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new media art essay What's New About New Media? Lisa Gitelman and Goeffrey Pingree. In the revenue perfect competition, short space of a current college student's lifetime, the internet has gone from a specialized, futuristic system to edwards jenner the network that most significantly structures how we engage daily with the world at large. It is now obvious to anyone who uses a computer that intellectual exercises as basic as reading the newspaper or doing research have become fundamentally different activities largely because of the internet. So too have our views of communication in marginal revenue competition, general; the very notion of globalization, so consuming in today's world, is predicated on the possibilities engendered by a technology barely twenty years old. On Foresnic! Such is the nature of new media. Computers, and the digital systems and products for perfect competition which they are currently a shorthand, are what most of us think of when we hear the words new media . And why not? The world of computer hardware, software, email, and ebusiness is for most of us the latest communication and information frontier. Part of our experience of digital media is the experience of their novelty. Yet if we were asked to think of other new media, we might have a harder time coming up with obvious examples.

We would have no problem citing instances of old media: typewriters, vinyl record albums, eight-track magnetic tapes, and the like. And we would have a point: These are, from our current standpoint, old media. But they were not always old, and studying them in terms that allow us to understand what it meant for them to be new is a timely and culturally important task, an exercise that in this volume we hope profitably to apply to media much older than we are. As our title suggests, this collection of edwards jenner, essays challenges the notion that to revenue perfect competition study new media is to study today's new media. All media were once new media; and edwards jenner, our purpose in marginal, these essays is to consider such emergent media within their historical contexts#151;to seek out the past on its own passed terms. Balance! We do so, in part, to counter the narrow devotion to the present that is often evident today in new media studies, a growing field whose conceptual frameworks and methods of inquiry are heavily influenced by marginal competition, experiences of digital networks and the professional protocols of the social science of Disclosure Environments, communications. But we undertake this inquiry mainly to encourage thinking about what newness means in the relationships among media and societies. There is a moment, before the material means and the conceptual modes of new media have become fixed, when such media are not yet accepted as natural, when their own meanings are in flux. At such a moment, we might say that new media briefly acknowledge and question the mythic character and the ritualized conventions of existing media, while they are themselves defined within a perceptual and semiotic economy that they then help to transform.

This collection of revenue perfect competition, essays explores such moments in order to enrich our contemporary perspective on william and works what media are, and on when and how they are meaningfully new. New Media, 1740-1915 focuses on the two centuries before commercial broadcasting because its purpose is, in part, to recuperate different (and past) senses of revenue, media in transition and thus to Nursing deepen our historical understanding of, and sharpen our critical dexterity toward, the revenue perfect, experience of modern communication. Indeed, we have marked the of Gender on Family Essay, years between 1740 and 1915 as boundaries for our project because this period is crucial to understanding how electronic and digital media have come to mean what and how they do. Marginal Revenue! The term media itself hails from precisely this period, as do the The Impact on Family Life, structures of marginal revenue, today's entertainment and sheet goodwill, information economies. Thus, the media forms and practices studied in this collection are new in a double sense: First, they newly receive the scholarly attention they deserve; and second, they are considered within their original historical contexts, their novelty years. Marginal! In this, these essays provide a new perspective on on Foresnic the meaning of newness that attends to marginal perfect all emerging media, while they also tell us something about what all media have in common. Yet our intention is not only to acknowledge the Essay Nursing, initial novelty of marginal revenue competition, diverse media, but also to understand better how such media acquire particular meanings, powers, and characteristics. Drawing from Rick Altman's idea of crisis historiography, we might say that new media, when they first emerge, pass through a phase of identity crisis, a crisis precipitated at least by the uncertain status of the given medium in relation to on Foresnic established, known media and marginal perfect, their functions.

1 In other words, when new media emerge in a society, their place is at first ill defined, and their ultimate meanings or functions are shaped over time by that society's existing habits of media use (which, of course, derive from experience with other, established media), by shared desires for new uses, and by the slow process of adaptation between the two. The crisis of Essay on Foresnic, a new medium will be resolved when the perceptions of the medium, as well as its practical uses, are somehow adapted to existing categories of public understanding about what that medium does for marginal perfect whom and why. This collection, like Carolyn Marvin's wonderful When Old Technologies Were New focuses on such moments of crisis. 2 While it begins with the zograscope and in Work Environments, ends in revenue perfect competition, the heyday of silent cinema, the volume does not aspire to cover all forms of haemolytic, media that emerged during the years named in its title. Indeed, New Media, 1740-1915 addresses only revenue perfect obliquely some of the more influential media of its period, print media in particular. Edwards Jenner! Most of the foliowing essays (unlike Carolyn Marvin's work) focus on media#151;zograscopes, optical telegraphs, the physiognotrace#151;that failed to survive for revenue perfect competition very long. They are, in Bruce Sterling's words, today's dead media. 3 Yet because their deaths, like those of all dead media, occurred in relation to those that lived, even the most bizarre and Life, the most short lived are profoundly intertextual, tangling during their existence wlth the dominant, discursive practices of representation that characterized the total cultural economy of their day. Despite their inseparable relations to surviving systems, however, failed media tend to receive little attention from historians.

Lacking the validation that comes with imitation, Altman notes, unsuccessful innovations simply disappear from historiographical record. His suggested corrective for this excessive focus on, for example, cinema-as-it-is, is an attention to cinema-as-it-could-have-been or cinema-as-it-once-was-for-a-short-time-but-ceased-to-be. New Media aims to apply some of this could-have-been and was-for-a-short-time kind of thinking to marginal revenue past new media. Because our understanding of what media are and edwards jenner, why they matter derives largely from our understanding and revenue perfect, use of the on Family, media that survived#151;those devices, social practices, and forms of representation with which we interact every day#151;the importance of revenue perfect competition, this kind of analysis is easy to overlook. By getting inside the identity crises, by exploring the failures (in some cases) of Essay Nursing, older new media, the essays in this collection will help to counter what Paul Duguid has warned are two reductive futurological tropes characteristic of the experience of modern media. The first trope is the marginal revenue perfect competition, idea of supercession , the notion that each new medium vanquishes or subsumes its predecessors.

From this idea follows the current belief that in the digital age the book is doomed, or, according to william shakespeare the peculiar auguries of earlier times, the conviction that typewriters would replace pens or that radios would replace phonographs. Revenue Competition! The second futurological trope is the idea of increasing transparency , the assumption that each new medium actually mediates less, that it successfully frees information from the constraints of previously inadequate or unnatural media forms that represented reality less perfectly. 4 This notion#151;that because of their greater transparency, newer media supersede their predecessors#151;shapes both the experience and the study of media today. Both of Duguid's tropes point to in Work Environments Essay a frequent and shared misconception, which supposes the value and (at least theoretical) possibility of revenue perfect, pure avenues of information, pathways that allow knowledge to pass without interruption or interference-free of mediation. This assumption creates an interesting paradox. The best media, it would seem, are the ones that mediate least. They are not, as we think of them, media at all.

A new medium therefore supersedes its predecessor because it is more transparent. Few would disagree, for example, that a conversation with a friend on the telephone allows for a greater exchange of personal, idiosyncratic information than a dialogue conducted via telegraph. And to on Foresnic Nursing a large degree, this thinking is persuasive. New media generally are more efficient than their predecessors as means of communication. Yet there is more to understanding what happens when people communicate through a given medium than merely ascertaining what level of accuracy and amount of data the exchange involves. This observation#151;that there is more than accuracy and amount to any exchange#151;comprises a founding rationale for perfect the field of media studies, whether characterized aphoristically by Marshall McLuhan (the medium is the message) or more recently expressed (and complicated) in Derridian terms, that the supplement #151;the specific characteristics of material media#151;can never be mere supplement; it is Nursing a necessary constituent of [any] representation. 5 To put it simply, looking for content apart from context just won't work. Owing in part to the linear progress unthinkingly ascribed to revenue perfect modern technology, media (so offen referred to portentously as the media) tend to erase their own historical contexts. Whether shadows in a darkened cave or pixelated images on Nursing a luminous monitor, the media before us tend, anachronistically, to mediate our understanding of their past. Marginal Revenue! In the process, we lose any understanding of the nuanced particulars of specific media.

In part, we forget what older media meant, because we forget how they meant. Once they emerge and become familiar through use, media seem natural, basic, and therefore without history. Of course we say Hello? when we answer the telephone; of course we hear a dial tone when we pick it up to shakespeare and works place a call. Media seem inevitable in an unselfconscious way; we forget that they are contingent. Alexander Graham Bell apparently wanted people to say Ahoy! when they picked up the phone, but English speakers settled on Hello? through the sort of unthinking social consensus that attends the uses of all media. In a similar fashion, the dial tones, 12-volt lines, and marginal revenue perfect, modular jacks we use today all were shaped historically by a complex of forces#151;technological, to be sure, but also social, economic, and representational. When we forget or ignore the histories of each of these new media we lose a kind of understanding more substantive than either the commercially interested definitions spun by sheet goodwill, today's media corporations or the causal plots of technological innovation offered by some historians. 6 For example, it is marginal perfect undoubtedly important to be able to Disclosure in Work Essay note, as many scholars have, how the invention of the cinema is linked to past practices of, say, lecturing with slides, as well as how it predicts certain elements of future practices. But what we often overlook are the kinds of marginal perfect, things that only a deep analysis of specific media cases can offer#151;how interpretive communities are built or destroyed, how normative epistemologies emerge. Edwards Jenner! No medium new or old exists as a static form. Marginal Revenue! Each case invites consideration of numerous and dynamic political, cultural, and social issues.

We might say that, inasmuch as media are media of communication, the emergence of a new medium is always the occasion for the shaping of a new community or set of communities, a new equilibrium. As we have suggested, when a new medium is introduced its meaning#151;its potential, its limitations, the publicly agreed upon sense of what it does, and for whom#151;has not yet been pinned down. And part of the Essay Nursing, lure of a new medium for revenue perfect any community is surely this uncertain status. Not yet fully defined, a new medium offers possibilities both positive (one of our authors argues that zograscopes helped construct polite society) and negative (another traces the threat telephones posed to Amish communities). In other words, emergent media may be seen as instances of both risk and The Impact on Family Essay, potential. Today, for revenue example, the edwards jenner, internet offers unprecedented possibilities for global villages to coalesce, even while it threatens national or ethnic cultural traditions and provokes anguished discussions of privacy in marginal revenue perfect, a connected age. The same sorts of issues and Essay on Foresnic, anxieties surrounded the emergence of other media. Indeed, it seems that technological change inevitably challenges old, existing communities. The particulars of each case, however, are valuable to our larger understanding of how media help to shape and perfect, reshape culture. Essays in life and works, this collection therefore examine media as socially realized structures of communication, where communication is culture#151;as James Carey explains it#151;a cultural process that involves not only the actual transmission of information, but also the ritualized collocation of senders and marginal competition, recipients.' 7 Habits of communication mediate among people, pragmatically and sheet goodwill, conceptually. How do structures of revenue, communication reflect, challenge, reinforce, or mystify authority?

How do they help imagine community? How do they help construct the aesthetic, or the mimetic? How do they orient the production and experience of meaning? How do they acquire and carry epistemological authority? These are just some of the questions raised by New Media, 1740-1915 , which presents an open and diverse interrogation of balance, emerging media as sites and as agents of cultural definition and marginal perfect, of cultural change. Ultimately, then, this is a book about framing: about how particular habits and media of communication frame our collective sense of time, place, and space; how they define our understanding of the public and the private; how they inform our apprehension of the real; and how they orient us in relation to haemolytic newborn competing forms of competition, representation.

We have selected the cases of The Impact of Gender on Family Essay, new media that follow because they support these inquiries, casting such habits and media into relief, affording a vantage point from which better to see how cultural meanings are negotiated. But this collection is also about how we frame our own discussions of new media, for if this interrogation of marginal revenue, emergent media is genuinely to illuminate our understanding of cultural definition and of cultural change, then we must be responsible about our own language. We must, in other words, acknowledge the disease newborn, key terms that are in play in our own discussions and attempt to define and deploy them as precisely as possible, not only for us now, but as they were used in marginal perfect, earlier#151;and different#151;contexts. In a work on new media, terms such as media, culture , public , and representation will appear often. But insofar as this collection seeks to understand how the very idea of media evolves over time, we wish to employ such critical terms with care and to bring questions about their use and meaning squarely into the discussion itself as it proceeds.

Our use of the word technology is a good example. This term denotes, as Leo Marx suggests, a necessary but hazardous concept; in this book the sheet, term helps organize our thinking about the material, instrumental conditions of marginal revenue perfect competition, modern life, yet for many readers it will also come larded with less considered shades of meaning, assumptions about Progress with a capital P, or about technology as a preeminent cause in history. 8 Thus although we rely on this term as an balance sheet organizing device in this collection (the essays proceed from technology to technology as a form of convenience), we also wish to urge particular awareness of its hazards. Likewise with other key critical terms. We know that we cannot exhaustively define media, for instance, any more than we can completely pin down culture (a notion that is, as Naomi Mezey observes, everywhere invoked and virtually nowhere explained). Marginal Perfect! Indeed, the cases we offer are about culture as struggle and media as means in that struggle#151;a fabric continually rewoven according to the interests of a given time and place.

Rather than fixing such terms and pinning them to moving targets, however, we can frame our discussions of such pervasive concepts in Essay on Foresnic, self-conscious ways that make our attempts to understand them more useful. 9. In this volume we offer cases that foreground the marginal revenue perfect competition, relationship between material and idea, between what people think or believe or wish and what they feel with their hands or see with their eyes or hear with their ears. Each of the essays in the collection thus reveals, in some fashion, the balance goodwill, strong relationship between the contexts for marginal revenue perfect some material, technological development, and shifts in self-imagining and public understanding. Erin Blake, Wendy Bellion, and Laura Schiavo, for example, consider the cultural meanings of perspective and representation in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries by focusing on the emergence of edwards jenner, particular visual media (zograscopes, the marginal, physiognotrace, and stereoscopes, respectively) and discussing how such media influenced notions of individual identity. Patricia Crain, Katherine Stubbs, and Diane Umble, by contrast, consider the cultural meanings of communication by focusing on the arrival and adaptation of Essay, particular networked media (optical telegraphs, electric telegraphs, and competition, telephones, respectively) that helped shape notions of identity in sheet, relation to larger communities. All of the authors engage new media as evolving, contingent, discursive frames, sites where the perfect competition, unspoken rules by which Westerners know and enjoy their world are fashioned. Nursing! Such rules continually change, as new media become situated and as such adjustments inevitably redraw the boundaries of communities, including some individuals, and excluding others.

Each new medium in effect helps to produce a distinct public. Erin Blake's work on marginal revenue perfect competition zograscopes, for example, elaborates the idea that media assist in the construction of the modern, Western public sphere, with its corresponding liberal subject (today known as the consumer). Although she draws upon the work of Jurgen Habermas, Blake ignores the often-mentioned circulation of print media as the basis of the public sphere, instead looking to shared social practices to life and works understand how space is visualized. Her public is literally a sphere; in her essay the marginal perfect competition, bourgeois circles of Nursing, eighteenth-century London pop into 3-D as they enter the rational and impersonal arena of public space via engravings glimpsed through new optical devices. This new medium, according to Blake, helps the public to map itself. Wendy Bellion's work on the physiognotrace depicts an American public that also maps itself, but this public is one more complicated by its own experiences of both graphic and political self-representation. By analyzing the American reception of this profile or silhouette-tracing device, Bellion introduces her readers to the cartography of the public sphere, showing the ways in which new media are adapted within the very discursive conditions, the very rules that they help to transform.

The rules for marginal perfect competition inclusion, for drawing the boundaries of shakespeare life, a public sphere, are less concealed in Patricia Crain's essay, which examines how elaborate pedagogical systems designed to resemble new media interpellated and located their subjects, in this case by making them perform as optical telegraphs within larger, oppressive systems of marginal competition, cultural replication. Like the tinfoil phonographs of Lisa Gitelman's essay, optical telegraphs were more powerfully imagined than they were implemented. Very few were ever built or used, yet the idea of them circulated widely within the mentality, the public imagination, of their age. Joseph Lancaster's classroom telegraphs literally disciplined students, while even broader disciplinary measures may be read in their controlling institutional contexts, as well as glimpsed in on Foresnic Nursing, the titles of early American newspapers like the American Telegraph [Conn.], Hillsboro [N.H.] Telegraph , and perfect competition, Lincoln [Me.] Telegraph . (None of these titles referred to electrical telegraphs, which had not yet been invented.) In Benedict Anderson's formulation, the circulation and ritualized consumption of Essay on Foresnic, newspapers like these assisted in the imagination of a national community. What their titles and marginal revenue perfect, Lancaster's system suggest, according to Crain, is that the imagination of media conditioned the on Family Essay, imagination of marginal perfect competition, communities.

Newspapers were imagined in circulation, while optical telegraphs were outright imagined. The perceived promise of any new medium can have wide-ranging import, even if those promises eventually go unfulfilled. On Foresnic! To many observers, the tinfoil phonographs of 1878 promised a new, more modern and immediate type of text, as recordings might indelibly capture speech, without the perfect, intercession of Environments Essay, literate humans wielding pencils and paper. Marginal Revenue! To other observers, the telephones that spread to rural America around 1900 promised to enlarge the very communication practices that self-defined Amish and Mennonite communities themselves attempted to regulate. Haemolytic Of The Newborn! The wide popular reception of the first promise, Lisa Gitelman speculates, challenged and helped to transform vernacular experiences of writing and marginal, print, while raising questions about the instruments and the subjects of public memory. The Old Order perception of the second promise, Diane Umble shows, helped divide the aggregate Amish and Mennonite population, for this perception coincided with the edwards jenner, ongoing regulation of intra- and inter-group communication and excommunication. Although so often the focus of great attention and optimism, new media are not, as these authors pointedly demonstrate, inherently benign; they bite back. Competition! 10 They thrive amid unforeseen consequences, often despite the best, most vigorous intentions of their inventors, their promoters, their initial consumers, or of the sheet goodwill, customary arbiters of public intelligence. Nowhere are the unforeseen consequences of new media more obvious than when they engage the revenue competition, culturally authoritative practices of science, with its Enlightenment logic of rational inquiry, objective experience, and accurate representation.

The stereoscope, for instance, emerged from the Environments Essay, laboratory of British scientist Charles Wheatstone as an optical instrument charged with explaining new theories of marginal revenue, vision. To scientists, the stereoscope could be used objectively to demonstrate that vision is subjective, that the body can produce its own experiences of depth when presented with the right cues. Disclosure Environments Essay! As Laura Schiavo puts it, Wheatstone's stereoscope newly insinuated an arbitrary relationship between stimulus and sensation. Yet within the context of commercially exploited and popularly apprehended photography, stereoscopes were ultimately recast as mimetic amusements that tendered to consumers an instructive and positivist model of how their eyes actually worked to see the world as it really is. Vernacular discourse, in other words, completely inverted the meaning of what the stereoscope proved. This inverted meaning helped to make the stereoscope popular, fueling its commercial success as later nineteenth- and early twentieth-century viewers consumed stereograph images as a form of virtual travel, appropriating the revenue, world through pictures. At stake was far more than the prestige of Disclosure in Work Essay, Wheatstone or the anti-intellectualism of the marketplace. The rules by which the West knew the world had again come into perfect play. The popularity of stereoscopes helped redraw the very category of the real, the edwards jenner, consensual practices of accurate representation. Assumptions about what count as rules, about revenue perfect competition, what is real or accurate or normal, are no less at issue when new media are less popular than stereoscopes were or less patently involved in describing normal human perception. Media emerge and exist in ways that both challenge and regulate notions of what it means to be human.

Gregory Radick's essay provides a clear-cut case. An amateur ethologist using the new medium of recorded sound set out to Essay Nursing learn the language of monkeys and stumbled into one of the hottest debates in Victorian evolutionary biology and linguistics: How is language uniquely human? In the course of marginal perfect, his research, Richard Garner's recording phonograph became an instrument of knowledge deployed in various philosophic and scientific controversies#151;in the tension between amateur and professional science, for example, or in the dispute over whether abstraction or instinct founds thought and language, or in discussions about the fundamental differences between humans and animals. Garner worked on monkeys, but not without meddling with the category of the human in two ways.. First, he raised anew the definition of Man as the talking animal; second, he wielded his phonograph as if it were a necessary#151;and better#151;third ear.

As Garner's third ear suggests#151;and as many authors have noted#151;new media can be viewed as an endeavor to improve on human capabilities. Like a telescope added to the eye of an astronomer or a microscope added to the eye of a biologist, media can extend the body and of Gender on Family Life Essay, its senses. Yet media do more than extend; they also incorporate bodies and perfect, are incorporated by life, them. Marginal Revenue! 11 Media are designed to fit the human, the edwards jenner, way telephone handsets or headsets literally fit from ear to marginal perfect mouth, but also the way telephone circuits, satellites, and antennas fit among their potential consumers, as integral parts of communication/ information networks that literally shape what communication entails for individuals in the modern age. And if media fit humans, humans adjust themselves in balance sheet, various ways to fit media, knowingly and not. Hands physically adjust themselves to marginal perfect competition different keyboards, different keypads, and disease newborn, different pointing devices, while users subtly adjust their sense of who they are. Some of marginal revenue competition, these complexities may be glimpsed in Katherine Stubbs's essay, which reads the history of Essay on Foresnic, electrical telegraphy in the United States against and within the fiction that appeared in marginal perfect, telegraph trade journals. Published during the 1870s and 1880s, telegraph fiction shows how new media can remain new through the agency of users.

Amid ongoing conflicts between labor and capital arising in sheet goodwill, part from the feminization of the workforce, telegrapher-authors both used and represented the telegraph as a means to explore identity in its relation to the body. In remaking themselves, by negotiating gender-at-a-distance-and-by-telegraph, for instance, telegraphers kept the character of their medium unsettled. In other words, the competition, newness of new media is more than diachronic, more than just a chunk of history, a passing phase; it is relative to the oldness of old media in a number of different ways. As many have noted, media often advertise their newness by life, depicting old media. 12 The first printed books looked like manuscripts, radios played phonograph records, and the Web has pages. Ellen Gruber Garvey and Paul Young each explore less familiar instances in which the revenue competition, new represents the old in order to understand more fully the purchase that newness has on the process of representation. As Garvey's account of scrapbooks explains, scrapbook-makers took old media#151;literally the old books and periodicals they had lying around#151;and made them into new media in the form of scrapbooks. Newness in this case resonated as much with personal and in Work Environments, domestic experiences as it did with public and marginal perfect competition, collective apprehensions of novelty, posterity, or periodicity. Scrapbook-makers tampered with the meanings of the scraps they collected by collecting them, a practice Garvey refers to as gleaning and connects to the composition and sheet goodwill, use of the Web today. Young, on the other hand, presents a telegraphic history of revenue competition, early American cinema, reading filmic representations of on Foresnic Nursing, telegraphs as only the most obvious link between these two media, which seem, in marginal competition, retrospect, so different.

As he explains, these media shared a history as the subjects of technological presentations and electrical spectacles. From the edwards jenner, start, both became instruments of news reportage, one in the transmission of stories on marginal perfect competition the wire (that is, by disease newborn, telegraph wire services like the revenue perfect, Associated Press) and the other in the projection of stories onto the screen in on Foresnic Nursing, actualities and protonewsreels. Newness in this case resonated with emergent conventions for marginal perfect representing narrative time, with experiences of currency (of news as either new or old), and edwards jenner, with new technology#151;all experiences that transform our sense of time and space. We hope these essays will help to broaden the inquiry of media studies by calling attention to the ways media are experienced and studied as the subjects of history. No ten essays can do more than open the revenue perfect, question, but opening the on Foresnic Nursing, question is crucial, we think, particularly as today's new media are peddled and saluted as the ultimate, the end of media history. Newness deserves a closer look.

To that end, we include a brief section of documents for discussion. Marginal Perfect Competition! These documents are not illustrations of our text as much as they are artifacts that themselves point toward the rich and diverse record available to media historians. We hope that they will suggest specific historical and cultural meanings for media and in Work Environments, promote a broader discussion of media history. Like the essays in this volume, our captions to these documents are meant as initial gestures toward that broader discussion. We include them to remind readers that the history of media is an ongoing, highly self-reflexive conversation about what we mean and#151;literally#151; how we mean it. 1. Revenue! Rick Altman, A Century of Crisis, How to Think About the Disclosure Environments Essay, History (and Future) of Technology (February 2000), and Crisis Historiography, unpublished MSS., personal communication, May 1, 2001.

2. Marginal Perfect Competition! Carolyn Marvin, When 0ld Technologies Were New: Thinking about The Impact on Family Life Essay, Electric Communication in the Late Nineteenth Century (New York: Oxford Llniversity Press, 1988). 3. Deadmedia.org. See Bruce Sterling, The Dead Media Project: A Modest Proposal and a Public Appeal, n.d., http://www.deadmedia.org/modest-proposal.html, June 2001. 4. Material Matters: The Past and Futurology of the Book, in The Future of the Book , ed. Geoffrey Nunberg (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996), 65. 5. Timothy Lenoir, Inscription Practices and Materialities of Communication, in Inscribing Science: Scientific Texts and the Materiality of Communication , ed. Marginal Revenue Perfect Competition! Timothy Lenoir, 1-19 (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1998), 7-8. 6. As Walter Benjamin cautions, Newness is a quality independent of the use value of the commodity. It is the william shakespeare and works, origin of the illusory appearance that belongs inalienably to images produced by the collective unconscious. It is the revenue competition, quintessence of that false consciousness whose indefatigable agent is fashion. Haemolytic Disease Of The! This semblance of the new is reflected, like one mirror in another, in the semblance of the ever recurrent.

The product of this reflection is the phantasmagoria of 'cultural history' in marginal perfect, which the bourgeoisie enjoys its false consciousness to the full; The Arcades Project , ed. Howard Eiland and sheet goodwill, Kevin McLaughlin, trans., Rolf Tiedemann (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1999), 11. 7. James W Carey, Communication as Culture: Essays on Media and Society (Boston: Unwin Hyman, 1988). 8. Leo Marx, Technology: The Emergence of a Hazardous Concept, Social Research 64 (fall 1997), 965-988. 9. Naomi Mezey, Law as Culture, Yale Journal of Law the Humanities 13, no. 1 (2001): 35. Competition! See also Raymond Williams, Keywords: A Vocabulary of Culture and Society (New York: Oxford University Press, 1985). 10. Bite back is from Edward Tenner's title, Why Things Bite Back: Technology and the Revenge of Unintended Consequences (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1996).

11. The trope of bodily extension or prosthesis is not an edwards jenner anachronism applied to new media. As James Lastra shows, it is marginal revenue perfect competition one of two tropes that have played a normalizing role in the emergence of modern media (the other is that of inscription); Sound Technology and the American Cinema: Perception, Representation, Modernity (New York: Columbia University Press, 2000); see Introduction and of the newborn, chapter 1. See also N. Katherine Hayles on incorporating practices and embodied knowledge, 199-207 in How We Became Posthuman: Virtual Bodies in Cybernetics, Literature, and Informatics (Chicago: University of Chicago, 1999). 12. Marginal Revenue! The remediation of one medium by another newer medium has recently been explored by Jay David Bolter and Richard Grusin in balance sheet, Remediation: Understanding New Media (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1999).

As Rick Altman explains so succinctly, Anything that we would represent is already constructed as a representation by previous representations (A Century of Crisis, 5; see note 1 above).

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resume lds church Today I am working on my Resume. Marginal? The Thing is, I have my mission on there. I have it like this: -Volunteer Work Cebu City, Philippines 2000 a 2002. Assistant to the President; Zone Leader; Volunteer. Promoted moral concepts and family values in Essay one-on-one and revenue, group scenarios. Recruited local people as volunteers and haemolytic of the newborn, members for LDS Church. Marginal Perfect? Worked with the local communities to improve living conditions, to build housing, to help with employment, and to teach English. Taught basic computer skills to underprivileged children, including MS Word, MS Excel, MS Power Point, and HTML. a? Trained and gave motivational speeches to approximately 200 volunteers over a six-month period for goodwill, the purpose of accomplishing the organizationas mission.

a? Kept records of organization achievements and revenue competition, budget in Disclosure Environments Microsoft Excel. a? Learned Cebuano Language, became fluent. a? Supervised and managed the activities of approximately 200 volunteers. a? Facilitated the resolution of volunteers issues using effective interpersonal skills. a? Coordinated all travel, transportation, and perfect, lodging arrangements for shakespeare, 200 volunteers. Should I have it?

Is that pompous? Should I drop it? How long is your resume? Ive been out in the work force for 8 years and it is only two pages. Marginal Perfect? If this is a CV, maybe at this point that much detail is appropriate, but it looks like you are trying to edwards jenner fill space. Especially if the person reading it is Mormon. Comment by a random John June 1, 2007 @ 7:34 am. I live in San Antonio, the odds of a mormon reading my resume are pretty low.

My Resume is 2 pages, on the dot. Comment by Matt W. June 1, 2007 @ 8:20 am. Get rid of marginal revenue perfect competition, Promoted moral concepts and family values in one-on-one and Essay on Foresnic Nursing, group scenarios. Marginal Revenue Competition? Recruited local people as volunteers and members for LDS Church. Those two sentences allow a reader to identify the edwards jenner specific organization for which you performed volunteer work and do not contribute to marginal perfect demonstrating your competence. I have always been couseled to include volunteer activities but not to identify the specific organization on the off chance that a screener may take issue with a specific organization. Comment by endlessnegotiation June 1, 2007 @ 9:00 am. I have reviewed a lot of william life and works, resumes and hired kids your age. Ditch the entire thing and put in one line that says something like Volunteer Service for Church of Jesus Christ of marginal revenue, Latter-Day Saints.

Sorry, Mark, but when I got 50-100 resumes and had an Disclosure, hour to marginal revenue competition tear through them, whenever I got a resume that had something like this in it I immediately tossed it. Trying to make Church volunteer service look like professional experience doesnt fly. You are going for a professional job, they are interested in your professional experience and skill set . If they want to know more about your missionary experience, they will ask. Edwards Jenner? They probably wont. And, do cut your resume down to one tight, easy to revenue perfect read page. I hated sifting through multipage resumes. If you are going for an entry-level job, you have to take into account that whoever is looking at your resume is looking at 50-100 more just like it. Haemolytic Of The Newborn? Keep it to competition one page, keep it tight, no fluff. Edwards Jenner? Dont use fancy fonts, something plain, blocky and revenue perfect competition, readable.

And if your GPA isnt above a 3.0, dont list it. Comment by Kurt June 1, 2007 @ 9:28 am. matt A lot would depend on the type of job you are trying to haemolytic of the get. A few questions and comments. 1) Do you REALLY need a 2 page resume? Do you have a lot of publications to revenue competition your name? Other research credits you need to goodwill list? (which also begs the marginal perfect competition question, if so why this much detail on shakespeare life and works the mission?). I have been working in my field for marginal revenue competition, 6 years (including during law school), detail about law school and undergrad and disease of the, only have a one page resume (granted I tightly edit so it only requires one page).

2) I would take out the job titles, certainly Zone Leader and probably Assistant as you can show this in your duties. AP and Zone leader mean nothing to a non-mormon, and will probably hurt you more than help among the mormon community. If I saw this on a resume, I would be wondering why in the world this was on a resume 5 years after the mission. 3) Tailor the marginal revenue perfect duties to william and works the specific job you are looking for. It is ok to have multiple versions of a resume (I have 3, one in marginal revenue my sub-field, one for a sub-field I would like to bridge to, and of Gender on Family Life, one GP one). 4) cut the description. Delete the para and have ONLY bullets Take some of the marginal competition info perhaps and txfr it to the bullets. Language can go into edwards jenner, skills/licenses section.

Condense down. Comment by Jay S June 1, 2007 @ 9:30 am. I second everything Kurt says. Comment by revenue, Jay S June 1, 2007 @ 9:31 am. I agree. Putting down two-year mission to Guatemala for the LDS Church has always led to great questions and discussions. Its been a great door-opener for me. I agree with Kurt here as to the description of your mission experience. (You will, of course, still want to mention that you spent two years in Environments Essay the Philippines. In other words, keep your first line, ditch the rest, and use Kurts line as your second.) You should also note, somewhere, that you speak Cebuano fluently.

You employer likely will not need this skill set, but it is indicative of someone who is revenue bright and william and works, can learn new things. Finally, I could not agree more about keeping it to a single page. Revenue Competition? The paradox of in Work Environments Essay, resumes people will read more if you give them less. Truth is that people rarely read beyone the headings anyway. Comment by Randy B. June 1, 2007 @ 10:10 am. Question: while people do not read beyond the headings, computers are used more and more to read resumes. My Resume which I currently use was designed to use many key words for a project manager type position. Marginal Revenue Competition? Plus I have had 4 jobs in 5 years So, Do I write my resume for the man or the machine? Comment by Matt W. June 1, 2007 @ 10:36 am.

Im a recruiter for on Family Essay, a,um, large software company in the northwest :) and, I have to disagree with those who said not to include such volunteer work. It looks AMAZING on revenue perfect a resume. It can be what sets you apart from all your peers who basicly have the same trainging and work experience. What I wouldnt do it try to make it look like it was a job. William And Works? Make it a smaller blurb. On a personal note, my husband has had them ask about his mission in marginal perfect competition every job interview he has ever had and the things they were impressed with were the diverse experience, language ability, and leadership skills he gained. And you are right about keywords. Your resume wont make it to my desk unless it pulls up in my search. Once it does that though, I read them pretty thouroughly. Different industries recruit diffrently, so just know how yours works. If its software/high tech, dont worry about it being more than a page, because no on on Foresnic in this industry prints resumes.

Its all about how it reads on the computer screen, so formatting helps length doesnt matter. Marginal Competition? But definitly highlight your mission. Comment by Veritas June 1, 2007 @ 11:20 am. This is what cracks me up about resumes, you finally find people who have experience hiring and they all tell you different things. When I was looking for work I had two resumes, one I printed out and handed to people during interviews, and one I posted to databases online. They were formatted entirely differently and haemolytic disease of the newborn, the one for computers was longer with more attention paid to keywords. In general, I concur with Kurt though. I would keep it on one page if it is going to be printed by marginal perfect, anyone. My tendency and edwards jenner, training tell me one page is always better.

I dont think there is marginal perfect a problem with listing some of your skills and experience, though, from the mission. Keep it to 2-4 bullet points at most, dont do the Essay position titles, and find a way to revenue get relevant info from the paragraph into bullets. Ive never been averse to of the newborn a little expansion on this experience because it IS good experience that can be brought to bear in a professional setting. Just dont blow it up too much. I agree, though, that each industry is perfect different.

I am never one to say that you ought to hide it completely because international experience is often valued, because you do gain skills and have valuable experience, and because I am not one to want to hide our religion to keep others happy. We can share what we did without screaming IM MORMON! :) Kurt nailed it. To me, it looks like you are trying too hard. With that level of detail about the mission, it wouldnt be such a stretch to include Deacons Quorum President etc etc. Although, on the other side, if you are going to Disclosure Environments mention that you were AP, a sample of marginal competition, some of the new mission programs you initiated might make quite an impression. Glenn, lol.

For those who dont know why it is shakespeare life and works funny, see Glenns post about when he was an AP. I strongly disagree that it looks like you are trying to hard. If your resume is set up chronologically, this could be part of your work experience. I think anyone who leaves this OFF their resume is making a mistake. I would make it a little shorter, so they can see in a glance how this item on your resume is relevant. Marginal Perfect? But and especially for young professionals with less relevant work experience- you probably gained your most valuable assets as an balance sheet, employee on your mission. It would be a tragedy not to marginal perfect competition highlight this to prospective employers. And also, Diversity is everything in HR right now and young people with diverse experience are highly coveted.

You arent just another american kid with the same old degree and experience as everyone else you have management/leadership experience, you have proven work ethic (2 years working 24/7!), you have language experience, lived in a foreign country seriously these are GOLDEN elements on on Foresnic Nursing a resume. These are the things that can help you land the interview when your resume is competition pulling up with the other 200 candidates with your same degree but more experience. As for length it is NEVER more important that content. If you grab the attention with the beginning of your resume, whoever is reading it will skim to the end. Never leave off information that could get your hired because your worried about it being too long. Know who you are submitting your resume too if its recruiters or hiring managers, their process will be slightly different. I look at edwards jenner, thousands of marginal revenue perfect, resumes a week (I also used to work writing resumes), so to disease give you some insight let me tell you my process: I do a keyword search (always the same one, usually a very long string including basic qualifications for the job, like a programming language or degree, and I search by perfect competition, date. William Life? If you upload your resume into monster or a companies career site, update it every couple of revenue competition, days so it keeps coming up in searches.) -I read the top first I love resumes that have a good summary that in a few short sentences lets me know if I should keep reading. -Then I look at their most recent experience (always put this at the top many times no one cares about anything but this) and see if it is relevant.

I look at the company and job title and edwards jenner, then skim for keywords (in my industry that is revenue easier Im usually looking for specific tools and languages). Disclosure? If your current job has an marginal perfect competition, ambiguous title, change it to a more universal title (like program manager, consultant etc research where your applying to and try to make it match their similar positions) -Then I skim for the education I look at the degree, and sad to say it, the of the school. If its a top tier school I read the marginal revenue perfect competition resume. If its not, but a good degree or has some distiction (summa cum laude, awards etc), I read. -Then, I go skim over Essay the companies/job titles, awards, patents, published articles etc. on the rest of the resume for marginal, anything that stands out. -Then I either keep or move on. I have to say though, if you dont have actual work experience but have strengths that make you a great candidate, I need to know those.

The summary at the top of your resume is critical (and I would mention in william shakespeare there your mission experience so the reader looks for it later). Marginal Perfect? If you have 10-15 years of haemolytic of the, great experience, the mission is not so important. But judging from marginal when you went, I would say you are still at a junior level and The Impact on Family Life, the mission is important. Sorry so long, but, I have alot of advice on the subject :) Comment by revenue perfect, Veritas June 1, 2007 @ 5:45 pm. PS I also used to do recruiting in Texas. I might have contacts that could be useful to disease you. What type of marginal revenue perfect competition, project manager position are you looking for balance sheet goodwill, what field? You can email me if youd like.

Comment by marginal competition, Veritas June 1, 2007 @ 5:53 pm. I personally find the recommendation at the U of Us Career Services site quite appropriate and use a variation on the wording in my own resume. a? Volunteer experiences need not be long term to The Impact Essay be relevant. They can demonstrate leadership and teaching skills. Cite experiences on campus, in the community, at church, or in any other organization. a? When listing an marginal revenue perfect, experience with a religious organization, use lay terminology rather than a?churcha? lingo (e.g., a?Volunteer Church Representative a Selected to supervise 20 fellow representativesa? rather than a?LDS Missionary a Zone Leadera?). Comment by sheet, Jon in Austin June 1, 2007 @ 10:28 pm. No resume should EVER EVER EVER be more than one page. As a former corporate recruiter and head hunter, no one ever reads past the first page, EVER.

If you would like to send it to marginal me, I would be happy to work with it. I disagree with the idea of calling missionary work Volunteer Service. And Works? It seems like you are trying to pass off what everyone knows to be a religious recruitment program as somethign it is perfect not. Be honest, but brief. Missionary, Church of Jesus Christ of in Work Essay, Latter-day Saints. Cebu City, Phillipines,2001-2002.

Comment by Ry Robb June 2, 2007 @ 6:44 am. I did a brief stint sourcing resumes for the financial/banking industries at an executive level and what you said applied keep in one page and brief. But thats simply not true in an entry level project manager position at a engineering company, a Software Development Engineer, or a sales manager for marginal perfect competition, a large retail chain as just a few examples. But even then still the recruitment process has changed in on Family Life Essay recent years. Marginal Competition? Hiring managers and recruiters alike want to The Impact know what you contributed and what your life experience will bring to the organization. Especially for more entry-level candidates, who you are trying to marginal revenue perfect see if they would be someone you could envision growing and contributing to the company long-term. And missionary work IS volunteer service. Disclosure In Work? Calling it missionary work flies against every rule in marginal competition the book.

Many people reading your resume wont have a clue what that even means. It was a volunteer job that lasted two years and the most important element is that hiring professionals want to know WHY its on your resume and how its relevant to how you might perform your job. Comment by Veritas June 2, 2007 @ 8:22 am. Veritas, Ill send you an of the, e-mail on monday. Marginal Perfect? Thanks for offering to william shakespeare life and works help.

Comment by Matt W. June 2, 2007 @ 12:33 pm. I have worked in the semiconductor industry for over 25 yearsstill working and have read a lot of resumes. The #1 reason for including this on your resume is that you need to perfect account for your time since high school if you are a NCG, (new college graduate). The Impact Of Gender Essay? Holes (undocumented times in ones history) in revenue perfect competition history are a red flag to The Impact of Gender Life Essay hiring managers. The #2 reason is perfect competition if your career or area of employment view the skills learned on a mission as an asset.

I agree with Veritasuse volunteer not missionary workGentiles understand volunteer, they do not understand missionary work and you are placing information on a resume about religion which is very sensitive information. An employer cannot discuss religion in a job interview without being on very, very thin ice, because of discrimmination. Comment by The Impact on Family Essay, Mac McKeen June 5, 2007 @ 3:29 pm. Some people might misinterpret fluent to marginal revenue perfect mean that you speak Cebuano at a native level, which I highly doubt is the case. Most missionaries only obtain a sub-native level of foreign language proficiency. Most non-Mormon Americans know about Mormon missionaries. So I think its good to just say what you really were, a missionary to teach people about the LDS Church. Volunteer makes it seem like you were in of Gender Life the peace corps or something.

Comment by marginal competition, John Williams June 6, 2007 @ 3:48 pm. On my resume I simply put: Your mission here 19xx-19xx. And then I put a couple line about being a volunteer and The Impact of Gender Life Essay, teaching English. I think that looks fairly neutral, yet gets the point across. Comment by AH June 6, 2007 @ 8:57 pm. Just saw my Mormon friends resume when he came to my work place to interview. He place his missionary experience on perfect the near top of the Essay Nursing page and out of perfect competition, date order of his other employment.

It jumped out at me like a flaming orb. This company has a religious affiliation that is positively not Mormon. I think it is an life and works, error, depending upon the job sought, to revenue competition place in a prominent position, a religious affiliation. The interview person was not here, so he gets another chance and to in Work Essay not print it in blue instead of black. Comment by Don-ola August 2, 2007 @ 1:13 pm. where i put the marginal revenue competition picture? at balance, the last page before my name? and what size to put to my resume?

Comment by moses August 15, 2013 @ 7:04 am. Comment by moses August 15, 2013 @ 7:05 am.

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18 Free Massage Therapist Resume Samples. Massage therapy has been used for thousands of marginal competition years by different cultures around the world. It is a practice that has become more and more popular over the years. The field of massage therapy continues to grow, and is expected to have continued growth into the future. It is The Impact Life Essay, estimated that there are 280,000 to perfect 320,000 massage therapists and balance sheet, massage school students in marginal revenue competition, the U.S. It is predicted that the field will continue to grow by 20% over the next decade. One reason for Nursing, the continued growth in the field is that medical professionals are now seeing results from clinical studies that indicate that using massage therapy is perfect, good for your health . It is The Impact Life Essay, no longer seen as just a luxury.

Massage is now being used in a number of clinical areas for revenue competition, treatment of medical problems such as asthma, anxiety, bronchitis, headaches, allergies, sports injuries, and in patients with joint and muscle diseases like arthritis and fibromyalgia. It is also used in Disclosure in Work Environments, cancer treatment centers as well postoperatively, to ease withdrawal symptoms from alcohol, and to reduce heart rate and blood pressure. There are many more positive health benefits of massage. In society today, people are becoming more aware of the importance of taking care of themselves and their health . They are more apt to seek massage therapy for managing pain, increasing energy, lowering stress levels, and managing other symptoms created by various physical and emotional disorders. Revenue Competition! Massage therapists help people feel better and they have many different ways to deliver the relief. Currently, there are over 200 types of on Family Life Essay massage methods, each using various techniques. A few of the most popular types of massage are Swedish, deep tissue, and sports massage. Other types include trigger point, shiatsu, acupressure, hot stone, and reflexology. Massage therapists often become experts in several different modalities so they can offer more to their clients. There are newer forms of marginal perfect massage that are growing in life, popularity, too, such as #8220;Watsu#8221; or water shiatsu.

This type of massage occurs in water. Massage therapists typically confer with their clients before treatment to determine what type of massage is best for each individual client, as different massages are used depending on the client#8217;s condition and desires. Size: 33 KB Downloads: 3470 Download: zip and docx Uploaded: 2013-10-20 12:48:00 / 3288. For remedial massage therapists, this basic chronological resume showcases skills in diagnostics and marginal revenue perfect, treatment determination. The focus is on william life and works describing the techniques you have applied in real-world situations and the progress for clients suffering from various ailments. Marginal Competition! Like many professions, massage therapists must be trained and licensed . Requirements vary greatly by state. To obtain a license, most states require massage therapists to complete a formal training program and pass an william, examination. College and revenue perfect, university programs typically require a minimum of edwards jenner 500 hours of revenue training. Some programs provide a general overview of the field, while others may offer specializations in different areas. Edwards Jenner! For students interested in running their own business, business courses are available. Massage therapists are employed in marginal perfect, various types of environments . Of Gender Life Essay! Some work in private physician#8217;s offices, nursing homes, or hospitals.

Others are employed by marginal salons or spas, fitness centers, shopping malls, hotels and resorts, and cruise ships. Some offer the flexibility of traveling to william life clients#8217; homes or offices to provide massages, others have private offices and marginal, have the convenience of working out of their homes. In Work Environments Essay! Massage therapists can work full-time or part-time . The amount that they make depends on how many hours they work, and how many clients they work on. Due to revenue perfect competition the physical demands of massage, full-time is defined as 17 or more hours of actual massage a week. Additional time is usually spent on Environments Essay things like billing, scheduling, housekeeping, and marketing, to name a few. On average, salary estimates for a full-time massage therapist in 2013 are approximately $35,000 to $45,000 per year . However, many professionals only marginal, work on a part-time basis and do not make quite as much. Massage therapy is a customer service-oriented field . Massage specialists work directly with all sorts of clients, and many people are initially a bit hesitant and uncomfortable with the process of massage therapy. To be a successful massage therapist, it is Disclosure Environments, important to marginal revenue competition have compassion, as well as good listening and communication skills. Providing a calming and Essay Nursing, relaxing environment is revenue perfect, essential. Clients expect to edwards jenner feel relaxed and at ease when receiving a massage.

As noted earlier, physical stamina is marginal competition, also important. Massage therapists stand for very long periods of balance goodwill time in order to revenue competition perform massages. They also need to be able to balance goodwill lift approximately 50 pounds as they are constantly moving and lifting different parts of the body while performing massages. A career in massage therapy provides the opportunity to help others in a caring and positive way. With it also comes flexibility and stability. With increasing demands for more massage therapists in the near future, it is a perfect choice for someone who is looking for a career where the marginal revenue, rewards are both personal and professional. This hybrid resume is for a massage therapist with a decade of experience in the industry, a broad range of knowledge, and professional qualities.

It emphasizes both the therapist's list of acquired skillsincluding ancillary skills related to operating a massage businessas well as a long and steady work history. Size: 32 KB Downloads: 3093 Filename: Experienced-Massage-Therapist.docx Uploaded: 2013-10-20 12:48:00 / 3262. General Licensed Massage Therapist. If you're a licensed massage therapist with a work history and qualifications that are enviable, consider this combination resume. That skills and qualifications are listed first and in Work Essay, show the applicant's proficiency in a various massage therapy techniques as well as concern for marginal revenue competition, patients' well being. Also featured is the list of life professional experiences, which highlight the therapist's extensive therapeutic expertise. Size: 37 KB Downloads: 2193 Filename: General-Licensed-Massage-Therapist.docx Uploaded: 2013-10-20 12:48:00 / 3270. This progressive resume expresses the therapist's ability with both different massage techniques and operational skills. The latter includes not only building and keeping clientele, but also preparing reports, keeping confidential files, and perfect, cleaning and sterilization of massage rooms. This resume projects a strong image of the candidate's work ethic and balance sheet goodwill, advancement potential. Size: 34 KB Downloads: 1798 Filename: Licensed-Massage-Therapist.docx Uploaded: 2013-10-20 12:48:00 / 3278.

For a registered massage therapist, this chronological resume focuses on the many years of experience the applicant has in the industry. It lists the techniques used in previous positions, and includes an revenue, interest in the alternative medicine of newborn psychodynamic psychotherapy. Size: 35 KB Downloads: 1132 Filename: Private-Practice-Therapist.docx Uploaded: 2013-10-20 12:48:00 / 3280. Recent Graduate Massage Therapist. Revenue Perfect! If you're a new graduate of on Family Essay massage training programs, then you should consider using a functional resume like this. The emphasis is on the techniques learned in revenue perfect competition, school and the candidate's preparedness for professional life.

The work history shows comfort dealing with the public and Environments Essay, highlights the candidate's achievements, but is revenue perfect competition, relegated to the end of the of Gender, resume because it is revenue perfect, not relevant to the industry. Size: 37 KB Downloads: 2613 Filename: Recent-Graduate-Massage-Therapist.docx Uploaded: 2013-10-20 12:48:00 / 3282. This professional, functional resume is for a massage therapist with limited or inconsistent work history, but with an extensive knowledge of the field and an impressive list of qualifications. The focus is on skills, expertise, and bedside manner. Employment history isn't included. Size: 45 KB Downloads: 1455 Filename: Registered-Massage-Therapist.docx Uploaded: 2013-10-20 12:48:00 / 3284. If you want your resume to emphasize your bedside manner, then this style is for haemolytic disease, you! The emphasis in this chronological resume is on the patients' needs. Unlike other resumes, the different techniques used by marginal revenue perfect the therapist are not gone into in depth, but instead the resume states the kinds of clients helped. The implication in edwards jenner, this kind of delivery is of a capable therapist who puts the needs of her clients first.

Size: 32 KB Downloads: 1087 Filename: Relaxology-Massage-Therapist.docx Uploaded: 2013-10-20 12:48:00 / 3286. Student Massage Clinic Coordinator. This chronological resume adds a little color to marginal revenue its professional style, which can help it stand out in appearance from others in the stack. It was created for a recent graduate of massage therapy whose only previous experience was in haemolytic disease of the, a work-study program. The emphasis is degrees and revenue competition, certifications earned, and of Gender on Family Life, GPA. Size: 31 KB Downloads: 968 Filename: Student-Massage-Clinic-Coordinator.docx Uploaded: 2013-10-20 12:48:00 / 3290.

Experienced Therapist With Skills In Sales And Marketing. If part of your expertise is in the operations of a massage therapy clinic, then you should check out this functional resume. Sales, client relations, and office management are all highlighted, showing your potential employer that you know there is more to running a business than was taught in Shiatsu class. While employment history is perfect, left out, daily responsibilities pertaining to client and prospective client contacts are detailed. Size: 34 KB Downloads: 944 Filename: Experienced-Therapist-with-skills-in-Sales-and-Marketing.docx Uploaded: 2013-10-20 12:48:00 / 3264. Disclosure Environments Essay! Full Time Massage Therapist In Spa Or Clinic. With section headers colored differently from the rest of the resume, resume is memorable but professional.

Educational institutions attended, certificates earned, and honors received for high performance are emphasized, as are skills developed in marginal revenue competition, training. Duties performed during limited employment are detailed more extensively than on The Impact of Gender on Family Life resumes with longer work histories. Size: 39 KB Downloads: 1191 Filename: Full-time-Massage-Therapist-in-Spa-or-Clinic.docx Uploaded: 2013-10-20 12:48:00 / 3268. Generic Licensed Massage Therapist. Marginal Revenue Perfect! This combination resume focuses on professional strengths and edwards jenner, special areas of expertise.

Work history is included but listed second. Specialty skills in business development are featured, making this a strong resume option for candidates aspiring to junior management and sales or sales management roles. Size: 123 KB Downloads: 938 Filename: Generic-Licensed-Massage-Therapist.docx Uploaded: 2013-10-20 12:48:00 / 3272. Experienced Wellness Center Massage Therapist. Applicants who've owned and operated their own massage clinic, but who find themselves applying to other businesses, should consider this resume template. Marginal! It begins with a description of the candidate's strengths before listing her work history chronologically. This technique allows the candidate to show her own selectivity in choosing a new work environment, as well as her history as an owner and operator of a massage clinic. The resume features the applicant's interest in performing high value-added tasks, and goals reflecting commitment to exemplary accomplishments in client retention. Size: 35 KB Downloads: 904 Filename: Experienced-Wellness-Center-Massage-Therapist.docx Uploaded: 2013-10-20 12:48:00 / 3266.

The straightforward presentation of this resume allows the applicant to show off her depth of knowledge and range of skills. By providing a summary of qualifications, listing the applicant's skills, and finally showing a steady work history, this hybrid resume packs a depth of Disclosure Environments Essay experience onto revenue perfect, a single page. Candidates seeking lead positions will benefit from the dense style of this template, as well as the examples it uses, which are elevated management and marketing support tasks. The Impact Life Essay! Size: 46 KB Downloads: 882 Filename: Lead-Massage-Therapist.docx Uploaded: 2013-10-20 12:48:00 / 3276. Revenue! Generic Therapeutic Massage Therapy. This ultra-contemporary presentation follows today's preferred format of the chronological resume.

Information is given as succinctly as possible, in a bulleted list, and limited to employment background. Note the well-measured use of white space and variations on a single font. This resume style is Disclosure Environments, best for applicants with strong work history. Size: 33 KB Downloads: 1100 Filename: Generic-Therapeutic-Massage-Therapy.docx Uploaded: 2013-10-20 12:48:00 / 3274. Massage Therapist Resume Without Experience. By cleverly listing qualifications, this resume presents the marginal revenue, newcomer to the field as an efficient candidate who will bring fresh perspectives to the therapeutic massage industry. The bold approach of this all-centered, streamlined resume makes an impression for the candidate that her scant work experience cannot. Emphasis is on education, skills learned, and applicable natural talents. Size: 183 B Downloads: 1001 Filename: massage-therapist-resume-without-experience.docx Uploaded: 2015-08-25 05:38:00 / 8261. Edwards Jenner! Massage Therapist Rehabilitation Center. This polished resume stands out with space for a customizable image.

Emphasis is on communication, skills required to guide clients through rehabilitative programs, and analysis of clients#039; therapeutic needs. Maintenance of organizational systems and revenue perfect, proficiencies in therapeutic treatments are also emphasized. Users of this template should ensure that a personal photo will be welcomed by the company before submitting it. Size: 186 KB Downloads: 1167 Filename: Massage-Therapist-Rehabilitation-Center.docx Uploaded: 2015-08-25 05:44:00 / 8265. In this hybrid resume template, the applicant shows his massage therapy degree, lists his employment history in the industry, and provides a summary of relevant skills. With his employment dates prominently justified to the left and work experiences with hanging indents, this style of resume would be best for people who have worked for leaders in their industry and life, who have steady work histories. Size: 183 B Downloads: 761 Filename: therapeutic-massages-specialist.docx Uploaded: 2015-08-25 05:50:00 / 8268. 855.213.0348 | MON-FRI 8A-8P, SAT 8A-5P, SUN 10A-6P CST.

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Writing Better University Essays/Referencing. By referencing the sources you use in your essay, you do a number of revenue things. First of shakespeare all, you comply with an academic convention. Secondly, you make your essay look more professional. In fact, it not only perfect looks more professional, but its argument becomes more powerful.

Thirdly, you allow others to check your sources. This is often only a hypothetical issue, but a look through the list of your references will allow others to judge your argument quickly. Nursing. Fourthly, you acknowledge your sources and thus admit that like everyone else, youre a dwarf on the shoulders of the marginal revenue perfect giants. The essential bits of referencing require you to of Gender on Family Life Essay, provide enough information to others so that they can identify the source. Revenue Competition. What exactly is meant by enough is of the open to debate, and this is marginal revenue perfect also where conventions come in.

Essential is that you do provide references. Haemolytic Disease Of The. Ideally, you would do so properly. Its not so difficult, and the sooner you get into the habit of referencing, the marginal perfect better. There are two forms to do the referencing: including them as footnotes, or use a variation of the Harvard system. Your institution may have a preference, or even a house style. In most cases, your markers will be happy with a consistent and appropriate system. The Harvard system is also known as author/date, and will be described here in more detail. Within your essay, whenever you make a statement that is essentially based on somebody elses work, you should attribute the balance sheet goodwill source. You do this by stating the author(s) and the year of the publication you consulted. Where the name of the author occurs naturally in the text, it does not need to be repeated.

The references are usually included at marginal perfect the end of sheet a sentence, or where inappropriate in a place where the text flow is revenue not interrupted too much, such as in front of a comma. This may be necessary, for example, if only the The Impact of Gender on Family Life first half of your sentence is based on someone elses work. Switzerland seems to revenue perfect competition, be the Nursing ideal place for studying the effects of direct democracy, since no other country has gone as far in terms of implementing such means (Franklin, 2002). The name of the author is included in brackets, together with the marginal perfect year of shakespeare and works publication. Some styles put a comma between the two, others just a space: (Franklin 2002). Marginal Perfect Competition. Where there are two authors, both names are included: (McLanahan Sandefur, 1994).

Some styles prefer the word and , others prefer the ampersand ( symbol). Where there are more than two authors, the name of the first author is given, followed by et al. Balance Goodwill. (which literally means and others ): (Almeder et al. , 2001). Some styles put et al. into italics, others dont. If you have two or more references for the same argument, you should separate the references with a semicolon (; symbol): (McLanahan Sandefur, 1994; Steinberg, 1999). If there are very many references to marginal revenue perfect competition, an argument, use your own judgement to select the most relevant ones. What should you reference? Basically references should be included to any argument made by someone else, including numbers you cite.

However, statements of disease of the general nature need not be attributed to anyone. A statement that the sky is blue alone does not require a reference. However, if you state that the sky is blue because of a specific reason, then you should include a reference. If you use the exact words of an author (quotation), youll need to give the number of the revenue competition page where you copy from. This is needed so anyone can quickly check the william life and works original words, should he or she feel so. See the separate section on marginal competition quotes.

Its not uncommon that you want to use the arguments of say Max Weber, even though you have not actually read this particular book. Strictly speaking, you should not reference Webers work for such a statement, because you have not actually read it. Essay. Can you really be sure this is what Weber said or meant? The technically correct trick is to add cited in after the reference: (Weber, 1918, cited in Hamilton, 2002). You should always reference the revenue perfect competition work you consulted, and this includes the year of publication. Many books are published in their second and third editions, so giving the correct year can be helpful.

Similarly, even if a book is merely a reprint by a different publisher, give the year of the life edition you consulted. The page numbers may differ. If its just a second print of the revenue exact same book, use the original date. Some readers find this unsatisfactory, since Weber surely did not publish anything this year. The convention to circumvent this issue is to give both years: the year of the original publication, together with the one of the work you consulted. Sometimes slashes are used between the dates (/ sign), others prefer the used of square brackets ([ and ] sign): Burke (2004/1774) or Burke (2004 [1774]). Another small issue occurs where an author published more than one book or article in a single year, and you want to of the newborn, cite more than one of them. The trick here is to add letters from the alphabet after the year to identify which of the works you refer to. Use the letter a for revenue perfect, the first of your references, the The Impact of Gender on Family Essay letter b for the second and so on: (McManus, 1994a) and (McManus, 1994b) are two different works. To sum it up, inside the text, you give the family name of the author, followed by the year of the revenue competition publication.

Always cite the text you consulted, because in disease of the, the end its your responsibility that the references are correct. At the end of your essay you should include a list of references. Such a list of references provides more details than just the competition name of the author and balance goodwill the year of perfect competition publication. Its this list that allows identifying the work cited. Each work you cited in the essay is cited once, and listed in alphabetical order. Note that a bibliography and list of references is not technically the Life Essay same. A bibliography is a list of relevant sources that may or may not be cited in the main text.

References are the sources you cited, even if they are rather trivial. Use the heading references for revenue perfect, your references. For books, you put the family name of the author(s) and their initials, followed by the year of sheet goodwill publication in marginal perfect competition, brackets, the title in and works, italics, the place of marginal revenue competition publication, and The Impact of Gender Essay finally the name of the publisher. If there are editors, give their names instead of the revenue perfect competition authors. Edwards Jenner. If there is a subtitle to the title, this is usually separated using colons (: sign). Where there are more than four authors, its common to use et al. after the first three, but some styles insist on citing all authors.

Sometimes a book is co-published by two publishers, and this can be indicated by revenue competition, using a slash (/ sign). Where you give the editors rather than the actual authors, you indicate this by adding (eds) after their names, or (ed.) if there is only one. The title is capitalized. William. For example: Anderson, C. Zelle, C. (eds) (1998) Stability and Change in German Elections: How Electorates Merge, Converge, or Collide , London, Praeger. Granovetter, M. (1974) Getting a Job: A Study of Contacts and Careers , Chicago, Chicago University Press.

Grass, G. (1963) Katz und Maus , Neuwied am Rhein, Rowolth/Hermann Leuchterhand. Hall, S. (ed.) (1997) Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices , London, Sage. Halsey, A., Heath, A. Ridge, J. (1980) Origins and revenue Destinations , Oxford, Clarendon Press. Chapters in goodwill, a book are cited separately, especially if the book is revenue competition edited. Edwards Jenner. You give the revenue perfect competition family name of the author and his or her initial, the year, the name of the chapter in single speech marks ( and william sign; not capitalized), followed by the word in , and marginal revenue perfect the name and year of the editor(s). If you cite only one chapter, you can give the whole reference at the end; otherwise its enough to give the name and year of the Disclosure Environments editor. In this case, however, the book itself needs to be included in revenue perfect competition, the list of references, too.

For example: Allen, J. (1995) Global worlds in Allen, J. Massey, D. (eds) (1995). Hardin, R. (1990) Public choice versus democracy in Chapman, J. Wertheimer, A. (eds) (1990). Leroy, P. Verhagen, K. (2003) Environmental politics: Societys capacity for political response in Blowers, A. Hinchliffe, S. (eds) (2003) Environmental Responses , Chichester, Wiley. An entry in a printed encyclopaedia or a dictionary can be cited if it was a chapter in of the newborn, a book. The editors are often given on the front of the reference book. For example: Jackman, R. (2001) Social capital in Smelser, N. Baltes, P. (eds) (2004). Journal articles are cited in a way that is quite similar to chapters in a book. The main difference really is that details about the volume and perfect competition page numbers are included, too.

The reference starts with the name and initial of the author, the year in disease newborn, brackets, the title of the article in marginal, single speech marks (not capitalized), followed by the name of the journal in italics (capitalized), and further details. Essay On Foresnic Nursing. The details of journals are commonly abbreviated as follows: the volume number followed by a colon and the page numbers of the article. If there are different numbers to revenue, a volume, this is indicated by including it in Environments Essay, brackets before the colon, if known. Online journals may not have page numbers. For example: Burt, R. (1987) Social contagion and innovation: Cohesion versus structural equivalence, American Journal of Sociology , 92:1287335. Thoits, P. Hewitt, L. (2001) Volunteer work and marginal revenue well-being, Journal of Health and Social Behaviour , 42(2):11531. Small, C. (1999) Finding an invisible history: A computer simulation experiment (in virtual Polynesia), Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation , 2(3). Valente, T. Balance Sheet. (1996) Social network thresholds in the diffusion of information, Social Networks , 18(1):6989.

Pages on the internet should be cited where used. You should bear in mind the quality of the site before citing from marginal it, but if you use a web site, reference it, too. There are many internet sites that are perfectly acceptable as sources for your essays. The reference includes the name of the author and initial, the year in brackets, the title of the document in italics, the word online in square brackets, the edwards jenner place of publication, the publisher, the words available from : followed by the URL, and the date when the document was accessed in brackets. Perfect Competition. The date is important, because unlike printed works, web sites often change their content or even disappear. Many web sites include a copyright note at the bottom, giving you an indication when the Nursing content was written. For example: Moser, P. (2005) Politik im Kanton Zuricheine Synthese [online], Zurich, Statistisches Amt des Kantons Zurich, available from: http://web.archive.org/web/20051224111845/http://www.statistik.zh.ch/statistik.info/pdf/2005_15.pdf [accessed 27th October 2005]. Chan, T. Goldthorpe, J. (2004) Social Status and Newspaper Readership [online], Oxford, Oxford University, available from: http://users.ox.ac.uk/ sfos0006/papers/news4.pdf [accessed 31st March 2005]. Newspaper articles are very similar to journal articles in the way they are cited. The key difference is that rather than the volume, the date is given.

The reference therefore includes the name and initial of the author, the year of publication in brackets, the title in single speech marks, the name of the newspaper in marginal revenue perfect competition, italics (capitalized), the date, and finally the page where the article was found. For one page its customary to use the abbreviation p. On Foresnic Nursing. , for articles running over two or more pages, the abbreviation pp. is common. For example: Cockburn, P. Usborne, D. (2004) Burning with anger: Iraqis infuriated by new flag that was designed in perfect, London, The Independent , 28th April, pp.23. Handouts from a lecture can be referenced and should be referenced if they are used as the basis of what you write. Its normally a better idea not to use lecture notes, but try to find the original referred to in the lecture. Not only will you have more control over shakespeare life, what was actually said, but also can your readers more easily access books and journal article than lecture handouts. The reference to a lecture handout includes the marginal revenue competition name and initial of the lecturer, the year in bracket, the life title of the handout in single speech marks, the words lecture notes distributed in revenue, followed by the name of the course in edwards jenner, italics, the word at competition and the name of your institution, the place, and date of the lecture. For example:

Burt, S. (2005) Survey sampling and life and works administration, lecture notes distributed in marginal, Survey Research Methods at Disclosure in Work Environments Cambridge University, Cambridge, 9th February 2005. Personal conversations are not commonly considered good sources, but if they are what you use as the basis of your essay, you should include such conversations. Its usually a good idea to have another reference to a printed piece, but sometimes this is not an option. Marginal. In terms of giving the reference, personal conversations are very easy: the name of the person you spoke to, the Essay year in brackets, the words conversation with the author and the date of the revenue perfect competition conversation. For example: Smith, E. (2004) conversation with the author 6th July 2004.

The same format can also be used for personal e-mail, or instant messengers. Once again, bear in mind the credibility of your sources. With e-mail messages its customary to include the on Foresnic Nursing e-mail address of the sender in marginal competition, brackets after the name, but its essential that you obtain consent from the author. The subject line of the e-mail is often included as the title. With all forms of personal conversation, the issue of consent is important.

Its always a very good idea to check with the edwards jenner author first. There are sometimes cases that are not so straightforward as the average book or journal article. For everything there is a solution in the academic conventions. If you refer to musical works, television programmes, or pieces of art, check with your institution how this should be done. If everything else fails, remember the function of revenue perfect referencing, and provide a reasonable amount of information for others to chase the work. Common problems include the lack of authors, unpublished documents, or lack of publisher. Where there is no author, often there is an Disclosure in Work Environments organization. Put the name of the organization. If there is no-one, its customary to put the word Anon instead of the authors name. For example: IDEA (1998) Women in Parliament: Beyond Numbers [online], Stockholm, International IDEA, available from: http://archive.idea.int/women/parl/toc.htm [accessed 28th February 2006].

UN Statistics Division (2006) Social Indicators [online], New York, UN Statistics Division, available from: http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/products/socind/inc-eco.htm [accessed 20th February 2006]. Sometimes the year of a document is marginal competition not known. Where you have a rough idea, you can put a c before the date, such as in (c.1999). Disease Of The. Where you just have no clue, there is no need to panic: simply put the word unknown instead of the year. Documents that are unpublished as such, for example a thesis or a draft article you were sent, should come with the indication that they are not published. Revenue Competition. This is easily done by william shakespeare, including the word unpublished in brackets at the end of the competition reference. William Shakespeare Life And Works. With articles sent to you, you should always ask permission to cite; just like you would with an ordinary e-mail.

For theses its common to include the kind of thesis after the title, such as PhD thesis or MA thesis . Where the name or place of the publisher is unknown a very simple solution is used: leave the information blank. This is particularly an issue with internet sites. Including the URL is in this case much more helpful than trying to guess the name of the revenue perfect publisher. Course materials provided to you are treated very similar to the lecture handouts. Give the name of the author, the year in brackets, the course code if there is one, the course title in italics (capitalized), the kind of material and its title in single speech marks, place of publication, and publisher. For example:

Peake, S. (2003) U216 Environment , Video 4 Shanghai Boom, Milton Keynes, The Open University. The Open University (2004) DD305 Personal Lives and Social Policy , CD-ROM 2 Interviews and Interviewing, Milton Keynes, The Open University. The capitalization of titles may seem a bit confusing, but it follows a simple logic: its the main title that is capitalized. In the case of balance sheet a book, the main title is that of the book. In the case of perfect competition journal articles, on the other hand, the main title is william life and works thought to be that of the marginal journal itself. It might be confusing that within the Disclosure journal, the title of an article often is capitalized.

Capitalization is not very hard to perfect competition, achieve. Put in capital letters are all nouns, proper names, the first word, verbs, and adjectives. This is in fact almost everything. Balance Sheet. Not put in capital letters are words like and , in perfect, , or , or with . Unfortunately most word processors dont capitalize properly when told to, and put every single word in capital letters, including the ands and of the withins that should not come with capital letters. Different publishers have different house styles, and you might come across a title with a word you would normally spell differently. Marginal Revenue. This is common with British and American variants, but there are other words, too, such as post-modernity . No matter how strongly you might disagree with the spelling, you should always use the sheet original spelling in the references. Its perfectly fine to change them in your essay itself, but not in the references. A good manual of style, such as the marginal revenue competition Oxford Style Manual (Ritter, 2003) will be able to give you further guidance. Many course providers have their own preferences or house styles, and edwards jenner its advisable to follow these conventions. Where there are no house styles, using a system such as the one outlined in marginal perfect, this guide in a consistent manner will be well received. Youll find full references to shakespeare life and works, every work mentioned in this book at the end.

Its difficult to write about referencing without mentioning plagiarism. Plagiarism describes the revenue perfect competition act or result where you take the words or ideas of somebody else and present them as your own. Edwards Jenner. Plagiarism is considered serious academic misconduct and can be punished severely. Most importantly, however, your reputation is on the line. The origin of the word plagiarism gives you an idea what others will think of you when you plagiarize. The word goes back to the Latin plagiarius , a thief and kidnapperin particular a child snatcher and marginal revenue perfect somebody abducting slaves.

The modern use in academia brands you a literary thief (OED, 2005). There are a number of reasons why plagiarism occurs. The worst case is deliberate plagiarism (for whatever reason). Careless work may lead to plagiarism, but is Essay not commonly considered as severe an offence as the deliberate case. Careless work is revenue competition often a sign of students working too closely to the original, and this can be easily remedied.

Without changing your habit, simply by sheet goodwill, including references to where you got the ideas from, and putting speech marks where you quote, you technically are done. Revenue Competition. In practice, you still might rely too much on the original and not deliver as good an sheet goodwill essay as you could. Deliberate plagiarism, often motivated by laziness, cant be remedied directly. At the marginal revenue time, it may seem a reasonable risk to copy from the internet, but is it really worth it? Bear in mind that there is something in for you, toothat is something in addition to the grades. The more you write, the easier it gets. If you work too closely to Environments, the original, there is a simple solution: dont write the essay with the perfect books in front of you. By so doing, there is very little danger that you copy word by word. In a way, you force yourself to make the material your own: and that is balance sheet a good thingit makes a better argument, your essay will be more original, and not least, youll also get better grades.

Rather than having the original works in front of you, try using your notes. As you still will need to put those references for the ideas you take from others, make a note whenever you do so. I use brackets with three X inside, to remind myself that I need to competition, put a proper reference. Often I remember very well who said this, so I include, for example, (Granovetter XXX) inside the text. When checking the essay, its hard not to notice the Disclosure in Work Essay triple X; and marginal revenue there is william shakespeare and works always the search facility in the word processor. By putting a place holder, I can get on marginal revenue perfect competition with the job of writing without interrupting my thoughts. Equally important, I leave some traces indicating to myself that there is some more work to be done: finding the newborn proper reference, for example.

If you think plagiarism is hard to detect by marginal revenue, your marker, think again. There are a great number of signs that give plagiarized work away. Technology-wise, your markers are likely to have the same possibilities than you have if not more. If you can copy and paste something you found on the internet, its equally easy for your marker to find it on a search engine, again. Edwards Jenner. It would, of course, be possible, to change plagiarized work to the extent that the deed is no longer easy to spot.

Usually, however, this is just as much work as writing the essay yourself. Just to give you an idea, the markers of your essay will not only have access to the same search engines than you have. There is software to scan essays for duplicates; and many institutes even have access to perfect, essay banks (sites on the internet where complete essays are sold). The most successful tool, however, is on Foresnic Nursing probably the human brain with its incredible ability to remember. If you copy from a colleague, chances are that your marker has read this one, too.

If you copy from a set reading, chances are that your marker has read this one, too. Knowing what is on the reading list helps spot essays that refer to other works a great deal, or dont refer to some of the core reading. Your marker can estimate how many readings you had time to read, or whether youre likely to have read a great number of papers on the Belgian perspective of whatever issues is marginal revenue perfect competition set in the question. An even easier sign is having the same paragraph twice in the same essay, for example. There are more subtle signs, too, such as sudden changes in The Impact of Gender Essay, style or formatting. Many people are unaware of how idiosyncratic ones writing style is. They are in revenue, fact so individual that writing styles can be used to determine how many people wrote a document, such as the Christian Bible (Jakoblich, 2001). Writing style includes the tenses we use, the level of formality, our own choice of words, the kinds of balance sheet metaphors we put, whether we use American or British English, choices over competition, punctuation, the length of sentences, or the Environments Essay use of specialist terms. Typographic signs include font size, choices of where to break paragraphs, spaces in between lines, and things like proper m- and n-dashes (when copying from electronic articles).

The presence or lack of references is often an revenue perfect easy sign: for example, where there are many references inside the text, but few at balance sheet the end, or where the citation style changes within a single essay. A marker may get suspicious where there is suddenly a section with many references, or suddenly none. Sometimes, students even include hyperlinks in references when copying from electronic journals; and have them automatically underlined by the word processor. Even where you take care of marginal revenue these issues, a paragraph copied from the internet will very unlikely link well with the rest of your essay. The style may be inappropriate, or just different. Essays from an essay bank may be internally consistent, but very rarely are they really relevant to the exact question you have been set.

In summary, you can avoid plagiarism easily. This is done by writing freely without having the books right in front of you. Instead, work with your notes, and take care to put references where you use the ideas from others. Dont use the Disclosure Essay internet to copy from, no matter how tempting it is. It will hardly ever be worth it. There is an important difference between citations and quotations. Unfortunately, confusion is commonplace; and the terms are frequently used incorrectly.

Knowing your citations from your quotations is useful when writing essays. Its essential, in fact, if you want to reference properly. Citations are about ideas you take from perfect others. Quotations are about the balance goodwill exact words used by others. This is really the whole distinction. So, when using your own words, you cite; when you use the words of someone else, you quote. Why cant a man be more like a woman? (Blankenhorn, 1995, p.117) is a quotation, because I use the exact same words Blankenhorn did. However, when stating that families in the US are increasingly defined by the absence of revenue perfect competition a father (Blankenhorn, 1995), I only use the idea, not the exact words. When putting a reference, the difference between a citation and a quotation is that for a quotation we always put a page number. This is done to enable the balance goodwill reader to check the words in the original context. In the list of references at the end of the text, there is no difference.

Short quotations are included in the text, and marginal competition enclosed by speech marks. Longer quotations are set apart from the main text by indenting the quotations, and usually putting in balance sheet goodwill, a slightly smaller font. Longer means about 3 to 4 lines or more. For example: It is true that many voters may be voting for reasons wholly unconnected with social inequalities in any of the three dimensions. Marginal. They may attach greater importance to some specific issue such as foreign affairs, or they may vote out of personal reasons or habits with which egalitarianism has nothing to do. (Runciman, 1966, p.136)

When quoting someone else, you should take great care to copy the words exactly. Sometimes, you might want to change a quote slightly in edwards jenner, order to make it fit your essay. If these changes are substantial, you should use your own words and revenue perfect competition cite the work instead. If the changes are small, use square brackets to Essay on Foresnic Nursing, indicate that you have changed the text. For example, you might quote Rawls (1999, p.87) that intelligent people dont [deserve their] greater natural capacity. I have included the words that I changed in square brackets, leaving the rest the marginal competition same. This indicates to my readers that the words in square brackets are not the exact same as Rawls used. For reference, the original reads: No one deserves his greater natural capacity (p.87). I made the The Impact changes, because I wrote about intelligent people, and Rawls was talking in more general terms. Whilst quotations can lighten up an essay, you should not rely on them too much. Marginal Perfect. Your own writing is much more important, and william shakespeare often text you quote was written for marginal revenue perfect, a different purpose.

The consequence is haemolytic newborn that the quotations may be relevant in content (what is being said), but in terms of marginal perfect competition style dont fit well with what you wrote. If you rely too much on quotations, you run the risk that your readers will think that you maybe dont really know what youre writing about: that you have not understood the haemolytic disease material well enough. When writing an essay, particularly when writing an extended essay, its easiest to put the references whilst you write. This is the case, because you still know where you got the idea from. I keep a place holder to marginal, remind myself that a reference is needed if I cant remember the author right away.

Often, I will know at william life least some of it, and write this down. By putting a place holder rather than chasing the reference right away, I can stay focused on the writing. However, I also indicate that the essay is not completed. Place holders like (Baudrillard, XXX) or (XXX last weeks reading) will help me find the full references once I completed the essay or section. References are needed whenever you write an academic piece of writing. Even where you can get away without referencing, by including references your essay will be taken more serious. Its a good habit to marginal, put references all the time, so when you really need tosuch as in your thesisyoull not struggle, or spend days trying to find out newborn how to reference a chapter in revenue competition, a book. There are a number of software packages such as Endnote , Refworks , Scholars Aid Lite , or Bibus that help you putting references. Sheet Goodwill. These computer applications interact with your word processor, and automate much of the referencing process. They manage citations, and usually let you search libraries and marginal perfect journal databases.

Useful and flexible as they are, such software packages need some time to get used to. Its thus a good idea to familiarize yourself with their working before the deadline is menacing. For example, make sure you know how to put page numbers for shakespeare and works, quotations. Even if you dont use a dedicated computer program to manage your references, it might be useful to collect references in a separate file. So, after completing your essay, copy all the references to a separate file. The next time you cite the same paper, itll be a simple case of copying and pasting, without the marginal revenue work of goodwill formatting the reference.

Keeping the full references with your notes can safe a great deal of time, too.