could see student/were told she was either honest or conceited/critical. Are You Going, Have Essay? Irrespective of description- deindivuated participants gave twice as many shocks of individuated ones. Prosthetics Essay? Gender bias- cant generalise findings universally when only One Language Essay examples female participants were used. Lacks ecological validity- artificial setting- actions may not be in accordance to real-life situation. Prosthetics? Ethical issues- concerning psychological effects of experiment on participants. Prussian Officer? Diener (1979) = naturalistic observation of Prosthetics Essay 1,300 trick-or- treating children in himalayan, the U.S. found that children in large groups/wearing costumes- more likely to Essay perform anti-social actions e.g. Wordsworth? stealing money/sweets. the group reduces the Prosthetics Essay possibility of personal identification- behaviour may deviate from normal moral standards Limitations: Fundamental problem of this theory= doesnt provide explanation for by joy the fact- not all crowds/groups perform aggressive actions: Evidence linked to Essay deindividuation and anti-social behaviour- but evidence also suggests deindividuation may lead to prosocial behaviour= Gergen et al. (1973)- study in which lowered levels of Euthanasia: individuation didnt result in aggressive actions= in Essay, a dark room most participants were involved in surprised by joy wordsworth, intimate contact/at least half cuddled/ about Essay 80% of the group felt sexually aroused. Saying aggression is caused by lowering ones inhibitions is between Being Raised by Homosexual or by Traditional, narrow/deterministic: Postmes and Prosthetics, Spears (1998)= meta-analysis of over 60 studies investigating deindividuation= no consistent research to support argument- reduced inhibitions/anti-social behaviour more likely to be seen in surprised wordsworth, large groups/crowded situations where anonymity is maintained. = They suggest behaviour change of Prosthetics individuals in large groups- more influence from surprised by joy group norms.

Relating this theory to Essay groups e.g. football hooliganism is too stereotypical: Marsh et al. About Community Service? (1978)= found what might appear to be an anti-social group actually consist of Essay several different groups-with different places in the status hierarchy/ aggression was highly ritualised rather than physically violent. Evaluation: Challenges: Runciman (1966)= argues aggressive behaviour could be due to ones relative deprivation- perceived difference between what you have and drug, what you think you should have. Dollard et al. (1939) = argues aggression is the Prosthetics result of frustration building up (psychoanalysis)/ presence of environmental cues (behaviourism) that signal aggressiveness. Social theories dont take into The Right Essay, account potential biological factors influencing aggression= genetic/bio-chemical or neuro-anatomical causes. Q2.

Outline and Prosthetics, evaluate research relating to group display of aggression in humans. Examples? Psychologists /sociologists interested in Prosthetics Essay, how crowds operate. 2 disciplines differ in how they explain crowd disorder: Sociologists focus on himalayan drug role of the Essay media as amplifier of himalayan drug co anti-social behaviour. Psychologists more concerned about factors within group that lead to anti-social behaviour. Freud: mindset of an individual in Prosthetics, a crowd different form that of an individual on One Language Essay their own= merging minds/sharing the Prosthetics same opinion/inhibitions reduced. Essays? Methodological flaws: didnt follow hypothetico-deductive method. Influence from the Essay group: Freud criticised idea group had a soul of its own: Le Bon (1896)= pathological viewpoint: Crowd behaviour the result of individuals personalities.

Atmosphere of a group causes contagion- group members fall under the co influence of a collective mind Group members are suggestible/views of group/imitating others group mind Blummer (1939)= circular reaction causes individuals to reproduce behaviours/emotions-which intensifies/amplifies. Convergence theory/ emergent norm theory. Motive behind group behaviour- convergence upon Essay a specific location by like-minded individuals e.g. Examples? football crowd. Turner and Prosthetics, Killian (1957)= crowd behaviour as such is normless- individual has no norms to prussian officer follow they base behaviour on Prosthetics others around them. The distinctive behaviour- governs behaviour of the group/ taken on as he norm of the group. Wordsworth? Convergence theory= View dictates that crowds arent a passive group of Essay people- they#8217;re a logically thinking mass of One Language Essay individuals View doesnt help to Prosthetics explain unpredictable crowd behaviour- because its governed by Have You Been the norms identified/ accepted by the group. Theory focuses more on how individuals are rational/ the formation of Essay crowd/ behaviour can be seen as rational/logical more focused on Differences Being Raised or by Traditional Couples irrational forces- contrasts to contagion theories. Emergent norm theory= Doesnt take into Prosthetics Essay, account non-verbal processes that occur in crowds- incomplete. Criticised for Where Where Have not explaining how norms might emerge.

Berk (1974)= behaviour that looks irrational (crowd running out of building) may be rational (building on Essay fire) Value-added theory- Neil Smelser (1963)= Certain prerequisites (situations/conditions) are needed in order for a group /social movement to Are You Going, Where You Been Essay develop: stages he suggested were: Stage 1. Structural conduciveness- social situations/conditions must allow for Essay collective action. Stage 2. Differences Between Being Raised By Homosexual Parents Or By Heterosexual Couples? Structural strain- parts of Prosthetics social system dont function effectively. Stage 3. Drug? Growth/spread of Essay generalised belief- shared view assigns casuses/determines a response/action. Stage 4. Precipitating factors- collective belief strengthened search for prussian officer alternatives gathers pace. Stage 5. Mobilising the collective for action- leaders/workers emerge hierarchy of order is Prosthetics Essay, established.

Stage 6. Reaction of agencies of surprised wordsworth social control- attempt to Prosthetics Essay interfere the collective operation. Surprised By Joy? Smelser argues social life/processes we follow within it affect how individuals behave= If society offers incentives/rewards that the individual is Prosthetics, interest in- they may not think carefully about Where Where Have You Been by Oates Essay how they achieve the goal. Prosthetics Essay? Value-added theory= Ethnocentric/lacks ecological validity/generalisibility= Provides a theoretical point-of-view based upon Smelsers own Western industrialised educational/socio-economic background- so not accounting for Euthanasia: to Die Essay important cultural differences. Logical theory- but doesnt take into Essay, account the complexities of by joy crowd behaviour- theory difficult to test- Berk (1974) crowd events occur with great speed, are difficult to Prosthetics Essay anticipate#8230; Elements from One Nation, examples these theories can help to Essay explain crowd behaviour- Hockling (1982) With groups e.g. Surprised Wordsworth? lynch mobs= Zimbardo (2007)= argues dehumanisation is crucial to understanding mans inhumanity to Prosthetics Essay man: Inhuman aggression of prussian lynch mobs in Prosthetics Essay, USA- torture/violent murder of black people was not seen as a crime against Where Have by Oates Essay humanity- it was seen across USA as a result of Prosthetics Essay black peoples stigmatisation as niggers so they werent seen as individuals= Ginzberg (1988) Most theories fail to essays service acknowledge actions of Essay positive crowd behaviour- Cassidy et al. (2007)=investigated crowd celebrations: Mela (1 month long Hindu festival): crowds behaved well/increased generosity/support. Shows how crowd behaviour/ collective living can promote good/ non-aggressive behaviour/ a strong sense of common identity/close proximity- beneficial instead of Where by Oates Essay being causal factor for Essay subsequent harm. Q3. Outline and essays about community, evaluate studies relating to Prosthetics biological explanations of human aggression.

Assumption that aggression is caused by internal factors (rather than external) Influences summarised as: Biochemical influences: hormones; the himalayan drug neurotransmitter serotonin. Prosthetics Essay? Brain structure influences. Aggression is the by-product of complex internal physiological processes. Are You Essay? Researchers approached investigation of genetic factors in aggression primarily through twin and Prosthetics Essay, adoptions studies= to surprised by joy try and establish whether aggression- a product of Essay inherited characteristic (nature) or environmental influences (nurture) KEY STUDY- Rhee and examples, Waldman (2002)- Meta-analysis of 51 twin and Prosthetics Essay, adoption studies = 87,000 individuals. Anti-social behaviour operationalised in terms of: Psychiatric diagnoses-e.g. anti-social personality disorder. Calculated= genetic component of co anti-social behaviour across the studies- approx.

40% Environmental contribution approx. 60% Self-report used in Essay, meta-analysis- limits reliability= as differences found as: Self-report individuals = assessed genetic component at Where Are You Going, Have You Been by Oates Essay, 39%/ individuals assessed by another person= 53% Difficult to separate genetic/environmental effects in twin studies- MZ twins have more similar environmental experiences. Prosthetics Essay? Specific genes cause aggression- such as= Sandberg (1961)-identified (scientifically known as) the 47 XYY karyotype. Court-Browns research (1965 and drug, 1967)- found that of Essay a sample of Where You Been by Oates 314 patients- those with XYY would be best hospitalised due to Prosthetics Essay an increased likelihood of himalayan drug aggressive behaviour= statement not substantiated with evidence. Media encouraged the Prosthetics belief XY phenomenon with films XYY man/ Alien 3= limits potential for explaining aggression due to its deterministic focus. Going, Where You Been? Aggression passed through genetic transmission- looked at Essay, through animal studies.

Nelson (2006)- noted selective breeding experiments can lead to Essay more aggressive behaviour in Prosthetics, animals. Theory supported by officer Cairns (1983)- in Prosthetics Essay, study of Going, Where Have mice. Observational animal research has= Methodological issues: Evidence helps researchers to Prosthetics create more informed models. Euthanasia: To Die? Difficult generalising findings from animals to humans/ no alternative-using humans in genetic research seen as unethical. Artificial settings/lacks ecological validity- to how aggression might occur in a real-life setting. Prosthetics? Difficult to separate influence of examples biological genetic factors (nature) from Prosthetics environmental upbringing (nurture)- as extraneous variables could be causing aggression- unreliable.

She examined personality traits of Differences between Raised or by Traditional Heterosexual a sample-XYY men compared these to Prosthetics a sample of XY men and Where, XXY men(thought to Essay be more feminine) Focused on levels of Differences between by Homosexual or by Couples aggressiveness between 2 groups. Found= in Prosthetics Essay, all occurrences of Raised Couples X (about 1 in every 1,000) only characteristic of height seemed to Prosthetics Essay be linked to the XYY condition. Levels of aggressiveness between groups fluctuated-= no definite conclusion could be drawn. Basic measure of Are You Where Have by Oates Essay comparing XYY to Essay XY male inmates in prison/ comparing evidence to by joy general population= lacks validity. Prosthetics Essay? XYY research= found no consistent link between genotype/aggressive nature. Going, Where Have You Been By Oates? Using thematic apperception testing= showed XYY tend to give more aggressive/ less anti-aggressive interpretations of images- compared to Prosthetics XY men. Theilgaard concluded= issue is Differences between Raised Parents or by Traditional Heterosexual, too complex- XYY men might seem to Essay be more aggressive/ but tendencies didnt mean they would perform aggressive acts/ resulting in about, prison.

Hormones influence many parts of Prosthetics Essay our lives: Court cases have shown that hormonal fluctuation-womans pre-menstrual tension can be used as grounds for between Heterosexual Couples claims of temporary insanity- to reduce a charge of murder to manslaughter= R v Smith (1979) 3 All ER 605,611 (CA) Nelson (1995)- reviewed research into Prosthetics Essay, how hormones influence aggressive behaviour= seems to Euthanasia: The Right to Die Essay be a positive correlation between level of Prosthetics Essay androgens circulating in the body and aggressive behaviour in female/male prisoners. Levels of androgens not measured a precise point when aggressive act performed. Testosterone= androgen produced by Euthanasia: The Right to Die Essay Leydig cells in Prosthetics Essay, male testes/in adrenal cortex= release of hormone is rhythmic following natural circadian rhythm. Increased levels of essays about testosterone associated with increased levels of Prosthetics aggression= e.g. Community Service? during puberty aggression increases when androgen levels are higher. Wagner, Beuving and Essay, Hutchinson (1979)= show if a male mouse is castrated- levels of aggression reduce/ if mouse receives testosterone aggression levels increase. Research graph correlating the prussian officer number of biting attacks compared to the mouse (pre-castration=post-castration=given 150 microgm/day of testosterone) results show positive trend- increase in the number of Prosthetics Essay biting attacks with increase of testosterone= post-castration/given testosterone. Essays About Service? Research correlational- cannot establish cause+ effect= androgens encourage aggressive behaviour but- they could encourage social dominance/ impulsiveness/ competition. Pillay (2006)- high testosterone levels can be desirable for athletes= given link to Prosthetics high levels of competition/athletes need for by joy more muscular bodies. Essay? testosterone is only one myriad of factors that influence aggression and Are You Going, Where Have, the effects of environmental stimuli have at times been found to correlate more strongly Other environmental factors e.g. temperature/noise/overcrowding have an influential role in Essay, showing aggressive behaviour. Huston et al (2007)- basal model of essays community service testosterone= more testosterone/ more competitive/dominant. Mazur and Booth (1998)- reciprocal model of testosterone= testosterone levels vary with persons dominance.

It is the effect not cause. Study= 2,100 air force veterans- over 10 year period- four medical examinations Methodological issues: No peer review- essential in Prosthetics Essay, validity of research. Officer? Longitudinal study- increased amount of data. Prosthetics? Using veterans- unable to generalise findings- aggression could be influenced by external factors e.g. memories of the himalayan drug war/ or psychological factors= post-traumatic stress disorder. Serotonin neurotransmitter important in the control of aggression= low levels of serotonin- less able to control impulsive/aggressive behaviour= Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine- 5HT)= Lenard (2008)- low serotonin levels in the brain can result in impulsive behaviour/aggression/overeating/depression/alcohol abuse/violent suicide. Prosthetics Essay? Normal levels of serotonin exerts a calming/inhibitory effect in the brain. Essays About Community Service? = Cases (1995) Serotonin + aggression. Essay? Davidson, Putnam and Larson (2000)= suggested role of serotonin-inhibitory function of aggressive tendencies: Compared violent criminals to essays community non-violent= low levels of serotonin in Essay, violent criminals. Officer? Animal research supports this= in Prosthetics, mice- serotonin 1B receptor not functioning-found increase in aggressive behaviour. Tame domestic animals have higher levels of serotonin. Wordsworth? Russian researchers looked at silver foxes (animals have been tamed by humans- more than 30yrs)= Found= all had higher levels of serotonin/5-HIAA.

Summers et al (2005)= observed that globally acting serotonergic drugs do modify aggressive behaviour- but cannot be singularly identified as the only cause of activity in regions of the Prosthetics brain- that could have serotonergic effects on aggression. Mann et al. Surprised Wordsworth? (1990) = administered drug (known to deplete serotonin levels in Prosthetics Essay, the brain) to prussian 35 healthy adults. Found= among males (but not females)- hostility/aggression levels increased after treatment with the drug. Study of the negative relationship between serotonin/aggression- correlational- doesnt establish cause+ effect relationships. Essay? Ethical issues: when using human participants-research must look after (not use) to between Raised by Homosexual or by Heterosexual Couples further understand/make better our human existence. Prosthetics Essay? Neurotransmitters on on Edward - Orientalism their own-out of Prosthetics context to himalayan the wider physiology of the Essay brain-ignore influence of community brain structure on demonstrating aggressive behaviour. Brain structure/damage. Prosthetics Essay? Hypothalamus/amgydala associated with aggressive responses:

Bard and The Right to Die Essay, Mountcastle (1953)- looked at Essay, rage in Differences Being Raised by Homosexual Traditional Couples, cats caused by detachment of Prosthetics Essay higher/lower brain through lesioning= Concluded: hypothalamus initiates aggressive behaviour/cerebral cortex reduces behaviour. Flynn (2006)- found stimulating= lateral hypothalamus in cats- more likely show predatorial aggression. One Nation, One Language? = medial hypothalamus-more likely to show vicious attack behaviour. Essay? Amgydala= in 1930s-careful lesioning of amgydala of essays community service aggressive animals showed taming effect.= harming/causing dysfunction to Essay animal is The Right to Die Essay, unethical. Amgydalectomy- in Essay, humans reduces violent behaviour- but emotion is lost. Community Service? Brain injury/damage to brain can alter the processing of Essay information/ causes aggression. Frontal cortex closely connected to Essay on - Orientalism hypothalamus/amgydala- damage often show: impulsive behaviour/irritability/ short temper/easily provoked. Prosthetics? Phineas Gage- railway worker- a tamping iron- entered left side of his face= passed through jaw/up+ behind left eye/ exited through top of essays service his head- he survived for 11 years after: Noticeable changes in persona- formerly quiet/hard-working/shrewd character turned to very negative/aggressive individual after result of brain injury. Prosthetics Essay? Convincing- but case study- one person- generalisibility limited/ relying on accuracy of medical notes made in surprised by joy wordsworth, 1868 by Harlow (Gages physician).

Evidence supports the idea that the Prosthetics Amygdala- has influential effect on Essay on Edward mediating aggressive responses. Animal studies- cats/rats/hamsters- show neural processed surrounding amgydala functioning= can explain aggressive changes in Prosthetics, behaviour. Difficult to generalise- animal studies to essays about community service humans- human brain more complex than many animals. Potegal et al. Prosthetics Essay? (1994)= argue generalisation between animals and humans should be more viable- human/animal differences are qualitative ( i.e. Essays Community? basics the Essay same/ details different): Underlying neural circuitry related to essays about service emotional expression seems more similar- allowing for more avenues of generalisation. Blair et al. Essay? (2001) = shows in cases humans hospitalised for Euthanasia: The Right to Die psychopathic tendencies- often caused by Prosthetics Essay damage to The Right Essay amgydala. Prosthetics Essay? Supported by Going, Have You Been Essay various findings in non-human animals.

Biological explanations are reductionist as it ignores: Influence of Prosthetics Essay culture in examples, aggressive behaviour- socialisation- (e.g. Arapesh tribe= Mead (1935) Aggression learned through observation of Essay various forms of media- Freedman (2002) Situational factors- e.g. Officer? temperature/overcrowding/noise Showing of aggression may simply be result of Essay frustration- ultimately becomes aggressive actions through the Going, by Oates Essay identification of Prosthetics aggressive cues in environment. Q4. Prussian? Outline and Essay, evaluate research studies into evolutionary explanations of officer human aggression. Aggressive behaviour by animals= Craig (1921)- provided 1st attempt understanding aggression from Prosthetics Essay ethological p.o.v.- since Darwins work- late 1800s.

Craig- made clear- that animals- even when the Differences between Parents or by Couples animal does fight, he aims not to Prosthetics Essay destroy enemy, but only get rid of his presence and Differences between Raised by Homosexual or by, interference = Van Der Dennen (2005) Lorenz (1966)-ethologist- stressed humans are animals- show similar behaviour patterns to Prosthetics Essay animals: Four main drivers behind behaviour of essays service animal= fear/reproduction/hunger/aggression. Functions of aggression= Help to ensure fittest/strongest were selected (females select male- who offer greatest survival- form them/offspring) Ensure survival of Prosthetics Essay young (parents show aggression- protecting offspring) Help to distribute a species in Euthanasia: The Right to Die Essay, balanced way- animals have own territories. Prosthetics? Lorenz- idea of essays about community service ritualised aggression- to explain aggressive animal behaviour e.g. Prosthetics Essay? stags rutting. Himalayan Drug? Analysis furthered- stating animals know when to stop being aggressive (few ever kill enemy)= Gross (1998)- jackdaw behaviour= 2 jackdaws about to Prosthetics Essay attack each other- if 1 displays- appeasement tactic (showing a behaviour indicating defeat/submission)- the One Language Essay other jackdaw wont attack. Lorenz- criticised by Prosthetics other ethologists/academics: Lehrman (1953)- questions whether correct to make comparisons between species/assume findings for animals to Differences Raised Couples humans- suggest even though 2 behaviours seem similar- cant assume underlying mechanisms the same. Aggressive behaviour by humans: Fromm (1973)- questions Lorenzs view= states human aggression comprises 2 forms: benign aggression/malignant aggression e.g. malignant= organised violence-gang warfare- ethnic cleansing-eradication of Jews in Prosthetics Essay, WW2 / benign= parent defending their child from harm by on Edward Said - Orientalism attack/ threat. Prosthetics Essay? Nelson (1974)- states Lorenz misses 3 basic factors that can affect aggression: Process of learning: Bandura shows people may learn aggressive behaviour through observation.

Structural causes: Nelson- suggests structural causes relate to nature of essays community service social- e.g. society without norms/rules- aggression likely to spread. Psychological causes of aggression: highlight failings of biological approach= in animal kingdom-aggressive action directed to Prosthetics actual enemy- threat/challenge. In humans- aggression can be motivated by about service many different personal factors e.g. mood/feelings + situational factors e.g. heat/overcrowding. Prosthetics Essay? In some cases of human aggression- victims arent seen as fellow humans= Fromm (1964)/ Erikson (1956)- might be case in Are You Going, Where You Been by Oates Essay, situations of Prosthetics unprovoked random attacks: Rapoport (1965)- suggests man by virtue of co his ability to manipulate symbols, attaches the label enemy to Prosthetics entire categories of things: other animals, other people, even inanimate objects and drug, ideas#8230;accordingly aggression ceases to be leads by Prosthetics the situation. Differences between animal and human aggression: Human aggression= might be adaptive/useful i.e. product of evolution. Use of weapons means aggression is destructive/not ritualistic: Tinbergen (1968)-suggest humans only species- aggression not part of Euthanasia: ritualistic system e.g. mating- but is rooted in Prosthetics Essay, desire to harm another. Evolutionary explanations of between Being by Homosexual or by Heterosexual Couples human aggression.

Acts of terrorists e.g. 9/11 or ware in general= explained through Tinbergens ideas/evolutionary theory= as advances in weapon technology distancing means that aggressor doesnt need to be physically close to the recipient of Essay aggression: Means that appeasement/distress signals that would stop acts of aggression no longer apply e.g. Where Have You Been Essay? plane crews who are eager to drop bombs on targets- would not be eager to stab/burn children/adults with their own hands. Krueger et al. (2002)- evolutionary approach concerned with how skills/methods of dealing with environment have evolved into behaviours used in todays society= Many evolutionary changes seen in Pleistocene era- since then evolution has been static- Brody et al. Prosthetics Essay? (2004) Evolutionary psychologists believe- series of essays community service psychological mechanisms affect behaviour/dont vary much between individuals- universal= they think behaviour witnessed linked to reproductive success of Essay individual= likely to The Right to Die Essay suggest aggression is Prosthetics Essay, result of sexual competition: Females invest in Going, Have Essay, parental issues e.g. Prosthetics Essay? time/energy/food etc. Between Raised By Homosexual Parents? Males compete for females- to pass on Essay their genes= ensure reproductive success: Kenrick, Trost and Sheets (1996). Dominant image for men nowadays is provider of One Language valuable resources- men need to be assertive/aggressive. Waller (2002)- applied approach to explain mass killings/genocide= humans have evolved living in Prosthetics Essay, groups- need to define boundaries- formulating in group (us) and himalayan drug co, out group (them)= likely to Prosthetics Essay result in officer, aggression. Could be caused by ancestral past- xenophobia- need for Prosthetics Essay people to feel socially dominant= holding ethnocentric perspectives- lead to acts of aggression/violence. Buss (1999)- foolish to assume aggressive behaviour just male versus male: in women physical violence limited- partly due to Said physiological differences/strength- but verbal aggression is common. Female to female verbal aggression- often aimed at reducing attractiveness of Prosthetics competitors- in prussian, eyes of males= strategy evolutionary advantage for name-caller

Influence of infidelity on aggressive behaviour. Essay? Infidelity- process unfaithful to partner/ sexual relationship with another person= infidelity had impact on on relationship + quality of Prosthetics Essay interpersonal communications between partners/others. The Right To Die? Psychologists argue- act of infidelity triggers emotional state within individual- as perceived threat to relationship/current status quo: Buss, Larsen, Western and Semmelroth (1992)- argue- would naturally lead to Prosthetics show behaviours to reduce/ eliminate threat e.g. act of One Language examples violence/aggression Sexual infidelity for men/women- triggers sexual jealousy= psychologists suggest cues/ triggers are different for Prosthetics Essay males/females: Brunk et al. (1996)- suggest from service males p.o.v- infidelity by female- brings uncertainty of paternity- profound sexual jealousy/ For female who becomes pregnant after act of infidelity- associated sexual jealousy influenced not by parental uncertainty- but lack of time/economic resources- given to Prosthetics Essay her/ offspring by Differences Raised Parents or by Traditional Heterosexual her mate. Prosthetics? = lack of emotional support that makes women aggression/ mens anger/subsequent aggression- based upon suspicion of prussian wifes infidelity. Prosthetics? Evolutionary psychologists- look at infidelity from male and female perspectives to avoid gender bias into their research into Where Are You Going, Have by Oates, explanations of aggression. Influence of jealousy -n ot unusual to Essay witness violence/ acts of aggression influenced by surprised wordsworth jealousy= Harvey, Sprecher and Wenzer (2004) Cascardi and Vivian (1995)- participants asked explain cause of Prosthetics aggression in relationship- jealousy most commonly attributed cause. Himalayan? Canary, Spitzberg and Semic (1998)- argue couples with relationship conflicts- reported anger/ aggression contributed by Essay jealousy.

Violent males lack effective ways of Euthanasia: The Right Essay mediating/ responding to situation of jealousy/ compared to non-violent males- Holtzworth- Monroe and Anglin (1991). Essay? Haden and Edward, Hojjat (2006)- differences in sexual jealousy of young women/men= focus on Essay aggressive responsiveness in partner rivalry situations. 2 separate studies found= men more likely than women- to Being Raised Heterosexual Couples consider aggressive action against rival/ women more emotionally/ behaviourally reactive. Prosthetics? In USA- Morenz and surprised, Lane (1996)- Evolutionary theory- explains jealousy as desire to keep ones mate= males have tendency to show mate tending/guarding activities aggressive activities to avoid sexual infidelity- Buss and Shackelford (1997)/ females display behaviours less frequently. Prosthetics Essay? Limitations- evolutionary approach fails to explain why individuals might react in surprised wordsworth, different ways when faced with same adaptive problem: different men react in different ways when confronted with their wifes infidelity e.g. Prosthetics? violence, debasement, or avoiding issue (by getting drunk) Cultural differences- fails to drug explain why some cultures seem to Prosthetics Essay require male violence to attain social status/ other cultures (peaceful)- aggression leads to Essay Edward Said irreparable damage to Prosthetics Essay reputation of the aggressor= Buss and to Die Essay, Shackelford (1997)

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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. The DBQ, or document-based-question, is Prosthetics Essay, a somewhat unusually-formatted timed essay on the AP History Exams: AP US History, AP European History, and AP World History. Because of its unfamiliarity, many students are at Essay on Edward Said, a loss as to how to even prepare, let alone how to write a successful essay on Essay, test day. Never fear! I, the DBQ wizard and master, have a wealth of The Right preparation strategies for you, as well as advice on how to Prosthetics cram everything you need to cover into your limited DBQ writing time on Essay, exam day. When you're done reading this guide, you'll know exactly how to write a DBQ. For a general overview of the DBQwhat it is, its purpose, its format, etc.see my article What is Essay, a DBQ? Establish a Baseline. Take Another Practice DBQ. How Can I Succeed on Test Day?

Reading the Question and Documents. Planning Your Essay. Writing Your Essay. Your AP exam study timeline depends on a few things. First, how much time you have to study per week, and how many hours you want to study in total? If you dont have much time per week, start a little earlier; if you will be able to Are You Going, Where You Been by Oates devote a substantial amount of time per week (10-15 hours) to prep, you can wait until later in the year. One thing to Essay keep in mind, though, is that the earlier you start studying for your AP test, the less material you will have covered in Going, Where Have by Oates class. Make sure you continually review older material as the Prosthetics Essay, school year goes on to keep things fresh in The Right your mind, but in Essay terms of DBQ prep it probably doesnt make sense to start before February or January at the absolute earliest. Another factor is Essay, how much you need to work on. I recommend you complete a baseline DBQ around early February to see where you need to focus your efforts. If, for example, you got a six out of seven and missed one point for doing further document analysis, you wont need to spend too much time studying how to write a DBQ.

Maybe just do a document analysis exercise every few weeks and check in a couple months later with another timed practice DBQ to make sure youve got it. However, if you got a two or three out of seven, youll know you have more work to do, and youll probably want to Prosthetics Essay devote at least an hour or two every week to Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been honing your skills. The general flow of Prosthetics Essay your preparation should be: take a practice DBQ, do focused skills practice, take another practice DBQ, do focused skills practice, take another practice DBQ, and so on. How often you take the practice DBQs and drug co how many times you repeat the cycle really depends on how much preparation you need, and how often you want to Prosthetics Essay check your progress. Take practice DBQs often enough that the essays, format stays familiar, but not so much that youve done barely any skills practice in Prosthetics between. He's ready to start studying!

The general preparation process is to diagnose, practice, test, and repeat. Where Have You Been Essay. First, youll figure out Essay what you need to work on by establishing a baseline level for your DBQ skills. Euthanasia: To Die. Then, youll practice building skills. Finally, youll take another DBQ to see how you've improved and Prosthetics what you still need to work on. In this next section, Ill go over the whole process. Euthanasia: To Die Essay. First, Ill give guidance on how to establish a baseline. Prosthetics. Then Ill go over some basic, foundational essay-writing skills and how to build them. After that Ill break down the DBQ rubric. Euthanasia: The Right To Die Essay. Youll be acing practice DBQs before you know it! The first thing you need to do is to establish a baseline figure out where you are at with respect to your DBQ skills. Prosthetics. This will let you know where you need to focus your preparation efforts.

To do this, you will take a timed, practice DBQ and have a trusted teacher or advisor grade it according to the appropriate rubric. For the AP US History DBQ, youll be given a 15-minute reading period and 40 minutes of writing time. A selection of practice questions from the about, exam can be found online at the College Board, including a DBQ. (Go to page 136 in the linked document for the practice prompt.) If youve already seen this practice question, perhaps in class, you might use the Prosthetics, 2015 DBQ question. Other available College Board DBQs are going to be in Where Have the old format (find them in Prosthetics the Free-Response Questions documents). This is fine if you need to use them, but be sure to Essay on Edward - Orientalism use the Essay, new rubric (which is out of seven points, rather than nine) to grade. I advise you to save all these links , or even download all the Going, Where Have by Oates, Free Response Questions and the Scoring Guides, for reference because you will be using them again and again for Essay, practice. The College Board has provided practice questions for the exam, including a DBQ (see page 200 in the linked document).

If youve already seen this question, the only other questions available through the College Board are in the old format, because the 2016 DBQ is in a new, seven-point format identical to Euthanasia: The Right the AP US History exam. Just be sure to use the new DBQ rubric if you want to use any of the old prompts provided by the College Board. (DBQs are in the documents titled Free-Response Questions.) I advise you to Prosthetics Essay save all these links (or even download all the Free Response Questions and the Scoring Guides) for Essay, reference, because you will be using them again and Prosthetics Essay again for practice. Who knowsmaybe this will be one of The Right your documents! For this exam, youll be given a 15-minute reading period and Prosthetics Essay 40 minutes of writing time . As for the other two history exams, the The Right to Die Essay, College Board has provided practice questions. See page 166 for Prosthetics, the DBQ. If youve already seen this question, the only other questions available through the College Board are in the old format, because the 2017 World History DBQ is in a new, seven-point format identical to the AP US History and AP European History exams. So be sure to use the new DBQ rubric if you want to use any of the Euthanasia: The Right, old prompts provided by Essay, the College Board. (DBQs are in the documents titled Free-Response Questions.) I advise you to - Orientalism save all these links (or even download all the Prosthetics, Free Response Questions and the Scoring Guides) for wordsworth, reference, because you will be using them again and again for practice. Finding a Trusted Advisor to Look at Your Papers. A history teacher would be a great resource, but if they are not available to you in this capacity, here are some other ideas:

An English teacher. Ask a librarian at Prosthetics, your school or public library! If they cant help you, they may be able to direct you to resources who can. You could also ask a school guidance counselor to direct you to in-school resources you could use. A tutor. This is especially helpful if they are familiar with the test, although even if they arent, they can still advisethe DBQ is mostly testing academic writing skills under pressure. To Die Essay. Your parent(s)! Again, ideally your trusted advisor will be familiar with the AP, but if you have used your parents for writing help in Essay the past they can also assist here. Where Have Essay. You might try an older friend who has already taken the exam and Prosthetics did well. although bear in mind that some people are better at doing than scoring and/or explaining! If you know nothing about the DBQ and youd like to do a little basic familiarization before you establish your baseline, thats completely fine.

Theres no point in himalayan drug co taking a practice exam if you are going to panic and muddle your way through it; it wont give a useful picture of your skills. For a basic orientation, check out my article for a basic introduction to the DBQ including DBQ format. If you want to Prosthetics look at one or two sample essays, see my article for Going, by Oates Essay, a list of DBQ example essay resources. Keep in Prosthetics Essay mind that you should use a fresh prompt you havent seen to establish your baseline, though, so if you do look at Essay - Orientalism, samples dont use those prompts to set your baseline. I would also check out this page about the various task words associated with AP essay questions . This page was created primarily for the AP European History Long Essay question, but the definitions are still useful for the DBQ on all the history exams, particularly since these are the definitions provided by Prosthetics, the College Board. Once you feel oriented, take your practice exam! Dont worry if you dont do well on your first practice! Thats what studying is for. The point of establishing a baseline is examples, not to make you feel bad, but to empower you to focus your efforts on the areas you need to Prosthetics Essay work on. Even if you need to to Die work on all the areas, that is Essay, completely fine and doable!

Every skill you need for the DBQ can be built . In the following section, well go over these skills and how to build them for each exam. You need a stronger foundation than this sand castle. In this section, Ill discuss the foundational writing skills you need to write a DBQ. Ill start with some general information on crafting an effective thesis , since this is a skill you will need for any DBQ exam (and for your entire academic life). Then, Ill go over examples outlining essays, with some sample outline ideas for the DBQ. After Ill touch on time management. Prosthetics Essay. Finally, Ill briefly discuss how to One Language Essay non-awkwardly integrate information from your documents into your writing.

It sounds like a lot, but not only are these skills vital to your academic career in general, you probably already have the basic building blocks to master them in your arsenal! Writing a good thesis is a skill you will need to develop for all your DBQs, and for any essay you write, on the AP or otherwise. Here are some general rules as to what makes a good thesis: A good thesis does more than just restate the prompt. Lets say our class prompt is: Analyze the primary factors that led to the French Revolution. Gregory writes, There were many factors that caused the French Revolution as his thesis.

This is not an effective thesis . Essay. All it does is vaguely restate the prompt. A good thesis makes a plausible claim that you can defend in an essay-length piece of writing. Maybe Karen writes, Marie Antoinette caused the French Revolution when she said Let them eat cake because it made people mad. This is not an Essay examples effective thesis, either. Prosthetics Essay. For one thing, Marie Antoinette never said that. More importantly, how are you going to write an entire essay on how one offhand comment by Marie Antoinette caused the entire Revolution? This is both implausible and wordsworth overly simplistic.

A good thesis answers the question . If LaToya writes, The Reign of Terror led to the ultimate demise of the French Revolution and ultimately paved the way for Napoleon Bonaparte to seize control of France, she may be making a reasonable, defensible claim, but it doesnt answer the Essay, question, which is not about Euthanasia: The Right Essay, what happened after the Revolution, but what caused it! A good thesis makes it clear where you are going in your essay. Lets say Juan writes, The French Revolution, while caused by a variety of political, social, and Essay economic factors, was primarily incited by the emergence of the highly educated Bourgeois class. This thesis provides a mini-roadmap for the entire essay, laying out that Juan is going to discuss the One Nation, examples, political, social, and Prosthetics Essay economic factors that led to the Revolution, in that order, and The Right to Die Essay that he will argue that the members of the Essay, Bourgeois class were the ultimate inciters of the examples, Revolution. This is a great thesis! It answers the question, makes an overarching point, and Essay provides a clear idea of what the writer is going to discuss in The Right the essay. To review: a good thesis makes a claim, responds to the prompt, and lays out what you will discuss in your essay. If you feel like you have trouble telling the difference between a good thesis and a not-so-good one, here are a few resources you can consult:

This site from SUNY Empire has an Prosthetics Essay exercise in choosing the best thesis from several options. Its meant for research papers, but the general rules as to what makes a good thesis apply. About.com has another exercise in choosing thesis statements specifically for short essays. Note, however, that most of the himalayan drug, correct answers here would be good thesis statements as opposed to super thesis statements. While you should definitely practice looking at DBQ questions and Prosthetics documents and writing a thesis in Essay Edward response to those, you may also find it useful to Prosthetics Essay write some practice thesis statements in response to the Free-Response Questions. One Nation, Essay. While you wont be taking any documents into account in your argument for the Free-Response Questions, its good practice on how to construct an effective thesis in general.

You could even try writing multiple thesis statements in response to the same prompt! It is a great exercise to see how you could approach the Prosthetics, prompt from different angles. Euthanasia:. Time yourself for 5-10 minutes to mimic the time pressure of the Essay, AP exam. If possible, have a trusted advisor or friend look over essays service your practice statements and give you feedback. Barring that, looking over Prosthetics Essay the scoring guidelines for old prompts (accessible from the himalayan co, same page on the College Board where past free-response questions can be found) will provide you with useful tips on what might make a good thesis in response to a given prompt. Once you can write a thesis, you need to be able to support itthat's where outlining comes in! This is Prosthetics, not a good outline. Outlining and Formatting Your Essay.

You may be the greatest document analyst and surprised thesis-writer in Essay the world, but if you dont know how to put it all together in a DBQ essay outline, you wont be able to write a cohesive, high-scoring essay on to Die, test day. A good outline will clearly lay out your thesis and how you are going to support that thesis in your body paragraphs. It will keep your writing organized and prevent you from Prosthetics forgetting anything you want to mention! For some general tips on writing outlines, this page from Roane State has some useful information. While the general principles of outlining an essay hold, the about community, DBQ format is going to have its own unique outlining considerations.To that end, Ive provided some brief sample outlines that will help you hit all the important points. Introduction Thesis. The most important part of your intro!

Body 1 - contextual information Any outside historical/contextual information Body 2 - First point Documents analysis that support the first point If three body paragraphs: use about Essay, three documents, do deeper analysis on two Body 3 - Second point Documents analysis that support the second point Use about three documents, do deeper analysis on two Be sure to mention your outside example if you have not done so yet! Body 4 (optional) - Third point Documents and analysis that support third point Conclusion Re-state thesis Draw a comparison to another time period or situation (synthesis) Depending on Essay - Orientalism, your number of Prosthetics body paragraphs and Euthanasia: The Right Essay your main points, you may include different numbers of documents in each paragraph, or switch around where you place your contextual information, your outside example, or your synthesis. Theres no one right way to outline, just so long as each of your body paragraphs has a clear point that you support with documents, and Prosthetics you remember to do a deeper analysis on four documents, bring in outside historical information, and The Right to Die make a comparison to another historical situation or time (you will see these last points further explained in the rubric breakdown). Of course, all the organizational skills in the world won't help you if you can't write your entire essay in Prosthetics the time allotted. The next section will cover time management skills. You can be as organized as this library!

Time Management Skills for Essay Writing. Do you know all of your essay-writing skills, but just cant get a DBQ essay together in a 15-minute planning period and 40 minutes of writing? There could be a few things at play here: Do you find yourself spending a lot of time staring at a blank paper? If you feel like you dont know where to start, spend one-two minutes brainstorming as soon as you read the question and the documents. Write anything heredont censor yourself. Essay. No one will look at those notes but you!

After youve brainstormed for a bit, try to organize those thoughts into a thesis, and then into body paragraphs. Its better to start working and change things around than to Prosthetics waste time agonizing that you dont know the perfect thing to by joy wordsworth say. Are you too anxious to start writing, or does anxiety distract you in the middle of your writing time? Do you just feel overwhelmed? Sounds like test anxiety.

Lots of people have this. (Including me! I failed my drivers license test the first time I took it because I was so nervous.) You might talk to Prosthetics Essay a guidance counselor about your anxiety. They will be able to Have You Been provide advice and direct you to resources you can use. There are also some valuable test anxiety resources online: try our guide to mindfulness (it's focused on the SAT, but the same concepts apply on any high-pressure test) and check out tips from Minnesota State University , these strategies from TeensHealth , or this plan for reducing anxiety from West Virginia University . Are you only two thirds of the Prosthetics Essay, way through your essay when 40 minutes have passed? You are probably spending too long on your outline, biting off more than you can chew, or both.

If you find yourself spending 20+ minutes outlining, you need to practice bringing down your outline time. Remember, an Euthanasia: The Right to Die outline is just a guide for your essayit is fine to switch things around as you are writing. It doesnt need to be perfect. To cut down on your outline time, practice just outlining for Prosthetics Essay, shorter and shorter time intervals. When you can write one in on Edward Said 20 minutes, bring it down to 18, then down to Essay 16. You may also be trying to about cover too much in your paper. If you have five body paragraphs, you need to Essay scale things back to three. If you are spending twenty minutes writing two paragraphs of contextual information, you need to trim it down to a few relevant sentences. Be mindful of where you are spending a lot of time, and target those areas. You dont know the problem you just cant get it done! If you cant exactly pinpoint whats taking you so long, I advise you to simply practice writing DBQs in less and less time.

Start with 20 minutes for your outline and 50 for your essay, (or longer, if you need). One Language Examples. Then when you can do it in Prosthetics Essay 20 and Euthanasia: The Right Essay 50, move back to 18 minutes and 45 for writing, then to 15 and 40. You absolutely can learn to manage your time effectively so that you can write a great DBQ in Prosthetics Essay the time allotted. On to drug the next skill! The final skill that isnt explicitly covered in the rubric, but will make a big difference in your essay quality, is integrating document citations into your essay. In other words, how do you reference the information in Prosthetics the documents in Essay a clear, non-awkward way? It is usually better to use the author or title of the document to Essay identify a document instead of writing Document A. So instead of writing Document A describes the riot as. you might say, In Sven Svensons description of the riot

When you quote a document directly without otherwise identifying it, you may want to include a parenthetical citation. For example, you might write, The strikers were described as valiant and true by One Language examples, the working class citizens of the Prosthetics Essay, city (Document E). Now that weve reviewed the essential, foundational skills of the DBQ, Ill move into the rubric breakdowns. Well discuss each skill the AP graders will be looking for when they score your exam. Drug. All of the Essay, history exams share a DBQ rubric, so the guidelines are identical. Don't worry, you won't need a magnifying glass to examine the rubric.

The DBQ rubric has four sections for a total of seven points. One point is for having a thesis that works and is historically defensible. This just means that your thesis can be reasonably supported by the documents and historical fact. So please dont make the main point of your essay that JFK was a member of the Illuminati or that Pope Urban II was an alien. Per the College Board, your thesis needs to Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been by Oates be located in your introduction or your conclusion. Youve probably been taught to place your thesis in your intro, so stick with what youre used to.

Plus, its just good writingit helps signal where you are going in the essay and what your point is. You can receive another point for having a super thesis. The College Board describes this as having a thesis that takes into account historical complexity. Historical complexity is Prosthetics, really just the idea that historical evidence does not always agree about everything, and that there are reasons for agreement, disagreement, etc. How will you know whether the essays about service, historical evidence agrees or disagrees? The documents! Suppose you are responding to a prompt about Prosthetics Essay, womens suffrage (suffrage is the Essay on Edward - Orientalism, right to Prosthetics Essay vote, for Euthanasia: The Right to Die, those of you who havent gotten to that unit in class yet): Analyze the responses to the womens suffrage movement in Prosthetics Essay the United States. Included among your documents, you have a letter from a suffragette passionately explaining why she feels women should have the vote, a copy of a suffragettes speech at a womens meeting, a letter from one congressman to another debating the pros and cons of suffrage, and a political cartoon displaying the death of society and the end of the natural order at the hands of Euthanasia: The Right female voters.

A simple but effective thesis might be something like, Though ultimately successful, the womens suffrage movement sharply divided the Prosthetics Essay, country between those who believed womens suffrage was unnatural and those who believed it was an inherent right of women. This is good: it answers the Essay - Orientalism, question and clearly states the two responses to suffrage that are going to be analyzed in the essay. A super thesis , however, would take the Prosthetics, relationships between the documents (and the people behind the One Nation, One Language examples, documents!) into account. It might be something like, The dramatic contrast between those who responded in favor of womens suffrage and Prosthetics those who fought against One Nation, One Language examples, it revealed a fundamental rift in American society centered on Prosthetics Essay, the role of womenwhether women were naturally meant to be socially and civilly subordinate to Where Are You Going, Have by Oates men, or whether they were in fact equals. This is Prosthetics Essay, a super thesis because it gets into the specifics of the relationship between historical factors and shows the broader picture that is, what responses to essays community service womens suffrage revealed about the role of women in the United States overall. It goes beyond just analyzing the specific issues to a so what? It doesnt just take a position about history, it tells the reader why they should care . In this case, our super thesis tells us that the reader should care about womens suffrage because the Prosthetics, issue reveals a fundamental conflict in Where Are You Have You Been Essay America over the position of women in society. Part B: Document Analysis - 2 Points.

One point for Prosthetics, using six or seven of the documents in your essay to support your argument. Easy-peasy! However, make sure you arent just summarizing documents in a list, but are tying them back to the main points of Euthanasia: to Die Essay your paragraphs. It's best to avoid writing things like, Document A says X, and Document B says Y, and Document C says Z. Instead, you might write something like, The anonymous author of Document C expresses his support and Prosthetics Essay admiration for the suffragettes but also expresses fear that giving women the Where Are You Where Have by Oates, right to vote will lead to Prosthetics Essay conflict in the home, highlighting the on - Orientalism, common fear that womens suffrage would lead to upheaval in womens traditional role in society. Any summarizing should be connected a point. Essentially, any explanation of what a document says needs to be tied to a so what? If its not clear to you why what you are writing about a document is related to your main point, its not going to be clear to the AP grader. You can get an additional point here for doing further analysis on 4 of the Essay, documents. This further analysis could be in Are You Going, Where Have by Oates Essay any of these 4 areas:

Authors point of view - Why does the author think the Essay, way that they do? What is their position in society and how does this influence what they are saying? Authors purpose - Why is the author writing what they are writing? What are they trying to convince their audience of? Historical context - What broader historical facts are relevant to this document? Audience - Who is the intended audience for this document? Who is the author addressing or trying to convince? Be sure to tie any further analysis back to your main argument!

And remember, you only have to do this for four documents for full credit, but its fine to Where Are You Going, do it for more if you can. So how do you practice document analysis? By analyzing documents! Luckily for AP test takers everywhere, New York State has an exam called the Prosthetics Essay, Regents Exam that has its own DBQ section. Before they write the drug co, essay, however, New York students have to answer short answer questions about the documents. Answering Regents exam DBQ short-answer questions is good practice for basic document analysis.

While most of the questions are pretty basic, its a good warm-up in terms of thinking more deeply about the documents and how to use them. This set of Regent-style DBQs from the Teachers Project are mostly about US History, but the practice could be good for Prosthetics, other tests too. This prompt from the Morningside center also has some good document comprehensions questions about a US-History based prompt. Note: While the document short-answer questions are useful for thinking about basic document analysis, I wouldnt advise completing entire Regents exam DBQ essay prompts for One Nation, One Language Essay, practice, because the format and rubric are both somewhat different from the AP. Your AP history textbook may also have documents with questions that you can use to practice. Flip around in Prosthetics Essay there! This otter is ready to swim in to Die Essay the waters of the DBQ. When you want to do a deeper dive on the documents, you can also pull out those old College Board DBQ prompts. Read the documents carefully. Write down everything that comes to your attention.

Do further analysisauthors point of view, purpose, audience, and Essay historical contexton all the documents for Essay on, practice, even though you will only need to do additional analysis on Essay, four on test day. Of course, you might not be able to do all kinds of further analysis on himalayan drug co, things like maps and graphs, which is fine. You might also try thinking about how you would arrange those observations in an argument, or even try writing a practice outline! This exercise would combine your thesis and document-analysis skills practice. When youve analyzed everything you can possibly think of for all the documents, pull up the Scoring Guide for that prompt. It helpfully has an entire list of analysis points for each document. Consider what they identified that you missed.

Do you seem way off-base in Prosthetics Essay your interpretation? If so, how did it happen? Part C: Using Evidence Beyond the One Language Essay examples, Documents - 2 Points. Dont be freaked out by the fact that this is Prosthetics Essay, two points! One point is One Language Essay examples, just for context - if you can locate the issue within its broader historical situation. You do need to Prosthetics write several sentences to surprised by joy wordsworth a paragraph about it, but dont stress; all you really need to know to be able to get this point is Prosthetics, information about Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been by Oates, major historical trends over time, and you will need to know this anyways for the multiple choice section. Prosthetics Essay. If the question is about the Dust Bowl during the Great Depression, for example, be sure to include some of the Essay Said, general information you know about the Great Depression! Boom.

Contextualized. The other point is for naming a specific, relevant example in your essay that does not appear in Essay the documents. To practice your outside information skills, pull up your College Board prompts! Read through the prompt and community service documents and then write down all of the contextualizing facts and as many specific examples as you can think of. I advise timing yourselfmaybe 5-10 minutes to read the documents and Prosthetics Essay prompt and list your outside knowledgeto imitate the essays about, time pressure of the DBQ.

When youve exhausted your knowledge, make sure to fact-check your examples and your contextual information! You dont want to use incorrect information on Prosthetics, test day. If you cant remember any examples or contextual information about that topic, look some up! This will help fill in holes in your knowledge. All you need to Where Have You Been by Oates do for synthesis is relate your argument about this specific time period to a different time period, geographical area, historical movement, etc. It is Essay, probably easiest to do this in the conclusion of the essay. If your essay is about the Great Depression, you might relate it to the Great Recession of 2007-2009. You do need to do more than just mention your synthesis connection. You need to make it meaningful. How are the two things you are comparing similar? What does one reveal about the other?

Is there a key difference that highlights something important? To practice your synthesis skillsyou guessed itpull up your College Board prompts! Read through the surprised by joy, prompt and documents and Prosthetics Essay then identify what historical connections you could make for your synthesis point. Be sure to Euthanasia: The Right to Die write a few words on why the Prosthetics Essay, connection is significant! A great way to make sure that your synthesis connection makes sense is to himalayan co explain it to someone else. Essay. If you explain what you think the connection is and Essay Edward - Orientalism they get it, youre probably on the right track. You can also look at Essay, sample responses and the scoring guide for the old prompts to see what other connections students and AP graders made. That's a wrap on the rubric! Let's move on to skill-building strategy. Don't let the DBQ turn you into a dissolving ghost-person, though. Youve probably noticed that my advice on how to practice individual rubric skills is pretty similar: pull out a prompt and do a timed exercise focusing on just that skill.

However, there are only so many old College Board prompts in the universe (sadly). If you are working on several skills, I advise you to combine your practice exercises. What do I mean? Lets say, for The Right to Die Essay, example, you are studying for Prosthetics, US History and want to work on writing a thesis, bringing in outside information, and document analysis. Set your timer for 15-20 minutes, pull up a prompt, and: Write 2-3 potential thesis statements in response to One Nation, Essay examples the prompt Write all the contextual historical information you can think of, and Essay a few specific examples Write down analysis notes on all the documents. Then, when you pull up the about service, Scoring Guide, you can check how you are doing on all those skills at Prosthetics, once! This will also help prime you for test day, when you will be having to combine all of the rubric skills in by joy a timed environment. That said, if you find it overwhelming to combine too many exercises at once when you are first starting out in your study process, thats completely fine.

Youll need to put all the skills together eventually, but if you want to spend time working on Essay, them individually at first, thats fine too. So once you've established your baseline and prepped for days, what should you do? It's time to take another practice DBQ to see how you've improved! I know you're tired, but you can do it! So, you established a baseline, identified the skills you need to work on, and practiced writing a thesis statement and analyzing documents for hours.

What now? Take another timed, practice DBQ from a prompt you havent seen before to check how youve improved. Recruit your same trusted advisor to grade your exam and give feedback. After, work on any skills that still need to be honed. Repeat this process as necessary, until you are consistently scoring your goal score. Then you just need to make sure you maintain your skills until test day by doing an occasional practice DBQ. Eventually, test day will comeread on for my DBQ-test-taking tips. How Can I Succeed On DBQ Test Day? Once youve prepped your brains out, you still have to take the test! I know, I know.

But Ive got some advice on how to on Said make sure all of Essay your hard work pays off on test dayboth some general tips and some specific advice on how to write a DBQ. Most of Euthanasia: Essay these are probably tips youve heard before, but they bear repeating: Get a good nights sleep for Essay, the two nights preceding the The Right, exam. This will keep your memory sharp! Eat a good breakfast (and lunch, if the exam is in the afternoon) before the exam with protein and Essay whole grains. This will keep your blood sugar from crashing and making you tired during the exam. Dont study the night before the Where Going, Where Have You Been by Oates Essay, exam if you can help it. Prosthetics. Instead, do something relaxing. Youve been preparing, and you will have an easier time on exam day if you arent stressed from trying to cram the night before.

This dude knows he needs to get a good night's rest! Below Ive laid out how to use your time during the DBQ exam. Ill provide tips on reading the question and docs, planning your essay, and essays about writing! Be sure to keep an eye on the clock throughout so you can track your general progress. Reading the Essay, Question and the Documents: 5-6 min. First things first: r ead the question carefully , two or even three times. You may want to circle the task words (analyze, describe, evaluate, compare) to make sure they stand out. You could also quickly jot down some contextual information you already know before moving on to the documents, but if you cant remember any right then, move on to the docs and let them jog your memory.

Its fine to Where Are You Have by Oates Essay have a general idea of a thesis after you read the question, but if you dont, move on to the docs and let them guide you in the right direction. Next, move on Essay, to the himalayan drug, documents. Mark them as you readcircle things that seem important, jot thoughts and notes in the margins. After youve passed over the documents once, you should choose the Prosthetics, four documents you are going to analyze more deeply and read them again. You probably wont be analyzing the himalayan drug, authors purpose for sources like maps and charts. Essay. Good choices are documents in himalayan drug which the authors social or political position and stake in the issue at hand are clear. Get ready to go down the document rabbit hole.

Once youve read the question and you have preliminary notes on the documents, its time to start working on a thesis. If you still arent sure what to Prosthetics Essay talk about, spend a minute or so brainstorming. Community Service. Write down themes and concepts that seem important and create a thesis from Prosthetics Essay those. Remember, your thesis needs to answer the question and make a claim! When youve got a thesis, its time to Where work on an outline . Once youve got some appropriate topics for your body paragraphs, use your notes on the documents to populate your outline. Which documents support which ideas? You dont need to use every little thought you had about the document when you read it, but you should be sure to use every document. Here's three things to make sure of: Make sure your outline notes where you are going to include your contextual information (often placed in the first body paragraph, but this is Essay, up to you), your specific example (likely in one of the body paragraphs), and your synthesis (the conclusion is a good place for this). Make sure youve also integrated the four documents you are going to further analyze and how to about community analyze them. Make sure you use all the Essay, documents!

I cant stress this enough. Take a quick pass over your outline and surprised by joy wordsworth the docs and make sure all of the docs appear in your outline. If you go over the planning time a couple of minutes, its not the end of the world. This probably just means you have a really thorough outline! But be ready to write pretty fast. Writing the Essay - 40 min. If you have a good outline, the hard part is out of the way! You just need to make sure you get all of your great ideas down in the test booklet. Dont get too bogged down in Prosthetics Essay writing a super-exciting introduction. You wont get points for it, so trying to be fancy will just waste time. Co. Spend maybe one or two sentences introducing the issue, then get right to your thesis.

For your body paragraphs, make sure your topic sentences clearly state the point of the paragraph . Then you can get right into your evidence and your document analysis. As you write, make sure to keep an eye on Essay, the time. You want to be a little more than halfway through at Where Are You Where You Been Essay, the 20-minute mark of the writing period, so you have a couple minutes to go back and edit your essay at Essay, the end. Keep in mind that its more important to clearly lay out to Die Essay your argument than to use flowery language. Sentences that are shorter and to Prosthetics Essay the point are completely fine. If you are short on time, the conclusion is the least important part of your essay . Even just one sentence to wrap things up is Essay on - Orientalism, fine just so long as youve hit all the points you need to Prosthetics (i.e. dont skip your conclusion if you still need to put in your synthesis example). When you are done, make one last past through your essay. Euthanasia: The Right To Die. Make sure you included everything that was in Prosthetics your outline and hit all the rubric skills! Then take a deep breath and pat yourself on the back. You did it!! Have a cupcake to celebrate.

I realize I've bombarded you with information, so here are the key points to take away: Remember the himalayan co, drill for Prosthetics Essay, prep: establish a baseline, build skills, take another practice DBQ, repeat skill-building as necessary. Make sure that you know the rubric inside and surprised out so you will remember to hit all the Prosthetics Essay, necessary points on test day! Its easy to lose points just for forgetting something like your synthesis point. On test day, keep yourself on track time-wise ! This may seem like a lot, but you can learn how to surprised wordsworth ace your DBQ!

With a combination of preparation and good test-taking strategy, you will get the score youre aiming for. The more you practice, the more natural it will seem, until every DBQ is a breeze. If you want more information about the Essay, DBQ, see my introductory guide to to Die the DBQ. Haven't registered for the test yet? See our article for Prosthetics Essay, help registering for wordsworth, AP exams. For more on studying for the AP US History exam, check out the best AP US History notes to study with. Studying for World History? See these AP World History study tips from one of our experts. Want to improve your SAT score by Prosthetics, 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points? We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score.

Download it for about community, free now: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Ellen has extensive education mentorship experience and is deeply committed to helping students succeed in all areas of life. Essay. She received a BA from Harvard in Folklore and Mythology and is currently pursuing graduate studies at Columbia University. You should definitely follow us on social media. Essays Community Service. You'll get updates on our latest articles right on your feed. Prosthetics Essay. Follow us on all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply! Series: How to Get 800 on Each SAT Section:

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10 Tips on Writing a Real Estate Resume. Executive recruiters, professional resume writers, and hiring managers say they've seen more poorly written resumes cross their desks recently than ever before. So before you waste time, money and Essay postage and, most importantly, squander employment opportunities and on tarnish your reputation in your industry - with a deficient resume, here are 10 tips for Prosthetics writing an effective resume: Tip # 1: Cite your accomplishments, not merely job descriptions. Hiring managers are seeking candidates who can help them solve a problem or a need within their company. You can't be viewed as a possible solution to their problems without stating how you solved similar problems for other companies. Focus on to Die what you did in the job, not just on Essay what your job was.

There is a subtle, but important difference. Include a one or two-line job description, followed by your accomplishments. Essay Said! Then, for Essay each point, ask yourself this question: What was the Euthanasia: to Die Essay benefit of your having done what you did? Your accomplishments should be unique to you, not just a list of what anyone else did or could have done in that job. Essay! It should not be the generic job description you had when you originally applied for the position. Tip # 2: Quantify your accomplishments.

The most frequent resume mistake is to surprised by joy wordsworth, load it with general claims and too much industry jargon. A resume is a marketing document designed to Prosthetics, sell your skills and strengths rather than just portray a bio. By including and highlighting specific achievements that present a comprehensive picture of your marketability, you'll engender greater confidence in hiring managers and be called for many more interviews. Quantify everything; provide percentages, dollars, number of employees, training classes. By Joy Wordsworth! You may need to work backwards to highlight your accomplishments by asking, If I had not done X, what could have happened? Tip # 3: Cater your resume to your industry. Marketing, advertising, and design professionals have creative license to Prosthetics Essay, be more distinctive and use flair in the way they design their resumes. Unusual paper, fonts and layout are acceptable and expected in those industries. However, conversely, the real estate industry won't be impressed and essays about community may indeed be turned off by distinctive resume design. In this sector, it's better to err on the side of Prosthetics Essay being conservative. Your accomplishments, error-free writing, grammatically correct, clean, crisp type and paper will make the Euthanasia: The Right to Die Essay impression for you.

If you've been in the market for Essay a while, it's important that you update your information to ensure its relevance to himalayan drug, today's market. Job descriptions dating back many years are a red flag. A resume is Prosthetics Essay not intended to by joy wordsworth, be your biography, but a recitation of what you've done lately and how your skills will benefit their company. Providing information from the 70's is hardly relevant and can work against you. Tip # 5: Avoid including irrelevant information. Recruiters and HR specialists agree that listing personal information isn't appropriate or necessary on Prosthetics Essay an executive resume, and including your photograph is the worst offense of all.

Your resume is the one phase in your job search over which you have total control. One Language Essay! Based on the strength of that document, you'll either be selected for an interview from among hundreds of other candidates, or passed over. Therefore, every word you include should be meaningful and help sell your skills and experience. Tip # 6: Replace your Objective with a Career Summary The Career Summary should be designed to give a brief overview of who you are and what you do. Since hiring managers spend only a few seconds perusing your resume, the object is to grab their attention. Replace Objective with a summary that accurately and powerfully describes you as a solution to Essay, a potential employer's problems. 15 years of diverse general management, operations and marketing experience with regional and national real estate firms and a multinational electronics manufacturer. Wharton M.B.A. Surprised By Joy! with particular expertise in: Real-estate asset, property and Essay turnaround management, leasing, marketing and operations. Financial planning, capital investment budgeting and pricing. Strategic planning, business development and market analysis.

Recruiting, training and management of about service interdisciplinary work teams. Tip # 7: Avoid Referring to yourself as a consultant. Many candidates use the term consultant to describe their current work status. Unless you can quantify your consulting activities, recruiters and hiring managers will be skeptical. Essay! The consultant title tends to be poorly received on a resume unless a specific task and to Die result are stated and the consulting project is for a recognizable concern. If, for strategic reasons, you use the Essay term Consultant, describe the projects specifically and provide what the results were (i.e., did you increase sales and by what percent over what period of time? Did you improve processes? What were they before and what were the surprised by joy results? Did you save the company money, and how much over what period of time?) These details will help provide greater insight into Prosthetics your Consultant role. Many people leave off graduation and employment dates to avoid possible age discrimination.

However, most corporate recruiters use resumes to screen out, rather than screen in candidates, and therefore resume without dates may not be considered. From a recruiter's perspective, candidates eliminate dates on One Nation, One Language Essay examples their resumes for only one reason: to hide information, such as a history of job-hopping or a long period of unemployment. As an Prosthetics Essay alternative, focus only on the last 10 or 15 years of your professional experience. Essay Examples! Tip # 9: Do the hiring manager's work for Prosthetics them - format your resume wisely. No matter how much time and Euthanasia: to Die Essay effort you put into writing your resume, it won't get a thorough reading the first time through. It usually gets skimmed quickly for a matter of Prosthetics Essay seconds.

It's harder for the reader to give even a cursory initial look if your resume is hard to read, poorly organized or exceeds two pages. Use wide margins, clean type (at least between 10-12 points), clear headings, a logical format, bold and italic typeface that helps guide the himalayan drug co reader's eye. Prosthetics Essay! Selective use of bullets calls attention to The Right Essay, important points. For unemployed senior-level executives, handing out resumes should be a full-time job. The majority of senior-level positions are filled through networking, so contact absolutely everyone you know in addition to recruiters who are in a position to Prosthetics, hire you or share insights.

Networking can include personal business contacts, people you've worked for, people who worked for you but have moved on, vendors and sales representatives with whom you've dealt in to Die Essay, the past five years, and even people listed in the alumni directory of Essay your alma mater. With a solid resume in hand, you'll greatly increase your odds of earning a closer look. Wordsworth! Copyright 2015-2018 SelectLeaders Real Estate Job Site Network. All Rights Reserved.

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The Family Check-Up in Prosthetics, Early Childhood: A Case Study of Intervention Process and Change. This article describes a case study in the use of the Family Check-Up (FCU), a family-based and ecological preventive intervention for children at risk for problem behavior. The FCU is an assessment-driven intervention that utilizes a health maintenance model; emphasizes motivation for change; and offers an adaptive, tailored approach to intervention. This case study follows one Caucasian family through their initial assessment and Where Where Essay, subsequent treatment for their toddler daughter#x02019;s conduct problems over a 2-year period. Clinically meaningful improvements in child and family functioning were found despite the presence of child, parent, and neighborhood risk factors. The case is discussed with respect to the findings from a current multisite randomized control trial of the FCU and its application to other populations. There is growing interest in identifying young children at risk for early and persistent trajectories of Prosthetics antisocial behavior (Shaw #x00026; Gross, 2008), motivated by several studies of early-starting antisocial youth (Moffitt, 1993). Several researchers have documented that compared to late starters (who begin delinquent activity in mid-to late adolescence), early starters (who typically initiate antisocial activities before age 10) show a more persistent and chronic trajectory of antisocial behavior extending from middle childhood to adulthood (Moffitt #x00026; Caspi, 2001; Patterson #x00026; Yoeger, 1993). Early starters represent approximately 6% to 7% of the general population of youth yet are responsible for almost half of all adolescent crime and three fourths of violent crimes (Offord, Boyle, #x00026; Racine, 1991). During the past 2 decades, prevention scientists have focused on generating interventions for preventing early-starting pathways from developing, including programs for expectant mothers with first-born children (Olds, 2002) and preschool-age children (Webster-Stratton #x00026; Hammond, 1997).

However, despite research suggesting that early-starting pathways of antisocial behavior can be identified as early as age 2 to 3 (Shaw, Gilliom, Ingoldsby, #x00026; Nagin, 2003), few interventions have focused on the developmental transition of the #x0201c;terrible 2s,#x0201d; a time of great maturational change (Shaw #x00026; Bell, 1993). The Family Check-Up (FCU) is surprised wordsworth, a preventive intervention that has been adapted specifically to address the normative challenges parents face during the terrible 2s, particularly in high-risk environments where these normative challenges are more likely to lead to negative outcomes (Dishion et al., in press; Shaw, Dishion, Supplee, Gardner, #x00026; Arnds, 2006). Prosthetics? Our article discusses a case study that follows one family through their involvement in the FCU. The FCU was initially developed and Essay Edward Said, shown to be efficacious in reducing problem behavior among adolescents (Connell, Dishion, Yasui, #x00026; Kavanagh, in press; Dishion #x00026; Kavanagh, 2003). However, it has recently been associated with reductions in Prosthetics, young children#x02019;s conduct problems and internalizing problems, as well as improvements in maternal depression, parental involvement, and surprised by joy wordsworth, positive parenting in Prosthetics, two independent, randomly controlled trials (Dishion et al., in press; Shaw, Dishion, Connell, Wilson, #x00026; Gardner, 2008). Himalayan Co? In these studies, changes in maternal positive parenting and depression were found to mediate improvements in child problem behavior. The FCU model differs from traditional clinical models and Prosthetics, practice in three important ways: it utilizes a health maintenance model, derives much of its power from a comprehensive assessment, and Essay, emphasizes motivating change. In contrast to the standard clinical model, the Essay, health maintenance approach of the FCU explicitly promotes periodic contact with families (yearly at a minimum) over the course of key developmental transitions.

Whereas traditional clinical models are activated in Going, You Been by Oates, response to clinical pathology, the health maintenance model involves regular periodic contact between client and Prosthetics, provider to proactively prevent problems. Examples of health maintenance models include the use of semiannual cleanings in dentistry and well-baby check-ups in pediatrics. Another key difference from traditional clinical practice is the FCU#x02019;s explicit focus on providing a comprehensive assessment of The Right to Die Essay child and family functioning. Data obtained from assessments are shared with families in feedback sessions to enhance motivation for Essay, change (Miller #x00026; Rollnick, 2002). Feedback sessions are often followed by family management meetings (Forgatch, Patterson, #x00026; DeGarmo, 2005) to promote change in parenting and child problem behavior. The comprehensive assessment drives the intervention, providing detailed information about on Edward - Orientalism domains of child (e.g., negative emotionality, child behavior problems), family (e.g., parental depression, marital quality), and community-level (e.g., neighborhood dangerousness) risk factors that past research has shown to be directly related to the development of early-onset conduct problems. In addition, there is Prosthetics Essay, a primary focus on evaluating caregiving practices through direct observation of on Edward Said - Orientalism parent-child interaction.

In the case of the Prosthetics Essay, FCU for toddlers, this task is accomplished by having parent#x02013;child dyads participate in a series of Said - Orientalism structured (e.g., clean-up and teaching) and semistructured (e.g., preparing a meal and Prosthetics Essay, serving it to the child) tasks. Himalayan? The FCU is also #x0201c;ecological#x0201d; in its emphasis on improving children#x02019;s adjustment across settings by motivating positive parenting practices and involvement in those settings. Moreover, the comprehensive assessment allows tailoring and adaptation, in Prosthetics Essay, that the about service, intervention is #x0201c;fit#x0201d; to the family#x02019;s circumstances and their desires for more or less or different forms of intervention. The FCU utilizes two main components to facilitate change: motivational interviewing and family management practices. The motivational interviewing component is Prosthetics, based on Miller and Rollnick#x02019;s (2002) work using the Drinker#x02019;s Check-Up, in which assessment data regarding the negative consequences of alcohol abuse on individual#x02019;s work and himalayan drug co, family life are shared in a feedback interview with clients. Prosthetics? This approach has been shown to be as effective as 28 days of costly inpatient treatment for reducing problem drinking in adults (Miller #x00026; Rollnick, 2002).

In working with families of young children, the FCU feedback session is designed to elicit motivation for the parent(s) to change problematic behavior in their child, which is often achieved by modifying parenting behavior (Forgatch et al., 2005) or aspects of the caregiving context that compromise parenting quality. Whereas motivational interviewing was originally developed for adult drinkers, it has been incorporated into the FCU model to engage parents in preventive interventions. Himalayan? In one study of the FCU with parents of adolescents, analyses comparing those adolescents showing significant reductions in Prosthetics, substance use and Euthanasia: The Right to Die, antisocial behavior to those who did not indicated that motivational interviewing was the key strategy for promoting change (Connell et al., in press). After addressing motivation, the FCU provides options for intervention. The therapist (i.e., Parent Consultant) may provide referrals for help with problems outside of parenting (e.g., language development) or work with families themselves on Prosthetics these issues depending on his or her expertise (e.g., parental depression, marital therapy); however, the core of most intervention addresses family management issues. Family management includes a collective set of parenting skills, commonly referred to as Parent Management Training (PMT), based on social learning principles of reinforcement and modeling (Forgatch et al., 2005; Patterson, 1982; Webster-Stratton #x00026; Hammond, 1997). PMT has been consistently associated with improvement in parenting and reductions in himalayan, child conduct problems (Bullock #x00026; Forgatch, 2005; Patterson, Reid, #x00026; Dishion, 1992) and has been formally deemed an #x0201c;empirically supported treatment#x0201d; (Chambless #x00026; Ollendick, 2001). PMT focuses on four main skill sets for the parents of young children: limit setting, proactive parenting, positive reinforcement, and relationship building. Using PMT typically involves providing parents with a rationale to Prosthetics Essay stimulate interest, careful explanation of new skills, and in-session practice using role plays and in himalayan co, vivo practice with the child. In the FCU, PMT is applied to specific behavior problems highlighted in the assessment.

THE FCU IN THE EARLY STEPS MULTISITE STUDY. The current case illustrates how the FCU integrates basic research on the developmental antecedents of Essay early-starting pathways with validated methods for essays about service, effecting change in young children#x02019;s conduct problems. The case was drawn from the Early Steps Multisite Study (ESMS), which is the second randomized control trial to test the effectiveness of the FCU with young children. The ESMS is an early intervention project aimed at reducing early-onset conduct problems among high-risk families with toddlers and offers the Essay, opportunity to examine the efficacy of the FCU with a nonclinical yet high-risk sample of families whose children are at on Said - Orientalism, elevated risk for early-starting conduct problems. The ESMS examines the efficacy of the Prosthetics Essay, FCU among 731 low-income families with toddlers recruited between 2002 and 2003 from Women, Infants, and Children Nutritional Supplement programs in the metropolitan areas of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Eugene, Oregon; and Charlottesville, Virginia. The current case was recruited from the One Nation, One Language Essay, Pittsburgh site.

Families were approached at Women, Infants, and Children Nutritional Supplement offices and invited to participate if they had a son or daughter between 2 years 0 months and 2 years 11 months of Prosthetics age, following a screen to ensure that they met the study criteria by having socioeconomic, family, and=or child risk factors for child conduct problems. Families who met the screening criteria and surprised wordsworth, agreed to Prosthetics Essay participate were contacted by One Nation, Essay, research assistants to schedule the initial home assessment. Prosthetics? During the initial home assessment, described in detail next, examiners carefully reviewed a comprehensive consent form with each primary caregiver. Families were informed about the reason for conducting the research, the source of funding, study procedures (i.e., description of random assignment procedures and intervention), risks and benefits, payment, their right to withdraw at any time, and confidentiality. Regarding confidentiality, participants were informed that they would not be identified by name in One Language, any publication of research results unless they signed a separate form giving their permission. The FCU intervention involves at least three sessions. First is the Prosthetics, in-home family assessment. One Nation, Essay Examples? The second session involves rapport building via the Parent Consultant#x02019;s (PC#x02019;s) initial interview with the caregiver(s), referred to as the Get-to-Know-You (GTKY) visit.

The third is a feedback session during which the PC discusses the results of the assessment and initial interview with attention focused on the caregiver#x02019;s readiness to change and the delineation of Essay specific change options. The assessment, which is the first component of the FCU, typically takes place in the family#x02019;s home when research assistants visit the family to collect questionnaire and observational data. The assessment, which lasts 2.5 hr, is organized by three central theoretical domains: (a) family management, (b) sociocultural contexts and resources, and (c) problem behavior at home and in alternative care settings. Careful attention was given to Essay Said - Orientalism selecting measures that could provide useful information in Prosthetics Essay, each of the aforementioned domains. Are You Going, Have You Been By Oates? When possible, constructs within each domain are measured using multiple informants (parents, other care providers, observers) and methods. This assessment provides a wealth of information about child behavior, parenting skills, family dynamics, and life stressors; it also sets the stage for the therapeutic contact between caregivers and parent consultants. The initial contact between the PC and the family occurs when the PC calls to set up the Prosthetics, GTKY session. At this time, the PC introduces himself or herself, briefly explains the intervention portion of the drug, study, and invites the parent to participate in an introductory meeting and a feedback session. Prosthetics? The caregivers#x02019; first session with their PC, the GTKY visit, is Essay Edward, usually held in the family#x02019;s home. The GTKY visit focuses on developing a collaborative framework for subsequent intervention activities by emphasizing rapport building and exploring concerns with respect to parenting and the family context (Dishion #x00026; Stormshak, 2007). Caregivers also provide information about family resources (e.g., help of Prosthetics extended family members, strong marital relationship) and liabilities (e.g., unstable housing, a father who is incarcerated).

By the end of this visit, caregivers have discussed their concerns and The Right, perceptions of Essay their motivation for change. The PC works to ensure that caregivers feel understood and clarifies discrepancies between caregivers#x02019; goals and current family functioning. Finally, the PC discusses the purpose of the feedback session and how it will be used to review and address caregivers#x02019; identified concerns. For example, given a concern about noncompliance and temper tantrums, the PC will review the assessment with attention to specific strategies that might help improve the cooperation between the caregiver and the child. The third session of the FCU, the family feedback session, takes place at the family#x02019;s home or at an ESMS office, whichever is preferable to the family.

Case conceptualization is Where Have You Been by Oates Essay, a critical feature of the feedback session and is informed by both the assessment and GTKY visit. Family change is approached in a realistic, stepwise fashion, focusing first on Prosthetics issues of drug safety and security, then moving to issues of behavior management, parenting skills, and Essay, relationship building. The feedback session involves a delicate balance among reporting the facts about strengths and problems, building motivation for about service, change, and maintaining rapport with parent(s). The feedback session is a collaborative process, one in which the PC delivers the Prosthetics, factual information from the assessment and frequently checks in with parents about their perspectives (see Figure 1 ). An emphasis on Essay Edward Said - Orientalism strengths helps build rapport and therapeutic alliance with the Prosthetics, family while encouraging maintenance of himalayan drug positive behaviors. Prosthetics? Statements about essays community problem areas are framed in Prosthetics Essay, a way that reflect the current research findings and in doing so, ground the information in a meaningful way for parents. The PC tailors the feedback material so that it takes into consideration the Essay Edward, contextual factors of the family, including cultural variation, child development, family structure, socioeconomics, and community and neighborhood factors. At the end of the feedback session, the PC discusses a menu of family-based interventions with the caregivers.

The intervention options stem from Essay, previous work using the FCU and focus groups with parents (Dishion #x00026; Stormshak, 2007). These options include (a) monthly to drug weekly follow-up support, either in-person or by phone; (b) assistance with specific child behavior problems or parent issues; (c) PMT; (d) preschool/day care consultations; and (e) community referrals. The PC encourages the Prosthetics, parents to choose the level and type of services that best meet the family#x02019;s needs. The family chosen for this case study qualified for inclusion in the ESMS based on the presence of sociodemographic risk (i.e., low income and educational attainment), child risk (i.e., high levels of conduct problems and high levels of parent-child conflict), and family risk (i.e., elevated maternal depressive symptoms and parenting hassles). In addition to using a pseudonym, identifying information about the family has been altered to protect their confidentiality. At the time of the age 2 assessment, the community service, Smith family consisted of the mother, a 34-year-old Caucasian female; the father, a 36-year-old Caucasian male; and five children living in the home (ranging from 11 months to Prosthetics 15 years). Himalayan Co? The Target Child (TC) is their daughter who was 2 years old. Prosthetics Essay? The mother was a stay-at-home parent and the father was an unemployed former bus driver. Euthanasia: The Right To Die? Neither parent held a high school diploma. This marriage was the mother#x02019;s third with multiple children by each husband, including two children with her current husband. The father had children from Essay, a previous marriage with whom he has no contact.

The mother and surprised, TC participated in a home-based assessment, during which the mother completed questionnaires about TC#x02019;s behavior and Essay, her own well-being. Well-established measures were used when possible (see Table 1 ), and PCs were trained to code the videotaped tasks using an himalayan drug co, observation manual (Veltman et al., 2003) derived from research with families from similar high-risk environments (e.g., Shaw et al., 2003). Both mother and child participated in observational tasks, including clean-up, teaching, waiting, and Essay, meal preparation tasks. The father was not present for the home visit but did complete and return his questionnaires 1 week later. Results from the assessment measures and observational tasks are noted in Table 2 and were incorporated into One Language, the feedback session. Both parents were present for the GTKY at age 2. The mother was very talkative during the 1-hr interview.

The mother provided a detailed history of the family and talked openly about her own struggles with depression. She reported that she refused antidepressant medication because of Prosthetics unpleasant side effects. She also talked about an himalayan drug, ongoing source of familial stress: severe harassment by her second ex-husband despite the procurement of several Protection from Abuse orders. Essay? The harassment by the ex-husband was persistent over Where Where Have You Been by Oates Essay, the course of 2 years, and both parents expressed a sense of Essay hopelessness about its resolution. In addition, the family lived in a high-crime neighborhood, as described by both parents and observed by the PC and assessment team. The parents expressed their intention to move to another part of the city within the next year. When asked about the TC, the mother reported concerns about the child#x02019;s developmental progress and Euthanasia: The Right, the father reported that she had a #x0201c;bad attitude.#x0201d; When asked about the TC#x02019;s behavior problems, both parents agreed that it was #x0201c;her anger.#x0201d; Both parents reported that TC had a #x0201c;quick temper and lashes out,#x0201d; hit her siblings, and Essay, yelled frequently.

The parents also agreed that she had an #x0201c;emotional problem,#x0201d; referring to her temper tantrums. The parents did not spontaneously state any positive qualities about the Are You Where Have You Been Essay, TC; when asked, the Prosthetics Essay, mother reported that she felt that she had a good relationship with the TC. Feedback Preparation and Case Conceptualization. Consistent with typical practice, the feedback session at age 2 was held 1 week after the GTKY. The PC used videotaped and Where Going, Have, questionnaire data from the assessment to prepare a Child and Family Profile (see Figure 1 ) designed to visually represent the child#x02019;s and family#x02019;s strengths and areas of concern. Areas of strength and concern were determined based on Prosthetics Essay published norms, when available, and data from similar high-risk samples (Shaw et al., 2003). At a broader level, components of the data were used to wordsworth generate a conceptualization of the family#x02019;s strengths and Prosthetics, challenges so the review follows a logical storyline for the parents. In the FCU process, the PC prepares a comprehensive report about the Euthanasia: Essay, family#x02019;s and child#x02019;s strengths and potential problems based on the assessment. Prosthetics? Scoring the Smith#x02019;s assessment measures revealed a number of strengths, including that the mother and father viewed their marital relationship positively and were willing to participate in One Language examples, the feedback session. In addition, the mother felt confident in her parenting skills (see Table 2 ). When coding the observational tasks, the PC observed that the Essay, mother was responsive to her daughter#x02019;s bids for positive attention and demonstrated a warm and affectionate relationship with her. The child demonstrated strengths in her language ability, as indexed by essays community, a score at the 70th percentile on the McArthur Communicative Development Index (Fenson et al., 2000).

Several areas of concern were evident, most notably the TC#x02019;s level and breadth of problem behavior and the mother#x02019;s level of depressive symptoms. According to mother#x02019;s report on two different measures of child behavior, the TC was well into Prosthetics Essay, the clinical range for both internalizing and externalizing problems (see Table 2 ). Based on 45 min of observational data, she was found to be in the clinical range for noncompliance (i.e., follows directions less than 50% of the time) and in the borderline clinical range for positive play (i.e., exhibits neutral to positive affect) and aggression (two to five instances of surprised by joy wordsworth aggression toward both objects and people). Prosthetics? Compared with other girls her age, the Essay on Said, TC appeared to be on a worrisome behavioral trajectory. There were some areas of concern regarding the mother, namely, that she reported levels of depressive symptoms consistent with clinical depression, a high level of Prosthetics Essay daily stress, and a high level of conflict with her daughter. Mother also demonstrated few skills for setting limits and being proactive during observational tasks.

The family#x02019;s residence in Euthanasia: to Die, a high crime neighborhood was also seen as an Essay, important factor that impacted their level of essays community stress (see Table 2 ). The combined clinical picture for the TC and mother suggested that there were deficits in parenting skills, perhaps because of the mother#x02019;s depressive symptomatology and daily stress, which contributed to Prosthetics the child#x02019;s behavioral and emotional problems. In addition, the child was demonstrating high levels of behavioral and emotional problems, which were posited to contribute to coercive cycles of essays about community service interaction with her mother (Patterson, 1982). A related concern was that if the mother and child did not find more positive ways to interact, both child and maternal behavior would become exacerbated, moving the child into a more entrenched and less malleable trajectory of problem behavior. Interventions aimed at improving these areas could capitalize on existing family strengths, namely, the positive marital relationship, parental willingness to participate, and TC#x02019;s language skills. Essay? The family#x02019;s high crime neighborhood and harassment from the ex-husband were also noted on the Child and Family Profile and incorporated into the feedback session, reflecting the family#x02019;s particular needs and context.

During the age 2 feedback, the Smith family expressed a willingness to receive information about their daughter and some hope that they might receive help to better manage her problem behavior. After a brief rapport-building introduction, the co, PC began the feedback session and asked the self-assessment questions (#x0201c;Over the course of the assessment, what did you learn about TC? What stood out for you?#x0201d;). Both parents responded by stating that their child #x0201c;behaves better when other people are around.#x0201d; The PC clarified that the mother believed that the videotaped portions of the Prosthetics, assessment reflected better-than-usual behavior from the TC. After orienting the parents to the FCU profile and explaining the feedback process, the PC discussed the identified areas of strength and drug, concern (see Figure 1 ). The Child and Family Profile begins with a focus on child behavior in an effort to align parents with a shared focus about their child#x02019;s well-being. The PC informed the parents that TC was in the clinical range for her aggressive behavior and anxiety-related problems. The mother#x02019;s initial response to this information was to elaborate on the areas where TC was aggressive, in particular with her siblings. When the Essay, PC asked the Where Going, Have You Been, mother about her biggest concerns related to TC#x02019;s fights with siblings, she initially minimized the Prosthetics Essay, problem by stating that TC would probably outgrow her aggressive behavior. Going, You Been By Oates? The PC agreed that this was a possibility (rolling with resistance) and then inquired about alternate outcomes.

When invited by Prosthetics, the PC to consider what would happen if TC did not #x0201c;outgrow#x0201d; the The Right to Die Essay, problem, the Essay, mother admitted to Edward Said - Orientalism her fears that TC and siblings might seriously hurt each other #x0201c;by accident.#x0201d; Mrs. Smith then elaborated on several parenting strategies she and Prosthetics, her husband had tried without success. The PC affirmed their efforts and then offered a normalizing statement about the Euthanasia: Essay, parents#x02019; struggles with TC. Next, the PC discussed the potential usefulness of additional or new parenting strategies to address TC#x02019;s problem behavior.

The PC also provided information about TC#x02019;s likely behavioral trajectory (i.e., behavior problems would likely get worse) and the benefits of Prosthetics early intervention versus #x0201c;wait and see.#x0201d; The PC utilized observational data about TC#x02019;s observed defiance and noncompliance to underscore the seriousness of the concerns about her conduct problems. In addition, the surprised by joy wordsworth, PC and parents discussed TC#x02019;s fearfulness and anxiety, as reported by the mother and observed by the PC. The mother and father expressed moderate concern here and were able to identify some ways in which TC#x02019;s fearfulness is a problem for them, including her #x0201c;clinginess#x0201d; and inability to sleep through the night in her own bed. PC also reported on TC#x02019;s strengths, most notably her language skills and positive affect when spending time with her mother. TC#x02019;s language development was presented as a positive indicator of her ability to learn new behavior and respond to her parent#x02019;s requests.

In addition, the PC worked to enhance the Essay, parent#x02019;s understanding that a positive relationship with their daughter could motivate their daughter to change her behavior. When reviewing the to Die Essay, profile sections on Essay parent wellbeing, the PC informed the parents that the Essay Said - Orientalism, mother#x02019;s scores on Prosthetics Essay self-report measures were indicative of clinical depression. The PC expressed concern about the severity of the mother#x02019;s depressive symptoms, and on Said, when PC inquired about them, the mother began to cry and Prosthetics, stated that she #x0201c;didn#x02019;t want to talk about it.#x0201d; The PC acknowledged that it would be difficult to parent when feeling so depressed. The PC also provided her with information about the on Edward - Orientalism, impact of maternal depression on child behavior, as well as effective interventions and possible resources. Later in the session, the PC indicated that her level of daily parenting stress was another area of concern and linked this to her depressed mood. In addition, the PC noted that the Prosthetics, harassment by her ex-husband was also a significant source of stress likely to Essay Said - Orientalism be influencing her mood. The mother agreed to Prosthetics Essay look into intervention for her depression and stated her intention to resolve the situation with her ex-husband.

When the PC reported to The Right to Die Essay the mother about her strengths, including her parenting confidence and relationship with TC, the Essay, mother responded with big smiles and verbalized appreciation. Acknowledgment of her strengths provided the mother with the opportunity to verbally elaborate on her positive skills and to express how much she values the relationship she has with her daughter and husband. Where Are You Going, Have You Been By Oates? Furthermore, the PC invited the parents to elaborate on the strengths of Prosthetics Essay their marital relationship, stating that the qualities they mentioned (e.g., communicating well, ability to essays reach agreement about Prosthetics Essay challenging issues) provided a foundation from which they could parent more effectively as a team. The PC highlighted parent strengths with the aim of supporting parental efficacy and instilling hope for successful behavior change. A key element of the feedback process is the goal setting that concludes the session. When the entire profile has been reviewed, the PC offers the parents a summary that highlights the strengths and areas of concern. In this case, the PC revisited the concerns about the mother#x02019;s depressive symptoms and linked them to other areas of One Language Essay stress and Essay, challenges in parenting. The PC also highlighted the parents#x02019; concerns about TC#x02019;s behavior problems and noted the congruence with the Said, observations of noncompliance and defiance. These concerns were presented with the acknowledgment and validation of child and parent strengths. The PC then asked the parents to consider the feedback and invited them to Essay set goals for their child and themselves. They set three goals: (a) for the family to move to Where Are You Going, by Oates a new neighborhood that was safer and removed from the ex-husband, (b) for Prosthetics, the mother to meet with a psychiatrist to discuss antidepressant medication and other intervention options, and (c) for the parents to work with their daughter to reduce her temper tantrums and aggressive behavior.

As part of the FCU, families are able to determine the amount and intensity of follow-up intervention, if any, they wish to essays about receive. The intervention plan is derived in a collaborative manner, focusing on the issues identified in the feedback session and any other issues the Essay, parents want to address. In this case, the PC met with both parents for 10 sessions following the feedback session. Sessions were scheduled for every other week. Early sessions focused on essays about community service the mother#x02019;s depressive symptoms and harassment from her ex-husband. With regard to nonparenting issues, clinicians using the FCU model typically respond in Essay, a manner consistent with standard clinical practice, for example, utilizing cognitive behavioral techniques to deal with depression, offering advocacy and creating a safety plan for wordsworth, domestic violence. Nonparenting issues are addressed with the aim to support family functioning and cohesiveness, as appropriate. For example, a common service PC#x02019;s provide is referral and Essay, advocacy for accessing community resources. The FCU model works to facilitate connection with services in a family#x02019;s community to increase their network of support and self-sustainability. In this case, while the PC worked with the mother to reduce her depressive symptoms, she also assisted the mother in finding a psychiatrist.

Regarding the harassment from the mother#x02019;s exhusband, the PC explored possible responses with both parents. The family formalized their plans to move to a better neighborhood farther away from the ex-husband and completed this move within 3 months of the feedback session. Once these initial issues were addressed, the mother expressed willingness to Essay work on TC#x02019;s disruptive behavior. Specifically, she was interested in Prosthetics Essay, reducing the number of Edward - Orientalism fights her children had during the day and Prosthetics Essay, increasing TC#x02019;s compliance. Over the course of the next seven sessions, the drug co, PC explored TC#x02019;s problem behaviors and their associated patterns with both parents by using several tools. Prosthetics? These included the Essay, Good Behavior Game (Dishion #x00026; Patterson, 1996); the use of incentives, praise, and encouragement; troubleshooting problem areas; and Essay, teaching the by joy wordsworth, proper administration of a Time Out. In general, the intervention phase of the FCU prioritizes teaching parents better skills for positive reinforcement, including praise and encouragement. When parents choose to focus on parenting skills, the PC typically spends about 45 min on the chosen skill area, with the additional 15 min of the session addressing nonparenting concerns and generating a plan of action. Typically, sessions involve the parents and Prosthetics Essay, bring the child in on occasion for in vivo practice. For each content area, which in this case included incentives, praise and encouragement, and limit setting, the intervention followed a typical process: (a) providing parents with the rationale for the new skill; (b) having the PC demonstrate the new skill to parents; (c) having parents practice the new skill in session with role plays and One Nation, One Language Essay examples, making corrections; (d) assigning parents homework; and Essay, (e) reviewing homework, successes, and challenges during the next visit.

This model is Euthanasia: to Die Essay, drawn from PMT (Bullock #x00026; Forgatch, 2005). For example, these parents expressed an interest and willingness to learn more about the proper use of incentives. The PC first provided the parents a rationale for incentives, explaining that they can be used to help children learn new behavior by rewarding positive behavior. The PC then invited the parents to generate a list of positive behaviors they would like to encourage in their daughter. Once the parents generated this list, they were asked to select one behavior that they would like to Essay focus on for the next week. The PC then invited the TC into the room and examples, demonstrated to the parents how a sticker could be used to encourage positive behavior. The PC provided parents with stickers and asked them to practice this, thus clarifying an effective way to explain and introduce the behavior to the TC. Another tool used to encourage good behavior is The Good Behavior Game.

The Good Behavior Game promotes prosocial behavior among young children by (a) asking the parent to Prosthetics tell their children that they can earn a reward if they can play nicely for Euthanasia: to Die, 10 min (with use of a timer), (b) establishing and Essay, describing reasonable and motivating rewards, (c) carefully explaining what #x0201c;play nicely#x0201d; means, (d) asking children to repeat back the instructions, and (e) using a sticker chart to keep track of children#x02019;s positive play. In sum, the PC provided information about motivating children, the benefits of One Language praise and Prosthetics Essay, encouragement, the role of parent involvement, and key components of proactive parenting. In addition, the PC introduced the book Preventive Parenting with Love, Encouragement and Limits (Dishion #x00026; Patterson, 1996) and provided ESMS project-based brochures and informational materials. Over the course of the next two assessment periods (when TC was age 3 and 4, respectively), both TC and the mother demonstrated marked improvement in several domains. Essays Service? At the age 3 assessment, TC#x02019;s behavior had improved to Prosthetics Essay the extent that she was no longer in the clinical range for either the Going, by Oates, internalizing or externalizing scales on the Child Behavior Checklist, improvement that was maintained at the age 4 assessment.

In addition, the Essay, mother#x02019;s Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale score, which was well into the clinical range at the age 2 assessment, dropped to well within the normal range at Euthanasia: Essay, the age 4 assessment. In addition, observations of parent-child interaction revealed steady and stepwise improvement over the next 2 years, including marked improvements in child noncompliance and Prosthetics Essay, aggression, as well as maternal limit setting and proactive parenting (see Table 2 ). The FCU represents a cost-effective intervention that can lead to clinically meaningful results, such as improvements in child behavior and maternal wellbeing. The main components of the FCU are the GTKY and Feedback Sessions, which last 30 min and 90 min, respectively. Upon completion of the feedback session, parents can choose to participate in tailored follow-up sessions, if they wish. Even when more numerous follow-up sessions are involved, the Essay Edward, FCU is Prosthetics Essay, time and cost effective.

To date, there has been no formal cost effectiveness assessment of the FCU. However, compared with other relatively brief and empirically validated interventions for child problem behavior, such as Forgatch#x02019;s PMT and Webster-Stratton#x02019;s family-based intervention, the FCU appears to to Die Essay require a fewer number of sessions to achieve beneficial effects. Conducting a cost assessment of the FCU is clearly an issue that merits attention in the near future. In the case study presented in this article, the PC spent a total of 18 hr of face-to-face time with the Prosthetics Essay, Smith family in the 1st year. The time spent decreased steadily over the subsequent years of the study, with a total of 8 hr of direct contact in the 2nd year and 2 hr of direct contact in the 3rd year. In terms of case preparation (scoring assessment measures, coding videotaped interactions), the himalayan drug, amount of time the PC spent in these activities also decreased over the years.

Activities not involving direct service delivery, including case preparation and scoring, required 10 hr of PC time in Prosthetics, Year 1, 3#x000bd; hr in Year 2, and only 2 hr in Year 3. Thus, once the Where Going, Have by Oates, process is learned and PCs become adept with the process of preparing for feedback sessions, the Prosthetics, FCU becomes a potent and brief intervention. In terms of completing the home assessment, research assistants spent an average of 1 hr of travel time in addition to the 2#x000bd; hr home visit, for a total of 3#x000bd; to 4 hr per assessment. Whereas in actual practice the same individual might be responsible for on Said - Orientalism, conducting the assessment and the intervention, the research project elected to have a different person serve these roles. The FCU was designed to integrate research on risk factors for children#x02019;s early conduct problems into an ecological, family-based intervention to prevent problem behavior among high-risk families with toddlers. The Smith family is a representative illustration of this innovative method to reach families at key developmental transitions in at-risk environments. The Smith family presented with a complicated family history, a number of contextual risk factors, and a 2-year-old daughter who was demonstrating both conduct problems and emotional problems. Over the Prosthetics Essay, course of the FCU, the family showed improvement in several areas, including parenting and child problem behavior, as well reductions in maternal depression and contextual risk. This is Where Going, Where Have Essay, consistent with the Prosthetics, research showing that improvements in child conduct problems are accompanied by increases in to Die Essay, the mother#x02019;s positive parenting and Essay, decreases in maternal depression (Dishion et al., in press; Shaw et al., 2008; Shaw et al., 2006). This family was atypical in one respect#x02014;families in Euthanasia: The Right to Die Essay, the ESMS participate in an average number of 3.7 in-person sessions with the PC per year, including the GTKY and the Feedback sessions , whereas this family engaged in Prosthetics Essay, 12 sessions their first year, and then 3 to 4 in the following 2 years. After their 1st year of more intensive involvement, which was consistent with the family#x02019;s breadth of risk, the family followed the more typical pattern of himalayan drug direct contact with the PC.

One of the strengths of this health-maintenance model is the repeated nature of assessment and intervention. The FCU model involves yearly #x0201c;check-ups,#x0201d; which provide clinicians with the unique opportunity to Prosthetics Essay collaboratively track family and child behavior over surprised by joy wordsworth, time and continue to motivate families to change persistent areas of difficulty. Essay? For example, it is not uncommon for a family to minimize problems and decline intervention in the 1st year and then engage in the intervention the next year when they discover that the problem behavior has not changed. With some frequency, during the age 3 GTKY, families are able to acknowledge the reality of a problem situation in their 2nd year that they were #x0201c;waiting to see#x0201d; about at co, the age 2 FCU. It is sometimes the repeated review of Essay data, demonstrating that without intervention these problems persist and Where Are You Going, Where You Been, often worsen over time that can elicit motivation from parents to Prosthetics take action. This phenomenon is an essential strength of the drug co, FCU approach: Through repeated regular contact with families using assessment-driven feedback aimed at motivational change, families who would not usually seek intervention on Essay their own are motivated to change . This change in motivation is particularly important for toddlers at himalayan drug, risk for early starting conduct problems based on their high probability of persistence (Shaw et al., 2003; Shaw, Lacourse, #x00026; Nagin, 2005). In addition, it is common for interventionists to spend time working with basic issues related to safety and harm reduction early in intervention (e.g., excessive conflict between divorced spouses).

We find that this initial work sets the foundation for establishing trust in the PC, for families to be open to viewing their child#x02019;s behavior more realistically, and for Prosthetics, families#x02019; willingness to learn new child management strategies. It is important to note that the FCU can be adapted and tailored for use in a range of service settings such as the public school environment or community-based clinic (Dishion #x00026; Kavanagh, 2003). Where Where Have By Oates Essay? For example, interventionists may choose to focus the assessment primarily on school-related behavior or only on the child#x02019;s behavior in the home. In addition, the assessment portion of the FCU could be shortened to make it easier to Prosthetics deliver in Euthanasia: The Right to Die, a typical mental health clinic or school setting. The content of the FCU can also be tailored to Essay the needs of different developmental stages (toddlerhood, school age, adolescent), client populations and specific issues. For example, the FCU has been adapted to examine the health-related behaviors of by joy children transitioning to adolescence, with a particular focus on children#x02019;s sleep, emotion regulation, and physical activity. In this #x0201c;health promotion#x0201d; version of the FCU, the assessment and follow-up interventions focus on youth#x02019;s sleep quality, level of physical activity, and emotion regulation as a set of domains that are relevant for navigating the challenges associated with this developmental stage.

In addition to showing intervention effects on child problem behavior, parenting, and maternal depression, the FCU has been found to be effective for promoting change in a wide range of Essay family structures, cultural backgrounds, and contextual risk factors as well as across a broad range of Essay Said age groups (Dishion et al., in Prosthetics, press; Shaw et al., 2008; Shaw et al., 2006). For example, the FCU is currently being used with older children and adolescents in Oregon and with American Indian families living on a reservation. Perhaps the most novel feature of the FCU is the flexibility it provides clinicians in tailoring interventions to the individual family#x02019;s challenges and strengths, as well as to the family#x02019;s perception of the child#x02019;s problem behavior. By integrating the use of motivational interviewing within an ecological framework and utilizing empirically validated methods for promoting change, the model also fits well with current conceptualizations of developmental psychopathology that recognize multiple risk factors and pathways leading to similar problematic outcomes for children (Richters #x00026; Cicchetti, 1993). One important issue for the use of the information provided in this case study in clinical practice is that family participation might follow a different pattern or level of Essay on Edward - Orientalism engagement outside of the research setting. ESMS families receive payment for their participation in the assessment and gift cards for their participation in the feedback session.

It remains to be seen whether the FCU will appeal to families in pediatric or other community settings without such incentives. In addition, retention of families over time may be more challenging in a traditional community setting, where staff may not have the time to search for families who have moved or to conduct follow-up phone calls. Presently, the creators of the FCU are considering innovative ways to apply this model more broadly and are working to Prosthetics Essay tailor the Edward Said, assessment and feedback process so that it is more user friendly for both therapists and parents. Ideally, the FCU assessment can be reduced to about 35 to 45 min with the feedback session more finely tailored to specific family needs. Despite these limitations, we believe the FCU holds much promise for preventing the onset of child problem behavior across developmental status of the child, the type of child problem behavior, the family#x02019;s cultural and socioeconomic background, and the setting for contact with families. Future follow-up studies of the ESMS efficacy trial will test whether intervention effects found for Prosthetics Essay, reductions in early child problem behavior and One Nation, One Language Essay examples, maternal parenting and depression will endure across time and setting as children transition to the school-age period. However, as such effects appear to be evident across adolescence for a similar sample of at-risk youth (Connell et al., in press), we are optimistic about the FCU#x02019;s effectiveness and use in Essay, other settings with other at-risk populations for promoting child and family well-being.

Moreover, as the presented case illustrates, the FCU can be a powerful preventative intervention for families who might not otherwise seek services for their children by drug, addressing motivation and giving families flexible intervention plans that match their unique situation. This research was supported by grant DA16110 from the Prosthetics, National Institute on Drug Abuse to the third, fourth, and fifth authors. We gratefully acknowledge the Early Steps staff and the families who participated in this project. This article may be used for research, teaching and private study purposes. Any substantial or systematic reproduction, re-distribution, re-selling, loan or sub-licensing, systematic supply or distribution in any form to One Language examples anyone is expressly forbidden. The publisher does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the Prosthetics Essay, contents will be complete or accurate or up to date. The accuracy of any instructions, formulae and drug doses should be independently verified with primary sources.

The publisher shall not be liable for any loss, actions, claims, proceedings, demand or costs or damages whatsoever or howsoever caused arising directly or indirectly in connection with or arising out of the use of this material. Anne M. Gill, Department of Psychology, University of One Nation, One Language Essay Pittsburgh. Luke W. Hyde, Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh. Daniel S. Shaw, Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh. Thomas J. Prosthetics Essay? Dishion, Department of Special Education, University of Oregon.

Melvin N. Wilson, Department of Psychology, University of Virginia.

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St. Prosthetics? Bonaventure, Benedict XVI, and the New Evangelization. For Benedict XVI, evangelization is what takes place when revelation slips through history. The timing and intent of Pope Benedict XVIs call for a New Evangelization have as much to do with his theological and pastoral pedigree as they do with the state of affairs in which the Church lives. His early contributions to the topics of revelation, human history, and the relation between the Essay on Edward, twowhich brought the young Joseph Ratzinger both praise and charges of championing dangerous modernismtoday assist the Church in engaging modern ills with the Prosthetics, enduring truths of the wordsworth, Gospel. Of course, with a mind as expansive as Pope Benedicts, no one event, or even a series of them, can be said to be the development that defines him. Certainly, his upbringing in Catholic Bavaria, his forced participation in Prosthetics, World War II as a teenager, and his days among bomb-damaged seminary buildings studying St. Augustine, Henri de Lubac, Romano Guardini, Martin Buber, and so many others all influenced who the man is today. Still, not every encounter with the past has equal influence. Joachim of Fiore, St. Bonaventure, and salvation history. In the mid-1950s, Father Joseph Ratzinger began work on his second doctoral thesisa standard requirement of the German theological academy.

The study would introduce him to a dramatic moment in Church history, when rumors of the Where by Oates Essay, worlds end and the coming of a new age clashed with Christian orthodoxy. The players in this drama were Joachim of Fiore, an eccentric 12th-century Italian abbot; St. Bonaventure, a 13th-century leader of the Franciscan Order; and an overly idealistic group of Franciscans known as Spiritualists. Ratzinger concluded that Joachim, Bonaventure, and the events of the 13th century brought to the Church a new theory of scriptural exegesis which emphasizes the historical character of Scripture. This new theory was, notably, in contrast to the exegesis of the Fathers and the Scholastics which had been more clearly directed to the unchangeable and the enduring. In finding value in such a view, Ratzinger aligned himself with a school of Essay, theologians that sought fresh approaches to Essay Edward - Orientalism, orthodox Christian theology. Evidence for Prosthetics Essay this new view of surprised, revelation came from available notes from lectures by Bonaventure given in response to the followers of Joachim, the mystic whose writings had enthralled a troubled Europe. This attraction came, in large part, from how Joachim wove worldly activity into salvation history, and the particular way in which he structured this interplay with biblically-inspired numerical schemes. For instance, Joachims numerology broke ranks with a long-held Augustinian view of time that divided world history into seven ages.

For Augustine, these seven ages corresponded to the six days of Prosthetics Essay, creationwith the cosmic clock now ticking in the sixth age (which dawned on the first Easter) while moving towards the seventh age (which would bring the eternal Sabbath rest). Joachim saw history in a Trinitarian light, which encouraged his readers to envision an age of the Father, corresponding to the Old Testament; an age of the Son, corresponding with the surprised by joy wordsworth, New Testament; and a yet-to-come new age of the Holy Spirit, which would complete the process of revelation. For some of Prosthetics Essay, Joachims followers, this new age would be one of to Die Essay, spiritual awakeningof a new reality with no need of the Prosthetics Essay, Cross. Joachims death in 1202 and an ecclesial condemnation in 1215 didnt diminish his following. Quite the opposite occurred. Because Joachim seemed to on Said - Orientalism, imply that the year 1260 would herald the Second Coming, soldiers, kings, and Essay clerics of the age couldnt help but wonder if the world was indeed ending. Were Muslim invasions signs of the Apocalypse? Were the growing mendicant orders proof that God was preparing a people for Going, Have You Been Essay the eschaton? And if so, how should one respond toor work to Prosthetics, bring aboutthis coming of Are You You Been by Oates Essay, a new age? With this heightened expectancy, and for Essay reasons related to Trinitarian dogma, 13th-century theologians denounced Joachims writings. But for Where Are You Where You Been by Oates some Franciscans, Joachim had merely stated the obvious: History as it had been known since the time of the Apostles had come to an end with the Prosthetics, coming of Francis.

Joachimist elements within the Franciscans became known as the Spiritualists, and they found themselves at odds with just about everyone else in their order and the Church. In 1257three years before what many thought would be the Second Comingthe deeply divided order elected Bonaventure of Bagnoregio as their Minister General. In his new role, Bonaventure was given the task of steering the entirety of his flock to orthodoxywhich he accomplished. Indeed, as a pastor, he intervened with sensitivity to the range of expressions and Edward Said - Orientalism beliefs within the order. As a leader entrusted to protect the work of his beloved Francis, he deftly negotiated ecclesial suspicions and Spiritualist fervor by discarding what had been condemned and retaining those elements of Joachim that had value. As Ratzinger will demonstrate, Bonaventure found much in Joachim worth salvaging. For instance, we learn that Bonaventure employed a division of world-history that had similarities to Joachims. Ratzinger found this particularly important because in adopting some of what Joachim suggested, Bonaventure not only provided the Spiritualists a road home, he also shifted Christianitys theology of history from an Augustinian view, which fixed Christ at the end of the Prosthetics, ages to a new interpretation with Christ firmly in the center of the ages. Ratzinger tells us that, thanks to Joachim, the placement of Christ at the midpoint of history allows Bonaventure to emphasize the historical character of engaging Scripture because, while all ages relate to the center, all ages are different. This is by joy where Ratzinger received criticism for holding a dangerous modernism, which he writes about in his memoirs, Milestones . The exact charge by one of his advisorsand supported by Essay, other theologianswas this: In championing Bonaventures historical character of biblical exegesis, Ratzinger would open the door to the subjectivization of the concept of revelation. That is, the meaning of revelation would be reinterpreted by each generation to the point of irrelevance to the human person.

This is, of course, not what Ratzinger proposed, and after polite revisions and a heated battle among his advisors, Ratzingers doctoral thesis on Bonaventure was accepted. He was free to present his findings to the wider, ecclesial world. For the future pontiff, Bonaventures appreciation of Joachims dynamic theology of history seemed an obvious reality for the medieval Church, and himalayan drug it should to us. By the 12th century, it was clear that history had not been idly waiting for Prosthetics the Second Coming, nor was the One Nation, One Language Essay examples, Church. History was in Prosthetics, motion.

It was unpredictable, bloody, and brought to humanity new realitiessome of to Die Essay, them surprisingly wonderful, but many replete with loneliness and desolation and, thus, always in Prosthetics, need of Christ. At the Euthanasia:, end of his thesis, Ratzinger makes a statement that may very well define his pontificate. He notes that while for Bonaventure it is true that for now the breath of a new age is blowing, an age in which the desire for Prosthetics the glory of the other world is co shaped by a deep love of this earth on which we live, what remains vital for Prosthetics both Augustine and Bonaventure, irrespective of their differences, is the pastoral exhortation that Christians must attend to the needs of the here and nowthat the Church which hopes for Are You Going, Where Have by Oates Essay peace in the future is, nonetheless, obliged to love in the present. The unchanging Gospel and the New Evangelization. Thus, the central reality of the Church is the point of contact between revelation and our individual and communal moments of the present . Joachim and Prosthetics his followers, however, offered a tempting, and false, alternative pathone that still has its adherents. In the 1970s, Ratzinger wrote in his opus on eschatology that the hope aroused by Joachims teaching was first taken up by a segment of the himalayan co, Franciscan Order, but subsequently underwent increasing secularization until eventually it was turned into political utopia. The goal of the utopian vision remained embedded in Western consciousness, stimulating a quest for its own realization and preparing the way for that interest in concrete utopias which has been such a determinative element in political thought since the 19th century. This is not the only reference to Joachim one finds in Ratzingers later writings. His work on eschatology will return to Joachim, and many of his texts, talks, and homilies will raise the Prosthetics, specter of the paradise-is-in-our-reach worldview that Joachimist thought unleashed.

To counter the resulting Western hope for better living through chemistry, economics, and political revolutions, Pope Benedict, like Bonaventure, offers Christs unchanging Gospel of love. In Caritas in Veritate , his third and One Nation, One Language Essay most-recent encyclical to Essay, the Church, the Holy Father writes that [t]he Churchs social doctrine illuminates with an unchanging light the new problems that are constantly emerging. Indeed, when one examines Ratzingers post-Vatican II commentary on revelation or his pontifical homilies and encyclicals, one repeatedly finds him insisting that the unchanging light of Church doctrineswhich participate in and shine forth from the unchanging light of revelationhas the power to elevate whatever that the Church encounters. For Benedict XVI, then, evangelization is what takes place when revelation slips through history. Like a ships bow cutting the seas, revelation lifts and aerates.

It also divides, because revelation offers a choiceit offers an encounter with a Person, and, should we wish, we need not stay and get to Essay, know Him. In announcing the Prosthetics Essay, upcoming Year of Faithwhich is inherently linked with New Evangelizationthe Holy Father notes that [o]ne thing that will be of decisive importance in this Year is retracing the Euthanasia:, history of our faith, marked as it is by Prosthetics Essay, the unfathomable mystery of the interweaving of holiness and sin. By Joy Wordsworth? While the Essay, former highlights the great contribution that men and about service women have made to Prosthetics Essay, the growth and development of the community through the witness of their lives, the latter must provoke in each person a sincere and continuing work of conversion in order to experience the Euthanasia: to Die, mercy of the Father which is held out to everyone. In other words, the call to New Evangelization is Essay not a new reality for the Church. Rather, it reminds the Church of its command from Christ to offer eternal truths, to struggle and surprised give witness to these truths, and, thus, to Prosthetics Essay, sacramentally embrace the Going, Have by Oates Essay, ills of any age with divine doctrinesand to do so not with idyllic plans for a happy tomorrow, but with the Essay, Cross of sacrifice and by Essay Edward - Orientalism, loving in Prosthetics Essay, the present . Pope Benedict repeatedly reminds us that Christian love, when authentic, is sacramental because it offers transformative hope and meaning. Whether the Pontiff speaks of drug, eros and agape , global economics, or global ecologies, or he attempts to shift the anthropological understanding of Prosthetics Essay, marriage, life, and death, he offers what might be called sacramental social doctrines teachings that in themselves foster necessary shifts in what he has called our inner attitudes . In transforming these attitudes, people and cultures can live, love, work, buy, and sell with a greater concern for their neighbors, their labor force, and their ecosystems. In offering the Euthanasia: The Right Essay, Christian proclamation that God is love , men and Prosthetics Essay women can grow to understand that marriage is not a societal celebration of sentimental or biological urges. Rather, marriage exists for reasons that transcend the happy couple.

It is meant for the conception, nurturing, and protection of future generations, all in the particular, gender-inclusive bond of love between a woman and a man. One Language? Reacquainting the modern world with such truthsand doing so firmly and Prosthetics Essay with charityis one facet of New Evangelization. What New Evangelization is not, the Pontiff has expressed quite clearly, is the fruit of human planning. It is not the ushering in of a new, worldly Christian kingdomthe collapse of Christendom should have taught us this. And it is himalayan drug co certainly not a Joachimist fervor that denies the Cross, or ignores the will of the God who mounted it. Prosthetics Essay? Indeed, the New Evangelization is a pastoral response to a world that grew up Christian, learned about Edward Said - Orientalism history as progress from Joachimist worldviews, and now suffers angst without the life source of Joachims original foundationJesus Christ.

The New Evangelization is also a reminder to Prosthetics Essay, many of the faithful, especially in the West, that the Church of Euthanasia: The Right to Die, 2050 will, outwardly, look unlike the Church of 1950. In laying out his thoughts on New Evangelization in 2000, Cardinal Ratzinger speaks with Bonaventurian force when he teaches that [n]ew evangelization cannot mean: immediately attracting the Prosthetics, large masses that have distanced themselves from the Church by using new and more refined methods. Nothis is not what new evangelization promises. New evangelization means: never being satisfied with the community, fact that from the grain of mustard seed, the great tree of the Universal Church grew; never thinking that the fact that different birds may find place among its branches can sufficerather, it means to dare, once again and with the humility of the Prosthetics, small grain, to leave up to God the when and how it will grow (Mark 4:26-29). Georgetown: Sebelius isnt a commencement speaker, shes speaking at an event during commencement weekend

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