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Oscars So White? Or Oscars So Dumb? Discuss. Are these the whitest Oscar nominations ever? Or just the most recent Academy Award whiteout? For the second year in a row, the nominations failed to recognize any minority actors. Movies about black lives like Creed and Straight Outta Compton did receive recognition, but their nominations were for either white writers (Compton) or a white performer (Sylvester Stallone in Creed). The Lasting Essay? The black directors of each movie along with their nonwhite actors were shut out. This years nominations led Spike Lee and Jada Pinkett Smith to announce on Martin Luther Kings Birthday that they would not be attending the ceremony. On Monday, the Academys president, Cheryl Boone Isaacs, promised a review of recruitment efforts, saying, This is marketing, a difficult but important conversation, and The Lasting of the Little Essay, its time for big changes. Like many, The New York Times chief film critics, Manohla Dargis and A. O. Scott, and the critic at large Wesley Morris were not surprised by literature university, the nominations.

Here are excerpts from their conversation: A. O. SCOTT Last year, Vin Diesel boldly predicted that Furious 7 would win the Academy Award for best picture, unless Oscars dont want to be relevant, ever. It may be that the Effects Little, irrelevance of the Oscars is, as the saying goes, more of a feature than a bug. The Academy looks after what the literary scholar James English calls the economy of prestige while franchises like the processing, Furious movies look after the economy of Ice Age Essay actual money. Centre? Given the The Lasting Little Ice Age, global, multicultural nature of the modern movie audience, this means that more commercial movies are very often more diverse. What Its Really Like to Work in Hollywood (*If youre not a straight white man.)

The statistics are unequivocal: Women and minorities are vastly underrepresented in front of and behind the camera. Here, 27 industry players reveal the stories behind the numbers. The shocking or maybe not so shocking whiteness of this years field of nominees exposes not only the myopia of the nominating body but also the the makeover centre, deep structural biases of the industry that feeds it. The Oscars have, since the The Lasting Effects of the Little Ice Age Essay, century began, done a reasonably good job of recognizing black talent, belatedly making up for decades of neglect. 12 Years a Slave won best picture. Denzel Washington, Jamie Foxx, Halle Berry, Forest Whitaker and MoNique all collected statuettes for acting, as Geoffrey Fletcher (Precious) and John Ridley (12 Years a Slave) did for screenwriting. But somehow (and I hope we can shed some light on exactly how), these victories, in Essay on Legitmacy the larger context of Hollywood racial politics, can smack of tokenism rather than real change.

Spike Lees lifetime achievement award feels like belated and inadequate compensation for Effects of the Little a careers worth of on Legitmacy of Law slights. At the movies, we may be in the age of Chi-Raq and Straight Outta Compton, but the The Lasting, Academy is still setting the table for starbucks marketing Guess Whos Coming to Dinner. MANOHLA DARGIS I love that so many people are enraged at this years whiteout anyone who yells at the Academy is a friend of mine but I wish that this anger was being expressed 365 days a year and not when the nominations are announced. Ice Age? As Tony suggested, its worth repeating again and again (and again!): The primary reason the Oscars are so white this year and most years is that the movie industry is overwhelmingly white. Thats infuriating, but thats not shocking, and it sure isnt news. And if that bothers people, then they need to start complaining loudly and literature league, perhaps even begin voting with their dollars. By, say, supporting movies with minorities and women. Because the only way the industry will change is if people give them hell. WESLEY MORRIS This is all true. Ice Age Essay? Thats what was so hypnotizing about sociological The Los Angeles Times putting photos of the 25 acting and directing nominees on its amazing and necessarily harsh Friday cover: the incongruity.

Under the Effects Essay, indicting circumstances, some of the photos actually look like mug shots (especially Alejandro G. Essay Exercises? Inarritu and hes innocent!) I stared in fascination for a long time, and then I laughed. You know how you can repeat a word until it starts to warp into nonsense? Thats what happened to The Lasting Little Essay me looking at sociological the assembly of all of those photos: What am I even staring at The Lasting Effects Little anymore? #OscarSoDumb. I mean, half of me really doesnt care. Theres obviously a serious problem with regard to race, sexuality and shallow processing, gender in Hollywood.

But it doesnt begin or end with the The Lasting, 6,000 or so members of the Academy. The Oscars arent full-time jobs. To hear some voters talking about english literature tables this time of year, it sounds like tax season or exam time. One problem is what the wider industry isnt making. Were mad at the Academy, but after Idris Elba playing that African warlord in Beasts of No Nation, Samuel L. The Lasting Effects Little Ice Age Essay? Jackson in The Hateful Eight, Creed, and assorted aspects of starbucks Straight Outta Compton, which, for what its worth, I liked for about the first 40 minutes, what black people or black films did the Academy really miss? In the Effects of the Little Essay, case of both Creed and Compton, I just dont think the campaigns were there for these movies. Just as I dont think they were there for Selma the previous year. Movie And Novel Depictions Of Zora Neale Hurston´s Their Watching? And as nauseating as that sort of thing can be, thats how these things work: positioning, narratives, spinning, hype, overexposure, wanton whoring.

So some of this is a matter of there not being enough movies in the pool. Some of it is the studios misunderstanding the worth of the movies they have. It strains credibility that Creed wouldnt be a film the Academy would go for. The Lasting Essay? But I also dont think any voter wants to be told that he or she has to literature university league tables vote for a predominantly black film or: racism! Manohla, wouldnt you say thats what happened in Ice Age Essay the last year and the year before? The audiences paid to see women, films with mostly black actors and racially diverse casts, and paid often: The Force Awakens, Inside Out, Furious 7, Pitch Perfect 2, Spy, Mad Max: Fury Road, Trainwreck, Straight Outta Compton, Cinderella, Creed, Get Hard, Sisters, that second Divergent movie and english literature, the last Hunger Games. Theres demonstrable proof that North America wants to see itself more of The Lasting Effects Ice Age itself in of Law its entertainment.

And the Effects of the Little, Academy which is working to add more women, young people and color to its ranks should want to see more of its ideal self at the Oscars. DARGIS Youre right, Wesley, moviegoers are voting with their dollars, as it were. Neale Their Were Watching God? But the of the Little, movies that you listed, from The Force Awakens to processing Fury Road, are the kind of big-studio releases that have been historically dismissed as popcorn fare. These days critics, perhaps especially those weaned on postmodern theory, are less beholden to of the Essay certain ideas about the divide between high art and mass art, but clearly a lot of folks in the Academy havent gotten that message. And the major studios which I honestly dont think care about the Oscars any more than we do tend to mimic this divide, as we know. Shallow Processing? They roll out the blockbusters in the summer and their prestige items in the fall. Effects Of The Little Ice Age? Little gold statues and glowing reviews are nice, sure, but box-office domination is the on Legitmacy, name of the industry game. Also, I think its important to Essay say that more and more people are calling the industry out, as when people went after the makers of the forthcoming Gods of Egypt for casting a bunch of white surfer-dude types as ancient Egyptians.

But this kind of Essay on Legitmacy protest tends to be drowned out by the culture of consensus that has turned too many mainstream media types into industry lap dogs. Wesley, you mentioned spinning and whoring, so lets go there: Some of the other people who need to criticize the industry, seriously and rigorously, are those in The Lasting of the Little the entertainment media. Marketing? A lot of what now passes as entertainment news is generated by those who have surrendered any pretense of disinterestedness and autonomy for access; it is apparently tough to criticize the hand thats feeding you 15 minutes with Leo. SCOTT Yes yes yes. The Lasting Of The Ice Age Essay? Its always possible to pass the buck upward and outward. The Academys blunder reflects the structural biases of the movie industry, which in turn reflects deeply embedded racism in the society at large. And no institution is immune.

For the news media to call out Hollywoods lack of Essay diversity is The Lasting Effects Little Essay, a bit like the Movie and Novel Depictions Neale Hurston´s Eyes Were Watching, pot calling the of the Little Ice Age, kettle . um, yeah, never mind. English League? But you know what I mean, right? Sorry if I offended anyone! But I dont want to let the Academy and its members off the hook. Or rather, I want to broaden the indictment beyond the Effects Ice Age Essay, specific complaints that they ignored Mr.

Elba, Creed, Straight Outta Compton and Will Smiths excellent Nigerian accent in Concussion. Its not as if the 6,000 Academy members exercised the singular intention to ignore those contenders. The nominations are a numbers game, and in each case you can offer a nonracial explanation for the oversight. Other movies and actors just had a few more votes. Beasts of No Nation came from Netflix, which is the makeover, a scary interloper in of the Little Essay the hidebound, turf-protective world of the studios. Starbucks? The violence may have put off some voters. Creed did not get much of a campaign from The Lasting of the Little Ice Age, Warner Bros., which may have figured that the seventh movie in shallow a 40-year-old franchise with a mixed track record wasnt exactly Oscar bait. Concussion is terrible. Straight Outta Compton I think its when you get to that one that race sneaks back into the picture. The Academy, in its function as the culture industrys upholder of the ideology of Quality, has for a long time been open to African-American talent and even eager to The Lasting Effects of the promote and reward it. But at the same time, it has been consistently blind, indifferent and the makeover, hostile to African-American culture, or at least to certain popular manifestations of blackness at the moment of their greatest impact elsewhere. Effects Essay? A Ray Charles biopic in 2005 is unlikely to cause any Academy member the slightest discomfort. An N.W.A biopic in 2015 is shallow processing, another story. Million Dollar Baby and Rocky are both excellent boxing pictures and Effects of the Essay, worthy best picture winners that breathed fresh life into perhaps the most cliche-ridden genre in all of cinema. Creed belongs in their company, but I think some of its particular virtues flew under the Academys radar, much as the the makeover centre, glories of Beyond the Lights (2014) did. In addition to being a fight movie, Creed is The Lasting Effects Ice Age Essay, a quiet, sweet love story about two people who happen to be young, gifted and black. Essay On Legitmacy Of Law Exercises? Its also suffused with hip-hop and Philadelphia street culture, but in a way that feels entirely organic.

Its not a film that is pointedly about race or class or any particular social problem. Its not sending a message or teaching a lesson. Its about the lives, feelings and The Lasting Effects Little Ice Age Essay, aspirations of its characters. Which, if those characters are not white, is apparently not enough. American cinema more than television or pop music or literature still prefers to treat black people as symbols, problems and members of a niche audience.

MORRIS Finger snaps, finger snaps, finger snaps. So this brings us to the racism-of-math vs. math-of-taste portion of our conversation. Processing? For something like Straight Outta Compton to Effects Ice Age have been close to a best picture spot, enough voters would have had to think that a movie about the outfit that did [expletive] tha Police was the best one they saw last year. No matter how many Jennifer Hudsons and Jennifer Lawrences join the Academy, the numbers arent in Essay on Legitmacy of Law the favor of a movie like that, not the of the Little Essay, way the voting works now, not with the field that can now include as many as 10 movies. Problems? It might have ranked somewhere on The Lasting Effects of the Ice Age Essay 1,000 ballots, just obviously not at the very top of the 300 or so necessary to make it rain eight balls for Ice Cube, Dr. Dre and the gang.

The year 2010 was the first that the field went back to including more than five best-picture nominees, and that was a reaction to shallow the omission of The Dark Knight from the best-picture list in 2009. That was perceived at the time to be a cataclysm. And what happened in 2010 was a pretty astounding range of movies (of varying excellence, but still!): Avatar, The Blind Side, District 9, An Education, The Hurt Locker, Inglourious Basterds, Precious, A Serious Man, Up, Up in the Air, all up for best picture. Now I cant prove this, but I think that might be the most honest reflection of the Academys taste and priorities that also includes a vision of a possible industry future: movies about women; movies directed by women (about women, about men!); movies about racism; movies about genocide (in 3-D!); one cartoon about an of the Little Essay elderly widower in a hot-air balloon; another (in live action) about exterminating the Third Reich; a sci-fi allegory about apartheid; a movie about black people that wasnt actually about racism; the Coens! There were demands but not for Essay all of that. Important stuff and Effects of the Little Ice Age Essay, garbage. What a bounty. And to think it came about because the world was mad that the Oscars dissed a comic-book movie. The question is: Could the range happen again now that the system seems thoroughly rigged for campaigns, and this time be even more diverse? DARGIS Oh, I never thought Straight Outta Compton had a real shot for a best picture nod, even with the Academys recent and laudable attempts to starbucks diversify its membership. Effects Of The Little Essay? Theres just too much cussing, for starters, and and Novel Depictions of Zora Hurston´s Were God, the average age of the 94 percent white membership is 62 (as of 2012).

And Im guessing that when these dudes (77 percent) were teenagers, they were listening to the Beach Boys (nothing wrong with that!), whereas a new Academy member like Ava DuVernay knew exactly who Dr. Dre and N.W.A were when she was growing up around Compton. My point being that the lived, embodied experiences of the membership greatly matter and that sometimes even the The Lasting Effects Ice Age Essay, most well-intentioned white people just dont see the the makeover centre, racism and sexism in The Lasting Effects of the Ice Age Essay front of them. So, Im not sure that the bounty of 2010 is an english university league honest reflection, as you put it Wesley, of the Academys taste and priorities. A lot of variables go into every nomination round, including box-office and auteur branding, which may largely explain why James Camerons Avatar made the of the Little, cut, though pleasure shouldnt be discounted. My guess is that the inclusion of titles like District 9, a genre movie about race, was primarily a function of the membership scrambling to answer the criticism over The Dark Knight. Now, though, its back to a certain old-fashioned idea of Quality, hence all those pale, pretty faces Eddie Redmayne, seriously? and a great animated movie like Inside Out downgraded to the best animated feature rather than being allowed to vie as best picture. As to your question, Wesley, could the range of 2010 be replicated could it be improved on? Yes and yes again.

But much depends on the makeover centre who gets a meeting and who doesnt; what gets the Effects of the Little Essay, greenlight and what doesnt; whats in the pipeline, and what is still struggling to be made for no reason other than the fact that the person struggling is shallow processing, black or Latino or Asian or a woman of any color and the person who could have said yes instead said no. A lot of this is of the, about whos cutting the checks, running the companies, calling the shots. Mostly, as we know, those people are white men, and while I have no complaint against Depictions of Zora Their Eyes Were Watching them as a class of Effects of the Little Ice Age Essay people (some of starbucks marketing my best friends are white guys), none of this will change until they actively help bring about the necessary change or until the countrys demographics force them out. Because while well probably be writing this same story next year, change is coming. SCOTT I think we have come just about full circle, to Mr. Diesels irrefutable observation about the Oscars lack of Effects Ice Age relevance. Every once in a while whether out of honesty, coincidence or a bizarre outbreak of good taste those pasty old members make a choice that reflects both the state of the art and the reality of the culture. Mostly, though, they manage to stage an on Legitmacy of Law Exercises elaborate pseudo-event and to bamboozle millions of people into paying attention. The next morning, we all complain about how boring it was. The morning after that we forget it all until the next year, when the show finds new ways to of the Ice Age Essay disappoint us. In a way, the Essay on Legitmacy, scandal of this years nominees confirms what too few of us in our profession are willing to admit: that the The Lasting Effects Little Essay, Oscars dont matter except insofar as they provide answers to future trivia questions.

They are a distraction from the of Law Exercises, real pleasures and The Lasting Ice Age Essay, challenges of moviegoing and -making. This year, at least, the contradictions will be heightened. Spike Lee will get his lifetime achievement award. Chris Rock will be the host. Many of the presenters will be minorities.

Integrally close to none of the winners will be. There will be awkward remarks and uncomfortable smiles. The intensity of the discomfort might be a hopeful sign. MORRIS I love me some intense discomfort and hate the solemn hijacking of a sacredly frivolous ritual. Im with Manohla that change is coming. We can already quantify that, even when all the data says that change is slooooooow. Whether 2010 was an oasis, a mirage or a blip thats explicable from any number of industry angles, it felt like a vision. Marketing? Also: it was a fun class of movies that sold a fun, complex story about the people who make our movies. And one thing to Essay ask about those people, particularly the old, white men of the Academy is what kind of nonwhite people they nominate: how many presidents, doctors and citizens versus butlers, maids, and slaves? Not many, sad to say. Im hopeful but sober.

And what keeps me a little of both are conversations like the one Matt Damon had with the producer Effie Brown on Project Greenlight, in starbucks which a white man explained so-called diversity to a black woman. The exchange has been much dissected, and Ice Age, I dont think there are any more swords for him to fall on. The Makeover? The entire episode is The Lasting Little Essay, fascinating, both for what was said among the shows participants and for the window into how our movies do and dont get made. Setting aside the english literature, dreary result, the scandal seemed to Effects Little plant a seed for progress. Mr.

Damon and starbucks, Ms. The Lasting Of The Little? Brown have sincerely explained and defended their respective positions. Nonetheless, Ms. Brown is sociological problems, not a nominee this year (and never has been), and Mr. Damon is for The Lasting playing a white man stuck on Mars. A version of this article appears in starbucks print on January 24, 2016, on Page AR1 of the Effects Little Essay, New York edition with the headline: Oscars So White? Or So Dumb? Discuss. University League Tables? Order Reprints | Today's Paper | Subscribe. Were interested in your feedback on this page.

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Question : Explain an argument from this essay that explains the ethical system they are using, and The Lasting Effects Little Ice Age use the . Explain an argument from this essay that explains the ethical system they are using, and use the same ethical theory to come up with a different conclusion. Support your claims. moral status (or moral considerability)The prop- erty of being a suitable candidate for direct moral concern or respect. anthropocentrismThe notion that only humans have moral status. zoocentrismThe notion that both human and nonhuman animals have moral status. biocentrismThe view that all living entities have moral status, whether sentient or not. species egalitarianOne who believes that all liv- ing things have equal moral status.

species nonegalitarianOne who believes that some living things have greater moral status than others. ecological individualistOne who believes that the fundamental unit of moral consideration in environmental ethics is the individual. ecological holistOne who believes that the fun- damental unit of moral consideration in environ- mental ethics is the biosphere and its ecosystems. I start with the modest proposition that, in dealing with pollution, or indeed with any problem, it is help- ful to Essay on Legitmacy Exercises know what one is attempting to accomplish. Agreement on how and Little Ice Age whether to pursue a particular objective, such as pollution control, is not possible unless some more general objective has been identi- fied and stated with reasonable precision. Essay Of Law? We talk loosely of having clean air and clean water, of pre- serving our wilderness areas, and Effects Little Ice Age so forth. But none of these is english literature league a sufficiently general objective: each is more accurately viewed as a means rather than as an end.

With regard to clean air, for example, one may ask, how clean? and what does clean mean? It is The Lasting of the Essay even reasonable to Movie and Novel of Zora Neale Hurston´s Eyes Watching God ask, why have clean air? Each of The Lasting of the Little Ice Age Essay these questions is an of Law, implicit demand that a more general community goal be stateda goal sufficiently general in its scope and enjoying sufficiently general assent among the community of actors that such why questions no longer seem admissible with respect to that goal. If, for example, one states as a goal the Effects of the Little Ice Age, proposi- tion that every person should be free to do whatever he wishes in centre, contexts where his actions do not inter- fere with the interests of other human beings, the speaker is unlikely to be met with a response of why. The goal may be criticized as uncertain in its implications or difficult to implement, but it is so basic a tenet of our civilizationit reflects a cultural value so broadly shared, at least in The Lasting Effects of the Little Ice Age, the abstractthat the question why is sociological seen as impertinent or impon- derable or both. I do not mean to Effects Ice Age suggest that everyone would agree with the shallow, spheres of freedom objective just stated. William F. Baxter, A Good Environment: Just One of the Set of Human Objectives, in People or Penguins: The Case for Optimal Pollution (New York: Columbia University Press, 1974), 113. Copyright 1974 Columbia University Press. Reprinted with permission of the publisher. Still less do I mean to suggest that a society could subscribe to four or five such general objectives that would be adequate in their coverage to serve as testing criteria by which all other disagreements might be measured. One difficulty in the attempt to Effects of the Essay construct such a list is that each new goal added will conflict, in certain applications, with each prior goal listed; and thus each goal serves as a limited qualifi- cation on prior goals. Without any expectation of obtaining unani- mous consent to them, let me set forth four goals that I generally use as ultimate testing criteria in attempt- ing to shallow frame solutions to problems of human organi- zation. My position regarding pollution stems from these four criteria. If the criteria appeal to you and any part of what appears hereafter does not, our dis- agreement will have a helpful focus: which of us is correct, analytically, in The Lasting Effects Essay, supposing that his position on pollution would better serve these general goals.

If the criteria do not seem acceptable to you, then it is to be expected that our more particular judgments will differ, and the task will then be yours to university league identify the basic set of criteria upon which your particular judgments rest. My criteria are as follows: 1. Effects Of The Little? The spheres of freedom criterion stated above. 2. Waste is a bad thing. The dominant feature of human existence is sociological scarcityour available re- sources, our aggregate labors, and our skill in The Lasting Effects Essay, employing both have always been, and will con- tinue for some time to Essay on Legitmacy of Law be, inadequate to yield to every man all the tangible and intangible satisfac- tions he would like to Effects Little Essay have. Hence, none of starbucks marketing those resources, or labors, or skills, should be wasted that is, employed so as to yield less than they might yield in human satisfactions. 3.Every human being should be regarded as an Effects Little, end rather than as a means to be used for the betterment of another. Each should be afforded dignity and regarded as having an absolute claim to an evenhanded application of such rules as the community may adopt for its governance. 4. Both the incentive and the opportunity to improve his share of satisfactions should be pre- served to of Law Exercises every individual. Preservation of incen- tive is dictated by the no-waste criterion and enjoins against the continuous, totally egalitarian redistribution of Little Ice Age Essay satisfactions, or wealth; but sub- ject to that constraint, everyone should receive, by continuous redistribution if necessary, some minimal share of aggregate wealth so as to avoid a level of privation from which the opportunity to english literature university league tables improve his situation becomes illusory.

The relationship of these highly general goals to the more specific environmental issues at hand may not be readily apparent, and I am not yet ready to demonstrate their pervasive implications. The Lasting Effects Of The Little Ice Age? But let me give one indication of their implications. Recently scientists have informed us that use of DDT in food production is causing damage to the penguin popula- tion. Starbucks? For the present purposes let us accept that asser- tion as an The Lasting Ice Age Essay, indisputable scientific fact. The scientific fact is often asserted as if the correct implication that we must stop agricultural use of DDTfollowed from the mere statement of the fact of penguin dam- age. But plainly it does not follow if my criteria are employed. My criteria are oriented to people, not penguins. Damage to penguins, or sugar pines, or geological marvels is, without more, simply irrelevant. One must go further, by sociological problems, my criteria, and The Lasting Little say: Penguins are important because people enjoy seeing them walk about rocks; and furthermore, the well-being of peo- ple would be less impaired by halting use of DDT than by on Legitmacy, giving up penguins.

In short, my observa- tions about Essay environmental problems will be people- oriented, as are my criteria. I have no interest in preserving penguins for their own sake. It may be said by way of objection to this posi- tion, that it is very selfish of people to act as if each person represented one unit of importance and noth- ing else was of any importance. It is undeniably. selfish. Nevertheless I think it is the only tenable starting place for analysis for several reasons. Starbucks Marketing? First, no other position corresponds to the way most people really think and acti.e., corresponds to reality. Second, this attitude does not portend any mas- sive destruction of nonhuman flora and Effects Little Essay fauna, for people depend on them in many obvious ways, and they will be preserved because and to the degree that humans do depend on them. Third, what is good for humans is, in many respects, good for Essay on Legitmacy, penguins and pine treesclean air for example. So that humans are, in The Lasting Little Essay, these respects, surrogates for plant and animal life.

Fourth, I do not know how we could administer any other system. Our decisions are either private or collective. And Novel Of Zora Neale? Insofar as Mr. Jones is free to act privately, he may give such preferences as he wishes to other forms of life: he may feed birds in winter and Ice Age do with less himself, and he may even decline to resist an shallow processing, advanc- ing polar bear on the ground that the bears appetite is more important than those portions of himself that the bear may choose to eat. In short my basic premise does not rule out private altruism to competing life-forms. It does rule out, however, Mr.

Jones inclination to feed Mr. Smith to the bear, however hungry the bear, how- ever despicable Mr. Of The? Smith. Insofar as we act collectively on Essay on Legitmacy of Law the other hand, only humans can be afforded an opportunity to participate in the collective decisions. Penguins cannot vote now and are unlikely subjects for the franchise pine trees more unlikely still. Again each individual is The Lasting Effects Ice Age free to cast his vote so as to benefit sugar pines if that is his inclination.

But many of the more extreme asser- tions that one hears from some conservationists amount to tacit assertions that they are specially appointed representatives of Essay sugar pines, and hence that their preferences should be weighted more heavily than the The Lasting Effects, preferences of other humans who do not enjoy equal rapport with nature. The simplistic asser- tion that agricultural use of DDT must stop at once because it is harmful to marketing penguins is of that type. Fifth, if polar bears or pine trees or penguins, like men, are to be regarded as ends rather than means, if they are to Effects of the count in our calculus of social organiza- tion, someone must tell me how much each one ounts, and someone must tell me how these life- forms are to be permitted to Depictions Eyes Watching express their preferences, for I do not know either answer. The Lasting Effects Little? If the university, answer is that certain people are to hold their proxies, then I want to know how those proxy-holders are to The Lasting Effects of the Essay be selected: self-appointment does not seem workable to Movie Hurston´s me. Sixth, and by way of summary of of the Little Ice Age all the foregoing, let me point out that the english tables, set of environmental issues under discussionalthough they raise very complex technical questions of how to achieve any objective ultimately raise a normative question: what ought we to do. Questions of ought are unique to the human mind and worldthey are meaningless as applied to a nonhuman situation. I reject the proposition that we ought to respect the balance of nature or to preserve the environment unless the reason for doing so, express or implied, is the benefit of man. I reject the idea that there is a right or morally correct state of The Lasting Effects Essay nature to which we should return.

The word nature has no normative connotation. Was it right or wrong for sociological, the earths crust to heave in The Lasting Little, contortion and create mountains and seas? Was it right for the first amphibian to literature university league crawl up out of the primordial ooze. Was it wrong for plants to reproduce themselves and alter the Effects of the, atmospheric com- position in favor of oxygen? For animals to alter the shallow, atmosphere in favor of carbon dioxide both by breathing oxygen and of the Ice Age Essay eating plants? No answers can be given to marketing these questions because they are mean- ingless questions. All this may seem obvious to the point of being tedious, but much of the present controversy over environment and pollution rests on The Lasting Effects of the Little Ice Age tacit normative assumptions about just such nonnormative phenom- ena that it is wrong to impair penguins with DDT, but not to slaughter cattle for prime rib roasts. That it is wrong to kill stands of sugar pines with industrial fumes, but not to cut sugar pines and build housing for the poor.

Every man is entitled to his own preferred definition of Walden Pond, but there is no definition that has any moral superiority over another, except by reference to the selfish needs of the human race. From the fact that there is no normative defini- tion of the natural state, it follows that there is no normative definition of clean air or pure water hence no definition of polluted airor of pollution except by reference to the needs of man. The right composition of the university tables, atmosphere is one which has some dust in Ice Age Essay, it and some lead in shallow processing, it and some hydro- gen sulfide in itjust those amounts that attend a sensibly organized society thoughtfully and knowl- edgeably pursuing the greatest possible satisfaction for its human members. The first and most fundamental step toward solu- tion of The Lasting Little Ice Age our environmental problems is a clear recog- nition that our objective is not pure air or water but rather some optimal state of on Legitmacy of Law pollution. That step immediately suggests the question: How do we define and attain the level of pollution that will yield the maximum possible amount of human satisfaction? Low levels of The Lasting Effects Essay pollution contribute to human sat- isfaction but so do food and shelter and education and music. To attain ever lower levels of pollution, we must pay the cost of having less of of Zora Neale Hurston´s Their Eyes Were Watching God these other things. I contrast that view of the cost of pollution control with the more popular statement that pollu- tion control will cost very large numbers of The Lasting of the dollars. Literature University Tables? The popular statement is true in some senses, false in others; sorting out the true and false senses is of some importance.

The first step in that sorting process is to achieve a clear understanding of the difference between dollars and resources. The Lasting Effects Of The Little Essay? Resources are the wealth of our nation; dollars are merely claim checks upon those resources. Resources are of vital importance; dollars are comparatively trivial. Four categories of resources are sufficient for our purposes: At any given time a nation, or a planet if you prefer, has a stock of labor, of technological skill, of capital goods, and of natural resources (such as mineral deposits, timber, water, land, etc.). These resources can be used in various combinations to yield goods and services of all kindsin some limited quantity.

The quantity will be larger if they are com- bined efficiently, smaller if combined inefficiently. Sociological? But in either event the resource stock is limited, the Effects Little Ice Age Essay, goods and services that they can be made to on Legitmacy yield are limited; even the most efficient use of The Lasting Effects Little them will yield less than our population, in the aggregate, would like to have. If one considers building a new dam, it is appro- priate to say that it will be costly in the sense that it will require x hours of labor, y tons of steel and con- crete, and z amount of capital goods. If these resources are devoted to literature league the dam, then they cannot be used to build hospitals, fishing rods, schools, or electric can openers. That is the meaningful sense in The Lasting Effects of the Little Ice Age Essay, which the dam is sociological costly. Quite apart from the very important question of how wisely we can combine our resources to produce goods and services, is the The Lasting Effects Little Ice Age Essay, very different question of how they get distributedwho gets how many goods? Dollars constitute the claim checks which are distributed among people and which control their share of national output. Dollars are nearly valueless pieces of paper except to the extent that they do rep- resent claim checks to some fraction of the output of processing goods and services. The Lasting Of The Essay? Viewed as claim checks, all the dollars outstanding during any period of sociological time are worth, in The Lasting Effects Little Ice Age, the aggregate, the goods and services that are available to be claimed with them during that periodneither more nor less. It is far easier to increase the english league, supply of The Lasting of the Little dollars than to increase the production of goods and services printing dollars is literature university league easy.

But printing more dollars doesnt help because each dollar then simply becomes a claim to fewer goods, i.e., becomes worth less. The point is this: many people fall into error upon hearing the statement that the The Lasting Effects of the Essay, decision to build a dam, or to clean up a river, will cost $X million. Sociological Problems? It is The Lasting Effects of the regrettably easy to say: Its only money. This is Essay of Law Exercises a wealthy country, and we have lots of money. But you cannot build a dam or clean a river with $X millionunless you also have a match, you cant even make a fire. One builds a dam or cleans a river by diverting labor and steel and trucks and factories from making one kind of goods to Effects Little Ice Age making another. The cost in the makeover centre, dollars is merely a shorthand way of describing the extent of the diversion necessary. If we build a dam for $X million, then we must recognize that we will have $X million less housing and food and medical care and electric can openers as a result. Similarly, the costs of of the Ice Age Essay controlling pollution are best expressed in terms of the other goods we will have to give up to do the job. This is not to say the job should not be done.

Badly as we need more hous- ing, more medical care, and more can openers, and more symphony orchestras, we could do with some- what less of them, in my judgment at least, in exchange for somewhat cleaner air and rivers. But that is the nature of the trade-off, and analysis of the problem is advanced if that unpleasant reality is kept in mind. Once the trade-off relationship is clearly perceived, it is possible to starbucks state in a very general way what the optimal level of pollution is. Little Ice Age? I would state it as follows: People enjoy watching penguins. They enjoy rela- tively clean air and smog-free vistas. Their health is sociological problems improved by relatively clean water and air. Each of Effects of the Ice Age these benefits is Essay Exercises a type of Effects Essay good or service. As a society we would be well advised to give up one washing machine if the resources that would have gone into that washing machine can yield greater human satis- faction when diverted into pollution control. We should give up one hospital if the resources thereby freed would yield more human satisfaction when devoted to elimination of the makeover centre noise in our cities. And so on, trade-off by trade-off, we should divert our productive capacities from the production of existing goods and Effects of the Essay services to the production of a cleaner, quieter, more pastoral nation up toand no further thanthe point at which we value more highly the next washing machine or hospital that we would have to do without than we value the next unit of environmental improve- ment that the diverted resources would create.

Now this proposition seems to me unassailable but so general and abstract as to be unhelpfulat least unadministerable in the form stated. English League? It assumes we can measure in some way the incremental units of human satisfaction yielded by very different types of goods. The proposition must remain a pious abstrac- tion until I can explain how this measurement process can occur. In subsequent chapters I will attempt to The Lasting Effects Little Ice Age show that we can do thisin some contexts with great precision and in other contexts only by rough approximation. But I insist that the proposition stated describes the starbucks, result for which we should be strivingand again, that it is always useful to know what your target is Effects Little Ice Age even if your weapons are too crude to score a bulls eye.

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American Revolutionary War , British Empire , Colonialism 736 Words | 3 Pages. Literature University League. 990 DBQ Jacksons followers were common men who believed in the rights for the lower and working classes, strict interpretation of the Effects of the Ice Age . constitution,and democracy instead of a republic. English Literature University Tables. Many of his followers were inspired when Jackson rose from little education and social opportunity and took President, and they knew he would protect their rights and fight for the Common man , instead of the elite. Supporters and followers of Andrew Jackson believed they were the guardians of the Constitution. Democracy , Second Bank of the United States , Social class 789 Words | 3 Pages. 2002 AP DBQ In the years following the War of 1812, the Era of Good Feelings evolved between the years 1815 and The Lasting Effects of the Little Essay, 1825. In the starbucks first half of . this period, there was a strong sense of nationalism throughout the United States. However, political changes and economic differences between the states warped this nationalism into the sectionalism that divided the The Lasting of the Little Ice Age Essay country into north, south and west regions. Celebrations of unity within the Movie and Novel Depictions of Zora Neale Eyes Were United States soon turned into disagreements concerning representation. Of The Little. American Civil War , Louisiana , Maryland 1460 Words | 4 Pages. 9/30/14 A.P.

U.S. History . The Makeover. 240-01 1993 DBQ In the 17th century, all of the 13 colonies in America were under British rule and shared the Essay same religion, culture, language, and origin. By 1700, different colonial regions were developing different societies. Problems. Motivational, economical, and political. Connecticut , Massachusetts , Middle Colonies 923 Words | 3 Pages. ?James Dougherty APUSH Period 1 Mr. Young p2406From 1781 to 1789 the p2407Articles of Confederation provided the United States with an . effective government. Using the documents and The Lasting of the Little Ice Age Essay, your knowledge of the sociological period, evaluate this statement.

From 1781 up until 1789 the The Lasting Ice Age Essay United States government was based off of the english literature league principles of the Articles of Confederation which were created after the Revolutionary War. The articles of confederation created a republic which limited its leaders from much of. Articles of Confederation , Federal government of the United States , President of the United States 1147 Words | 4 Pages. ?Krista Angeliadis 12/17/14 APUSH Period 8 The era from 1860 to 1877 was a time of . reconstruction and revolution in America. Many constitutional developments aided the reform movement, such as the ratification of the 13th, 14th, and Effects of the Little Essay, 15th Amendments, which granted African Americans voting and civil rights. Though these changes seemed like a step in shallow processing, the right direction, social values such as white supremacy didnt allow things to go as planned. Essay. Despite. Shallow. African American , Black people , Jim Crow laws 1031 Words | 4 Pages. Chapter 10 DBQ The ratification of the constitution in 1788 did not end the debate over Effects Little Ice Age the nature and of Law Exercises, functions of the . government.

Majors concerns arose from the ratification mainly involving too much federal power and not enough rights for Essay African Americans. Though the constitution had many critics, I believe that constitution was fundamentally sound but just in need of minor adjustments. In the constitution slaves were given freedom, they just needed citizenship rights. Another. Federal government of the United States , President of the United States , Thomas Jefferson 871 Words | 3 Pages. answer be sure to address the political, social, and economic effects of the Revolution in the period from 1775 to shallow processing 1800. Notes from Effects of the Mr. Williams: This . essay was g iven to 2 nd period APUSH on their first in of Zora Neale Eyes God, - class essay. Effects Of The. Included were 10 documents (if interested in seeing them, please come into class). The DBQ writer needed to take ideas and topics from the documents, and processing, ADD significant outside fact and analysis. Notice that this writer does a complete job.

He/she deals with the entire question. American Revolution , American Revolutionary War , Nationalism 259 Words | 2 Pages. Albert Moncada Jr. Ms. Oberman AP U.S. History, Period 6 2 February 2012 APUSH DBQ Reform movements in the United States . from of the Little Ice Age 1825-1850 greatly benefited to expand democratic ideals that shape our nation today, but they also limited the the makeover centre expansion with some reforms. Reform movements took place in the North to fight off the forced labor and cruelty of slavery, and throughout the states, religious revivals and women rights movements arose. Effects Little Ice Age Essay. These reform movements expanded the democratic ideals by.

Democracy , Frederick Douglass , Human rights 729 Words | 2 Pages. DBQ Essay Chesapeake Colonies vs. Shallow Processing. New England Colonies The English had no desire to colonize the new world prior to defeating the Spanish . Armada. However, once they defeated the Spanish in 1588, thus ending Spanish colonization, the English became the rulers of the The Lasting Little Ice Age Atlantic and a newly found patriotism flourished in of Zora Neale Hurston´s Their Eyes God, England. The English had tried desperately to colonize the new world, failing two times before succeeding in Jamestown, Virginia, one of the Chesapeake Bay colonies. The Lasting Effects Little Essay. The northern most. British America , Chesapeake Bay , Colonialism 856 Words | 3 Pages. Sociological Problems. DBQ The American Revolution changed the Effects of the Ice Age Essay American society between 1775-1800. The areas in the American society that were changed were . economical, political, and social. ways. The new country had to set up their own government and deal with the problems that came along with it since it was inexperienced. That brought problems between the society and political side.

Native Americans and women had their own concerns and starbucks, opinions. Therefore, the American Revolution changed the The Lasting Ice Age Essay American Society. . American Revolution , Articles of Confederation , John Adams 386 Words | 2 Pages. Adams, Jefferson, Madison, and Monroe Newman Schmalbach: Chapters 5 (pg 83) -8 QUIZ DATES (subject to change) Chapter 6 (and part of 5): Tuesday, . October 15 EXAM DATES Chapter 7: Tuesday, October 22 Chapter 8/9: Wednesday, October 30 Unit 2 DBQ : Monday October 28-Tuesday, October 29 Unit 2.1 IDs: Friday, October 25 Unit 2.2 IDs: Monday, November 4 Unit 2 Multiple Choice: Wednesday, November 6 Unit 2 Essay: Thursday, November 7 1. Which of the social changes brought about by the Revolution. American Revolution , Articles of english literature university league tables Confederation , Native Americans in The Lasting Effects of the Ice Age Essay, the United States 558 Words | 2 Pages. I have been asked to speak on the question how to make the best of life, but may as well confess at literature, once that I know nothing about it. I cannot think that I . The Lasting Effects Little. have made the best of my own life, nor is it likely that I shall make much better of what may or may not remain to me.

I do not even know how to make the best of the twenty minutes that your committee has placed at my disposal, and starbucks, as for life as a whole, who ever yet made the best of of the Little Essay such a colossal opportunity by conscious effort and deliberation. Of Law. Afterlife , Consciousness , Death 2360 Words | 6 Pages. The colonies in New England were settled by a group of separatists called the Puritans, which were a tightly knitted community based on strong faith. . This community of New England Puritans influenced religious liberties, education, and The Lasting Effects of the Little, obedience in the colonies from the centre 1630's-1660's by relating them to their religious morals and beliefs. ` As the Puritans began forming their governments and rules, much of New England was just beginning to be settled. Although in document E the Puritans. Christianity , Freedom of religion , God 869 Words | 3 Pages. ? DBQ In the Little time period 1925 1950 Chinese peasants, and Chinese created a bad relationship with each other. Peasants were stronger than the . Chinese Communist party supported by documents one, five, and six, peasants were the prime target for attacks instead of the Chinese Communist party supported by documents four, eight, and nine, and the peasants were more willing to fight the Japanese while the Chinese Communist party was not so willing supported by documents two, and three. Peasants and the. Chen Duxiu , Chinese Civil War , Communism 828 Words | 3 Pages. ?Ariana Biagioni DBQ : Topic A: The Ancient Near East November 24, 2013 Professor Goldman During the marketing time of Dynasty 18 in Egypt, many . The Lasting Effects Ice Age. religious, economic, and social connections were created amongst the various regions in the Near East.

In these regions, new groups of people, religions, and empires were formed. The Near East helped surface civilization. It established centralized governments, law codes, and writing systems. The Ancient Near Eastern Empires introduced the methods of agriculture. Ancient Near East , Assyria , Babylon 1120 Words | 4 Pages. ? APUSH DBQs SINCE 1995 1995 Analyze the changes that occurred during the 1960s in the goals, strategies, and support of the movement . for African-American civil rights.

1996 In what ways and to what extent did constitutional and social developments between 1860 and marketing, 1877 amount to a revolution? 1997 To what extent did economic and political developments as well as assumptions about the nature of The Lasting Effects Ice Age women affect the position of American women during the period 1890-1925? 1998 With respect. American Revolution , Cold War , Democratic Party 529 Words | 2 Pages. APUSH - Cornwell FEB 16-24, 2011 1. INDUSTRIAL AMERICA in the makeover centre, the LATE NINETEENTH CENTURY Corporate consolidation of industry . Effects of technological development on the worker and workplace Labor and unions National politics and of the Essay, influence of corporate power Migration and immigration: changing face of the nation Proponents and starbucks marketing, opponents of the new order (e.g. Social Darwinism and Social Gospel) AMSCO pp. 333-347 (CH 17) EV pp.

543-573 (CH 18) ESSENTIAL. Capitalism , Chinese Exclusion Act , Collective bargaining 495 Words | 4 Pages. Kevin Li 1994 DBQ APUSH To what extent was late 19th century and early 20th century US expansionism a continuation of past US . expansionism and to Little Ice Age what extent was it a departure? Over the years the United States expansionism has experienced many different changes. The United States has expanded for the makeover many different reasons such as the economy, land, and of the Ice Age, even God. Centre. Expansionism is now a continuation of past United States expansionism but was more so a departure. The United States.

Atlantic Ocean , Manifest Destiny , Monroe Doctrine 680 Words | 2 Pages. APUSH DBQ ESSAY From 1775 to 1830, the United States gained their independence and began their formation of a new country. . During this period, the ideas of the Revolutionary War had an influence on the African Americans. A number of Ice Age African Americans were freed but the institution of slavery spread due to social and economic reasons. Both the free African Americans and enslaved confronted and endure the challenges they faced as they fought for rights and equality. The Revolutionary War was a. African American , American Civil War , Black people 712 Words | 2 Pages.

APUSH : DBQ 1st Semester Final DISCLAIMER: This is NOT the only way to do this essay, dont take any of this as gospel. We . are people. If you disagree, go ahead and do it your way. That will work too. We are not responsible for your essay, that is and Novel of Zora Hurston´s Eyes, your job. We are simply here to get a headstart. What is needed for The Lasting of the Little Essay a better DBQ ? more analysis beyond the basic information from the documents. Shallow. ? look at relationships (this caused what to happen or emerge as a result of. ) even if the DBQ doesn't ask you to. Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War , Andrew Jackson 757 Words | 3 Pages.

Kibby 1 Pierce Kibby Thursday, February 28, 2013 Expansionism DBQ APUSH Expansionism Throughout American . history, growth has always been present in industry, economics, technology and many other fronts. This of course began when the first European settlers of America came from England. The most important growth our country has undergone is the The Lasting Ice Age Essay growth of size. Starting at a few settlements and evolving into a world power in just a few hundred years illustrates the starbucks rate at The Lasting of the Little, which. Great power , Louisiana Purchase , Military 925 Words | 3 Pages. The Makeover Centre. Colonial America before 1763 (Brinkley- Ch. 1-3) Mrs. Effects Little. Hedley- APUSH Unit I: Overview Overview of the shallow Time Period: This unit focuses on The Lasting of the Little Ice Age Essay the . settlement of the shallow New World and early colonial history.

It was during this time period that the original thirteen colonies were founded and began to evolve into three distinct areas divided by diverse cultural, economic, religious, political, and social differences = SECTIONALISM. Your Objectives: 1. The Lasting Effects Ice Age. To become familiar with the people, places, and the makeover, events. Ice Age Essay. British Empire , British North America , Colonial history of the United States 1135 Words | 7 Pages. APUSH 29 November 2012 Slavery DBQ At the end of the Revolutionary war against Great Britain, the United States of America . was created as an independent country. Thus began the roots of an entirely new American identity. Taking influence from starbucks its former mother countries, the United States began its own system of representative government. Furthermore, the American identity, shaped in Effects of the Little, the early years of 1775 to 1830, incorporated the ideals of english university tables agrarian farming, laissez-faire economic standpoint. American Civil War , American Revolutionary War , Native Americans in the United States 944 Words | 3 Pages. The Lasting Effects Of The Little. Paige Reinfeld Jacksonian DBQ The uproar of the starbucks marketing people of the The Lasting of the Essay U.S. Shallow Processing. was heard after the corrupted elections of The Lasting Effects of the Ice Age 1824. It wasnt until 1828, . the year the Jacksonians came into Essay Exercises power and satisfied the popular demand after a mudslinging battle against the aristocrats.

The Jacksonian Democrats claimed they were guardians of the Constitution, political democracy, individual liberties, and equal economic opportunity, but the 1820s and 1830s put those claims to Effects of the Little Ice Age the test. The Jacksonian Democrats claimed. Andrew Jackson , Democracy , Democratic Party 599 Words | 2 Pages. xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Period 1 15 April, 2013 Mrs. Problems. Nelson Civil Rights Take Home DBQ In the years before the 60s, the The Lasting Effects Ice Age African Americans . The Makeover Centre. living all over the country were treated as less than every white person because of their skin color and their historical background of The Lasting Essay slavery and marketing, servitude. During the era of the 1960s, the African Americans and part of the white community fought for equal civil rights. Average Americans, Black and White, stood up against The Lasting of the Little Essay the opposing population to voice their.

African American , Black people , John F. English Literature University League. Kennedy 576 Words | 2 Pages. Jimmy Herrmann APUSH DBQ Essay Mrs. Rudolph The immediate years after the The Lasting Effects Civil War, 1860-1877, saw the United States . Sociological. through a revolution. Reform movements and changing states of mind among the American people contributed to Little Ice Age the revolution with regards to constitutional and social aspects of life at that time. The passage of Civil Rights Legislation such as the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments; and, ironically, the KKK and other social events helped with the reform. Alone these things couldnt. On Legitmacy Of Law Exercises. African American history , American Civil War , COINTELPRO 585 Words | 2 Pages. Effects Of The Little Ice Age. 1991 DBQ In the on Legitmacy Exercises aftermath of World War I, during the years 1917-1921, President Wilson advocated the Treaty of Versailles, which called for . the principle of self-determination, the formation of a League of Nations, and general amnesty towards Germany, as the solution for The Lasting of the Little Essay peace.

However, his unwillingness to compromise led to widespread disagreement. The opposition forces in the U.S. senate consisted of the reservationists, who were willing to ratify the Treaty of Versailles with amendments, and. Central Powers , League of Nations , Paris Peace Conference, 1919 671 Words | 2 Pages. DBQ During the 1800s, the United States more than tripled in size, covering the entire width of the marketing continent. Throughout this period, they . Of The Little Ice Age Essay. united states acquired land through several different methods including the Louisiana purchase of 1803, the war of marketing 1812, the trail of tears, the Mexican cession, and the compromise of 1850. Each of which came with its own group of supporters and opponents with different reasons of The Lasting Effects of the Little why or why not.

However, every debate ultimately led to the United States governments. Andrew Jackson , Louisiana , Louisiana Purchase 781 Words | 2 Pages. Zack Seldes 2000 DBQ The Second Industrial Revolution skyrocketed with new inventions and processing, machines and changed how factories and jobs were . worked. As the industries grew, so did the need for unions among the workers. To a minimal degree, the of the Little Essay unions were successful in very tiny things but not enough to improve the overall position of the worker.

They were not highly successful, as they would be defeated and have to go back to square one. The ruthless determination of big business to shut down. Capitalism , Collective bargaining , Employment 667 Words | 2 Pages. Literature League. During the 1600s, British citizens left England and began settling in the Chesapeake and New England regions, yet these regions developed differently. . Migrants came to the New World with distinct motives that, in effect made the regions develop differently; the New Englanders came in search of religious freedom while the Chesapeake settlers came in search of economic prosperity. The Lasting Of The Essay. The New Englanders search for religious freedom caused them to develop a diverse economy, societies with tightly bound. England , Human migration , Massachusetts 1052 Words | 3 Pages. Morgan Ridley APUSH Gold 11/7/14 John Marshall as Chief Justice . America is in a time of the makeover centre governmental crisis between the Federal and State governments, and under one branch, the line between these is dictated by constitutionality. John Marshall the chief justice under the legislative branch of the The Lasting Effects of the united states ruled over many cases which established precedents for national supremacy over states rights, defined the roles of the Supreme Court and Congress, and and Novel of Zora Neale Hurston´s Their Eyes Were, provided the constitutional foundation for Effects of the Ice Age . Federal government of the United States , President of the United States , Supreme Court of the United States 725 Words | 2 Pages.

AP US History DBQ Essay Even though the loyalist opposed the American Revolution, Patriots wanted to create a nation with equality and a . complete different society compared to the Great Britain (Doc B). They expressed the importance of problems peoples rights, economic strength, and freedom for every citizen. However, the American Revolution did not meet the needs and The Lasting Effects, hopes that they had expected; they have suffered from economic instability, failed to control their alliances with other countries, political. American Revolution , Articles of Confederation , Native Americans in the United States 689 Words | 2 Pages. Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Du Bois offered different strategies for dealing with the problems of poverty and discrimination faced by Black Americans at . the end of the nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth centuries. Using the documents and your knowledge of the period 1877-1915, assess the appropriateness of each of these strategies in the historical context in which each was developed. In reference to the years between 1877 and 1915, I assessed that, based on between each of. African American , Black people , Negro 1318 Words | 4 Pages. For many years before the actual Revolutionary War, the Americans and the British already had built up grievances and hate between each other. Some may argue . with such tension, war was inevitable.

In the famous Declaration of Independence, the Americans not only declared their freedom but also included a list of sociological their grievances addressed to of the Little Ice Age King George III. The events leading to these accusations explain the complaints leveled against the King and prove their validity. One of the centre charges against. American Revolution , Benjamin Franklin , Boston Tea Party 1479 Words | 4 Pages. The Labor Movement generated opposition from both the The Lasting of the Little government and the public since them both saw unions as violent and on Legitmacy of Law, lawless. The government used force . to control the unions showing their disgust for the views and actions of these organizations. Well- organized and growing businesses took the advantage in the struggle with labor, so the workers started labor unions.

The very first labor union, The National Labor Union was started in 1866. Of The Little Ice Age Essay. This union lasted for six years and had 600,000 members. American Railway Union , Employment , Eugene V. Debs 930 Words | 3 Pages. ?A Discourse to Promote Colonization (1584) 1. Hakluyts arguments for colonization included agricultural use of the land, spread of their religion, easy to marketing . travel to (for trade), it would increase money in the economy because they would stop trade with other countries, they could increase their realm with their wealth that they earn from colonization of Little Ice Age Essay America, and they could defeat their enemies with their new found wealth. Some of the arguments are more persuasive the Movie and Novel Depictions Their Eyes Were Watching others after four hundred. Native Americans in Effects of the Ice Age Essay, the United States 1613 Words | 5 Pages. Ganigan, Li, Wong 1 Anastasiya Li, Kaili Ganigan, Vanessa Wong Miss Conner AP US History 10 December 2014 . Historians have traditionally labeled the period after the War of 1812 the Era of Good Feelings. Evaluate the accuracy of Essay on Legitmacy this label, considering the emergence of The Lasting Effects of the nationalism and Movie Depictions Their Eyes Watching God, sectionalism. The Lasting Little. Use the documents and your knowledge of the period 18151825 to construct your answer. The Era of Good Feelings, which took place during James Monroe's two terms serving as President of the starbucks United States. Marxism 814 Words | 7 Pages. From 1781 to 1789 the Articles of Effects Essay Confederation provided the sociological United States with an The Lasting Little, effective government. This statement is quite bold considering that the . Articles lasted only on Legitmacy, eight years.

In some ways this form of government was effective and in some ways it was not. It did provide the newly formed American colonies with the means to govern themselves in the manner that they wished to be governed and set the Little Ice Age rules for operations of the United States government. On the other hand, it was ineffective. Articles of Confederation , Massachusetts , Northwest Ordinance 832 Words | 3 Pages. Conflicts Between Great Britain and and Novel Hurston´s Were Watching, the North American Colonies During the 18th century, many conflicts arose between Great Britain and the North American . colonies. These conflicts are eventually what led to the American Revolution. These tensions between Britain and the colonies were a combination of both economic interests, and political/social differences. The Lasting Of The Little Ice Age. Economic conflicts between the two included The Navigation Law, The Sugar Act, The Stamp Act, restrictions on trade, and more. Starbucks Marketing. Political. American Revolution , Boston Tea Party , British Empire 1147 Words | 4 Pages.

The American Revolution shocked the world; no one had ever expected a small group of colonies to fight for and win their own independence from the seemingly . greatest and most omnipresent country on earth. Americans had worked for and thought about the moment of their freedom for years, and their sense of The Lasting Effects Little individuality ran deep. By the eve of the marketing American Revolution, colonists in America had developed a strong sense of identity as Americans, but only somewhat of unity as a single country. In events. American Revolution , Benjamin Franklin , Boston Tea Party 969 Words | 3 Pages. During the Washington, Adams, and Jefferson administrations (from 1776 to Effects of the Little Ice Age Essay 1807) neutrality was Americas main foreign policy. In determining that neutrality . was the overall focus of American diplomacy, one must assess the processing deviations from, as well as the success, of neutrality. Neutrality was originally implemented by The Lasting of the Little Ice Age George Washington in order to maintain the young countrys best interests. However, lapses in shallow processing, neutrality occurred when the government was forced to favor one foreign power, either Great.

American Revolutionary War , Europe , George Washington 1401 Words | 4 Pages. Of The Little Ice Age Essay. ?Throughout Americas history, few things have left the nation in shallow, such controversial turmoil as the Vietnam War. With an American death toll of almost . 60,000 troops, the Vietnam War has gone down in infamy as one of the most tremendous struggles Americans have faced both overseas and on the home front. Because of the tumultuous controversies caused by the war, Americans split into two social factions those against the war and those who supported it. During the years of 1961-1975 - the era in. Cold War , Gerald Ford , John F. Kennedy 884 Words | 3 Pages. Democracy on a Leash (Wethersfield DBQ) Connecticut.

Above observation could not be brushed off as the comments from an The Lasting Essay, Anglican clergyman, as the Movie Hurston´s Eyes Watching God laws of 1770 clearly spell these. In essence, the . religious freedom was severely curtailed from The Lasting Effects of the Ice Age Essay 1750-1780. Source: ( DBQ ) Congregational church , Connecticut , Connecticut General Assembly 919 Words | 3 Pages. Literature University League Tables. APUSH DBQ As World War II was coming to an end during 1945, the creation of one of the most destructive weapons known to . humanity occurred within the United States. This weapon, known as the atomic bomb, was used on the two Japanese cities: Hiroshima and Nagasaki, resulting in a death toll unprecedented by any military weapon used before and an immediate, unconditional surrender.

Some historians believe President Truman decided to drop the atomic bomb in order to intimidate the Soviet Union whereas. Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki , Cold War , Franklin D. Roosevelt 949 Words | 3 Pages. ?Caleb Aleshire Mr. Miller APUSH February 2, 2015 Native Americans DBQ (1877-1900) In the late 1800s, Americans were continuing . to expand Westward as they worried that the Northeast was overpopulated and that, as a result, the country would face the of the Ice Age same problems as Europeclass conflict, poverty, and urban ills (Document I). Processing. From 1850 to 1890, the Native lands ceded went from Midwest America to the Pacific Coast (Document A). This presented a similar problem that they had faced in the past with. The Lasting Effects Of The Little. Dawes Act , Hawaii , Indigenous peoples of the Americas 998 Words | 4 Pages. Miki Zaganjor APUSH (Matson) 9/19/13 Era of Essay on Legitmacy of Law Exercises Good Feelings: DBQ The Era of The Lasting Effects of the Good Feelings: America's Glory Years In an . aftermath of the Napoleonic Wars, feuding powers across the nation, and a general chaos, the Era of Good Feelings marked a period in the political history of the United States that reflected a sense of shallow processing national purpose and a desire for unity among Americans. In the Effects Ice Age Essay era, the collapse and downfall of the Federalist party was seen, thus an end to the bitter partisan disputes. Democratic-Republican Party , Era of Good Feelings , Henry Clay 896 Words | 3 Pages. Sam Maney APUSH 10/24 Block C Both nationalism and sectionalism increased during the Era of problems Good Feelings, however, nationalism became . of greater importance in economics and politics. Effects Of The Ice Age. This is shown in the makeover centre, many documents from of the Little Ice Age Essay this time period.

They talk about Our Country and the US as a whole instead of individual states. The documents also talk about Us not just states individually. Also about creating a American System and and American identity, which helps to prove nationalism was of. Economics , Free trade , Henry Clay 317 Words | 2 Pages. Sociological. Bandie Ouch APUSH , Period 2 December 3, 2013 Chapter 13 Study Guide People/Terms: Seneca Falls Convention- A convention on July 19th and . 20th in the year of 1848 that discussed the social, civil and religious condition and Effects Ice Age Essay, rights of women. This meet up was organized by men and women to boost the rights of starbucks marketing women. Effects Of The Ice Age Essay. The main focus of this event was the and Novel Depictions Neale Were God Declaration of Sentiments. Declaration of Sentiments- Written at Effects Ice Age Essay, the Seneca Falls Convention to announce the starbucks rights women should have. It is of the Little Ice Age, modeled.

Declaration of Sentiments , Elizabeth Cady Stanton , Lucretia Mott 899 Words | 2 Pages. Annotated DBQ Rubric: Buddhism in China Sample DBQ Question: Based on the following documents, analyze the responses to the . spread of Movie Depictions of Zora Hurston´s Their Eyes Watching God Buddhism in China. What additional kind of document(s) would you need to evaluate the extent of Buddhisms appeal in China? Point # Generic Description Explanation/ Commentary Examples and of the Essay, Commentary 1 Has acceptable thesis. Thesis addresses the specific focus of the question. The thesis should reflect a sophisticated understanding of the processing complexities. Buddhism , China , Document 1658 Words | 6 Pages. New England and Chesapeake Region Apush Dbq. Monique Pitre Mr. Watson APUSH 9/6/11 DBQ The settlers of New England and Little Ice Age, the Chesapeake region may have migrated from the . same origin, but thats where the similarities end; by the 1700s, they differed socially, economically, and politically. As people began to migrate over to the New World, they started to adapt to the regions around them.

This being said, it only makes sense that the settlers would adapt to the strengths of their geography, meaning that regions obviously differed. Socially. Africa , England , Maine 593 Words | 2 Pages. AP WORLD HISTORY Name___________________ DBQ Period ______ Description: Students will research and then create their own . document-based question ( DBQ ) in AP World History. The DBQ should follow the starbucks marketing format used on the Advanced Placement Examination, and students should observe the following guideline: 1. The question should be phrased using one of the following key terms or phrases: -Defend or refute -Analyze -Evaluate -To what extent and in of the Ice Age, what ways . APA style , Diary , Following 394 Words | 4 Pages.

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Direct Seeding Literature Review Essay. The worlds total forest area is just over 4 billion hectares, which corresponds to an average of 0.6 ha per capita (Figure 1). The five most forest-rich countries (the Russian Federation, Brazil, Canada, the United States of America and China) account for more than half of the total forest area. Deforestation mainly the conversion of tropical forest to agricultural land shows signs of decreasing in several countries. Around 13 million hectares of forest were converted to other uses or lost through natural causes each year in the last decade. The Lasting Effects Of The Ice Age? At a regional level, South America suffered the processing largest net loss of forests between 2000 and 2010 about 4.0 million hectares per year followed by Africa, which lost3.4 million hectares annually (Figure 5). Oceania also reported a net loss of forest (about 700 000 ha per year over the period 20002010), mainly due to large losses of forests in Australia, where severe drought and of the Little Ice Age Essay forest fires have exacerbated the loss of forest since 2000. Asia, which had a net loss of forest of some 600 000 ha annually in the 1990s.

Need of processing, Forest Restoration: Within the Little last ten years, tropical rainforests have been destroyed at an annual rate of 0.8% of area (Whitemore, 1997). Shallow Processing? So this things brings to human being to think about the forest restoration. Forest restoration is Effects Ice Age Essay defined as actions to re-instate ecological processes, which accelerate recovery of forest structure, ecological functioning and biodiversity levels towards those typical of climax forest Various forest restoration methods have been developed, for instance, the accelerated natural regeneration ( ANR) (Jansen and english literature university league tables Pfeifer , 1989), The Framework Species method(Goosem Tucker, 1995) and The Lasting of the Little Ice Age Essay The Maximum Species Diversity method. The ANR method is Movie Depictions of Zora Neale Hurston´s God Effective where natural regeneration is already underway. Eliminates nursery and tree planting costs. Relatively cheap Capitalizes on free ecological services US$ 1,400/ha. The Framework Species method is suitable where native vegetation is close by. Its only need a single planting and it is self sustaining.

In the Maximum Species Diversity method a large percentage of Effects Little Ice Age, species are from the mature phase and primary promoters are avoided. Starbucks Marketing? The major disadvantage of this method slower growth rate and post planting management is required. Now a days there is some evidence that , reforestation plays a key role in the long term of restoration of landscape functioning, as well as social and economic development. Reforestation can catalyses and The Lasting of the Ice Age induce succession of forest ecosystems using native species (Parrotta, 2000). English Literature Tables? Direct Seeding: An ancient method of establishing trees is by sowing seeds directly where the future trees are required.

In many circumstances, this method is superior to the traditional method of planting nursery-raised plants. In several tropical countries, the demand for reforestation is The Lasting Effects Ice Age often not met due to limited resources. Supplementing traditional planting with direct seeding can enable these countries to increase reforestation. Direct seeding is a regeneration method of Essay on Legitmacy of Law Exercises, sowing seeds directly where the Effects Essay future trees are required, whether it is for forest plantations, shelterbelts or in agroforestry. In this way the laborious task of raising nursery plants and transplanting them to the planting site is omitted. Direct seeding offers various interesting possibilities e.g. the ability to rapidly increase the area being forested or the ability to provide rural people with an sociological, inexpensive method to obtain benefits from trees. History of Direct Seeding: Direct seeding has over the last 50 years gained in importance, especially in North America and China where large areas have been direct seeded from helicopters or aero planes. Effects Of The Little Ice Age? Direct seeding from the air has been widely used in China where more than 15 million ha have been reforested between 1956 and 1985 (Xinhua Jingchun, 1988). In the developed countries more than 1?2 million ha were reported to be direct seeded in 1974 or about 20 % of the area being planted (Appleroth, 1975).

Direct seeding in the tropics is less reported compared with the subtropics (Australia and USA) or the temperate regions (USA, Canada and Scandinavia). Trials have been carried out and reported from various tropical countries for example Indonesia, Philippines, India, Central America, Northern Australia and the Sahel in Africa. Direct seeding in the tropics has been carried out marketing, many times without the results ever being published. The Lasting Effects Little Essay? In the dry tropics traditional forestry is limited and most trees are raised in processing, connection with agriculture. Here, direct seeding already plays an important role, this could increase in the future by Effects of the Little Ice Age, being implemented in afforestation and in establishment of shelterbelts. In the humid tropics it appears that direct seeding is less common, probably due to many tree species having recalcitrant seeds and competition with weeds being fiercer. Nevertheless direct seeding has the ability to contribute significantly to tropical forestry in the future, probably not as the main regeneration method but as a method that under certain circumstances is superior to other methods. The following will describe various scenarios where direct seeding is english university league employed in the tropics. Advantages of Direct Seeding: Most forest restoration projects involve planting nursery raised tree seedlings,, but this is most labor and capital intensive method of The Lasting of the Little Ice Age Essay, forest restoration.

Seed collection, raising seedlings in a nursery, planting and maintaining planted saplings until they can establish and become independent all require substantial labor inputs (Hardwick et al., 2000). Furthermore root deformities caused by transplanting techniques can reduce sapling survival in the field ( Zangkum, 19980). The Potential advantages of direct seeding over other plantation establishment techniques include cost savings associated with nursery care and Essay of Law Exercises planting as well as the possibility that trees established by this means may develop more naturally or quickly, than would transplanted seedlings or cuttings( Engel Parrotta,2001). The Eden Project in Niger is recommending direct seeding as an appropriate method of establishing trees where water is scarce (Eden Foundation, 2000). It is claimed that nursery plant use precious irrigation water, whereas direct seeding carried out Effects, prior to and Novel Depictions of Zora Hurston´s Were, or during the rainy season does not need irrigation. They further maintain that plantation established by direct seeding tend to produce extensive root system, whereas the The Lasting of the Little above ground shoots grow more slowly. In contrast seedlings in sociological problems, nurseries tend to produce large shoots and have to be irrigated or they they will suffer high mortality, whereas plants that established through direct seeding are more likely to be able to The Lasting Effects of the Ice Age Essay, reach moisture remaining in the soil after rainy season.(Oschner,2001). Starbucks Marketing? This was quantified by Samba (1992) who sowed the seeds of Faidherbia albida at the same time as planting as planting nursery raised plants. Four months after sowing direct seeded plants were about twice as tall and had a mean dry root mass 25 times higher than that of the nursery raised plants.

The disadvantages of Little Ice Age Essay, Direct Seeding: The significant disadvantages of university tables, direct seeding that can outweigh these advantages include low germination survival percentages, seedling mortality associated with weed competition and The Lasting Essay also poor weather condition (Evans, 1982). Steven stated that the Essay on Legitmacy of Law Exercises results of direct seeding are affected by a number of Effects Little Ice Age, factors including species, soil conditions, site preparation and techniques for seed germination. Garwood (1989) pointed out that seed destructed by animals also plays a key role in reducing seed germination. Direct Seeding in Essay, different purposes: Direct deeding can used for many purposes like for plantation, restoration, in mine spoils rehabilitation, in Effects of the Little Ice Age Essay, agro forestry. Marketing? Negreros et al., 2003 worked in Mexico to The Lasting of the Essay, restore the area by Mahogany seeds. Because this is very valuable for timber.

He found that Burying Mahogany seeds were clearly better than sowing them on the soil surface and it yields double comapared to sowing method. For restoration purposes by Essay, direct seeding method, Tunjai and The Lasting Effects Little Essay Elliott (2011) found that seed trait is very important to achieve the goal of forest restoration by this method. They said Large or intermediate sized seeds, Round or oval seeds, Medium or low moisture content seeds showed good establishment when they sowed in the field for sociological forest restoration purposes. For mine site rehabilitation Parrotta and Knowles(2001) found that In term of species richness, densities and Effects Little Essay life span over 40 years Direct seeding got the most priority. They experimented with four forest restoration techniques and marketing direct seeding showed the The Lasting of the Essay good result for rehabilitation mine site in Brazil. Factors effecting seed germination when applied by direct seeding: Seed germination is the activation of the metabolic machinery of the embryo, leading to the emergence of a new seedling ( Poulsen and the makeover Stubsgaard, 1995).

Seeds of some species do not germinate due to hard seeed coats hindering intake of water ( Baskin Baskin, 1998). Seed treatments can be applied to break dormancy and improve the seed coat permeability. For germination to be initiated three conditions must be fulfilled: first seeds must be viable that the of the embryo must be alive and capable of germination. Second, the seed must be subjected to a proper environmental conditions, available water, proper temperatures, a supply of oxygen and sometimes light. Third dormancy must be overcome. Literature University League Tables? ( Poulsen and Ice Age Essay Stubsgaard, 1995).However seed treatments can be applied to break dormancy and improve seed coat permeability such as scarification, soaking in water or boiling in hot water or hot sand.( Hardwick Elliott,1992). Problems with weeds: Studies conducted by Sun, Dickson and Bragg ( 1995) in Australia, found that the survival and early growth of Alphitonia petriei through direct seeding are largely affected by weed competition and site conditions. The death of germinated seedlings, a few weeks after germination in marketing, the plots where weeds remained undisturbed through out the experiment, was mot likely due to the effects of competition for light from the existing weeds. Results from both the glasshouse and field experiments also indicate that weed compition severely limited the early growth of of the Little Ice Age Essay, Alphitonia. Frequent weeding is necessary during the early growth phase.(Engel Parrotta 2001). Problems with predation:

Seed predation can be severe and looses up to 100% have been reported. (Crawley, 1992). Seed predation has identified as one of the processing biotic barriers to natural forest regeneration in Ice Age, the abandoned Amazon pasture derived from Essay of Law Exercises rainforest ( Nepstad et al., 1991). Garwood (1989) pointed out that seed destructed by animals also play vital roles in reducing seed germination. However Crouch And Radwan (1975) recommending seed coating and pelleting against seed predators. But little is known about this technique in tropical situation. The study of Woods and Elliott (2004) was designed based on the premise that scarifying seeds before sowing them in Essay, the fields cleared of weeds would shorten seed dormancy to decrease the marketing time available for seed predation to occur and that burial conceals seeds from potential predator. They found that ants were the only predator observed. Seeds buried or covered by mulch were better able to Effects Ice Age Essay, escape seed predation by ants or other types of predation. The results from Sun et al., 1995 showed that compacted and eroded soils are inhospitable to the establishment of sociological, A. petriei seedlings. So,at this point site preparation is necessary to overcome this problem. Points to achieve succession of using direct seeding:

Sun et al.1995 conclude that weed control and maintenance of nutrient levels are essential for success. Engel and Parrotta (2001) suggested that what is required is a more systematic screening of potential species and their response to direct seeding under field conditions and evaluation of coast associated with plantation establishment and aftercare. Seed quality is also other concern, using fresh seeds collected from several parent trees growing on sites where soil and climatic conditions are similar to those being reforested and The Lasting of the Little planting should be carried on high rainfall. Woods and Elliott suggested that seeds should be sown in problems, tha field immediately after fruit collection if possible. In order to minimize seed storage, species selected for dirct seeding should fruit at The Lasting of the Ice Age Essay the beginning of the rainy season when direct seeding is most likely to be successful. Areas where direct Seeding could get an importence: Many tropical species have recalcitrant seeds, e.g. most trees in the dipterocarp family. This means that the seeds deteriorate rapidly after collection and processing can only be stored for a short period. If transport and temporary storage can be reduced to a minimum by processing the seedlot at the collection site before direct seeding the seeds at the planned site, the whole operation may be done in fewer days compared to a solution with a central processing centre and The Lasting Effects of the a nursery. This solution should result in a seedlot with better germination and possibly a higher overall percentage of established plants.

In areas with seasonal rains, recalcitrant seeds are adapted to ripen at the start of the rainy season and germinate soon after dispersal from the mother plant. Essay On Legitmacy Of Law? Time for direct seeding will thus naturally be at the beginning of the wet season, just after collection of the seeds, where the rains will provide a good start for the seedlings. The Lasting Of The Essay? In contrast, nursery stock has to be planted out a year after seed collection at the onset of the next rainy season or alternatively at a time where drought can hinder the shallow growth and survival of the seedlings. Little Essay? Many species will reach a fair size after a year in the nursery, resulting in more costly transport and planting of nursery stock compared to direct seeding. In Southeast Asia large areas of former rain forest lands have been turned into shallow processing, imperata (Imperata cylindrica) grassland, due to failure of reforestation. In Indonesia alone the latest estimate of Imperata grasslands is 8,6 million ha (Garrity et al.

1997). In these areas it is difficult for trees to The Lasting Effects Little Ice Age Essay, establish naturally due to annual fires. Starbucks? Direct seeding in connection with constructing fire-belts could perhaps offer an alternative method to The Lasting Effects of the Ice Age, reforest these areas. In a trial in starbucks, Jamaica a variety of trees was successfully established on grassland (Roshetko et al. 1991, 1991). It was concluded that trees can be established by direct seeding even with heavy grass competition, providing that monthly weeding is Little Ice Age carried out english literature tables, until trees reach a competitive size. In a Nigerian trial Gliricidia sepium was both planted and direct seeded in Panicum maximum pastures after mechanical seedbed preparation (Cobbina 1994).

Although planting showed better results, direct seeding could still offer a worthwhile alternative if expenses are taken into The Lasting Effects of the Little Ice Age Essay, account. In order to compete with the Essay on Legitmacy of Law imperata grass it would be sensible to Effects Little Ice Age Essay, start the and Novel Hurston´s God reforestation with fast growing exotic tree species for example Acacia spp., Leucaena, Cajanus cajan or Sesbania spp. In order to obtain more valuable forest products planting or direct seeding of Effects Little, native primary forest species such as dipterocarps could be carried out at a later stage when the grasses have been outcompeted. Otsamo (2000) reported that native trees can be establish in the understorey of fast growing plantation species; he found 63 tree species in sociological problems, plantations on Borneo, which was established on former Imperata grasslands. Costs and benefits:

Angel and Parrotta (2001) reported that the establishment and maintenance cost of direct seeding of five species in Brazil during the 2 years study period averaged 747-912 US $ per hectare. This cost compare favorably with those for plantation establishment and maintenance at this site using nursery grown seedlings of The Lasting Little, native tree species in other plantation treatments include in same project , which averaged1200- 1500 US $.(Unpublished data).Therefore direct seeding in this project can reduce about 63% compared with the plantation using nursery grown seedlings. Appelroth, S.E. (1975). Work study aspects of planting and direct seeding in. forestry.

In Symposium Stand Establishment; Proceedings, p. 202-269. Engel, V. L. and J. Parrotta, 2001. An evaluation of direct seeding for reforestation of degraded lands in central Sao Paulo state, Brazil. Forest Ecology an english literature university, Management 152:169-181. Garwood, N.C.1989. Tropical soil seed banks. In: M.A. Leck, V.T. Parker and R.L. Simpson (Eds.).

Ecology of soil seed banks. Effects Of The Little Ice Age Essay? Academic press Newyork, 149-210. Goosem, S. and N.I.I. Tucker.1995. Repairing the rainforest. Theory and practice of rainforest re establishment. Wet tropics management authority. Cairns, Queensland, Australia.72 pp.

Hardwick K (1999) Tree colonization of abandoned agricultural clearings in seasonal tropical montane forest in nothern Thailand. In, vol. Doctor of Philosophy. University of sociological, Wales, Bangor,p 168. Jansen, C.L. and S. Pfeifer.1989. Assisted natural regeneration: a new reforestation approach. Essay? USAID report prepared for the development of environment and natural resources. Government of the Philippines 22pp. Negreros CP, Hall RB (1996) First-year results of partial overstory removal and direct seeding of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) in Quintana Roo, Mexico. Journal of processing, Sustainable Forestry 3:65-76 Negreros, C. Effects Of The Essay? P. and R. And Novel Depictions Hurston´s Their Eyes Were Watching God? B. Hall, 1996.

First-year results of partial overstory removal and direct seeding of The Lasting, mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) in Quintana Roo, Mexico. Journal of Sustainable Forestry 3:65-76 Oschner, P. 2001. Direct seeding in the tropics. Shallow Processing? IUFRO Joint symposium on of the Essay, tree seed technology. Physiology and tropical Silviculture, College of forestry Natural Resources, University of the Philippines, Los banos. Parrotta JA, Knowles OH (2001) Restoring tropical forests on lands mined for bauxite: Examples from the Brazilian Amazon.

Ecological Engineering 17:219-239 Tunjai P (2011) Direct seeding for restoring tropical lowland forest ecosystems in shallow, southern Thailand. In, vol. Doctor of Philosophy. Walailak University, Nakhon Si Thammarat, p 192 Woods K, Elliott S (2004) Direct seeding for forest restoration on Effects Essay, abandoned agricultural land in processing, northern Thailand. Whitmore, T. The Lasting Effects Ice Age? C. Sociological? 1997. Tropical rainforest disturbance disapperance and species loss.In: W.F. Laurance And R.O. Little Essay? bierregaard Jr. Marketing? (eds.0 . Tropical forest remmnants:Ecology management and Conservation of fragmant. communities.(pp.3-12). Journal of Tropical Forest Science 16:248-259.

Xinhua, C. and Z. Jingchun. 1988. Sowing from the The Lasting Little Essay air: Chinas experience. Shallow? Tigerpaper vol. XV: No. 1. The Lasting Effects Of The Essay? FAO forest news. Zangkum, S. 1998.

Growing tree seedlings to restore forests: effects of Movie and Novel Depictions Neale Their Eyes Were God, container type and media on seedling growth and morphology. The Lasting Effects Little Essay? MSc thesis, Chiang Mai Univerity, Chiang Mai. University/College: University of Chicago. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 23 December 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on Direct Seeding Literature Review.

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