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Choose your favorite! Beginners find Shel Silverstein's poems wonderful starting points! Take time to and Prejudice Essay, discuss the meaning of the piece you've collectively selected (interpretation), after reading through it several times. Kansas Experiment? You need to blackberry picking heaney, do this in order to know what you hope to kansas experiment, eventually 'say! Practice speaking the piece , focusing on. Meaning of raped porn life , Music , Piece 1047 Words | 3 Pages. two sized potatoes, 6g and 10g, and placed each in experiment three different dilutions of Pride and Prejudice Essay sucrose at 0.5M, 0.1M, and 0.05M.

We also placed a 6g and 10g potato . piece in water to act as a control. Based on the weight percent change over kansas, 60 minutes, the 6g potato piece had faster water movement than the 10g. The American Revolution: Battle Of Many Essay? This confirms out hypothesis that smaller potato pieces will have a faster rate of water movement. Introduction Osmosis is the diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane. Water diffuses. Chemistry , Concentration , Osmosis 874 Words | 6 Pages. motor skills. He will need to be able to experiment, sort the pieces with similar edges, such as the Essay About the 60s Generation, outer pieces , so that they can be . properly placed. Conrad will also need to utilize his short term memory to help during the problem solving stage of kansas experiment figuring out picking which pieces fit together so that he can remember where similar pieces were sorted, as well as recall how the image should look. Additionally, the use of his fine motor skills, such as picking up the pieces and placing them in kansas the correct places, is Pride and Prejudice Essay example essential. Auto racing , Developmental psychology , Jean Piaget 1488 Words | 6 Pages.

To begin, from the many pieces of artwork I was able to view at the Miami Art Museum, I can honestly say that I chose a very distinct . piece as the most beautiful. In my opinion, the most beautiful piece is an art work made mainly from wood and some scrap metals. The artwork is experiment titled Looks like Clutter by Leonardo Drew. Leonardo Drew was born in Tallahassee, FL in 1961 and now lives in rizzolatti both Texas and New York. Kansas? The pieces of wood and scrap metal he used on this piece of About the 60s Generation art were from a burned. Art , Chuck , Miami 1022 Words | 3 Pages.

effective adjustments that are used to alter supporting elements such as colour and composition. Though these changes are unnoticeable unless theyre brought . to attention, they influence us dramatically in the way we interpret particular artworks. The two pieces I chose that, in my opinion, are examples of the experiment, communication of mood through basic principles in art are Lamentation of Saints and a Donor by Bartollonmeo Di Giovanni done in 1490 and Massacre of the Innocents done by Peter Paul Reubens in 1610. 2000s music groups , Emotion , Feeling 1255 Words | 4 Pages. conversation between two people which is what I have learned to picking seamus, do for my memorization of kansas poetry and with the technology, assigned literature, too. During this semester . of experiment class, with any given poetry assigned for Pride Essay example, memorization, I would find relations in each piece of work either by emotional bonding or creating fictional images in my head from the kansas, works when studied to help memorize them proficiently. At the start of the semester instructions were to memorize a selected poem by Emily Dickinson (336) with using. Memory , Phrase , Piece 1514 Words | 4 Pages. it, thus what they see is overlooked.

For example, in a sculpture named The Thing, detail is written all over Essay, it, but without a close observation of the . Kansas Experiment? details, all that is seen is a piece of junk and no longer useful items stuck together to make a shape. With a closer look, though, The Thing is a unique piece of art that will not easily be forgotten. In my opinion, The Thing is a sculpture that represents a lady, I use this term loosely, in the welding profession. She is reading a book or. Barbed wire , Bidet , Ear 836 Words | 3 Pages. r flowers. Essay About Technology? Central Idea: To share a new craft with the class. How to Make a Paper Flower I. Introduction A. . Anonymous once said, the earth without art is experiment just eh. B. The kind of art that Ill be sharing with you today requires two pieces of paper or two sticky notes, scissors, a glue stick, and a pencil if needed. C. My knowledge of the making of paper flowers goes back to sixth grade though I dont actually recall how I learned. D. After following the simple steps of folding. Columbus, Ohio , Cut , Musical notation 679 Words | 4 Pages.

Savoldos painting is framed along a wall of light and dark red arrows with artificial and Battle Essay natural light from above. Within this airy space deemed The Walter . Fitch III Room this painting is surrounded by various art pieces from kansas experiment around the world; most of which are religious art pieces . Raped Porn? Though each of these paintings are very unique and have much to offer the focus of this essay will be on that of the painting known as The Torment of Saint Anthony. Starting his painting in 1508 Savoldo set out to. Demon , Girolamo Savoldo , Left-wing politics 1073 Words | 3 Pages. Henrietta Jones 2.05 Can This Evidence Be Individualized? Evidence 1: A piece of torn clothing was found at a crime scene. A torn . t-shirt was found in one of the suspects car.

1. Kansas? Can the Pride and Prejudice example, torn clothing from the crime scene be individualized to the t-shirt found in the car? Why or why not? Yes. Because it could be individual evidence small glass fragments large glass fragment Evidence 2: Small pieces of glass were found in a suspects shirt pocket of kansas a breaking and entering crime. Burglary , Duct tape , English-language films 491 Words | 8 Pages. rows and eight columns. The color of the sixty-four squares alternate and is referred to about, as light squares and dark squares. The light squares are at the . right hand of the rank nearest to each player, and the pieces are set out kansas as shown in the diagram, with each queen on its own color.

The pieces are divided by convention, into white and black sets. The game starts with 2 kings, 2 queens, 4 rooks, 4 bishops, 4 knights and 16 pawns. Chess demands you to think about which way to go to win against another. Board game , Checkmate , Chess 1043 Words | 3 Pages. ?During our first Visual Arts unit, we created a self-reflection piece . We looked inside ourselves to find qualities and things that we . thought were important, then tried to combine all that into Essay About the 60s, one word that we thought described ourselves. I thought that I was like a river in the world, and so my piece is called My Gang. I chose this name mostly because of the background. When I was thinking of kansas a name for this project, I immediately thought of the Hangang (Han River) in Seoul. I think this. 2006 albums , American films , English-language films 1173 Words | 4 Pages. hour.

Mr. Seward and Mrs. Raped Porn? Coulson played five pieces together and then each play on solo. This was my first piano concert, of any kind, that I . Experiment? have attended. This was something new for Essay on Talkin’, me. The concert included seven different pieces . Claude Debussy composed three of them, La puerta del vino, Le Vent dans la Plaine, and Lisle Joyous L.106. Anton Dvoark composed the opening and closing songs, Slavic Dance Op.46 #1 and Salvonic Dance Op.46 #5.

The piece by Samuel Barber was called Souvenirs and was. Audience , Harpsichord , Jazz 939 Words | 3 Pages. ? Manufacturing A Steps involved to building a Bottle Rocket: Materials Two 2 litter soda bottles. Experiment? Cardboard pieces pre cut and measured . Picking Seamus? Duct tape Scissors, Cutters, Cutting Board, Glue etc Foam pieces for fins Vinyl Material according to colors Cotton or any Sponge type material used for the Egg Compartment Construction To build a bottle rocket, there are many steps involved. It just cannot be made out of the bloom, but has to be thought about, researched and designed properly so that the experiment, result. Corrugated fiberboard , Fin , Hot melt adhesive 1065 Words | 4 Pages.

?Jack Wang Mr. Shum ENG4U1-01 September 24, 2014 My Piece on One Piece In the pursuit of justice, the About the 60s, world shall burn to ash. . Eiichiro Odas famous manga and anime One Piece , shows a light hearted world distorted and scarred by the militarys idea of absolute justice. Kansas Experiment? Luffy is the the 60s Generation, main character of One Piece and he has a dream to be the pirate king, the person who has the most freedom in the world. To achieve this dream Luffy puts together a crew of experiment trusted allies and goes on a grand adventure. Aristotle , Eiichiro Oda , Government 1156 Words | 4 Pages. Managing diversity within organizations is no easy task. The two assigned pieces from the books of Dr. Taylor Cox Jr., Cultural Diversity in . Organizations, written in and Prejudice 1993, and Creating the kansas, Multicultural Organization: A Strategy for Capturing the Power of Diversity, written in 2001, gives insight into what organizations can do to successfully manage their diverse workforce and environment. The interesting thing is that they were written eight years apart, offering perspective of how organizations.

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The reason to make this important event happen on the September 16th is to project a fresh mood to the guests, as it is and Prejudice Essay example a hot month and. Atmosphere , Chess piece , Crystal Caves 1862 Words | 7 Pages. application of kansas judicial precedent. Binding and persuasive precedent Judicial precedents have played and continue to play an important . role in the administration of Justice under the English legal system. But they do more that this, for not only are they regarded as authoritative pronouncements of law, but certain precedents are regarded as binding upon courts which are subsequently called upon to try similar issues. Such precedents are not merely persuasive authorities which may be followed if the. Case law , Common law , Judge 1239 Words | 5 Pages.

was later to The American Revolution: The Battle Essay, be called, The Funk Ceramic Movement of the San Francisco Bay Area. In 1982, Gilhooly started exploring the kansas, media of Plexiglas, but still . produced a multitude of ceramic pieces . In 1996 he officially gave up clay to work on what he calls the shadow boxes, which are a much evolved form of the Plexiglas pieces . Slide 3 In 1965, not only was the reputation of TB-9 on the UCD campus gradually being built by Essay the 60s David Gilhooly, Robert Arneson, Margaret Dodd, Chris Unterseher, and Peter Vandenberge. Chess piece , Crocodile , David Gilhooly 915 Words | 3 Pages. Comparing and Contrasting two pieces of music. different about both pieces , but I did see a couple similarities.

And that's what I'm going to explain about in this essay: both the . Kansas Experiment? differences and raped porn the similarities of the two pieces . I'll start by explaining how I felt about both pieces . The Gavotte had a very calming affect on me. For a minute I felt as if I was in the wonderful jungle sitting and experiment listening to a peaceful waterfall and Pride example finding peace to my soul. But it also made me tap my fingers and feet. The second piece by the Hovhannes had. Debut albums , Difference , Emotion 584 Words | 2 Pages. uniqueness to how he creates his work pieces , and I found it astonishing at how fast he can get a single art piece done and kansas experiment still . be able to draw a person in blackberry picking heaney instantly. Garibaldi Paintings Some people like things they can relate to, possibly understand just to keep them interested, and I thought that some of kansas experiment his art expresses that. In the first page of this paper, some of the Pride example, images that are displayed are all from David Garibaldi. Experiment? If you have not noticed, most of the Pride and Prejudice example, pieces I have chosen to display on kansas the. Art , Chess piece , Music 1302 Words | 3 Pages.

Analysis of a Million Little Pieces. of addicts want to recover from giacomo their addiction because it is their choice to kansas experiment, change their life style and better themselves. It can be assumed that their . desire to essay, recover will lead them to become the kansas experiment, most successful patients. Essay On Talkin’ About Generation? In A Million Little Pieces by James Frey, James faced the experiment, same dilemma: Does he really want to giacomo rizzolatti, get better or does he want to drown himself in drugs? Throughout the memoir, James struggles to come to experiment, a conclusion while facing demons from his past that were waiting for him when.

A Million Little Pieces , Addiction , Better 1037 Words | 3 Pages. tourist to essay, define tourism. Kansas Experiment? It identifies that tourist (the behavioural portion) can influence the destination region; it does not however address the manner . by which the influence is realised. Leipers Tourist System does form a much stronger, persuasive definition of blackberry tourism as it does represent the influence, through the industrialisation characteristics. 2. The generalisation of this definition of a tourist means that nearly any person who enters or lives in experiment a region or town could be considered. Definition , Extensional definition , Persuasive definition 947 Words | 3 Pages. The Simplicity of Raymond Chandler's the Big Sleep.

about what I had read. In a very interesting sense, the entire novel resembles the Pride and Prejudice example, game of chess. Each character is experiment a piece , and the name of raped porn . the experiment, game is seamus survival. Though the ultimate goal in chess is to experiment, take possession of the king, the rizzolatti, underlying strategy is to eliminate as many pieces as one possibly can. This serves as insurance in the overall goal. Being that the characters/ pieces determine the experiment, direction of the goal, let us look at them to begin.

I have chosen to examine two characters in-depth. Chess , Chess piece , Crime fiction 1553 Words | 4 Pages. Historical Allegory for The American Revolution: The Battle of Many Essay, the Rise and Fall of experiment Rome. Hwang 8 Celtics AP World Huck March 28, 2013 The Search for One Piece ! (The Rise of the Roman Empire, . the fall of the Republic. The rise of Octavian Augustus and fall Julius Caesar.) There once was a pirate named Gold Rodger, he was a sly and arrogant pirate that lived his life trying to achieve three things. Wealth, fame, and power. This was the One Piece , the treasure of essay technology them all. With a bounty of 300,000,000 Belli on experiment his head, he was executed by one of.

Augustus , Battle of Actium , Julius Caesar 1364 Words | 4 Pages. The hockey stick, the most basic piece of equipment, is also the essay about technology, most confounding. While other pieces of gear either fit or dont . fit, the stick defies such a simple categorization. Its more like buying a pizza. Size is the kansas experiment, easy partoptions are where things get tricky. Stick technology has come along way from the days when players found a nice piece of giacomo hickory and started whittling.

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from a friend of mine, it had 1,500 pieces . Experiment? I havent put together a puzzle since I was a kid. Isnt it funny how we stop doing certain things . when we grow up: puzzles, coloring, playing dolls, hop scotch, hide and go seek. Things that brought us so much joy as a child, we stop doing when we reach a certain age - its a shame, isnt it? I must admit, I really enjoyed the blackberry, puzzle. Although very frustrating at times, it was a challenge. Each time I found a piece that fit, it was extremely rewarding. 2007 singles , American films , Billboard Hot Country Songs number-one singles 828 Words | 2 Pages. beautiful. Kansas Experiment? Mirror, mirror on the wall, who is the fairest of them all? The mirror quickly appeared and said My dear Queen that I adore, you look . About Technology? beautiful, but Snow Whites looks are greatly improving. The Queen dropped the mirror and it broke into kansas experiment, pieces . She was infuriated that the huntsman did not do his job.

The Queen decided to let it go, knowing that Snow White would never come back to the castle, and would never measure up to her beauty. Back at the cottage, the prince and dwarves were talking. Chess piece , DWARF , English-language films 1453 Words | 4 Pages. His First Flight by Liam O' Flaherty. Even there threats were not more than useless attempt. Essay On Talkin’ The 60s Generation? At last he was left alone, hungry and unattended. His parents thought, that, one day by the hands of . hunger he will definitely join them.

The young seagull was alone on kansas his ledge. He found some pieces of fish to eat but after that he was left with nothing. He became impatient with hunger and search every inch of his ledge for food. He ran to the brink of the ledge and The Essay attempted to fly but sue to lack of courage he could not succeed. He had been. Family , Gull , Mother 638 Words | 2 Pages. become the victor. Kansas Experiment? Chess develops logical thinking. Chess requires some understanding of logical strategy. For example, you will know that it is . important to bring your pieces out into the game at rizzolatti, the beginning, to keep your king safe at all times, not to make big weaknesses in your position and not to blunder your pieces away for free. (Although you will find yourself doing that occasionally through your chess career. Mistakes are inevitable and chess, like life, is kansas a never-ending learning process.

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Turn your notes into writing using the Cornell method. This post is by Dr Katherine Firth who works in Academic Skills at the University of kansas Melbourne, with a particular interest in technology, research student literacies. Basically, Katherine is kansas experiment, a Thesis Whisperer, like me. Of Many Essay! Unlike me, Katherine is still an kansas experiment active researcher in her field of 20 th -century poetry. Over coffee Katherine told me about the Cornell Method and kindly agreed to write a post. I found it enlightening, I hope you do too. I take a lot of notes . Battle! Even when I was doing my PhD and I was taking thousands of pages of notes, I took them by kansas, hand. Blackberry Heaney! I tried using a computer, but there are so many things that are really hard to do on screen (drawing an arrow to make a connection between points, for example) that are really quick on paper. Kansas Experiment! Also, you only need one hand to raped porn write notes, but two hands to type.

And that free hand comes in useful for holding open books, grasping coffee cups, or stuffing your face with Gummi bears. Now that Im working with lots of PhD students, I find that they also take a lot of kansas notes. Years and years of notes. Essay! Notes about field work. Notes about kansas experiment, interviews. Notes about lab results.

Notes about The American The of Many Essay, books theyve read. Kansas! And then they get stuck. Because they have to turn the Pride notes into a thesis. And thats really hard. The reason I think its so hard, is because when you take notes you focus your attention on the text (or case study, or thing under your microscope). You focus towards that thing. Then you have to turn completely around and face your thesis, and kansas experiment write towards that instead. (See Figure 1). Even if you see note taking and research as a cycle of about reading and writing, you still focus towards the research, then towards the essay, then towards the kansas research, then towards the and Prejudice example essay. Ive tried lots of different ways of getting around this.

For my most recent article I just typed the quotes straight in. It was really quick to write, but it was a disaster as far as the bibliography was concerned; and I kept losing content that I edited out and then wanted to put it back in. But then I discovered the Cornell Method . The Cornell Method was invented about sixty years ago (see Walter Pauks 1962 classic How to Study at College, now in experiment, its tenth edition), though I only found out about it last month. It incorporates a lot of what I was doing alreadyproviding spaces for notes, and margins for reactions, connections and comments. But it takes it further, and adds some very cool functions. Firstly, the template gives you less space to write notes . You arent supposed to record everything you see, or even everything that is interesting. Having fewer lines to Essay write notes encourages you to be selectivejust to chose the quotes or paraphrases or details you expect to include in your thesis. Its so liberating.

And its so quick. In under an hour, I went from opening the book for the first time to producing the notes in Figure 2. Secondly, the template gives you a bigger margin than in a usual ruled note book. This is kansas experiment, where you put key words, identify themes, or recurrent patterns . This is great to helping you to analyse what youre putting down, and to find the relevant quote when you go back to it. It also helps you to stay on track. And Prejudice Essay! You can check: are my key words the same as the ones in my research question / thesis title?

But thirdly, and most valuably, the template gives you a big space at the bottom to write sentences that summarise the page. That is, you start writing your critical response on the notes themselves . When I sat down for hour of Shut Up and Write last week with only this page of notes and my laptop, I didnt have to kansas spend any time thinking about how I would turn my notes into my writing, because my notes were already facing in the right direction. My notes were already my writing plan, my topic sentences, my argument. In 50 minutes, I produced 1200 words . Thats a full draft of the whole section. I think thats a win. Hopefully this is helpful so you can win too! If you are interested, here is some further Reading: So Im wondering, do any of you use this method to take notes? Does it work for you?

Do you have any tweaks to suggest? The whole idea behind Scrivener just looks a lot like this. How good! I developed a system in doing my PhD which I am now using for my subsequent research and rizzolatti writing. Kansas! As a professional writer, the publishable product was always a high priority. Essay On Talkin’ About! My goal was for all notes to kansas experiment be fully searchable and lose nothing. I went close. I have colour coded excercise books for different aspects of the and Prejudice Essay research. Kansas! These now number about 50 and growing!

As I read any document or do any thinking, I dictate into voice recognition software or cut and paste from the article. Confession: as I was reading, I would lightly pencil mark the giacomo rizzolatti margin of the kansas experiment bit I wanted to dictate in and then erase the pencil once it was entered. I actually ended up cleaning up lots of library books. I cut and paste the Pride and Prejudice EndNote reference to the top of the document. That habit made sure I had always entered the reference in EndNote and always had the year available for experiment referencing. I use all capitals for key words so they stand out, and page number every part. Every reference is noted at the top and which notebook it is in. I highlight (in Word) key passages and then summarise at Pride and Prejudice Essay example the end in kansas, the form which suits the thesis / books / papers.

If I use that passage in the thesis, say, I dictate IN THESIS CHAPTER 5 as well. I am always aware that may change with editing, but at The American Revolution: The Battle of Many Essay least it gives my original thinking. These bits were then cut and kansas pasted into the Word document for raped porn that chapter, later to be worked and reworked into the thesis. Experiment! Voice recognition becomes very accurate with a lot of use. I then print the summary and glue it into giacomo the exercise book so I can hand annotate in spaces left, just as for the Cornell Method. For some reason I need things in hard copy. My husband, now doing his doctorate, does a similar process, but has no intention of printing.

I also add images, relevant emails and other bits and pieces into experiment the note books. And Prejudice Example! I love the feel and sound of the notebooks as I use them! The beauty of having everything electronically is the experiment searching. I realised late in the doctorate that one aspect i had not really considered very important, was critical. One search, and I had every summary which included key words. I could do the same for authors. It may sound obsessive, but it was much faster than hand writing and Pride became an efficient habit. If I was out and experiment about, I would hand write and then dictate from raped porn, my notes. Of the 750 or so items in kansas experiment, the bibliography, I have over 500 summaries.

Some did not warrant summary. Raped Porn! All those summaries were in the cloud and I could call up any of them on kansas my iPad when travelling for research, or in discussion with my supervisor or others. Over the giacomo four years, my system became more organised and efficient. I am now working on kansas a number of books arising from the thesis, and am finding my system really paying off. And Im adding to it with the new research. Love the and Prejudice example Thesis Whisperer! that really is awesome, lynne! i do something similar (without the kansas voice recordings) in on Talkin’, notability it lets you type, handwrite/draw, and highlight. you can also add photos, web clips, textboxes, and recordings (that sync with your typing if done simultaneously), if you like. my ipad has turned into a e-scrapbook with all my notability files organized into folders by experiment, course/topic, which are sorted into sections (mostly by term, but i do have one dissertation section). since notability already allows me to share with google drive evernote (just two of many choices), the only thing i need is for them to raped porn add zotero to the mix! for now, i can just use one of the other services as a proxy. (lol, i just realized im starting to sound like a notability salesperson. i really do love that app, though!)

Lynne, thats an interesting method. But I dont understand the purpose of gluing the summaries into physical notebooks. Would it be possible to share a photo of such a notebook? About using dictation software, that is experiment, also really interesting. Revolution: Of Many Essay! However, the challenge here is kansas, that it is not always possible to giacomo rizzolatti talk aloud (if reading in a public place for example). I recon that to be the reason of experiment marking the citations. Did you actually write your remarks in the books also, to be dictated later into a word document? Would it be nice if you could simply highlight the giacomo rizzolatti text you wanted to use in kansas experiment, the PDF, dictate or type your own reflections to that phrase, and Essay Generation somehow tag/thematise it. I still miss the kansas experiment perfect note taking tool that would integrate this whole process and would integrate the themes/tags with headings in essay about technology, a Word document, automagically sorting the notes/annotations along with the quotes, into kansas experiment your own thesis structure. Such a tool should also integrate a smart phone or tablet for Pride and Prejudice example reading and taking/tagging notes, with a proper pc for doing the structuring and writing.

Wow, Lynne, thats a very organised system! I think having a system is so importantbecause, as you say, it makes you efficient! Since finishing my PhD, my research projects have become much more ad hoc (a bit of Judith Wright, a bit of Ezra Pound, a bit of TS Eliot, a bit of Adorno, a bit of Dada just this year). Kansas Experiment! The Cornell method is perfect for that kind of new entry into a project. Its also amazing how much the cloud and search technology has changed storing and blackberry seamus heaney creating knowledge. As a PhD student I had to keep emailing myself my documents to work on it away from kansas, my (home) desk, and EndNote lived on about my desktop and experiment no-where else And Scrivener + Cornell that would be interesting to About the 60s Generation see how that works for you, knelistonie! yes!

I used to teach Cornell Notes to kansas experiment my students as part of my overview of notetaking study skills. I never liked the method for my own work i prefer to scribble all over a pdf using Notability. When I cant do that, I take notes via Kindle (these are more like what I could just copy/paste into a paper). And, lastly, when I cant do that, I take in different colors electronically. Ill put up headers, as needed, move chunks around if my thoughts begin to flow.

I used to Pride and Prejudice Essay love marking up paper books, but I rarely do so anymore because its more time consuming to look through tape flags for something I need. of course now that i think of it, my adding headings is sort of experiment like the blackberry heaney cornell method; just without the space restrictions. thats the kansas part that never worked for me, lol. Using Scrivener, I accomplish about the same thing. The ability to About Generation add metadata, including notes and key words and to colour code sections of writing, coupled with having different kinds of kansas experiment sections (note cards, text, etc, plus document metadata for sections within each of example these or the whole project) is kansas experiment, hands down a winner. I can add in any drawn or found images/diagrams, including the giacomo conceptual diagrams I hand draw on an iPad/iPhone. Kansas Experiment! Scrivener plays well with Endnote. Essay Technology! And add in apps like Notability (mentioned above) or IndexCard, Writer etc and its a nice, portable and back-upable system. I still hand write some things, but try to regularly scan/transcribe.

The result is an electronic version of experiment everything that is immediately ready for assembly. (my hardest habit to break is redundancy in on Talkin’ the 60s, note taking, electronic or hand written. Experiment! Its not so much with readings as with my own synthesis/analysis or brainstorming. I bet Ive written the same thing 12 times before I finally connect all the about technology dots.) For those of you using Notabilitywhat stylus do you use?

Thats my biggest sticking point at the moment! (and yes, like Cam, redundancy is my biggest bugbear! Which is why I love the constriction of the paper, of the A4 sheet, of the tiny space). im using the adonit jotpro. its about $20-$25, but writes more like a pen than any of kansas experiment those eraser-shaped styli. and its heavy so that you feel more connected. Thanks Amanda, Im ordering one now! TTW: some great ideas here, and ive reposted. Blackberry Heaney! Thx for sharing! RT. Katherine, thanks for this Could you kindly share also the 1200 words you produced?

It would be interesting to see how you got from notes to your own text. Hi Peter, Im afraid those words are now drafted into oblivionand are in press as I write. What I normally do, though, is use my summary sentence as a topic sentence. Then I plug in the quotes / facts / points from the kansas keyword tags and raped porn notes. Then I expand them to explain what the quotes mean (very important when its poetry). Finally, I string them together with some pointing phrases, a couple of howevers, therefores and kansas (my writing tic) moreovers. Then I do it again. Thanks, Katherine. Essay Example! Interesting approach to kansas experiment writing. This is actually pretty close to what many academics do, instinctively. (One of the joys of my job is being allowed to ask people How do you write?.) Ive just codified it.

We loved this post from the essay technology Thesis Whisperer and wanted to share it with you! The Thesis Whisperer is a newspaper, published once a week, which focuses on everything related to writing a thesis. Check it out! This can be really helpfull. I will try this for the next papers to wirte. Currently I am facing the same stress (actually, I am in the Shut up and Write stage of my current paper, not working at all, as you can imagine when you see me writing this comment). Anyway, tahnks for that info. Experiment! I will try to raped porn test it. Reblogged this on fyeyes und kommentierte: Ein wirklich erfrischender Artikel uber das Schreiben einer Dissertation / Abschlussarbeit und das dazugehorige note-taking!

thats the best way to apply this method in a digital way? or is it possible only kansas, with a note book? You actually make it seem so easy along with your presentation but I find this topic to be really one. thing which I think I might by no means understand. It seems too complicated and essay about technology extremely wide for me. Im taking a look forward to your next submit, Ill try to get the dangle. hi hows it goinI amamazingi love your weblog. Im having a great deal of problem with the reading, noting, writing process related to my PhD lot review (education doctorate) so much so that Im considering giving up and doing something else.

Is the Cornell method meant to kansas experiment result in approximately one sheet per paper read? When I take notes I write a lot and by the time I read, note and write up my notes into retrievable segments Ive probably taken 2 or 3 days and forgotten why I was reading the article in the first place. By the way Im doing a part time PhD with a full time job (50-80 hour per week). So is the blackberry picking heaney aim one page of noted per Cornell sheet per article? Yes, the experiment aim is to reduce the amount of notes you take. It sounds to The American Revolution: Essay me like you are reading without a theme or two to guide your note taking and are, instead, essentially recording the article in your own words. Id recommend generating a couple of keywords and using those to kansas decide if you take a note or not. Best of luck. Hi, FYI you can create free online Cornell Notes on giacomo

I am really surprised most people make do with a more or less random way of taking and kansas experiment reviewing notes (when I see people highlight every other line of their notes, its really annoying!) Hi there just wanted to give you a quik heads up and let you know a few. of the images arent loading correctly. Im not sure why but I think its a linking issue. Ive tried it in two different web browsers and both show. the same results. Pretty nice post. I just stumbled upon your blog and wished to say that.

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shard your site in kansas, my social networks. Thanks for providing the best tips. Of Many Essay! These will sure help me in improving of my writing skills. Just starting my PhD and I am finding a combination of Scrivener, Endnote and MindNode working really well. MindNode is mind mapping software (you have to be comfortable with spatial representations). Experiment! My early stage process is find a document that is interesting journal articles for me at the present time.

Attach the giacomo doc to an Evernote note with Article Title as heading. Open the kansas pdf and use mark up tools etc. to giacomo annotate the pdf as you read. Kansas Experiment! Save. Copy the note link. Go to the mind map that contains the logical structure of what you are working on Lit Review for me. Make a new node in the best logical location. Revolution: Essay! Insert the Evernote note link. This link will then click through to kansas the article on Evernote. Add more commentary or write the paragraphs in the mind map that will become the draft thesis text in the same or another node. Pride And Prejudice! Use the mindmap to restructure your logic and connect/reconnect the kansas experiment logic. I am not yet at this stage but I intend bringing this material into Scrivener.

The Scrivener cards approach some of the functionality of the mind map but dont provide the blackberry heaney same spatial flexibility. Interested to know others methods. We stumbled over here by a different page and thought I might check things out. I like what I see so now i am following you. Look forward to checking out your web page for kansas experiment a second time. Ive finally written the first draft of my first chapter of my honours thesis and I have found that my method of note taking has really worked for me so far. As Im reading something, I had a Word doc open and I will put quotes in there and then discuss my opinion, do I agree, disagree, why, why not etc, and then discuss how this point is relevant to my thesis. Pride And Prejudice! Not just quotes though, If a particular thing in a book or article raises an idea, I will go ahead and type. My first chapter was written in a matter of hours because all I had to kansas experiment do was go back and look at my notes and there all the Revolution: Battle of Many Essay material was, with page numbers etc. I also forgot to note that the word doc only experiment, holds notes for one article or book etc.

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thiss web site is really nicfe and the people are genuinely sharing nice thoughts. Well this was quite enlightening! Thank you for sharing this great way of taking notes and turning them into a usable structure. I have implemented it and kansas I found taking notes in one column and then taking notes on my notes in the other works best for me right now. I am sure it will evolve some more but right now it serves the purpose of making new connections and constantly clarifying what Im writing and why Im writing. This is giacomo, really very informative blog which I have found luckily while searching something similar on the net. Very interesting.

I always take notes and kansas key word for reference when I read or study. The Thesis Whisperer is dedicated to blackberry helping research students everywhere. It is experiment, edited by Dr Inger Mewburn, director of research training at The Australian National University. The Thesis Whisperer has contributors from around the Essay About Generation world. Read our about page if you are interested in writing for experiment us.

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andria hall resume Enter your address: Indiana University Basketball Coach Bob Knight Fired. THIS IS A RUSH TRANSCRIPT. THIS COPY MAY NOT BE IN ITS FINAL FORM AND MAY BE UPDATED. ANDRIA HALL, CNN ANCHOR: We begin with the kansas experiment controversy surrounding Indiana University basketball coach Bob Knight, who, as of today, is unemployed. School officials fired coach Knight today, ending his remarkable 29-year career at Indiana University. The school launched an investigation Friday into allegations that Knight abused a student. Pride And Prejudice Essay Example. Knight, under a no tolerance policy after a 1997 incident, has denied the kansas experiment accusations. The president of Indiana University, Myles Brand, has scheduled a news conference today for, at The American Revolution: Battle Essay about 4:15 Eastern time. And, of experiment, course, CNN will bring that to you live when it happens. But right now, let's take you to The American Essay CNN's Jeff Flock.

He is kansas, joining us by raped porn telephone on his way to Indiana -- Jeff. JEFF FLOCK, CNN CORRESPONDENT: Indeed, Andria, CNN has learned today that Indiana coach Bob Knight, as early as -- as recently as this morning had offered to experiment apologize for the incident last week, in picking seamus heaney which a 19-year-old student said that he cursed at him and grabbed him by the arm and experiment, abused him in some way. The American Battle. Through an intermediary, the coach apparently offering an apology. Kansas. Bob Knight now out of the country, two sources telling me that he is in Canada right now. Offering to make the apology, but apparently not enough. The American. The university deciding to go forward with the discipline that they had promised back in May if Knight had any inappropriate physical contact with a member of the university. HALL: Jeff Flock, of course, on kansas experiment the way to the -- on the way to Indiana, so, of course, we've lost signal with him on his cell phone. We'll try to get him back for you later on -- Gene.

GENE RANDALL, CNN ANCHOR: A university spokesman says today's news conference will focus on the investigation and the allegation that sparked it. A 19-year-old freshman, Kent Harvey, says Knight grabbed him and technology, berated him last week at the Bloomington campus when he addressed the coach by his last name. Knight says those accusations are absolutely, totally untrue. He says Harvey is the stepson of a very vocal critic, a former radio talk show host, Mark Shaw. (BEGIN VIDEO CLIP) BOB KNIGHT, INDIANA UNIVERSITY BASKETBALL COACH: As I try to kansas experiment slide through the door kind of about, sideways, as does this kid, to get through the door. Right about even with the kansas door, this kid looks at me and says, Hi, Knight. And as he's moving I put my hand on the inside of his elbow and I looked at on Talkin’ the 60s him and kansas experiment, I said, Son, my name isn't Knight for you. It's coach Knight or it's Mr. Essay On Talkin’ About The 60s Generation. Knight. I don't call people by their last names and neither should you. And I took a couple of experiment, steps, he took a step or so, and he said, Well I'm sorry, I -- whatever.

And I said, Just remember, when you're talking to elders, what I've said. Raped Porn. And with that, he stuck his hand forward, I don't know whether to shake hands or what, and mumbled something and eventually -- Good-bye Knight. And I just kept on walking. And I said to kansas myself, I don't think I reached him. With that -- so that is what happened. And that's entirely what happened and any deviation from that is absolutely inaccurate. KENT HARVEY, INDIANA UNIVERSITY FRESHMAN: I don't usually see celebrities every day, and I was kind of, like, a little nervous talking to him anyways and, like, he kind of gave me this weird look and, like, he grabbed my arm and rizzolatti, he kind of, like, got in my face and just said a couple comments, like, pretty -- I don't know, it was pretty wild. He kind of kansas experiment, got in my face and he kind of blew up and the -- I mean he wasn't yelling at me, but he wasn't happy at all, he was very upset. And, just because I called him by about his last name, I suppose. He wanted me to call him coach or Mr. Knight or whatever, I don't know.

I wasn't really -- I couldn't really -- I wasn't listening very well because I was so nervous and I was so shocked at what was happening. RANDALL: Knight's temper and behavior have long been seen as image problems for Indiana University. Let's go back now to Jeff Flock, our phone connection is back up. Jeff, you're in Indiana, I know. Kansas Experiment. FLOCK: Yes, Gene. Also at The American The of Many that press conference, I can tell you that several members of the kansas Indiana University basketball team will be there in attendance as well.

And we believe that, at the conclusion of the university's press conference, they will have a press conference of their own. Several players had indicated earlier that if Bob Knight were to be (UNINTELLIGIBLE) from giacomo rizzolatti Indiana, that they, too, may decide to kansas experiment exit the seamus university. I guess we'll have to see -- Gene. RANDALL: Jeff Flock reporting to us live on the phone from Indiana. A long-time friend of Bob Knight is kansas experiment, newspaper columnist Billy Reed, of the Lexington Herald, in Kentucky. And he is on the phone.

How long have you been friends, Mr. Reed? Billy Reed are you there? Well, I guess not -- Andria. HALL: Thank you Gene. We'll try -- thank you Gene, we'll try to get that for you later. Essay Generation. You know what breaking news is like. Knight's behavior came under the media spotlight last spring when CNN/Sports Illustrated reported on a former player's charge that Knight choked him during a 1997 practice.

Mike Galanos, of CNN/Sports Illustrated joins me now for more on that and on today's developments. Mike, before we get to the report, I noticed in Jeff Flock's beeper just now, he says that his sources tell him that Bobby Knight is in Canada ready to kansas apologize, but if he's denying the allegations, if he's denying the Essay on Talkin’ Generation charges, what's there to apologize for? MIKE GALANOS, CNN/SPORTS ILLUSTRATED CORRESPONDENT: Well, you figure, again, it was a no tolerance -- a zero tolerance policy. And coach Knight was already talking about experiment that, that they had painted him into a corner. And how was he going to on Talkin’ About the 60s Generation act under this? And you knew that people were going to bait him. He's a stepson of kansas experiment, a very vocal, former radio host, very vocal critic of coach Knight and, you know, he baited him. You don't think that toilet paper was going to About the 60s Generation be streamed from kansas experiment basketball rafters throughout the season?

Everybody trying to get at coach Knight to giacomo rizzolatti get him to step over experiment, that line; and here it happens before the giacomo season, by a 19-year-old student. Coach Knight needed to experiment really reign himself in, and giacomo, even if he grabbed the young man by his arm, who is coach Knight to be giving manners. HALL: Etiquette lessons. GALANOS: Etiquette lessons, thank you. HALL: Now, your report, Sports Illustrated, broke the story about the 1997 incident. What was it surrounding that that caused the internal investigation by Indiana U.? GALANOS: Well, all of a sudden you look at the Indiana basketball program and here's Indiana basketball: They're not winning like they once were. And players who seem to be made for Indiana basketball were leaving the university. Here's the video of coach Knight grabbing the kansas throat of Neil Reed and, pretty much, that's what precipitated our investigation. Some say we were on Pride a witch hunt -- we were not.

It was a story that begged to be told. We told the story and found out kansas some things that really were shocking and needed to Essay About Generation be found out. HALL: What can you tell us about kansas Bob Knight's background, about his personality, that makes him more of a liability than an asset? I mean, this one of the most successful college basketball coaches in the country. GALANOS: Yes; here's a guy, he's 116 wins away from Dean Smith for all-time victories. 3 national titles, numerous awards and players, Isaiah Thomas, to name a few, that have been great Big 10 players and went on to have great NBA careers.

But you start looking at his behavior. He throws a chair across a basketball court. A scuffle with Puerto Rico police. He kicked his son Pat Knight; and also, then, the Neil Reed incident. So all of a sudden, coach Knight is blackberry seamus, now not painting the university in a very good light. And that's what he was told: If you, basically, degrade us one more time you're out, and it looks like that's what's happened.

HALL: But there's a difference when you're winning, and the tolerance for that, than when you're losing. GALANOS: Indeed. Kansas Experiment. And they weren't winning like they used to. Yes, they get the 20 wins, but they're getting bounced out on Talkin’ About Generation of the tournament in kansas experiment the first or second round; so all of a sudden, what's going wrong with coach Knight? And if you're a player out giacomo there -- I talked to some players, some young players who played for a coach that yelled.

And immediately the correlation came that, the guy thinks he's Bob Knight. So all of a sudden, young players out there, do you really want to go to play for Indiana? Probably not if you're going to have to be abused, and kansas experiment, you hear all this. Pride And Prejudice Essay. There are so many other universities out kansas experiment there, so many coaches now who are more player coaches, and not the yeller type. Essay About. The old Lombardi-type coach, that yelled and ruled by intimidation. It doesn't seem to work as much anymore. And when you don't win as much, people are less tolerant of that kind of behavior. HALL: So you're pretty much categorizing Bob Knight in a box of old -- of days gone by? GALANOS: He's an old-school coach.

HALL: He's an kansas experiment, old-school coach. On Talkin’ Generation. HALL: Which may attribute to him winning the kansas way he did. GALANOS: Yes, great coach, as you alluded to. All the wins. But at some point, when you don't win as much and people start pointing the --getting you under that microscope a little bit more -- what's going wrong here? Maybe you need to change your ways; and it looks like he hadn't. HALL: So it becomes a quality of life issue for these players, all of them very talented if they're going to Indiana University to play for them in the first place. Let me read you a quote from CNN wires by raped porn Bob Knight. He says: I would have to be an absolute moron, an absolute moron, with the experiment things that have been laid down on blackberry picking seamus heaney me, to grab a kid in public and kansas, curse at raped porn a kid, in public, as apparently it's been said that I did; and this is absolutely, totally untrue.

Now he wants to apologize. GALANOS: You make a very good point. You wonder. I mean, we all wish we were there to see who's embellishing on the story and what the real truth is. You have the students saying he's cursed at coach Knight; and experiment, you've got to essay think that he would be, have to be an absolute moron. As I stated before, people are going to experiment -- were going to rizzolatti bait him. Now that the bait has been taken and coach Knight's on his way out, but -- it's almost shocking that he would take it so early and by someone so young. HALL: But let's also look at the circumstances surrounding this particular young man. His stepfather has been an outspoken critic of experiment, coach Bob Knight; is it completely fair to think that we have all the facts and raped porn, that we know all the details without assuming that there may have been an ax to grind? GALANOS: You make a good point. I mean, Hey Knight, what's up.

That is not the most respectful way -- I wouldn't, you know -- when I was 19 I wouldn't talk to somebody that age like that. But then again, if you're Bob Knight, you got to known that kind of thing is kansas experiment, coming. And here's a guy who -- a young man, his stepfather a vocal critic of coach Knight. He threw the bait out essay technology there. And maybe he wasn't -- maybe that's just a young guy, and that's the way talks to people -- his elders. I don't know. HALL: There's a sports writer for Lexington Harold who's a very close friend of Bob Knight's, reportedly. Kansas Experiment. Billy Reed, you know, we tried to Revolution: of Many get that interview. Kansas Experiment. He predicts, to you folks, to CNN/SPORTS ILLUSTRATED, that coach Knight is going to be back at work for About Generation another team as soon as next season. Experiment. What's your take on that?

GALANOS: I don't think so. I think that, you look at on Talkin’ the 60s Generation a guy like Jerry Tarkanian who, at UNLV, was under a lot of scrutiny there. He finally got another chance at Fresno State. Maybe there's at program out kansas there that would give coach Knight another shot. Revolution: Of Many. I don't think so. Kansas Experiment. I think, if you're a university, you're better served to picking seamus heaney give someone else a shot. Bob Knight comes, now, with a lot of baggage. A lot of wins, three national championships, but now the baggage.

And you wonder, how many kids, again, are going to come and want to play for coach Bob Knight at a university?. Experiment. HALL: Tell us about the story that Sports Illustrated broke four months ago regarding this '97 incident. GALANOS: Well, one of our producers, Robert Abbott -- here's a guy who, some have said, even coach Knight himself said that Robert Abbott had an ax to raped porn grind against him. Robert Abbott went to Florida State. You know, it wasn't like he went to Michigan and had this ax to kansas experiment grind against Indiana basketball. It was, again, a situation where you have Indiana basketball and a story that needed to be looked into. Why are kids leaving this program -- kids that, again, seem to be made for picking seamus Indiana basketball? So Robert Abbott spent nearly a year inside, talking to kansas experiment people, and he had a chance to talk with Neil Reed and others who did not paint coach Knight in a very good light.

Now other players, Alan Henderson, Isaiah Thomas -- some big name NBA players, and Isaiah had a great career -- they defend coach Knight. And coach Knight seems like the kind of guy, you hear the stories that, hey, some players he went after. Picking Heaney. He was going to be a little more verbally abusive toward them -- they were his doormat, in a sense. Kansas Experiment. And tough, hard-nosed, yelling coaches like that, they're going to go after certain players because, maybe they think they can take it, or this is the guy I can pick on. Maybe another player can't take it. About. So, all of a sudden, maybe coach Knight couldn't read that anymore, who really could and who couldn't take it. And maybe he needed to back off and change with the kansas times a little bit. HALL: And just, very quickly, what do you suppose Bob Knight is feeling right now. GALANOS: I -- if you're Bob -- you don't know what he's thinking. Seamus. But if I had to kansas experiment guess, it's got to be one of shock.

Such a wonderful career on about technology the basketball court; 29 years. You're so close to Dean Smith to becoming the all-time winningest coach and it's, really -- in a year's time it all just comes unraveling on kansas experiment you. He's got to be just, in almost depression I would imagine. HALL: As they say, life is what happens when you're making other plans. Mike Galanos from Sports Illustrated, thanks for that insight. And we're going to get you to the news conference as soon as we possibly can, but right now let's take you to essay about technology Gene Randall in Washington. Kansas. RANDALL: And, Andria, you mentioned Billy Reed of The Lexington Herald in Kentucky. He is a long-time friend of Bob Knight.

Mr. Reed are you there? BILLY REED, THE LEXINGTON HERALD: I sure am. How are you? RANDALL: Fine. How long have you been friends with the coach? REED: I'd say 25 to 30 years. I covered him soon after he took the job at Army in about technology the 1960s. RANDALL: Have you spoken to Bob Knight since all of this broke? REED: Yes, I spoke with him Friday night for about 10 minutes and experiment, he told me that he thought this was just the most unfair thing he's seen; and, you know, I told him, I said, you know, Bob, you just have to walk away.

I don't care what anybody says, what happens. You just have to walk away. And Prejudice Example. And he told me, he said, well Billy, I've got to experiment live my life, I can't live my life in a vacuum. And I think that was going to be the real problem that was going to face him this year, is how do you live a normal life when you're Bob Knight under these kind of circumstances? RANDALL: Did he foresee this day's turn of events at all? REED: I don't think so at all, and I don't believe the so-called conspiracy theories. The American Revolution: Of Many Essay. I think it's a really bizarre, you know, coincidence that this particular kid would be the one. But, no, I just don't think he foresaw this at all.

RANDALL: Did he indicate to you that there was any element of kansas, truth in the charges this 19-year-old student made? REED: No. He felt like it was just totally blown out of proportion, and, you know, what I told him, I said, well, but you could face that over The of Many Essay, and over and over again. You've just got to, no matter what anybody says to you, you've just got to just walk away. RANDALL: Was there any kind of fatalism in experiment coach Knight's attitude, in that many people felt this was simply something waiting to happen? If not now, a year from now, or six months from now. REED: I think a lot of people felt that, but I tell you, I was one of the so-called Silly Seven or Sympathetic Seven who met with him at a press conference last Spring, and knowing Bob as well I do, I really had the blackberry picking seamus heaney sense that he had taken this on as a challenge. That he was going to prove to people that he could deal with this; and I felt, on his behalf, I felt pretty good about that.

RANDALL: And what do you think coach Knight will be remembered for most -- his coaching or this? REED: Well, that's a good question. I've likened him -- I've likened the situation earlier to president Clinton. I mean, I think you're talking about two individuals who are brilliant in many ways, and gifted and talented, and yet each one had kind of a fatal flaw. And with President Clinton, I think we know what that was, and experiment, with coach Knight I think it was his temper. Rizzolatti. And, unfortunately, I think each probably could have had a much greater legacy had it not been for these fatal flaws. RANDALL: And Mr.

Reed, in your heart of kansas experiment, hearts are you surprised at The American The Battle the way things turns out? REED: I'm not surprised, but I hope it's good, both for Indiana, the university and I hope it's good for Bob Knight. I think he's going to coach again and I think the whole atmosphere up there has gotten just, kind of, poisonous; and this might just be a good thing for both parties. RANDALL: Billy Reed of The Lexington Herald, thanks very much, thanks for being with us -- Andria. HALL: Thank you Gene. We want to get more perspective, now, from CNN/SI's Mike Galanos. Experiment. Can you tell us -- we just heard from Billy Reed -- he said that his friend is shocked. Do you think he should have been shocked? GALANOS: Yes, in the sense, with the way it way down.

A 19-year-old kid walking past him on campus, in September. We're not even in the midst of the basketball season. You know, it's -- I think if you had to write a script it would have been, maybe, at Michigan, and some wild wolverine fan would have gotten in his face. I think that's what we expected more than someone in his own backyard. But people in Indiana, there were those that were against him, as this all wound down. Rizzolatti. HALL: We're going to kansas take you to rizzolatti Indiana right now, where there is a live news conference underway, just about to kansas start, regarding the blackberry heaney firing of coach Bobby Knight. CHRISTOPHER SIMSPON: Good afternoon. My name is Christopher Simpson. Experiment. I'm the vice president of The of Many Essay, public affairs and government relations for Indiana University. Experiment. On my immediate left is Indiana University President Myles Brand.

On the far left is Vice President of the picking Board of Trustees Frederick Eichhorn. President Brand will have a statement, Mr. Eichhorn will then follow with a statement, and we'll open it to your questions. Experiment. MYLES BRAND, PRESIDENT, INDIANA UNIVERSITY: Thank you all for coming today. We've completed an investigation into the recent allegations involving Indiana University basketball coach Bob Knight, and essay about technology, I'd like to report on the findings of that investigation and other events involving coach Knight. Experiment. On May 15th of this year I announced to the 60s you findings of a seven- week investigation into three allegations raised by a former student athlete.

At that time we made clear what is acceptable behavior for kansas experiment coach Knight. For that reason, on on Talkin’ Generation May 15th we announced that coach Knight was being given a series of experiment, sanctions and one last chance under zero-tolerance policy. Let me remind you how we define the the 60s Generation sanctions and how we define the zero-tolerance policy. And I quote: As a result of kansas experiment, that review, which found a pattern of inappropriate behavior the on Talkin’ the 60s sanctions for coach Knight are a three-game suspension during the regular 2000-2001 season and a $30,000-dollar fine, which will be withheld from his salary. Two: Any verifiable, inappropriate physical contact discovered in kansas the future with players, members of the university community or others in connection with his employment at IU will be cause for immediate termination. Three: Public presentations and other occasions during which coach Knight is a representative of Indiana University will be conducted with the essay about appropriate decorum and civility.

Included among these occasions are interactions with the news media. Failure to do so will be cause for further sanction, up to and including termination from the position of kansas, basketball coach. Four: A task force will be established to develop policies for appropriate behavior for Revolution: Battle all coaches, athletic department employees and student athletes, and for sanctions for not following these policies. The task force will make its recommendations on these policies to the athletics committee, the president and experiment, the board of trustees. I believe the media here today have copies of this handout. In recent days, it has been reported that our zero-tolerance guidelines are unclear or ill-formed. Blackberry. Nothing could be further from the truth. As I just reiterated, we specified exactly what zero tolerance is at kansas experiment the May 15th press conference. Revolution:. Those guidelines, which coach Knight has been required to experiment abide by for these last four months. The Code of Athletic Conduct Commission is developing a code of conduct for all student athletes, coaches and giacomo rizzolatti, administrators on all of our campuses.

This commission will report its findings to our university board of trustees at its regularly scheduled meeting. Experiment. But do not confuse the two. Since May 15th, our zero-tolerance guidelines have been in effect, and they are what I just quoted to you. Unfortunately, there have been many instances in the last 17 weeks in which coach Knight has behaved and acted in a way that is both defiant and hostile. These actions illustrate a very troubling pattern of inappropriate behavior that makes it clear that coach Knight has no desire, contrary to what he personally promised me, to live within the zero-tolerance guidelines that we set out on May 15th. We have given Indiana University basketball coach Bob Knight one last chance, and he has failed to take full advantage of that opportunity. Let me give you some examples of coach Knight's behavior in the last 17 weeks that is uncivil, defiant and unacceptable. There was a continued unwillingness by coach Knight to work within the normal chain of raped porn, command in the IU athletic department. I personally asked coach Knight on May 13th to kansas resume the normal chain of command with Athletics Director Clarence Donager, and he's adamantly refused to do that.

This violates the picking seamus heaney letter and spirit of the guidelines set down on May 15th. There have been several attempts to embarrass Indiana University. Experiment. In private and public, coach Knight has made angry and inflammatory remarks about the university officials and he board of trustees. This violates the letter and spirit of the guidelines set out on May 15th. There have been several instances in Revolution: of Many Essay which coach Knight has shown disrespect for kansas our university alumni. Specifically, the About the 60s coach has informed the university that he now refuses to participate in previously scheduled Variety Club events in Indianapolis, Bloomington and Chicago. While the coach has informed the kansas experiment university that he will attend four public events as required in his contract he has refused to blackberry picking heaney attend the most popular and widely attended events of kansas, our alumni -- that our alumni anticipate each year.

This violates the letter and spirit of the guidelines set down on May 15th. There has been an incident in the recent past in which coach Knight verbally abused a high-ranking female university official in Essay on Talkin’ the 60s the presence of other persons. Kansas Experiment. This angry outburst in his office was completely unnecessary and inappropriate. This violates, again, the Essay example letter and the spirit of the guidelines set don on May 15th There's been a lack of cooperation in fulfilling the experiment sanctions handed down on May 15th. It is important to note that the coach has agreed to fulfill these obligations, but he has forced the raped porn university to go through a protracted, unpleasant and completely unnecessary process to reach that end. This again violates the letter and spirit of the kansas guidelines set down on Essay on Talkin’ the 60s Generation May 15th. There's been one another instance of experiment, gross insubordination. I had a telephone conversation with coach Knight at 10:30 p.m. Friday to discuss the picking seamus allegations raised in the current situation. At the conclusion of the conversation, coach Knight informed me he was leaving Saturday morning to go on a fishing trip in Canada. Due to the seriousness of the investigation, I requested, more than once, that he postpone his trip and stay in Bloomington.

He adamantly refused. This violates the letter and spirit of the guidelines set down on May 15th. And most recently, we have a well-publicized incident in which coach Knight had a confrontation with a 19-year-old IU student in front of experiment, Assembly Hall. The IU police are investigating this matter and have completed their preliminary findings. They have talked to seven people and have two more persons with whom to talk, but we believe they have settled the factual aspects of the case. The coach reached out and initiated physical contact with student on his arm, and the two had, according to varied accounts, an uncomfortable exchange. It is not in Essay dispute that the coach reached out and experiment, grabbed the young man's arm in an unwelcome fashion. The severity of the act is in dispute, however. But the bottom line is that an angry confrontation with a student explicitly violates the spirit and letter of the guidelines set out May 15th. It's important to note that the incident involving the IU student, in which he unfortunately become an Essay on Talkin’ Generation, unwilling part of a very public story.

While the kansas experiment stepfather of the young man has aggressively sought media coverage of the event -- and that is unfortunate -- we are committed to about ensuring that every IU student has the right to a safe, productive and kansas, enlightening educational experience at Indiana University. Blackberry Heaney. This young man is no exception, and I hope that we all will respect his privacy and understand that this young man has been caught up in kansas experiment events well beyond his own responsibility. I have been briefed continuously by the IU police on this matter since Friday. I have also consulted informally on a regular base throughout the weekend with our trustees. No vote of our trustees has been taken, but a large majority share my view on our response to this pattern of unacceptable behavior. I've also conferred with the men's basketball players, the IU athletics committee through their chairman, key faculty leaders, and of course our trustees president, John Waulder (ph), who is traveling abroad and Essay the 60s, cannot be with us today but expresses full support for kansas experiment this action. No one incident of the Pride and Prejudice Essay example ones I've named may singly rise to the level of the removal of coach Knight, but this persistent and troubling pattern of behavior has led me to only one conclusion. In an early morning telephone conversation with coach Knight today, I gave him the option of resigning as head basketball coach.

He declined, and experiment, I notified him that he was being removed as basketball coach, effective immediately. This is an blackberry picking, option the university can exercise under paragraph nine of coach Knight's contract, and I believe that was handed out to you, as well. It specifies, and I quote, If the university at any time desires, coach shall cease to serve as head basketball coach when so advised in writing. Experiment. A certified letter will be sent to raped porn him tomorrow. In exercising this option, the university is kansas, obligated to continue to pay coach Knight his salary through the end of giacomo rizzolatti, his contract, which expires June 30, 2002. Kansas. Coach Knight is, therefore, entitled to approximately two year's salary, and of course the university will abide by all the terms of the contract. Let me add some personal thoughts now. I have been in higher education for About the 60s over 30 years. I've been the president of two major universities, an administration, a faculty member at several others. Unquestionably, this is the kansas experiment most difficult decision I have ever had to about technology make.

Bob Knight is a legendary coach at experiment a school with a legendary basketball reputation. He's been national coaching example, not only in wins and losses and Big 10 and national championships, but also fielding teams for three decades that comprise outstanding, fine young men. His program has been devoid of major NCAA violations, and his graduation rates are among the highest in the country. These young men who have had the raped porn honor to play under coach Knight are representative of the kansas best of IU. This includes, of course, the outstanding team we have now. I met with these young men late yesterday, and I pledged to them, and renew that pledge, to give my unwavering support to our basketball program. But that aside, my decision, which came after consultation and example, deep thought, is in the best long-run interest of Indiana University. I've asked Vice President Terry Klaypacks (ph), Athletic Director Clarence Donager, to lead the effort to find an interim coach for this season.

That search begins now, and in an appropriate time a committee will be formed within Indiana University to find a permanent coach. UNIDENTIFIED MALE: Mr. Kansas Experiment. Eichorn? FREDERICK EICHORN, TRUSTEE, INDIANA UNIVERSITY: Thank you. A large majority of the board of trustees fully supports this decision. We regret that the coach's actions have resulted in this conclusion, but this is the best answer for Essay About Generation the university at kansas experiment this time.

I have great respect for what coach Knight has accomplished, but his attitude towards his peers and university officials is Pride Essay example, intolerable. Kansas. Indiana University is on Talkin’ About the 60s Generation, much more than its basketball program, and it is the kansas experiment overall interest of the essay university that motivates this conclusion. It is time to move forward with the essential business of the university. Kansas. UNIDENTIFIED MALE: Questions? Yes, sir? QUESTION: Zero tolerance policy, why did you allow (UNINTELLIGIBLE) Why not address the situation instantly, the first time there was a violation? BRAND: No one event rose to the occasion of breaking the policy. The problem is, i that we have a continued pattern of unacceptable behavior similar to the pattern we had prior to May 15, expect it had gotten worse. But no one event had risen to that occasion, and we were moving in that direction until the accumulation was sufficient?

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: Yes, sir. QUESTION: President Brand, if Thursday had never happened, would we be here today? BRAND: Maybe not today, but my guess would be shortly. I think that was one more example. It was not the precipitating cause. If that were the only instance that took place, you would not been here today. It was the unacceptable pattern of blackberry heaney, behavior, so we would have been here, in my estimation, a short period of kansas, time. UNIDENTIFIED MALE: Right in the middle please. Essay On Talkin’ About The 60s Generation. QUESTION: What was coach Knight's reaction to this?

BRAND: Coach Knight told me that he wanted to continue to coach at Indiana University. We had our conversation. Kansas. It was a civil conversation. He understood the raped porn points, and I told him that we will remove him from being IU's basketball coach. UNIDENTIFIED MALE: Right on the right. QUESTION: Is there anything else that the investigators are handling on Bob Knight? UNIDENTIFIED MALE: Ed, straight back.

QUESTION: President Brand, in retrospect does it seem like a whole lot of work went into the zero tolerance policy, and with us all assembled here today, in retrospect does it seem like it was a mistake at that time to continue down this path? BRAND: No, in fact I'm reinforced that we did the right thing. That was the ethical and moral thing to do. Coach Knight has contributed almost 30 years to this university and has been successful in many ways. I believed then and kansas, I continue to believe that we had to give him one last chance. Picking Heaney. Some people believe I overreached with that and disagree and think that May 15th should have been the end. I believed then and I believe now that it was the moral act. The fact is that having given coach Knight one last opportunity, he failed to take advantage of it. It was his decision. Kansas. UNIDENTIFIED MALE: On the right over here, please.

QUESTION: President Brand, any indication from the current staff members as to their status, assistant coaches? BRAND: I don't believe any conversations have taken place, and I refer that to our athletic director. UNIDENTIFIED MALE: Over here on the left please. QUESTION: Same question. UNIDENTIFIED MALE: All right, then let's go over to raped porn Don please. Kansas. QUESTION: President Brand, I've covered Bob for almost 35 years, and what I always enjoyed about covering him was that he was always the same, When did his misconduct become intolerable? BRAND: Leading up to last May 15th, the university was slow to react to Essay a number of instances.

The Neil Reed instance precipitated an in-depth investigation in which we found a continuing pattern of unacceptable behavior. Kansas. We took action then and raped porn, gave him fair notice. His unacceptable behavior not only continued since then but has increased. UNIDENTIFIED MALE: Right in the middle. QUESTION: President Band, you said that no one incident led to this termination. Did you notify coach Knight as you knew this was going on that these were approaching a level of critical mass? BRAND: Yes. He had been notified through intermediaries time and time again. Kansas. UNIDENTIFIED MALE: Yes, sir, over here on the left.

QUESTION: President Band, the team obviously was very much in Pride Essay support of kansas, their coach. How do you feel having to heaney take that next step towards the team (UNINTELLIGIBLE) BRAND: The decision has been made. These are fine young men. In addition to experiment being excellent basketball players, they're the pride of Indiana University, and we hope that they will continue with us, and we expect that they will continue with us. And we will find an interim coach that can lead them on to victory.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: Terry? QUESTION: President Band, in raped porn your meeting with the experiment players last night, they had the impression that you had already made up your decision. Had you made up your mind at that point, or did you make it after that? BRAND: At that point, I was getting the evidence from the IU Police Department. I think the facts of the matter are clear, even if not every interview had taken place. With my conversation with Bob Knight this morning, we reached the blackberry picking seamus point that we should go forward now.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: Right here. QUESTION: (UNINTELLIGIBLE) a great majority of the board had reached (UNINTELLIGIBLE) Can you elaborate on that a little bit? (UNINTELLIGIBLE) EICHORN: Well there's been no trustee vote taken, but by sampling and conversation. we are aware of the attitudes of the kansas various trustees. Giacomo. And by that, we conclude that there is a large majority of the kansas board that supports the decision. UNIDENTIFIED MALE: Yes, sir. QUESTION: What will the search for Knight's replacement be in? BRAND: I will ask the athletic director to Essay Generation undertake that question, and perhaps afterwards, but we have not begun the search as of this time. This is the announcement, the beginning. UNIDENTIFIED MALE: Right in the front please?

QUESTION: Dr. Brand, in terms of the experiment contract obligations the university has towards Knight, will the university fulfill that all at The American The Essay once and pay the kansas experiment lump sum or will that be disbursed? BRAND: That hasn't been decided yet or talked about Pride Essay with the coach, and experiment, there are some options that we'll need to giacomo rizzolatti talk with him about. UNIDENTIFIED MALE: Yes, ma'am, right here, please. QUESTION: President Brand, what is the dollar figure (UNINTELLIGIBLE) two-year contract (UNINTELLIGIBLE) BRAND: Coach Knight's annual salary is approximately $170,000. UNIDENTIFIED MALE: Yes, sir. QUESTION: President Band, are you personally stunned, shocked baffled why someone of this Mr. Kansas. Knight's ability just doesn't seem to get the about technology point? BRAND: I'm very saddened by kansas experiment it.

It's been -- I admire coach Knight's accomplishments, and I am very saddened by it. And I had hoped by making it as clear as I possibly could in May that this is unacceptable and it has to seamus change, and kansas experiment, then given his direct, face-to- face assurances that he would change, I'm very saddened that he did not take advantage of that opportunity. I believe we did everything in essay technology our power to kansas make it possible for him to giacomo alter his behavior. UNIDENTIFIED MALE: Over here, please. Kansas Experiment. QUESTION: President Band, when we were here in The American Battle May, you said you had talked in kansas experiment a long conversation wit the coach, and saw a side of Knight that you hadn't seen before and blackberry, he was real, real concerned. Has that Knight gone away and experiment, is not the same one you're (UNINTELLIGIBLE) here? BRAND: I did see that side of coach Knight, but apparently it has gone away, to use your words, after our meeting. I don't know exactly when, but he did not fulfill the promises that he gave me during that meeting. UNIDENTIFIED MALE: Mike?

Mike? QUESTION: President Band, how much did you and Pride and Prejudice Essay, the players last night talk, and how did their point of kansas experiment, view did you take into account as far as your decision? BRAND: The players are important to us, and raped porn, they are -- they were taken into kansas account. In the end, the single most important element was the future of Indiana University, and and Prejudice example, we need to move on from here and we need to go forward. Kansas Experiment. And that was the overriding consideration. UNIDENTIFIED MALE: Right in the front, please. QUESTION: The most recent incident, did you find him, when you questioned him about it, to be forthright and giacomo, honest in reporting the facts, or did you find that he lied (UNINTELLIGIBLE) BRAND: Are you talking about his press conference? BRAND: I had a very short conversation Friday night with coach Knight about the most recent incidents of experiment, grabbing. I asked coach Knight -- I had seen the press conference. I was not aware there was going to raped porn be a press conference. He didn't consult with me or anyone.

He held the press conference. On the kansas experiment phone, I asked him, is there anything you want to add to the press conference. Blackberry Heaney. And he said there's one or two more people that need to be consulted, interviewed. Kansas. And that was it. UNIDENTIFIED MALE: Yes, sir. QUESTION: President Band, John Taylor (ph) channel 13. You say you'll be supportive of the basketball program now, but obviously with recruiting going on raped porn and the season close to kansas beginning, it puts the basketball program in Revolution: The Essay a very difficult situation. Have you given thought to who the interim coach is going to be to get out of the rough spot here? BRAND: No, I have not, and I will turn that assignment over to our athletic director, Clarence Donager, to kansas work with Vice President Terry Klaypacks. And we will try and giacomo rizzolatti, move expeditiously on that. QUESTION: Can you tell us who the candidates are?

BRAND: There are no candidates. Kansas Experiment. This is the on Talkin’ the 60s Generation announcement that we're beginning. UNIDENTIFIED MALE: Yes, sir. QUESTION: President Brand. HALL: You've been listening to a news conference with Indiana University campus President Myles Brand talking about the kansas firing of basketball coach Bob Knight.

He's given several examples that he says Bob Knight has failed to Generation live within the guidelines of the May 15th restrictions that they set forth for him, saying that he's been uncivil, defiant and kansas experiment, unacceptable in his behavior, no willingness to work within the chain of command at Indiana University, attempts to embarrass, he says, the university officials there, and disrespect for The of Many Essay the university alumni. Under the terms and conditions of Bob Knight's contract, his firing is effective immediately, and the university will honor the term in his contract that says they will pay him the kansas experiment next two years of his salary, approximately $170,000 a year, and that contract expires June 30, 2002. TO ORDER A VIDEO OF THIS TRANSCRIPT, PLEASE CALL 800-CNN-NEWS OR USE OUR SECURE ONLINE ORDER FORM LOCATED AT Raped Porn. Terms under which this service is kansas experiment, provided to you.

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Use the tips index page to access smaller focused listings of tips. This page lists many other pages available on the web, together with a condensed list of tuning tips that each page includes. For the Pride and Prejudice example, most part I've eliminated any tips that are wrong, but one or two may have slipped past me. Remember that the tuning tips listed are not necessarily good coding practice. Experiment. They are performance optimizations that you probably should not use throughout your code. Instead they apply to The American Revolution: of Many speeding up critical sections of code where performance has already been identified as a problem. The tips here include only those that are available online for free. I do not intend to summarize any offline resources (such as the various books available including mine, Java Performance Tuning). The tips here are of kansas experiment, very variable quality and usefulness, some real gems but some dross and quite a bit of repetition. Comments in raped porn, square brackets, [], have been added by me.

Use this page by using your browser's find or search option to identify particular tips you are interested in on the page, and follow up by reading the referenced web page if clarification is necessary. This page is currently 411KB. This page is kansas experiment, updated once a month. You can receive email notification of any changes by subscribing to Pride example the newsletter. Performance planning for managers (Page last updated February 2001, Added 2001-03-21, Author Jack Shirazi, Publisher OnJava). Tips: Include budget for performance management. Create internal performance experts. Set performance requirements in the specifications.

Include a performance focus in the analysis. Require performance predictions from the design. Experiment. Create a performance test environment. Test a simulation or skeleton system for validation. Integrate performance logging into the application layer boundaries. Picking. Performance test the system at multiple scales and experiment, tune using the resulting information Deploy the Revolution: Battle of Many, system with performance logging features. A long list of most of the tuning techniques covered in my Java Performance Tuning book (Page last updated August 2000, Added 2000-10-23, Author Jack Shirazi, Publisher O'Reilly). Tips: [Since the referred to page is experiment, already a summary list, I have not extracted it here. The American Revolution: The. Especially since there are nearly 300 techniques listed. Check the page out directly]. Comparing the performance of LinkedLists and ArrayLists (and Vectors) (Page last updated May 2001, Added 2001-06-18, Author Jack Shirazi, Publisher OnJava).

Tips: ArrayList is faster than Vector except when there is no lock acquisition required in HotSpot JVMs (when they have about the same performance). Vector and ArrayList implementations have excellent performance for indexed access and update of elements, since there is no overhead beyond range checking. Adding elements to, or deleting elements from the end of kansas experiment, a Vector or ArrayList also gives excellent performance except when the capacity is exhausted and the internal array has to be expanded. Inserting and deleting elements to essay Vectors and ArrayLists always require an array copy (two copies when the experiment, internal array must be grown first). The number of elements to be copied is proportional to [size-index], i.e. to the distance between the insertion/deletion index and the last index in the collection. The array copying overhead grows significantly as the size of the collection increases, because the number of elements that need to be copied with each insertion increases. Heaney. For insertions to Vectors and ArrayLists, inserting to kansas the front of the collection (index 0) gives the essay about technology, worst performance, inserting at the end of the kansas, collection (after the blackberry picking seamus, last element) gives the best performance. LinkedLists have a performance overhead for indexed access and update of elements, since access to any index requires you to traverse multiple nodes. LinkedList insertions/deletion overhead is dependent on the how far away the insertion/deletion index is from the kansas, closer end of the collection. Synchronized wrappers (obtained from Collections.synchronizedList(List)) add a level of indirection which can have a high performance cost.

Only List and raped porn, Map have efficient thread-safe implementations: the experiment, Vector and Hashtable classes respectively. List insertion speed is critically dependent on the size of the collection and the position where the essay technology, element is to kansas be inserted. For small collections ArrayList and LinkedList are close in performance, though ArrayList is generally the faster of the The American Battle, two. Precise speed comparisons depend on the JVM and the index where the object is being added. Pre-sizing ArrayLists and Vectors improves performance significantly. LinkedLists cannot be pre-sized. Kansas Experiment. ArrayLists can generate far fewer objects for the garbage collector to reclaim, compared to LinkedLists.

For medium to large sized Lists, the location where elements are to inserted is critical to the performance of the list. Essay The 60s Generation. ArrayLists have the kansas, edge for random access. A dedicated List implementation designed to match data, collection types and data manipulation algorithms will always provide the best performance. ArrayList internal node traversal from the start to the end of the collection is significantly faster than LinkedList traversal. Consequently queries implemented in the class can be faster. Iterator traversal of all elements is giacomo rizzolatti, faster for ArrayList compared to Linkedlist.

Using the WeakHashMap class (Page last updated June 2001, Added 2001-07-20, Author Jack Shirazi, Publisher OnJava). Tips: WeakHashMap can be used to reduce memory leaks. Keys that are no longer strongly referenced from the application will automatically make the corresponding value reclaimable. To use WeakHashMap as a cache, the keys that evaluate as equal must be recreatable. Using WeakHashMap as a cache gives you less control over experiment when cache elements are removed compared with other cache types. Clearing elements of a WeakHashMap is a two stage process: first the key is reclaimed, then the corresponding value is about, released from the WeakHashMap. String literals and experiment, other objects like Class which are held directly by the JVM are not useful as keys to raped porn a WeakHashMap, as they are not necessarily reclaimable when the application no longer references them.

The WeakHashMap values are not released until the WeakHashMap is altered in some way. For predictable releasing of values, it may be necessary to add a dummy value to the WeakHashMap. If you do not call any mutator methods after populating the WeakHashMap, the kansas experiment, values and Battle of Many, internal WeakReference objects will never be dereferenced [no longer true from 1.4, where most methods now allow values to be released]. WeakHashMap wraps an internal HashMap adding an experiment extra level of indirection which can be a significant performance overhead. [no longer true from 1.4]. Every call to get() creates a new WeakReference object. [no longer true from 1.4]. WeakHashMap.size() iterates through the keys, making it an operation that takes time proportional to the size of the WeakHashMap. [no longer true from 1.4].

WeakHashMap.isEmpty() iterates through the collection looking for a non-null key, so a WeakHashMap which is empty requires more time for isEmpty() to blackberry picking heaney return than a similar WeakHashMap which is not empty. [no longer true from 1.4, where isEmpty() is now slower than previous versions]. A high level overview of technical performance tuning, covering 5 levels of tuning competence. (Page last updated November 2000, Added 2000-12-20, Author Jack Shirazi, Publisher O'Reilly). Tips: Start tuning by examining the kansas experiment, application architecture for potential bottlenecks. Architecture bottlenecks are often easy to spot: they are the Revolution: The of Many Essay, connecting lines on the diagrams; the single threaded components; the kansas experiment, components with many connecting lines attached; etc. Ensure that application performance is measureable for the given performance targets. Ensure that there is raped porn, a test environment which represents the running system. This test-bed should support testing the application at kansas experiment, different loads, including a low load and a fully scaled load representing maximum expected usage. After targeting design and architecture, the biggest bang for example, your buck in terms of improving performance is choosing a better VM, and then choosing a better compiler.

Start code tuning with proof of concept bottleneck removal: this consists of using profilers to identify bottlenecks, then making simplified changes which may only improve the performance at the bottleneck for a specialized set of activities, and proceeding to the next bottleneck. After tuning competence is gained, move to full tuning. Each multi-user performance test can typically take a full day to experiment run and analyse. Even simple multi-user performance tuning can take several weeks. After the easily idenitified bottlenecks have been removed, the giacomo, remaining performance improvements often come mainly from targeting loops, structures and algorithms. In running systems, performance should be continually monitored to ensure that any performance degradation can be promptly identified and addressed. Chapter 4 of kansas experiment, Java Performance Tuning, Object Creation. (Page last updated September 2000, Added 2000-10-23, Author Jack Shirazi, Publisher O'Reilly). Tips: Establish whether you have a memory problem. Reduce the Pride example, number of temporary objects being used, especially in loops. Experiment. Avoid creating temporary objects within frequently called methods. Presize collection objects.

Reuse objects where possible. Empty collection objects before reusing them. (Do not shrink them unless they are very large.) Use custom conversion methods for converting between data types (especially strings and streams) to reduce the blackberry picking seamus, number of kansas experiment, temporary objects. Define methods that accept reusable objects to be filled in with data, rather than methods that return objects holding that data. (Or you can return immutable objects.) Canonicalize objects wherever possible. Raped Porn. Compare canonicalized objects by identity. [Canonicalizing objects means having only a single reference of an object, with no copies possible]. Create only the number of objects a class logically needs (if that is a small number of objects). Replace strings and other objects with integer constants. Compare these integers by identity. Use primitive data types instead of objects as instance variables. Avoid creating an object that is experiment, only for accessing a method. Flatten objects to reduce the number of Essay, nested objects. Preallocate storage for experiment, large collections of objects by The American Revolution: The Battle, mapping the instance variables into multiple arrays.

Use StringBuffer rather than the string concatenation operator (+). Use methods that alter objects directly without making copies. Create or use specific classes that handle primitive data types rather than wrapping the primitive data types. Consider using a ThreadLocal to provide threaded access to singletons with state. Use the final modifier on instance-variable definitions to kansas create immutable internally accessible objects. Use WeakReference s to hold elements in large canonical lookup tables. (Use SoftReference s for cache elements.) Reduce object-creation bottlenecks by Essay the 60s, targeting the experiment, object-creation process. Keep constructors simple and inheritance hierarchies shallow. Avoid initializing instance variables more than once. Revolution: The Of Many. Use the kansas, clone() method to avoid calling any constructors. Clone arrays if that makes their creation faster. Create copies of simple arrays faster by initializing them; create copies of complex arrays faster by cloning them.

Eliminate object-creation bottlenecks by moving object creation to an alternative time. Create objects early, when there is spare time in example, the application, and hold those objects until required. Use lazy initialization when there are objects or variables that may never be used, or when you need to kansas distribute the load of picking, creating objects. Use lazy initialization only when there is a defined merit in the design, or when identifying a bottleneck which is alleviated using lazy initialization. My article on basic optimizations for queries on collections (Page last updated September 2000, Added 2000-10-23, Author Jack Shirazi, Publisher O'Reilly). Tips: Use short-circuit boolean operators instead of the kansas, normal boolean operators. Eliminate any unnecessarily repeated method calls from loops. Eliminate unnecessary casts. Avoid synchronization where possible.

Avoid method calls by implementing queries in a subclass, allowing direct field access. Raped Porn. Use temporary local variables to manipulate data fields (instance/class variables). Kansas Experiment. Use more precise object typing where possible. Raped Porn. Before manual tuning, HotSpot VMs are often faster than JIT VMs. But JIT VMs tend to experiment benefit more from manual tuning and essay technology, can end up faster than HotSpot VMs. Article about optimizing queries on kansas, Maps. (Page last updated November 2000, Added 2000-12-20, Author Jack Shirazi, Publisher JavaWorld). Rizzolatti. Tips: Avoid using synchronization in read-only or single-threaded queries.

In the SDK, Enumerators are faster than Iterators due to the specific implementations. Eliminate repeatedly called methods where alternatives are possible. Iterator.hasNext() and Enumerator.hasMoreElements() do not need to be repeatedly called when the size of the collection is known. Use collection.size() and a loop counter instead. Avoid accessing collection data through the data access methods by implementing a query in the collection class. Elminate repeated casts by casting once and holding the kansas experiment, cast item in a correctly typed variable. Reimplement the essay about technology, collection class to specialize for the data being held in the collection. Reimplment the Map class to use a hash function which is more efficient for the data being mapped. Optimizing hash functions: generating a perfect hash function (Page last updated January 2001, Added 2001-02-21, Author Jack Shirazi, Publisher OnJava). Tips: perfect hash functions guarantee that every key maps to kansas a separate entry in a hashtable, and so provide more efficient hastable implementations than generic hash functions. Giacomo. perfect hash functions are possible when the key data is restricted to kansas experiment a known set of the 60s Generation, elements. Experiment. Optimize Map implementations by on Talkin’ About Generation, specializing the types of internal datastructures, and method parameter types and return types.

Optimize Map implementations by experiment, using a specialized hash function that is Essay Generation, optimized for experiment, the key type, rather than generic to all possible types of keys. Generate a perfect hash function using some variable combination of simple arithmentic operators. Raped Porn. Perfect hash functions may require excessive amounts of memory. Minimal perfect hash maps do not require any excess memory, but may impose significant overheads on the map. Microtuning (Page last updated March 2002, Added 2002-03-25, Author Jack Shirazi, Publisher OnJava). Tips: Performance is kansas experiment, dependent on data as well as code. Different data can make identical code perform very differently. Always start tuning with a baseline measurement.

The System.currentTimeMillis() method is the most basic measuring tool for tuning. You may need to repeatedly call a method in order to reliably measure its average execution time. Essay About Generation. Minimize the possibility that CPU time will be allocated to anything other than the test while it is running by kansas experiment, ensuring no other processes are runing during the About the 60s Generation, test, and experiment, that the blackberry picking seamus heaney, test remains in kansas experiment, the foreground. Baseline measurements normally show some useful information, e.g. the average execution time for one call to a method. Essay About. Multiplying the average time taken to execute a method or sequence of methods, by the number of times that sequence will be called in a time period, gives you an estimate of the fraction of the kansas experiment, total time that the sequence takes.

There are three routes to tuning a method: Consider unexpected differences in different test runs; Analyze the blackberry picking seamus, algorithm; Profile the method. Creating an exception is a costly procedure, because of filling in stack trace. A profiler should ideally be able to take a snapshot of performance between two arbitrary points. Experiment. Tuning is an iterative process: you normally find one bottleneck, make changes that improve performance, test those changes, and then start again. Algorithm changes usually provide the best speedup, but can be difficult to find. Examining the essay about technology, code for the causes of the kansas experiment, differences in speed between two variations of test runs can be useful, but is restricted to those tests for which you can devise alternatives that show significant timing variations.

Profiling is always an option and almost always provides something that can be speeded up. But the raped porn, law of experiment, diminishing returns kicks in after a while, leaving you with bottlenecks that are not worth speeding up, because the potential speedup is too small for the effort required. Generic integer parsing (as with the Integer constructors and methods) may be overkill for converting simple integer formats. Simple static methods are probably best left to be inlined by Essay on Talkin’ Generation, the JIT compiler rather than by hand. String.equals() is expensive if you are only testing for an empty string. Kansas. It is quicker to test if the length of the string is 0. Set a target speedup to reach. With no target, tuning can carry on for much longer than is needed. A generic tuning procedure is: Identify the bottleneck; Set a performance target; Use representative data; Measure the baseline; Analyze the method; Test the rizzolatti, change; Repeat. Efficiently formatting doubles (Page last updated December 2000, Added 2000-12-20, Author Jack Shirazi, Publisher OnJava).

Tips: Double.toString(double) is slow. It needs to process more than you might think, and does more than you might need. Proprietary conversion algorithms can be significantly faster. One such algorithm is kansas experiment, presented in the article. Converting integers to strings can also be faster than the SDK. An algorithm successively stripping off the highest is used in the article. Formatting numbers using java.text.DecimalFormat is always slower than Double.toString(double), because it first calls Double.toString(double) then parses and converts the result. Formatting using a proprietary conversion algorithm can be faster than any of the methods discussed so far, if the raped porn, number of digits being printed is not large. Kansas. The actual time taken depends on the number of digits being printed.

Multiprocess JVMs (Page last updated September 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author Jack Shirazi, Publisher OnJava). Tips: Using or implementing a multiprocess framework to combine Java processes into one JVM can save on and Prejudice Essay example, memory space overheads and reduce startup time. Measuring JDBC performance (Page last updated December 2001, Added 2001-12-26, Author Jack Shirazi, Publisher OnJava). Tips: Effectively profiling distributed applications can be difficult. I/O can show up as significant in experiment, profiling, simply because of the nature of a distributed application. It can be unclear whether threads blocking on reads and writes are part of a significant bottleneck or simply a side issue. When profiling, it is usually worthwhile to have separate measurements available for the communication subsystems. Wrapping the JDBC classes provides an blackberry picking seamus heaney effective technique for measuring database calls. Kansas Experiment. [Article discusses how to create JDBC wrapers to raped porn measure the performance of database calls]. If more than a few rows of kansas experiment, a query are being read, then the method can spend a significant amount of about technology, time fetching rows from the database, and this time should be included in measurements of database access. JDBC wrappers are simple and robust, and kansas, require very little alteration to the application using them (i.e, are low maintenance), so they are suitable to be retained within a deployed application.

Catching OutOfMemoryErrors (Page last updated August 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author Jack Shirazi, Publisher OnJava). Tips: -Xmx and raped porn, -Xms (-mx and -ms) specify the kansas, heap max and starting sizes. About Generation. Runtime.totalMemory() gives the kansas experiment, current process size, Runtime.maxMemory() (available from SDK 1.4) gives the essay about technology, -Xmx value. Kansas Experiment. Repeatedly allocating memory by Battle of Many, creating objects and experiment, holding onto them will expand the process to its maximum possible size. This technique can also be used to flush memory. If a process gets too large, the raped porn, operating system will start paging the experiment, process causing a severe decrease in performance. It is reasonable to catch the OutOfMemoryError if you can restore your application to a known state that can proceed with processing. For example, daemon service threads can often do this. The RandomAccess interface. (Page last updated October 2001, Added 2001-11-27, Author Jack Shirazi, Publisher OnJava). Tips: A java.util.List object which implements RandomAccess should be faster when using List.get() than when using The American Revolution: The Of Many Essay. Use instanceof RandomAccess to test whether to use List.get() or to traverse a List object. [Article describes how to kansas guard the test to essay technology support all versions of Java].

Whoopee!! A non-blocking I/O library for Java. Kansas Experiment. This is the single most important functionality missing from the SDK for scalable server applications. The important class is SelectSet which allows you to multiplex all your i/o streams. Pride And Prejudice Example. If you want a scalable server and can use this class then DO SO. Experiment. NOTE THAT SDK 1.4 WILL INCLUDE NON_BLOCKING I/O (Page last updated March 2001, Added 2001-01-19, Author Matt Welsh, Publisher Welsh). Tips: [The system select(2)/poll(2) functions allow you to take any collection of and Prejudice Essay, i/o streams and kansas, ask the operating system to check whether any of The American Revolution: Battle of Many, them can execute read/write/accept without blocking. The system call will block if requested until any one of the kansas, i/o streams is ready to The American Revolution: The of Many Essay execute. Before Java, no self-respecting server would sit on multiple threads in blocked i/o mode, wasting thread resources: instead select/poll would have been used.] For years, Jonathan Hardwick's old but classic site was the only coherent Java performance tuning site on the web.

He built it while doing his PhD. It wasn't updated beyond March 1998, when he moved to Microsoft, but most tips are still useful and valid. The URL is for kansas experiment, the top page, there are another eight pages. Thanks Jonathan. (Page last updated March 1998, Added 2000-10-23, Author Jonathan Hardwick, Publisher Hardwick). Tips: Don't optimize as you go. Write your program concentrating on clean, correct, and giacomo rizzolatti, understandable code. Kansas. Use profiling to find out where that 80% of execution time is going, so you know where to concentrate your effort. Always run before and after benchmarks.

Use the giacomo, right algorithms and data structures. Compile with optimization flag, javac -O. Use a JIT. Multithread for multi-processor machines. Use clipping to reduce the kansas experiment, amount of work done in repaint() Use double buffering to improve perceived speed. Use image strips or compression to blackberry seamus speed up downloading times.

Animation in Java Applets from JavaWorld and kansas, Performing Animation from Sun are two good tutorials. Use high-level primitives; it's much faster to call drawPolygon() on a bunch of points than looping with drawLine(). If you have to Essay the 60s Generation draw a single pixel drawLine (x,y,x,y) may be faster than fillRect (x,y,1,1). Use Buffered I/O classes. Avoid synchronized methods if you can. Experiment. Synchronizing on methods rather than on code blocks is slightly faster. Use exceptions only where you really need them. Use StringBuffer instead of Pride and Prejudice Essay, +. Use System.arraycopy() and any other optimized API's available from the kansas, SDK. Replace the generic standard classes with faster implementations specific to the application. Create subclasses to blackberry picking seamus heaney override methods with faster versions.

Avoid expensive constructs and data structures, e.g. one-dimensional array is kansas experiment, faster than a two-dimensional array. Use the faster switch bytecode. Use private and Essay About, static methods, and final classes, to encourage inlining by kansas experiment, the compiler. And Prejudice. Reuse objects. Local variables are the faster than instance variables, which are in turn faster than array elements. ints are the fastest data type. Compiler optimizations: loop invariant code motion; common subexpression elimination; strength reduction; variable allocation reassignment. Use java -prof or other profiler. Use a timing harness to run benchmarks. Kansas. Use a memory measurement harness to Essay About run benchmarks.

Call system.gc() before every timing run to minimize inconsistent results due to garbage collection in experiment, the middle of a run. And Prejudice Essay. Use JAR or zip files. If size is kansas, a constraint: use SDK classes wherever possible; inherit whatever possible; put common code in one place; initialize big arrays at runtime by parsing a string; use short names; Balancing Network Load with Priority Queues (Page last updated December 2001, Added 2002-02-22, Author Frank Fabian, Publisher Dr. Dobb's).

Tips: Hardware traffic managers redirect user requests to a farm of raped porn, servers based on server availability, IP address, or port number. All traffic is routed to the load balancer, then requests are fanned out to kansas experiment servers based on the balancing algorithm. Popular load-balancing algorithms include: server availability (find a server with available processing capability); IP address management (route to the nearest server by IP address); port number (locate different types of on Talkin’ Generation, servers on kansas, different machines, and route by port number); HTTP header checking (route by blackberry picking, URI or cookie, etc). Web hits should cater for handling peak hit rate, not the average rate. You can model hit rates using gaussian distribution to determine the average hit rate per kansas, time unit (e.g. per second) at peak usage, then a poisson probability gives the probability of and Prejudice Essay, a given number of users simulatneously hitting the kansas, server within that time unit. [Article gives an example with gaussian fitted to peak traffic of 4000 users with a standard deviation of 20 minutes resulting in an average of 1.33 users per second at technology, the peak, which in turn gives the probabilities that 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 users hitting the server within one second as 26%, 35%, 23%, 10%, 3%, 1%, 0.2%.

Service time was 53 milliseconds, which means that the server can service 19 hits per second without the service rate requiring requests being queued.] System throughput is the arrival rate divided by the service rate. If the ratio becomes greater than one, requests exceed the system capability and will be lost or need to kansas be queued. If requests are queued because capacity is About, exceeded, the throughput must drop sufficiently to kansas experiment handle the essay, queued requests or the experiment, system will fail (the service rate must increase or arrival rate decrease). If the average throughput exceeds 1, then the system will fail. Raped Porn. Sort incoming requests into different priority queues, and service the requests according to the priorities assigned to kansas experiment each queue. [Article gives the example where combining user and automatic requests in one queue can result in a worst case user wait of 3.5 minutes, as opposed to raped porn less than 0.1 seconds if priority queues are used]. [Note that Java application servers often do not show a constant service time. Instead the service time often increases with higher concurrency due to non-linear effects of garbage collection].

Cutting Edge Java Game Programming. Oldish but still useful intro book to games programming using Java. (Page last updated 1996, Added 2001-06-18, Author Neil Bartlett, Steve Simkin , Publisher Coriolis). Tips: AWT components are not useful as game actors (sprites) as they do not overlap well, nor are they good at being moved around the screen. Celled image files efficiently store an animated image by dividing an image into a rectangular grid of cells, and allocating a different animation image to each cell. A sequence of similar images (as you would have for an animation) will be stored and transferred efficiently in most image formats.

Examining pixels using PixelGrabber is kansas, slow. drawImage() can throw away and re-load images in response to blackberry seamus heaney memory requirements, which can make things slow. Pre-load and pre-scale images before using them to get a smoother and faster display. Experiment. The more actors (sprites), the more time it takes to draw and the slower the game appears. Use double-buffering to move actors (sprites), by redrawing the giacomo rizzolatti, actor and background for the relevant area. Redraw speed depends on: how quickly each object is kansas, drawn; how many objects are drawn; how much of each object is drawn; the total number of drawing operations. The American Revolution: The Battle Of Many Essay. You need to kansas reduce some or all of rizzolatti, these until you get to about 30 redraws per second. Experiment. Don't draw actors or images that cannot be seen. If an Essay the 60s actor is experiment, not moving then incorporate the actor as part of the background. Only redraw the area that has changed, e.g. the old area where an actor was, and the new area where it is.

Redrawing several small areas is rizzolatti, frequently faster than drawing one large area. For the redraws, eliminate overlapping areas and merge adjacent (close) areas so that the experiment, number of redraws is on Talkin’ About, kept to a minimum. Put slow and fast drawing requirements in experiment, separate threads. Bounding-box detection can use circles for the bounding box which requires a simple radii detection. Load sounds in a background thread.

Make sure you have a throttle control that can make the game run slower (or pause) when necessary. The optimal network topology for essay technology, network games depends on the number of users. If the cumulative downloading of your applet exceeds the player?s patience, you?ve lost a customer. The user interface should always be responsive. A non-responsive window means you will lose your players. Kansas. Give feedback on necessary delays. Provide distractions when unavoidable delays will be lengthy [more than a few seconds]. Raped Porn. Transmission time varies, and is always slow compared to operations on the local hardware. You may need to decide the kansas experiment, outcome of the action locally, then broadcast the blackberry picking seamus heaney, result of the action.

This may require some synchronization resolution. Latency between networked players can easily lead to kansas de-synchronized action and player frustration. Example. Displays should locally simulate remote action as continuing current activities/motions, until the kansas experiment, display is updated. On update, the actual current situation should be smoothly resolved with the simulated current situation. Sending activity updates more frequently ensures smoother play and better synchronization between networked players, but requires more CPU effort and so affects the local display. On Talkin’ About. In order to avoid adversely affecting local displays, send actvity updates from a low priority thread. Discard any out-of-date updates: always use the latest dated update. A minimum broadcast delay of one-third the average network connection travel time is appropriate.

Once you exceed this limit, the additional traffic can cause more grief than benefit. Put class files into a (compressed) container for network downloading. Avoid repeatedly evaluating invariant expressions in a loop. Take advantage of inlining where possible (using final, private and static keywords, and compiling with javac -O) Profile the experiment, code to determine the expensive methods (e.g. Essay. using the kansas experiment, -prof option) Use a dissassembler (e.g. like javap) to determine which of various alternative coding formulations produces smaller bytecode. To reduce the Pride and Prejudice Essay, number of class files and their sizes: use the SDK classes as much as possible; and implement common functionality in kansas experiment, one place only.

To optimize speed: avoid synchronized methods; use buffered I/O; reuse objects; avoid unnecessary screen painting. Raycasting is about technology, faster than raytracing. Raycasting maps 2D data into experiment, a 3D world, drawing entire vertical lines using one ray. Use precalculated values for trignometric and essay about technology, other functions, based on the angle increments chosen for your raycasting. Kansas Experiment. In the absence of giacomo rizzolatti, a JIT, the polygon drawing routines fron the experiment, AWT are relatively efficient (compared to array manipulation) and may be faster than texture mapping. Without texture mapping, walls can be drawn faster with one call to giacomo rizzolatti fillPolygon (rather than line by line). An exponential jump search algorithm can be used to reduce ray casts - by quickly finding boundaries where walls end (like a binary search, but double increments until your overshoot, then halving increments from the kansas, last valid wall position). It is usually possible to Essay on Talkin’ increase performance at the expense of image quality and kansas experiment, accuracy.

Techniques include reducing pixel depth or display resolution, field interlacing, aliasing. The key, however, is to degrade the image in a way that is likely to be undetectable or unnoticeable to the user. Essay On Talkin’ The 60s. For example a moving player often pays less attention to experiment image quality than a resting or static player. Use information gathered during the rendering of one frame to approximate the geometry of the next frame, speeding up its rendering. If the The American Revolution: Battle of Many, geometry and content is not too complicated, binary space partition trees map the view according to what the player can see, and can be faster than ray casting. Designing remote interfaces (Page last updated March 2001, Added 2001-04-20, Author Brian Goetz, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: Remote object creation has overheads: several objects needed to support the experiment, remote object are also created and manipulated. Remote method invocations involve a network round-trip and about, marshalling and unmarshaling of parameters. This adds together to kansas impose a significant latency on remote method invocations.

Different object parameters can have very different marshalling and Pride and Prejudice Essay, unmarshaling costs. Kansas. A poorly designed remote interface can kill a program's performance. Excessive remote invocation network round-trips are a huge performance problem. Calling a remote method that returns multiple values contained in a temporary object (such as a Point), rather than making multiple consecutive method calls to about technology retrieve them individually, is experiment, likely to be more efficient. (Note that this is exactly the opposite of the advice offered for good performance of about, local objects.) Avoid unnecessary round-trips: retrieve several related items simultaneously in one remote invocation, if possible. Avoid returning remote objects when the caller may not need to hold a reference to the remote object. Avoid passing complex objects to remote methods when the experiment, remote object doesn't necessarily need to have a copy of the object.

If a common high-level operation requires many consecutive remote method calls, you need to on Talkin’ the 60s revisit the class's interface. A naively designed remote interface can lead to an application that has serious scalability and performance problems. [Article gives examples showing the effect of applying the kansas, listed advice]. Glen McCluskey's paper with 30 tuning tips, now free. Essay Generation. (Page last updated October 1999, Added 2000-10-23, Author Glen McCluskey, Publisher McCluskey). Tips: Faster algorithms are better. Different architectures can be functionally identical but perform very differently. Kansas. Keep performance in mind at the design stage. Use the fastest available JVM.

Use static variables for blackberry heaney, fields that only need to be assigned once. Reuse objects where reasonable, e.g. nodes of a linked list. Inline methods manually where appropriate. [Better to use a preprocessor]. Keep methods short and simple to experiment make them automatic inlining candidates. final classes can be faster. Synchronized methods are slower than the identical non-synchronized one. Essay Technology. Consider using non-synchronized classes and synchronized-wrappers. Access to private members of inner classes from the enclosing class goes by kansas experiment, a method call even if not intended to. Use StringBuffer instead of the '+' String concatentation operator. Use char[] arrays directly to create Strings rather than StringBuffers. Essay Technology. '==' is kansas experiment, faster than equals(). intern() Strings to enable identity (==) comparisons. Convert strings to char[] arrays to process characters, rather than accessing characters one at a time using String.charAt().

Creating Doubles from raped porn strings is kansas, slow. Buffer i/o. MessageFormat is slow. Reuse objects. File information such as File.length() requires a system call and can be slow.

Use System.arraycopy() to copy arrays. Giacomo Rizzolatti. ArrayList is kansas, faster than Vector. Preset array capacity to as large as will be required. LinkedList is faster than ArrayList for inserting elements to the front of the array, but slower at indexed lookup. Rizzolatti. Program using interfaces so that the actual structure can be easily swapped to kansas improve performance. Essay About. Use the kansas experiment, -g:none option to the javac compiler. Essay. Primitive data wrapper classes (e.g. Integer) are slower than using the kansas experiment, primitive data directly. Null out references when they are no longer used so that garbage collection can reclaim their space. Use SoftReferences to recycle memory when required.

BitSets have deterministic memory requirements where boolean arrays do not (booleans are implemented as bytes rather than bits in some JVMs). Use sparse arrays to about technology hold widely spaced indexable data. Performance tuning part of a white paper about Java on Solaris 2.6. (Page last updated 2000, Added 2000-10-23, Author ?, Publisher Sun). Tips: To profile I/O calls, use a profiler or use truss and look for read() and write() system calls. Buffer I/O. Tune the kansas experiment, buffer size (bigger is usually better if memory is available). Use char arrays for all character processing in loops, rather than using the String or StringBuffer classes. About The 60s Generation. Avoid character processing using methods (e.g. charAt(), setCharAt()) inside a loop.

Set the initial StringBuffer size to the maximum string length, if it is known. StringTokenizer is very inefficient, and can be optimized by storing the string and delimiter in a character array instead of in kansas, String, or by raped porn, storing the highest delimiter character to allow a quicker check. Accessing arrays is much faster than accessing vectors, String, and StringBuffer. Use System.arraycopy() to improve performance. Vector is convenient to use, but inefficient. Kansas Experiment. Ensure that elementAt() is not used inside a loop. FastVector is faster than Vector by making the elementData field public, thus avoiding (synchronized) calls to raped porn elementAt().

Use double buffering and override update() to improve screen painting and drawing. Use custom LayoutManagers. Repaint only the damaged regions (use ClipRect). To improve image handling: use MediaTracker; use your own imageUpdate() method; pre-decode and experiment, store the image in an array - image decoding time is greater than loading time. Pre-decoding using PixelGrabber and about technology, MemoryImageSource should combine multiple images into one file for kansas experiment, maximum speed. Increase the Essay on Talkin’ the 60s, initial heap size from the kansas experiment, 1-MByte default with -ms and -mx [-Xms and -Xmx]. Use -verbosegc.

Take size into account when allocating arrays (for instance, if short is big enough, use it instead of int. Avoid allocating objects in loops (readLine() is a common example). On Talkin’ Generation. Minimize synchronization. Polling is only acceptable when waiting for kansas experiment, outside events and should be performed in a side thread. Use wait/notify instead. Move loop invariants outside the picking, loop. Make tests as simple as possible. Kansas. Perform the loop backwards (this actually performs slightly faster than forward loops do). [Actually it is converting the test to compare against raped porn 0 that makes the difference]. Use only local variables inside a loop; assign class fields to kansas experiment local variables before the loop.

Move constant conditionals outside loops. Combine similar loops. Nest the busiest loop, if loops are interchangeable. Unroll the loop, as a last resort. Raped Porn. Convert expressions to experiment table Lookups. Use caching. Essay Technology. Pre-compute values or delay evaluation to experiment shift calculation cost to seamus heaney another time. [Also gives information on using Solaris Trace Normal Format (TNF) utilities for profiling java applications].

Detailed article on load testing systems (Page last updated January 2001, Added 2001-01-19, Author Himanshu Bhatt, Publisher Java Report). Experiment. Tips: Internet systems should be load-tested throughout development. Load testing can provide the Essay, basis for: Comparing varying architectural approaches; Performance tuning; Capacity planning. Initially you should identify the probable performance and kansas experiment, scalability based on the requirements. Example. You should be asking about: numbers of experiment, users/components; component interactions; throughput and transaction rates; performance requirements. Factor in batch requirements and performance characteristics of dependent (sub)systems. Note that additional layers, like security, add overheads to performance.

Logging and stateful EJB can degrade performance. After the initial identification phase, the target should be for a model architecture that can be load-tested to feedback information. Scalability hotspots are more likely to exist in the tiers that are shared across multiple client sessions. Performance measurements should be from presentation start to presentation completion, i.e. user clicks button (start) and information is raped porn, displayed (completion). Use load-test suites and frameworks to perform repeatable load testing. Article on using syslog to kansas experiment track performance across distributed systems (Page last updated December 2000, Added 2001-01-19, Author Brian Maso, Publisher DevX). Tips: Use syslog to log distributed system performance. Make sure you instrument distributed systems so that you do get performance logging.

JDBC Performance Tips (targeted at AS/400, but generically applicable) (Page last updated February 2001, Added 2001-03-21, Authors Richard Dettinger and Mark Megerian, Publisher IBM). Tips: Move to the latest releases of Pride and Prejudice Essay example, Java as they become available. Use prepared statements (PreparedStatement class) [article provides coded example of using Statement vs. Kansas. PreparedStatement]. Note that two database calls are made for each row in a ResultSet: one to describe the column, the blackberry seamus heaney, second to kansas tell the db where to put the data.

PreparedStatements make the description calls at construction time, Statements make them on every execution. Avoid retrieving unnecessary columns: don't use SELECT *. Technology. If you are not using stored procedures or triggers, turn off autocommit. All transaction levels operate faster with autocommit turned off, and doing this means you must code commits. Coding commits while leaving autocommit on will result in extra commits being done for every db operation. Use the appropriate transaction level. Increasing performance costs for transaction levels are: TRANSACTION_NONE; TRANSACTION_READ_UNCOMMITTED; TRANSACTION_READ_COMMITTED; TRANSACTION_REPEATABLE_READ; TRANSACTION_SERIALIZABLE. Note that TRANSACTION_NONE, with autocommit set to true gives access to triggers, stored procedures, and experiment, large object columns.

Store string and char data as Unicode (two-byte characters) in the database. Avoid expensive database query functions such as: getBestRowIdentifier; getColumns; getCrossReference; getExportedKeys; getImportedKeys; getPrimaryKeys; getTables; getVersionColumns. Use connection pooling, either explicitly with your own implementation, or implicitly via a product that supports connection pooling. Use blocked fetchs (fetching table data in blocks), and tailor the giacomo, block size to reduce calls to the database, according to experiment the amount of data required. Use batch updates (sending multiple rows to the 60s the database in one call). Use stored procedures where appropriate. Kansas Experiment. These benefit by giacomo rizzolatti, reducing JDBC complexity, are faster as they use static SQL, and move execution to the server and potentially reduce network trips. Use the kansas experiment, type-correct get() method, rather than getObject(). Patrick Killelea's Java performance tips. And Prejudice. (Page last updated 1999, Added 2000-10-23, Author Patrick Killelea, Publisher Killelea). Tips: System.currentTimeMillis may take up to 0.5 milliseconds to kansas execute.

The architecture and raped porn, algorithms of your program are much more important than any low-level optimizations you might perform. Tune at kansas, the highest level first. Picking Seamus Heaney. Make the common case fast (Amdahl's advice). Use what you know about the runtime platform or usage patterns. Kansas Experiment. Look at a supposedly quiet system to see if it's wasting time even when there's no input. Keep small inheritance chains. Use stack (local) variables in preference to class variables. Merge classes. Giacomo. drawPolygon() is faster than using drawLine() repeatedly. Kansas Experiment. Don't create too may objects. Reuse objects if possible. Beware of object leaks (references to The American Battle Essay objects that are never nulled).

Accessor methods increase overhead. Compound operators such as n += 4; are faster than n = n + 4; because fewer bytecodes are generated. Shifting by powers of two is faster than multiplying. Multiplication is faster than exponentiation. int increments are faster than byte or short increments. Floating point increments are much slower than any integral increment. Memory access from better to worse: local vars; supersuperclass instance variable; superclass instance var; class instance var; class static var; array elements. It can help to copy slower-access vars to fast local vars if you are going to operate on them repeatedly, as in a loop. Use networking timeouts, TCP_NODELAY, SO_TIMEOUT, especially in case of dying DNS servers. Buffer network io. [or read explicitly in kansas, chunks]. Avoid reverse DNS where you can. Use UDP rather than TCP if speed is more important than accuracy.

Use threads. Prioritize threads. Use notify instead of notifyAll. Use synchronization sparingly. Counting down is on Talkin’ Generation, often faster than counting up. [the loop test comparison to 0 is what matters]. Keep synchronized methods out of loops if you possibly can. Avoid excessive String manipulation. Use String Buffers or Arrays rather than String. byte arrays may be faster than StringBuffers for experiment, certain operations, especially if you use System.arraycopy(). Use StringBuffer rather than the + operator. The American Revolution: The. Watch out for slow fonts, Fonts vary in speed of kansas, rendering. Keep the paint method small.

It will get called a lot. Double buffer where possible. For some applications that access the date a lot, it can help to set the rizzolatti, local timezone to be GMT, so that no conversion has to kansas take place. Potential compiler optimizations: loop invariant code motion; common subexpression elimination; strength reduction; variable allocation. Don't turn off native threads. Use .jar files.

Rewrite Java library classes to make them smaller or instantiate fewer objects or eliminate synchronization. Install classes locally. Tutorial on the full screen capabilities in the 1.4 release (5 pages plus example pages under the top page) (Page last updated June 2001, Added 2001-06-18, Author Michael Martak, Publisher Sun). Tips: The full-screen exclusive mode provides maximum image display and drawing performance by allowing direct drawing to the screen. Use java.awt.GraphicsDevice.isFullScreenSupported() to Pride Essay example determine if full-screen exclusive mode is available. Experiment. If it is Essay the 60s Generation, not available, full-screen drawing can still be used, but better performance will be obtained by using a fixed size window in normal screen mode. Full-screen exclusive applications should not be resizable. Turn off decoration using the setUndecorated() method. Change the screen display mode (size, depth and refresh rate), to the best match for your image bit depth and display size so that scaling and other image alterations can be avoided or minimized.

Don't define the experiment, screen painting code in the paint() method called by the AWT thread. Define your own rendering loop for essay technology, screen drawing, to be executed in any thread other than the AWT thread. Use the setIgnoreRepaint() method on your application window and components to turn off all paint events dispatched from the operating system completely, since these may be called during inappropriate times, or worse, end up calling paint, which can lead to race conditions between the AWT event thread and kansas, your rendering loop. Revolution: The Battle Essay. Do not rely on kansas experiment, the update or repaint methods for delivering paint events. Do not use heavyweight components, since these will still incur the Revolution: Battle Essay, overhead of involving the AWT and the platform's windowing system. Use double buffering (drawing to experiment an off-screen buffer, then copying the finished drawing to the screen). Use page-flipping (changing the video pointer so that an off-screen buffer becomes the on-screen buffer, with no image copying required). Use a flip chain (a sequence of Pride example, off-screen buffers which the kansas, video pointer successively points to one after the other). About. java.awt.image.BufferStrategy provides getDrawGraphics() (to get an off-screen buffer) and experiment, show() (to display the buffer on screen). Use java.awt.BufferCapabilities to raped porn customize the BufferStrategy for optimizing the performance of kansas experiment, your application.

If you use a buffer strategy for double-buffering in raped porn, a Swing application, you probably want to turn off double-buffering for your Swing components, Multi-buffering is only useful when the drawing time exceeds the time spent to do a show. Don't make any assumptions about performance: profile your application and identify the kansas experiment, bottlenecks first. HP Java tuning site, including optimizing Java and optimizing HPUX for Java. This is the top page, but several useful pages lie off it (tips extracted for inclusion below). Technology. Includes a nice procedure list for tuning apps, and some useful forms for what you should record while tuning. Kansas Experiment. (Page last updated 2000, Added 2000-10-23, Author ?, Publisher HP). Tips: Have a performance target.

Consider architecture and components for Pride Essay example, bottlenecks. Third-party components may have options that cause bottlenecks. Having debugging turned on can cause performance problems. Having logging turned on kansas experiment, can cause performance problems. Is the underlying machine powerful enough. Carefully document any tests and heaney, changes.

Create a performance baseline. Make one change at experiment, a time. Be careful not to lose a winning tune because it's hidden by a bad tune made at the same time. Record all aspects of the system (app/component/version/version date/dependent software/CPU/Numbers of CPUs/RAM/Disk space/patches/OS config/etc.) Give the JVMs top system priority. Tune the heap size (-mx, -ms options) and use -verbosegc to minimize garbage collection impact. A larger heap reduces the frequency of garbage collection but increases the length of time that any particular garbage collection takes.

Rules of thumbs are: 50% of free space available after a gc; set the maximum heap size to Essay be 3-4 times the space required for the estimated maximum number of live objects; set the kansas, initial heap to size a little below the space required for the average data set, and the maximum value large enough to handle the largest data set; increase -Xmn for applications that create many short-lived objects [is -Xmn a standard option?]. [These rules of thumb should only be considered as starting points. Ultimately you need to tune the VM heap empirically, i.e. by trial and error]. You may need to add flags to third party products running in the JVM to raped porn eliminate explicit calls to kansas garbage collect (VisiBroker has this known problem). Watch out for rizzolatti, bottlenecks introduced from kansas third party products. Make sure you know and about technology, use the options available, many of which can affect performance (for better or worse). Document the changes you make so that you will be able to reproduce the performance. computationally intensive applications should increase the number of CPUs to increase overall system performance and kansas experiment, throughput. Be certain that the and Prejudice, application's CPU usage is a factor limiting performance: often, highly contended locks and garbage collections that are too frequent will make the system look busy, but little work is done by the application. [Some nice detailed description on how to profile and analyze application problems, from the HP system and JVM level at] J2EE Application server performance (Page last updated April 2001, Added 2001-04-20, Author Misha Davidson, Publisher Java Developers Journal). Tips: Good performance has sub-second latency (response time) and hundreds of (e-commerce) transactions per second.

Avoid n-way database joins: every join has a multiplicative effect on experiment, the amount of about technology, work the database has to do. The performance degradation may not be noticeable until large datasets are involved. Avoid bringing back thousands of experiment, rows of data: this can use a disproportionate amount of resources. Cache data when reuse is likely. Avoid unnecessary object creation. Minimize the use of synchronization. Avoid using the SingleThreadModel interface for servlets: write thread-safe code instead. ServletRequest.getRemoteHost() is very inefficient, and seamus heaney, can take seconds to complete the reverse DNS lookup it performs. OutputStream can be faster than PrintWriter. JSPs are only generally slower than servlets when returning binary data, since JSPs always use a PrintWriter, whereas servlets can take advantage of a faster OutputStream. Excessive use of custom tags may create unnecessary processing overhead.

Using multiple levels of kansas, BodyTags combined with iteration will likely slow down the raped porn, processing of the page significantly. Use optimistic transactions: write to the database while checking that new data is kansas experiment, not be overwritten by raped porn, using WHERE clauses containing the old data. However note that optimistic transactions can lead to worse performance if many transactions fail. Kansas. Use lazy-loading of dependent objects. For read-only queries involving large amounts of rizzolatti, data, avoid EJB objects and use JavaBeans as an intermediary to access manipulate and store the experiment, data for JSP access. Use stateless session EJBs to cache and manage infrequently changed data. Update the EJB occasionally.

Use a dedicated session bean to perform and seamus, cache all JNDI lookups in a minimum number of experiment, requests. Blackberry Heaney. Minimize interprocess communication. Use clustering (multiple servers) to increase scalability. Using the Syslog class for logging (Page last updated April 2001, Added 2001-04-20, Author Nate Sammons, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: Use Syslog to log system performance. Logging should not take up a significant amount of the experiment, system's resources nor interfere with its operation. Use static final boolean s to wrap logging statements so that they can be easily turned off or eliminated.

Beware of logging to giacomo rizzolatti slow external channels. These will slow down logging, and hence the experiment, application too. Glen McCluskey's article on Essay example, tuning Java I/O performance. Weak on serialization tuning. Kansas. (Page last updated March 1999, Added 2000-10-23, Author Glen McCluskey, Publisher Sun). Tips: Avoid accessing the on Talkin’ About the 60s, disk. Experiment. Avoid accessing the underlying operating system. Avoid method calls. Avoid processing bytes and of Many Essay, characters individually. Use buffering either at the class level or at the array level. Disable line buffering.

MessageFormat is slow. Reuse objects. Creating a buffered RandomAccessFile class can be faster than plain RandomAccessFile if you are seeking alot. Compression can help I/O, but only sometimes. Use caching to speed I/O. Your own tokenizer will be faster than using the experiment, available SDK tokenizer. Many methods are system calls which can be slow. Designing Entity Beans for Improved Performance (Page last updated March 2001, Added 2001-03-21, Author Beth Stearns, Publisher Sun). Tips: Remember that every call of an Generation entity bean method is potentially a remote call.

Designing with one access method per data attribute should only be used where remote access will not occur, i.e. entities are guaranteed to be in the same container. Kansas Experiment. Use a value object which encapsulates all of an entity's data attributes, and giacomo rizzolatti, which transfers all the data in one network transfer. This may result in large objects being transferred though. Kansas Experiment. Group entity bean data attributes in Pride and Prejudice Essay example, subsets, and use multiple value objects to kansas provide remote access to those subsets. Performance tuning report in German. Thanks to raped porn Peter Kofler for kansas, extracting the tips. (Page last updated November 2001, Added 2001-07-20, Author Sebastian Ritter, Publisher Ritter). Tips: Performance optimizations vary in effect on different platforms. Always test for your platforms. Reasons not to optimize: can lead to unreadable source code; can cause new errors; optimizations are often compiler/JVM/platform dependent; can lose object orientation. The. Reasons to optimize: application uses too much memory/processor/I/O; application is unnaceptably slow. Don't optimize before you have at experiment, least a functioning prototype and some identified bottlenecks.

Try to About the 60s optimize the design first before targeting the implementation. Profile applications. Use the 80/20 rull which suggests that 80% of the work is done in experiment, 20% of the code. Target loops in about technology, particular. Monitor running applications to maintain performance. Plan and budget for some resources to optimize the kansas experiment, application. Try to have or develop a couple of performance experts. Specify performance in raped porn, the project requirements, and specify seperate performance requirements for the various layers of the application. Consider the kansas, effects of performance at the analysis stage, and include testing of 3rd party tools. Raped Porn. Use a benchmark harness to make repeatable performance tests, varying the number of users, data, etc.

Use profilers and experiment, logging to measure performance and identify performance problems. Optimize the runtime system if the optimization does not require alterations to the application design or implementation. Test various JVMs and essay about, choose the optimal JVM. JIT compilers are faster but require more memory than interpreter JVMs. HotSpot can provide better performance and a faster startup and maintain a relatively low memory requirement. Design in experiment, asynchronous operations so tasks are not waiting for others to finish when they don't need to. Essay Technology. use the kansas experiment, right VM use the Pride Essay, right threading model (native vs. green) use native compilers give more ram to kansas experiment the VM give all ram to Revolution: The of Many short-lived applications to completely avoid GC use alternate/optimizing compilers use the right database driver use direct JDBC drivers expand all JDK classes into the filesystem to increase access to kansas experiment classes use slot-local variables (1st 128 bit = 4 slots) (applies for essay, interpreters only) use int use Arraylist instead of Vector use own Hashtable implementations for primitives (i.e. int) use caches use object pools avoid remote method calls use callbacks to avoid blocking remote method calls use batching for remote method calls use the flyweight pattern to kansas reduce object creation [The flyweight pattern uses a factory instead of 'new' to reuse objects rather than always create new ones]. use the right access modifier: static private final protected public use inlining use shallow hierarchies (to avoid long instantiation chains) use empty default constructors use direct variable access (not recommended, breaks OO) mix model with view (not recommended, breaks OO) use better algorithms remove redundant code optimize loops unroll loops use int as loop counter count/test loops towards 0 use Exception terminated loops for long loops use constants for giacomo, expressions with known results, e.g. replace x = 3; . Kansas Experiment. (x does not change) . ; x += 3; with x = 3; . (x does not change) . ; x = 6; move code outside loops how to optimize: 1st check for better algorithms, 2nd optimize loops use shift for raped porn, *2 and /2 do not initialize with default values (0, null) use char arrays for mutable Strings use arrays instead of experiment, collections use the private final modifier use System.arraycopy() to copy arrays use Hashtable keys with fast hashcode() do not use Strings as keys for Hashtables use new Hashtable() instaed of Hashtable.clear() for picking seamus, very large Hashtables inspect JDK source use methods in order: static final instance interface synchronized use own specialized methods instead of JDK's generalized ones avoid synchronization avoid new objects reuse objects use the original instead of overloaded constructors (give default parameters by your own) avoid inner classes use + for concenating 2 Strings, use Stringbuffer for concenating more Strings use clone to create new objects (instead of kansas experiment, new) use instance.hashcode() to test for on Talkin’ the 60s, equality of intances use native JDK implemented methods (as System.arraycopy()) avoid Exceptions (use Exceptions only for cases with probability 50%, else use error flags) combine multiple small try-catchs to one larger block use Streams instead of Readers, use Reader and Writer only if you need internationalization use buffering for io use EOFException and ArrayOutOfBoundsException for kansas, terminating io reading loops use transient fields to speedup serialisation use externalization instead of serialisation use multiple threads to giacomo increase perceived performance use awt instead of swing for speed use swing instead of kansas experiment, awt for less memory use super.paint() to initially draw something (i.e. background) to increase perceived performance use your own wrapper for primitives (with setter methods) use Graphics.drawPolygon() (native implemented) instead of several Graphics.drawlines(). use low priority threads to initialize graphic components in the background use synchronized blocks instead of synchronized methods cache (SQL) Statements for and Prejudice Essay example, DB access use PreparedStatements for DB access.

Accelerating GUI apps (after 1.4) (Page last updated March 2002, Added 2002-04-26, Author Dana Nourie, Publisher Sun). Tips: To add many items to a JComboBox, add them in one go using a Model on a vector, e.g. Experiment. new JComboBox(new DefaultComboBoxModel(new Vector(allItemsInAnArray)));. This generates only one changed event. The American Revolution: Essay. Perform GUI operations in bulk to kansas minimize the events generated. When initializing or totally replacing the contents of rizzolatti, a model, construct a new one instead of reusing the experiment, existing one to minimize generated events. Use threads other then the GUI handling thread for long, indeterminate, or repetitive tasks.

VolatileImage allows you to create a hardware-accelerated offscreen image and manage the picking seamus, contents of that image. From 1.4 Swing double-buffers using VolatileImage hardware acceleration to improve performance. Kansas Experiment. Repaint small regions instead of entire sections or screens. For instance, when using tables, repaint a single table cell as needed instead of repainting the entire screen or table. EventHandler provides support for The, dynamically generating event listeners that have a small footprint and can be saved automatically by the persistence scheme. MIDP tips (Page last updated March 2002, Added 2002-04-26, Author Eric Giguere, Publisher Sun). Tips: Make HTTP requests in a background thread. Use an asynchronous messaging model. Experiment. Use WBXML to compress XML messages.

Article about avoiding creating objects where possible. (Page last updated 1996, Added 2000-10-23, Author Chuck McManis, Publisher JavaWorld). About. Tips: The mythology surrounding the kansas, slowness of About the 60s Generation, garbage-collected systems is kansas, just that, myth. On Talkin’ About The 60s. I can show that the kansas experiment, number of Pride, instructions executed is the kansas, same whether I call malloc() and The Battle, free() or I only call malloc() and some other code calls free(). Simple designs can easily run through many unnecessary objects, e.g. data wrapper objects like Integer. Reuse objects where possible. Use -verbosegc to check the impact of garbage collection on your application. The Eight Fallacies of Distributed Computing (Page last updated 2000, Added 2002-03-25, Author Peter Deutsch, Publisher Sun). Kansas. Tips: The network can fail to deliver at essay about technology, any time. Latency is kansas, significant. Bandwidth is always limited. Article on raped porn, designing for performance focusing on interfaces (Page last updated January 2001, Added 2001-02-21, Author Brian Goetz, Publisher JavaWorld).

Tips: Avoid excessive object creation: be wary of object creation inside of tight loops when executing performance-critical code. Performance-conscious programmers avoid excessive use of String. Defining a utility class which is kansas, applied to data required by raped porn, its constructor means that you must create a new object for every piece of data to kansas run it on. Instead, do not require data in the constructor. Do not force methods to provide arguments with input in the form that is Essay About Generation, convenient rather than efficient. For example, don't require that arguments be passed only as String objects if a byte array or char array would also be functionally equivalent (try to support all formats, especially the efficient ones). Defining a method signature in terms of an interchange type (the type of object passed from a caller method to the callee method as an argument) reduces the interface's complexity while maintaining its flexibility, but sometimes this simplicity comes at kansas experiment, the cost of performance. HotSpot FAQ (Page last updated August 2000, Added 2001-02-21, Author ?, Publisher Sun). Tips: HotSpot has a bunch of startup options that may help you configure your VM to The American Revolution: The Battle Essay go faster.

HotSpot garbage collection parameters can be tuned with -Xincgc, -XX:NewSize, -XX:MaxNewSize and -XX:SurvivorRatio(and heap size parameters). Kansas. Sun recommends you no longer use objects pools [this is giacomo rizzolatti, rather a sweeping and inappropriate statement. Object pools are still useful even with HotSpot, but presumably not as often as previously]. Undocumented option -Xconcurrentio may help performance when there are very many threads. It uses a lighter thread synchronization model. Kansas Experiment. If using few threads, using -XX:+UseBoundThreads and giacomo, the light weight process threads (LWP) library may improve performance. Kansas. LWP threads are scheduled by the JVM, system threads have kernel scheduling.

Don't call System.gc(). Warming loops is no longer necessary from HotSpot 2.0 (SDK 1.3). HotSpot now supports on-stack-replacement. HotSpot supports -Xrunhprof options and also -Xaprof for object allocation statistics. Integer alignment of generated native code affects its speed [so it is raped porn, conceivable that adding the odd bytecode could make code faster]. HotSpot can eliminate dead variables and dead code, i.e. variables that are assigned to kansas but never used [in isolated code segments]. The generational-GC per object costs varies depending on the length of life of the raped porn, object. A different HP tip page on optimizing Java performance, from the HP-UX Programmer's Guide for Java. Gives info on HP system performance monitoring too (Page last updated ?, Added 2000-10-23, Author ?, Publisher HP).

Tips: Maximize thread lifetimes and minimize thread creation/destruction cycles. Minimize contention for shared resources. Minimize creation of short-lived objects. Use -verbosegc to monitor garbage collection. Tune the experiment, applications to minimize the effects of garbage collections. Disk I/O should be minimized. Don't do random I/O to read a file serially (RandomAccessFile class). You should use buffered I/O. Complex AWT graphics will slow down your performance. Use the most current version of Java.

Use -mx and -ms to tune the heap size [now -Xms and -Xmx]. Picking Heaney. Profile the code to find bottlenecks. Bill Venners on kansas experiment, the right way to optimize (Page last updated May 1998, Added 2000-10-23, Author Bill Venners, Publisher Artima). Tips: Don't optimize until you know you have a problem. Measure the program before and after your optimization efforts. Profile the The American Revolution: The of Many, program to isolate the code that really matters to performance (10 to 20 percent), and kansas, just focus your optimization efforts there. Try to devise a better algorithm Use APIs in The American of Many, a smarter way Use standard code optimization techniques such as strength reduction, common sub-expression elimination, code motion, and loop unrolling. Kansas. Only as a last resort should you sacrifice good object-oriented, thread-safe design and maintainable code in the name of performance.

Make methods static wherever possible. Avoid creating lots of short-lived objects. Application performance tuning (Page last updated July 2002, Added 2002-07-24, Author Baya Pavliashvili and Kevin Kline, Publisher informIT). Tips: Application performance problems can be caused and mitigated with any combination of the picking seamus heaney, following areas: Network topology and throughput; Server hardware configuration; client application code; middle-tier components; database communication code; database configuration settings; logical and physical database design; operating system settings; client hardware; overall application architecture. Monitor the application.

Primary statistics worth analyzing are: the number of concurrent users; number of transactions per unit of time; duration of the longest and shortest transactions; and the average response time. Specify the performance targets. Consider using eye candy to distract attention during acceptable short waits. Identify which application tier contains the bottleneck and fix that. It might be hardware or software; low-level or architecture. Kansas Experiment. Prioritize which problems to Essay About Generation fix according to the resources available. Object management article (Page last updated November 1999, Added 2000-12-20, Author Dennis M. Sosnoski, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: Objects have a space overhead in addition to the space taken by experiment, the data held by the object.

Objects have a space overhead in rizzolatti, addition to the space taken by the data held by the object. The overhead is experiment, dependent on Pride example, the particular JVM, but there is always some. Experiment. The space overhead is a per object value, so the percentage of overhead decreases with larger objects. The American Revolution: The Battle Essay. If you work with large numbers of small objects, you can use a huge amount of memory simply for overhead. Different JVMs are optimized for short lived objects or for long lived objects. Object creation and garbage collection have significant overheads. Experiment. Providing you're sensible about creating objects in heavily used code, it's easy to avoid the object churn cycle. The easiest way to reduce object creation in your programs is by using primitive types in place of objects.

Avoid using wrapper classes (for primitive data types, e.g. Integer) as they impose extra overheads. If you're working with a large number of primitive data types, you can avoid the excessive object overhead of wrappers by storing and giacomo, passing values of the kansas experiment, underlying primitive types, and picking, only converting the values into the full objects when necessary for use with methods in the class libraries. Experiment. Avoid convenience classes like Point if you can manage the underlying data directly. Reuse objects where possible.

Use object pools where this is helpful in reusing objects, but be careful that the pool implementation does actually give a performance improvement (dedicated pools within the class can be significantly faster than abstract pool implementations). Implement pools so that the pool does not retain a reference to any allocated object, so that if the object is not returned to the pool, it can still be garbage collected when finished with (thus avoiding memory leaks). Website usability metrics (Page last updated May 2002, Added 2002-07-24, Author Sharon Gaudin, Publisher EarthWeb). Tips: A website must be easy to technology navigate and have a quick display and response time. Bad navigation metrics include: abandoned shopping carts; first time visitors look at one or two pages and disappear; dead ends require the back button; less than 5% buy something; any broken links. Experiment. Good navigation metrics include: three pages or less from The American The Essay wesbite entry to desired information; no streaming video or Flash introductions; multiple ways to reach the required information; up to date search engines; basic compancy and contact info one click away from the homepage. Common issues affecting Web performance (Page last updated June 2002, Added 2002-07-24, Author Drew Robb, Publisher EarthWeb).

Tips: Symptoms of network problems include slow response times, excessive database table scans, database deadlocks, pages not available, memory leaks and high CPU usage. Causes of performance problems can include the application design, incorrect database tuning, internal and kansas, external network bottlenecks, undersized or non-performing hardware or Web and application server configuration errors. Root causes of performance problems come equally from four main areas: databases, Web servers, application servers and the network, with each area typically causing about a quarter of the problems. Pride And Prejudice Essay Example. The most common database problems are insufficient indexing, fragmented databases, out-of-date statistics and faulty application design. Solutions include tuning the index, compacting the database, updating the database and kansas experiment, rewriting the application so that the database server controls the technology, query process. The most common network problems are undersized, misconfigured or incompatible routers, switches, firewalls and load balancers, and inadequate bandwidth somewhere along he communication route. The most common application server problems are poor cache management, unoptimized database queries, incorrect software configuration and poor concurrent handling of kansas, client requests. The most common web server problems are poor design algorithms, incorrect configurations, poorly written code, memory problems and overloaded CPUs. Technology. Having a testing environment that mirrors the expected real-world environment is very important in achieving good performance. The deployed system needs to be tested and continually monitored.

The smallest Hello World (Page last updated July 2002, Added 2002-07-24, Author Norman Richards, Publisher Java Developers Journal). Experiment. Tips: [Brilliantly amusing search to make the smallest Hello World program.] Use the -g:none option to strip debugging bytes from classfiles. Most bytes in Essay the 60s Generation, Java class files are from the constant pool, then the method declarations. The constant pool includes class and method names as well as strings. Kansas. The Java compiler will insert a default constructor if you don't specify one, but the and Prejudice example, constructor is only needed if you will create instances.

You can remove the constructor if you will not be creating instances. Most variables and class references used by the code generate entries in the constant pool. Reusing already existing constant pool entries for class/method/variable names reduces the class file size. Article on using smart proxies. (Page last updated November 2000, Added 2001-01-19, Author M. Jeff Wilson, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: Use smart proxies to transparently cache data in the client, thus reducing the kansas experiment, number of remote calls. Blackberry. Use smart proxies for caching frequently read, seldom-updated data of remote objects. Kansas Experiment. Use smart proxies to monitor the performance of RMI calls. Use smart proxies to prevent returning multiple copies of the same remote object to and Prejudice Essay example client code. Paper detailing the Best Practices for Developing High Performance Web and Enterprise Applications using IBM's WebSphere. Kansas Experiment. All the tips are generally applicable to servlet/EJB development, as well as other types of server development. Raped Porn. (Page last updated September 2000, Added 2001-01-19, Author Harvey W. Gunther, Publisher IBM). Tips: Do not store large object graphs in javax.servlet.http.HttpSession.

Servlets may need to serialize and deserialize HttpSession objects for persistent sessions, and making them large produces a large serialization overhead. Experiment. Use the tag %@ page session=false% to raped porn avoid creating HttpSessions in JSPs. Kansas. Minimize synchronization in Servlets to avoid multiple execution threads becoming effectively single-threaded. Do not use javax.servlet.SingleThreadModel. Raped Porn. Use JDBC connection pooling, release JDBC resources when done, and experiment, reuse datasources for JDBC connections. Use the raped porn, HttpServlet Init method to perform expensive operations that need only be done once. Minimize use of System.out.println.

Avoid String concatenation +=. Access entity beans from session beans, not from client or servlet code. Reuse EJB homes. Use Read-Only methods where appropriate in entity-beans to avoid unnecessary invocations to store. Use the lowest impact transaction level possible for each transaction. The EJB remote programming model always assumes EJB calls are remote, even where this is not so. Where calls are actually local to the same JVM, try to kansas use calling mechanisms that avoid the remote call. Remove stateful session beans (and any other unneeded objects) when finished with, to avoid extra overheads in case the picking seamus heaney, container needs to be passivated.

Beans.instantiate() incurs a filesystem check to create new bean instances. Use new to avoid this overhead. Tuning IBM's WebSphere product. White paper: Methodology for Production Performance Tuning. Only non-product specific Java tips have been extracted here. (Page last updated September 2000, Added 2001-01-19, Author Gennaro (Jerry) Cuomo, Publisher IBM). Tips: A size restricted queue (closed queue) allows system resources to be more tightly managed than an experiment open queue.

The network provides a front-end queue. A server should be configured to use the Pride and Prejudice Essay example, network queue as its bottleneck, i.e. only accept a request from the network when there are sufficient resources to process the request. This reduces the kansas experiment, load on an app server. However, sufficient requests should be accepted to ensure that the app server is working at maximum capacity, i.e. try not to let a component sit idle while there are still requests that can be accepted even if other components are fully worked. Try to balance the workload of the various components. [Paper shows a nice throughput curve giving recommended scaling behavior for an server] The desirable target bottleneck is the giacomo, CPU, i.e. a server should be tuned until the CPU is the remaining bottleneck. Adding CPUs is a simple remedy to this. Use connection pools and cached prepared statements for database access. Object memory management is experiment, particularly important for server applications.

Typically garbage collection could take between 5% and 20% of the server execution time. Garbage collection statistics provide a useful monitor to determine the server's health. Use the Pride, verbosegc flag to collect basic GC statistics. GC statistcs to monitor are: total time spent in GC (target less than 15% of execution time); average time per GC; average memory collected per GC; average objects collected per GC. Kansas Experiment. For long lived server processes it is particularly important to blackberry picking heaney eliminate memory leaks (references retained to objects and never released). Use -ms and -mx to kansas tune the JVM heap. Bigger means more space but GC takes longer. Use the GC statistics to determine the optimal setting, i.e the setting which provides the minimum average overhead from GC. The ability to reload classes is typically achieved by Essay About Generation, testing a filesystem timestamp. Kansas. This check should be done at set intermediate periods, and not on every request as the filesystem check is an on Talkin’ the 60s expensive operation.

WebSphere V3 Performance Tuning Guide (Page last updated March 2000, Added 2001-01-19, Authors Ken Ueno, Tom Alcott, Jeff Carlson, Andrew Dunshea, Hajo Kitzh?fer, Yuko Hayakawa, Frank Mogus, Colin D. Wordsworth, Publisher IBM). Tips: [The Red book lists and kansas experiment, discusses tuning parameters available to Websphere] Run an application server and any database servers on separate server machines. JVM heap size: -mx, -ms [-Xmx, -Xms]. As a starting point for a server based on a single JVM, consider setting the maximum heap size to 1/4 the total physical memory on the server and setting the minimum to 1/2 of the maximum heap. Sun recommends that ms be set to somewhere between 1/10 and 1/4 of the mx setting. They do not recommend setting ms and mx to Revolution: The Battle of Many be the experiment, same. Giacomo Rizzolatti. Bigger is not always better for heap size. In general increasing the experiment, size of the Java heap improves throughput to giacomo the point where the heap no longer resides in physical memory. Once the experiment, heap begins swapping to disk, Java performance drastically suffers. Therefore, the giacomo rizzolatti, mx heap setting should be set small enough to kansas contain the heap within physical memory. Also, large heaps can take several seconds to Revolution: The fill up, so garbage collection occurs less frequently which means that pause times due to GC will increase.

Use verbosegc to kansas help determine the optimum size that minimizes overall GC. In some cases turning off asynchronous garbage collection (-noasyncgc, not always available to all JVMs) can improve performance. Setting the JVM stack and native thread stack size (-oss and -ss) too large (e.g. greater than 2MB) can significantly degrade performance. When security is enabled (e.g. SSL, password authentication, security contexts and access lists, encryption, etc) performance is degraded by significant amounts. One of the most time-consuming procedures of Essay on Talkin’ the 60s Generation, a database application is establishing a connection to kansas experiment the database. Use connection pooling to minimize this overhead. Using a ternary search tree for fast searches of partial text matches (Page last updated February 2001, Added 2001-03-21, Author Wally Flint, Publisher JavaWorld).

Tips: [Article discusses several efficient algorthms for searching through ternary search trees which provide fast partial match searches of character array keys]. When synchronization is required (Page last updated July 2001, Added 2001-07-20, Author Brian Goetz, Publisher IBM). Of Many Essay. Tips: synchronization means mutual exclusion (if the same monitor is used), atomicity of the synchronized block (again with respect to other threads using the same monitor) and kansas, synchronization of thread memory to main memory. Because synchronization synchronizes thread memory with main memory, there is a cost to blackberry heaney synchronization beyond simply acquiring a lock. Too little synchronization can lead to corrupt data; too much can lead to kansas reduced performance and deadlock. The costs of Essay Generation, synchronization vary with JVMs, with more recent JVMs being more efficient. The costs of kansas, synchronization differs depending on whether or not threads are actually contending for locks (more expensive, slower), or for uncontended synchronization where the thread is basically acting in single-threaded mode (cheaper, faster). You need to synchronize or make volatile variables holding data that will be shared between threads. Composite operations may need synchronizing to make them atomic even if each individual operation is already synchronized. Reducing thread contention (Page last updated September 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author Brian Goetz, Publisher IBM). Tips: Thread contention impairs scalability because it forces the scheduler to serialize operations, even if a free processor is available.

Analyze your program to determine where contention is Essay on Talkin’ About, likely to occur. Make synchronized blocks as short as possible. Spread synchronizations over more than one lock. [Article provides a thread-safe hashed Map implementation with lower global contention than Hashtable.] If you will be acquiring and releasing the same lock many times (such as in a loop), acquire the lock before the loop: it is faster to acquire a lock that you already hold than one that nobody holds. J2EE worst practices (Page last updated April 2002, Added 2002-04-26, Author Brett McLaughlin, Publisher OnJava). Tips: The choice of experiment, data store type (RDB, ODB, XML-DB, directory-server, etc) affects performance, and should not be made without performance considerations. Essay On Talkin’ About The 60s. Directory servers are optimized for kansas experiment, frequent reads, with few writes. Revolution: Battle Essay. If you frequently add data to experiment a directory server, performance degrades. Stateless session beans are soooo much faster. The hprof profiler (Page last updated December 2001, Added 2001-12-26, Author Bill Pierce, Publisher JavaWorld). Pride And Prejudice Example. Tips: Use the hprof profiler with the startup command java -Xrunhprof[:help][:suboption=value. ] MyMainClass. Kansas Experiment. [Article describes using hprof and reading the resultant profile files to profile an application for memory leaks, cpu-bottlenecks and thread contention]. hprof can be used to profile object allocation (heap option), method bottlnecks (cpu option) and thread contention (monitor option). Weblogic tuning (generally applicable Java tips extracted) (Page last updated June 2000, Added 2001-03-21, Author BEA Systems, Publisher BEA).

Tips: Response time is affected by: contention and wait times, particularly for shared resources; and software and raped porn, hardware component performance, i.e. the amount of time that resources are needed. A well-designed application can increase performance by simply adding more resources (for instance, an extra server). Use clustered or multi-processing machines; use a JIT-enabled JVM; use Java 2 rather than JDK 1.1; Use -noclassgc. Use the maximum possible heap size that also is experiment, small enough to avoid the JVM from swapping (e.g. 80% of on Talkin’ About the 60s Generation, RAM left over after other required processes). Consider starting with minimum initial heap size so that the garbage collector doesn't suddenly encounter a full heap with lots of garbage. Benchmarkers sometimes like to set the heap as high as possible to kansas completely avoid GC for the duration of the on Talkin’, benchmark. Distributing the application over several server JVMs means that GC impact will be spread in time, i.e. the experiment, various JVMs will most likely GC at blackberry picking seamus, different times from each. On Java 1.1 the most effective heap size is that which limits the kansas, longest GC incurred pause to the longest acceptable pause in The Battle Essay, processing time.

This will typically require a reduction in the maximum heap size. Too many threads causes too much context switching. Too few threads may underutilize the system. If n=number of threads, k=number of CPUs, then: (n k) by kansas experiment, a moderate amount of threads is raped porn, practically ideal; (n k) by many threads can lead to significant performance degradation from context switching. Kansas Experiment. Blocked threads count for less in the previous formulae. Symptoms of too few threads: CPU is waiting to do work, but there is work that could be done; Can not get 100% CPU; All threads are blocked [on i/o] and rizzolatti, runnable when you do an execution snapshot. Kansas. Symptoms of too many threads: An execution snapshot shows that there is The American Revolution: The Essay, a lot of context switching going on in your JVM; Your performance increases as you decrease the number of threads. If many client connections are dropped or refused, the TCP listen queue may be too short.

Try to avoid excessive cycling (creation/deletion or activation/passivation) of kansas experiment, beans. Weblogic JDBC tuning (Page last updated April 1999, Added 2001-03-21, Author BEA Systems, Publisher BEA). Tips: Use connection pools to the database and about, reuse connections rather than repeatedly opening and kansas, closing connections. Optimal pool size is Pride Essay example, when the experiment, connection pool is just large enough to service requests without waits. Cache frequently requested data in the JVM and avoid the unnecessary database requests. Speed up applet download and startup using zip/jar files containing just the classes needed for the applet. Avoid accessing the database wherever possible. Fetch rows in batches rather than one at on Talkin’ About the 60s Generation, a time, using the batch as a read-ahead mechanism (i.e. pre-fetch rows in experiment, batches).

Tune the The American Revolution: Battle Essay, batch size and the number of rows pre-fetched. Avoid pre-fetching BLOBs. Avoid moving data unless absolutely necessary. Kansas. Process the data and and Prejudice Essay example, produce results as close to its source as possible. Use stored procedures.

Streamline data before the result crosses the network. Use stored procedures to avoid extra network transfers. Experiment. Use built-in DBMS set-based processing to operate on multiple rows/tables in Pride, one request. Avoid row at experiment, a time processing, process multiple rows together wherever possible. Counting entries in a table (e.g. using SELECT count(*) from myTable, yourTable where . ) is resource intensive. Try first selecting into Pride, temporary tables, returning only the count, and then sending a refined second query to kansas experiment return only a subset of the rows in the temporary table.

Proper use of SQL can reduce resource requirements. Use queries which return the giacomo, minimum of data needed: avoid SELECT * queries. A complex query that returns a small subset of data is more efficient than a simple query that returns more data than is needed. Kansas Experiment. Make your queries as smart as possible, i.e. as precise as possible to minimize the blackberry heaney, data transferred to just that subset that is required. Try to experiment batch updates: collect statements together and execute them together in one transaction. Use conditional logic and temporary variables if necessary to achieve statement batching. Never let a DBMS transaction span user input.

Consider using optimistic locking. Optimistic locking employs timestamps to verify that data has not been changed by another user, otherwise the transaction fails. Use in-place updates, i.e. Raped Porn. change data in rows/tables that already exist rather than adding or deleting rows/tables. Try to avoid moving rows or changing their sizes. Store operational data and historic data separately (or more generally store frequently used data separately from infrequently used data).

Keep your operational data set as small as possible, to avoid having to read through data that is irrelevant. DBMSs work well with parallelism. Try to experiment design the example, application to do other things while interacting with the DBMS. Experiment. Use pipelining and essay about, parallelism. Designing applications to experiment support lots of parallel processes working on Essay, easily distinguished subsets of the work makes the application faster. If there are multiple steps to processing, try to design your application so that subsequent steps can start working on the portion of data that any prior process has finished, instead of kansas, having to Essay About wait until the prior process is complete. Experiment. Choose the right driver for your application, i.e. the fastest JDBC driver. JDBC optimizing for DB2 (Page last updated April 2002, Added 2002-04-26, Author John Goodson, Publisher WebSphere Developers Journal).

Tips: Use the same connection to execute multiple statements. Keep connection objects open, and reuse them, rather than repeatedly connecting and disconnecting. Turn off autocommit, but don't leave transactions open for too long. Avoid distributed transactions (transactions that span mutliple connections). Blackberry Picking Heaney. Minimize the data retrieved from the experiment, database, both columns and Essay Generation, rows. Use setMaxRows, setMaxFieldSize, and SetFetchSize. Kansas. Use the Battle Essay, most efficiently handled data type: character strings are faster than integers, which are in turn more efficient than floating-point and timestamps. Use programmatic updates: updateXXX() calls on updatable resultsets. The resultset is already postioned at a row, so eliminating the kansas experiment, usual overhead of about, finding the row to experiment be updated when using an UPDATE statement. Raped Porn. Cache any required metadata and use metadata methods as rarely as possible as they are quite slow.

Avoid using null parameters in metadata queries. Use a dummy query to get the metadata for a column, rather than use the getcolumns() Use parameter markers with stored procedures, rather than embedding data literally in the statement, to minimize parsing overheads. Use prepared statements for experiment, repeatedly executing SQL statements Choose the optimal cursor: forward-only for giacomo rizzolatti, sequential reads; insensitive for kansas experiment, two-way scrolling. Avoid insenstive cursors for queries that only The American Revolution: of Many return one row. J2EE Performance tuning (Page last updated October 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author James McGovern, Publisher Java Developers Journal).

Tips: Call HttpSession.invalidate() to kansas experiment clean up a session when you no longer need to use it. For Web pages that don't require session tracking, save resources by turning off automatic session creation using: %@ page session=false% Implement the picking seamus heaney, HttpSessionBindingListener for all beans that are scoped as session interface and explicitly release resources implementing the experiment, method valueUnbound(). Timeout sessions more quickly by setting the timeout or using session.setMaxInactiveInterval(). Keep-Alive may be extra overhead for dynamic sites. Use the include directive %@ include file=copyleft.html % where possible, as this is raped porn, a compile-time directive (include action jsp:include page=copyleft.jsp / is kansas, a runtime directive). Use cache tagging where possible. Revolution: Battle. Always access entity beans from session beans. Kansas Experiment. If only using an giacomo rizzolatti entity bean for data access, use JDBC directly instead. Experiment. Use read-only in the deployment descriptor. Cache access to EJB homes. Use local entity beans when beans are co-located in the same JVM.

Proprietary stubs can be used for caching and batching data. Use a dedicated remote object to generate unique primary keys. Follow standard JDBC optimizations: use connection pools; prefer stored procedures or direct SQL; use type 4 drivers; remove extra columns from the result set; use prepared statements when practical; have your DBA tune the query; choose the appropriate transaction levels. Consider storing all database character data in Pride Essay, Unicode to eliminate conversion overheads. Experiment. But beware: this step will cause your database size to grow, as Unicode requires 2 bytes per character.

Use block fetches when the giacomo, query will give a large ResultSet and all rows are needed. Use the Page-by-Page Iterator pattern when only some of the kansas experiment, rows may be needed. Consider using an in-memory database (product) for data that doesn't need to Essay About the 60s be persisted. Use an kansas experiment algorithm to prune caches to stop them growing too large. Performance is sometimes in The American of Many, perception: try to provide immediate feedback. Optimizing code is one of the last things developers should consider [after optimizing configurations, hardware, etc]. Using nonblocking I/O and memory-mapped buffers in SDK 1.4. (Page last updated September 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author Michael T. Nygard, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: Before SDK 1.4, servers had a number of performance problems: i/o could easily be blocked; garbage was easily generated when reading i/o; many threads are needed to scale the server. Many threads each blocked on i/o is an inefficient architecture in comparison to one thread blocked on many i/o calls (multiplexed i/o).

Truly high-performance applications must obsess about garbage collection. The more garbage generated, the kansas, lower the application throughput. Raped Porn. A Buffer (java.nio.*Buffer) is kansas experiment, a reusable portion of memory. A MappedByteBuffer can map a portion of The, a file directly into memory. Direct Buffer objects can be read/written directly from Channels, but nondirect Buffer objects have a data copy performed for read/writes to i/o (and so are slower and may generate garbage). Convert nondirect Buffers to direct Buffers if they will be used more than once.

Scatter/gather operations allow i/o to operate to and from several Buffers in one operation, for increased efficiency. Where possible, scatter/gather operation are passed to even more efficient operating system functions. Channels can be configured to operate blocking or non-blocking i/o. Using a MappedByteBuffer is more efficient than using BufferedInputStreams. The operating system can page into memory more efficiently than BufferedInputStream can do a block read. Kansas. Use Selectors to multiplex i/o and avoid having to block multiple threads waiting on i/o.

Combining apps in one JVM (Page last updated April 2002, Added 2002-04-26, Author Kirk Pepperdine, Publisher Java Developers Journal). Tips: Loading multiple applications in the same JVM allows resource sharing and reduce system memory requirements. Giacomo. Classloaders allow multiple applications to run in the same JVM without interfering with each other. [Article discusses the resource sharing problems of running multiple applications in the same JVM]. JDBC Drivers (Page last updated March 2002, Added 2002-04-26, Author Barrie Sosinsky, Publisher DevX). Tips: Type 1 drivers are JDBC-ODBC bridges, plus an experiment ODBC driver. Recommended only for prototyping, not for production. Rizzolatti. Not suitable for high-transaction environments. Experiment. Not well supported, and raped porn, limited in functionality. Type 2 drivers use a native API, and are part-Java drivers.

Have a binary-code client loading overhead, and experiment, may not be fully-featured. Type 3 drivers are a pure Java driver which connects to and Prejudice Essay example database middleware. Can be server-based which is kansas experiment, frequently faster than types 1 and 2. Type 4 drivers are pure Java drivers for direct-to-database communications. This can minimize overheads, and generally provides the fastest driver. JDBC 3.0 has additional features to improve performance such as advancements in raped porn, connection pooling, statement pooling, RowSet objects. Opening a connection is the most resource-expensive step in database transactions. Creating a connection requires multiple separate network roundtrips. Kansas. However, once the Pride and Prejudice Essay, connection object has been created, there is little penalty in leaving the connection object in place and reusing it for kansas experiment, future connections. Connection pooling, keeps open a cache of database connection objects, making them available for immediate use. Instead of raped porn, performing expensive network roundtrips to the database server to open a connection, a connection attempt results in the re-assignment of a connection from the kansas experiment, local cache. Battle Of Many. RowSet objects are similar to kansas ResultSet objects, but can provide access to database data while being disconnected.

This allows data to be efficiently cached in its simplest form. Prepared statement pooling (available from JDBC 3.0) caches SQL queries that have been previously optimized and run so that, should they be needed again, they do not have to go through optimization pre-processing again (avoiding optimization steps, such as checking syntax, validating addresses, and optimizing access paths and execution plans). Essay The 60s Generation. Statement pooling can be a significant performance booster. Statement pooling and connection pooling in JDBC 3.0 can cooperate to share statement pools, so that connections that can use a cached statement from another connection, thus incurring statement preparation overheads only once on the first execution of some SQL by any connection. Database drivers developed by kansas, vendors other than the the database vendor can be better performing and more feature full. Blackberry Picking Seamus. (Driver vendors concentrate on the driver, database vendors have many other things to consider). Type 3 and type 4 third-party drivers can provide better performance than the experiment, database vendor's native-API (type 2) driver. Try to picking seamus heaney use a driver that supports JDBC 3.0 as it includes support for performance enhancing features including DataSource objects, connection pooling, distributed transaction support, RowSets, and prepared statement pooling. Type 3 and kansas, Type 4 drivers are the on Talkin’ the 60s Generation, drivers to use when performance is important. Shortened version of chapter 2, I/O, from Early Adopter J2SE 1.4 (Page last updated October 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author James Hart, Publisher Sun). Tips: Non-blocking I/O can improve performance by kansas, minimizing the amount of The American Battle of Many, time spent in I/O calls, though they may add complexity to experiment the application. The old I/O classes can now be interrupted more reliably from 1.4.

FileChannel.transferFrom() is an efficient way to copy data between files. Shortened version of chapter 5, Utilities: The Logging Architecture, from Early Adopter J2SE 1.4 (Page last updated October 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author James Hart, Publisher Sun). Tips: Logging can take place asynchronously: a call to log can return before the log has been formatted and written. The logging framework provides methods (in Logger) for recording method activity, but this may have a large overhead to use. Coding standards with a small but interesting section (section 7.3) on optimizations (Page last updated January 2000, Added 2001-04-20, Author Scott Ambler, Publisher AmbySoft). Tips: Optimizing code is one of the last things that programmers should be thinking about, not one of the first. Essay About The 60s Generation. Don't optimize code that already runs fast enough. Prioritize where speed comes among the kansas, following factors, so that goals are better defined: speed, size, robustness, safety, testability, maintainability, simplicity, reusability, and portability.

The most important factors in looking for code to optimize are fixed overhead and performance on The American Revolution: The Battle of Many Essay, large inputs: fixed overhead dominates speed for small inputs and the algorithm dominates for large inputs (a program that works well for both small and kansas experiment, large inputs will likely work well for medium-sized inputs). Operations that take a particular amount of time, such as the Pride Essay, way that memory and buffers are handled, often show substantial time variations between platforms. Users are sensitive to particular delays: users will likely be happier with a screen that draws itself immediately and then takes eight seconds to kansas load data than with a screen that draws itself after taking five seconds to load data. Give users immediate feedback: you do not always need to make your code run faster to The of Many Essay optimize it in the eyes of kansas experiment, your users. Slow software that works is almost always preferable to fast software that does not. Overview of common application servers. (Announced at giacomo, I've extracted the performance related features (Page last updated October 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author Pieter Van Gorp, Publisher Van Gorp). Tips: Load balancing: random; minimum load; round-robin; weighted round-robin; performance-based; load-based; dynamic algorithm based; dynamic registration. Clustering. Additionally: distributed transaction management; in-memory replication of session state information; no single point of failure. Connection pooling.

Caching. JNDI caching. Distributed caching with synchronization. Thread pooling. Configurable user Quality of experiment, Service. Analysis tools. Low system/memory requirements. Optimized subsystems (RMI, JMS, JDBC drivers, JSP tags cacheable page fragments). Essay On Talkin’ Generation. Optimistic transaction support. Atomic File Transactions. (Page last updated November 2001, Added 2001-11-27, Author Jonathan Amsterdam, Publisher OnJava). Tips: If you don't require powerful search capabilities, using flat files may be faster than dealing with a database.

Basic file operations (deletion, creation, renaming) are atomic. Other operations and combinations of kansas, operations are not atomic. Atomicity can be built but comes at a performance cost. You will have to determine whether the increase in robustness is worth the slowdown in your application. Pride And Prejudice Essay Example. Do the I/O in a background thread to mitigate the performance impact of kansas experiment, adding atomicity to file transactions. [Article discusses how to use a free package which provides atomicity for file transactions, and how the giacomo, atomicity is provided]. Atomic File Transactions, Part 2 (Page last updated February 2002, Added 2002-02-22, Author Jonathan Amsterdam, Publisher OnJava). Tips: [Article continues implementation of a framework for atomic file transactions].

If a transaction creates a file and then performs several other actions on it, there is no need to experiment undo the actions -- it is enough to delete the file. If a backup copy of a file is made, then it is about, unnecessary to roll back all subsequent actions on the file: recovery can simply restore the backup. MIDP memory tuning (Page last updated June 2002, Added 2002-07-24, Author Jonathan Knudsen, Publisher Sun). Tips: Use an obfuscator to minimize the size of classes. Minimize resource sizes by experiment, using as few images as possible, and using fewer colors in Pride, the images you do use.

Use as few objects as possible. Kansas. Dereference objects (set them to on Talkin’ About null) when they're no longer useful so they will be garbage-collected. Catch OutOfMemoryErrors on all allocations, or at kansas experiment, least the large ones. Don't let an raped porn OutOfMemoryError take your application by surprise. MIDlets use three types of memory: program memory, heap, and persistent storage. Each of kansas, these may be scarce and they should all be treated with respect. Design patterns catalog (Page last updated 2001, Added 2002-01-25, Author ?, Publisher Sun). Tips: [Page lists some patterns with summaries and giacomo rizzolatti, links to detailed info.

Patterns are: Data Access Object; Fast-Lane Reader; Front Controller; Page-by-Page Iterator; Session Facade; Value Object]. Use the Data Access Object pattern to decouple business logic from data access logic, allowing for kansas experiment, optimizations to The American Revolution: of Many Essay be made in how data is managed. Use the Fast-Lane Reader pattern to accelerate read-only data access by not using enterprise beans. Use the Front Controller pattern to centralize incoming client requests, allowing optimizations to be made in kansas, aggregating the Revolution: The of Many Essay, resulting view. Use the kansas experiment, Page-by-Page Iterator pattern to about efficiently access a large, remote list by retrieving its elements one sublist of value objects at a time. Kansas. Use the Session Facade pattern to provide a unified, workflow-oriented interface to a set of enterprise beans, thus minimizing client calls to server EJBs. Use the Value Object pattern to picking seamus efficiently transfer remote, fine-grained data by sending a coarse-grained view of the data. EJB design (Page last updated January 2002, Added 2002-01-25, Author Boris Lublinsky, Publisher Java Developers Journal). Tips: Some application server implementations (e.g., WebSphere) automatically convert remote communications to local communications to experiment make them faster. Low granularity (i.e. fine-grained) methods in an EJB typically leads to poor performance of the overall system. Local interfaces in EJB 2.0 is one attempt to giacomo rizzolatti improve overall performance: local interfaces provide for beans in the same container to interact locally without involving RMI.

The most effective way to improve the overall performance of EJB-based applications is to minimize the amount of method invocations, making the communications overhead negligible compared with the kansas, execution time. This can be achieved by implementing coarse-grained methods. Raped Porn. Entity beans should not be simply mapped to database tables. Treating entity beans as such fine-grained objects which are effectively wrappers on table rows leads to kansas experiment increased network communications and heavier database communications than if entity beans are treated as coarse-grained components. For optimal performance, entity beans should be designed to: have large granularity, which usually means they should contain multiple Java classes and support multiple database tables; be associated with a certain amount of persistent data, typically multiple database tables, one of which should define the primary key for the whole bean; support meaningful business methods and encapsulate business rules to access the data. Don't use client transactions in the EJB environment since long-running transactions that can cause database lockup. About Technology. Entity beans are transactional resources due to their stateful nature, but application server vendors often rely on kansas, the underlying database to blackberry picking seamus lock and resolve access appropriately. Although this approach greatly improves performance, it provides the potential for database lockup. Design Patterns (Page last updated January 2002, Added 2002-01-25, Author Vijay Ramachandran, Publisher Sun). Kansas. Tips: [Article discusses several design patterns: Model-View-Controller, Front Controller, Session Facade, Data Access Object].

Use the essay, Front Controller pattern to channel all client requests through a single decision point, which allows the experiment, application to blackberry picking seamus be balanced at runtime. Use a Session Facade to provide a simple interface to a complex subsystem of experiment, enterprise beans, and to reduce network communication requirements. Use Data Access Objects to decouple the seamus heaney, business logic from the data access logic, allowing data access optimizations to be decoupled from other types of optimizations. J2EE Design Patterns for the presentation tier (Page last updated January 2002, Added 2002-01-25, Author Sue Spielman, Publisher OnJava). Experiment. Tips: [Article discusses several design patterns: Intercepting Filter, Front Controller, View Helper, Composite View, Service To Worker, Dispatch View. Giacomo Rizzolatti. Performance is not explicitly covered, but at least a couple are relevant to getting good performance]. Thread programming (Page last updated January 2002, Added 2002-01-25, Author Karthik Rangaraju, Publisher DevX).

Tips: Use Djikstra semaphores (synchronized acquire()/release()) to control access to a finite pool of resources. Conditional events provide a more sophisticated version of the wait()/notify() mechanism which avoids some potential problems of kansas, that mechanism. Blocking queues provides a mechanism for reliably distributing requests to multiple server threads. The American Revolution: The Battle Of Many. A dispatcher-worker model consists of kansas, a dispatcher which hands requests of to multiple worker threads. A pipeline model consists of giacomo rizzolatti, a dispatcher which iteratively hands a particular request to one worker thread after another, with each worker thread completing part of the overall request. Some (Intel chip) optimization myths debunked. (Page last updated March 2002, Added 2002-04-26, Author George Walsh, Publisher DevX). Tips: If optimization and performance tools are used throughout development rather than tacked on at the end as a final optimization phase, time to market and costs can actually be decreased by speeding up the experiment, process of locating problems and bottlenecks in code.

Not taking advantage of new optimized interfaces will ultimately put you at a competitive disadvantage. Double-checked locking revisited. Rizzolatti. (Page last updated November 2001, Added 2001-11-27, Author Brian Goetz, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: Double-checked locking is not guaranteed to produce consistent results. Using a ThreadLocal in the double-checked locking test is guaranteed to kansas experiment produce consistent results, but is slower than avoiding double-checked locking altogether. ThreadLocal is faster in and Prejudice Essay example, each SDK release through 1.2, 1.3 and 1.4.

1.4 ThreadLocal may be fast enough to provide an efficient double-checked locking test. Command objects for RMI. (Page last updated October 2001, Added 2001-11-27, Author William Grosso, Publisher OnJava). Tips: Use Command objects to automatically queue or retry RMI calls. Caching RMI stubs. (Page last updated October 2001, Added 2001-11-27, Author William Grosso, Publisher OnJava). Tips: Remote method calls are much slower than local calls, at least 1000 times slower. Reduce the experiment, number of remote calls made by an application to improve performance. Cache remote objects locally where possible, rather than repeatedly fetching them. Essay About Generation. Use Command objects to experiment transparently add a remote stub cache to an RMI application. Caching stubs keeps them from being garbage collected, and blackberry picking seamus heaney, may prevent an RMI server from closing. Kansas Experiment. Use a policy to blackberry heaney expire stubs and delete them from the cache. Website performance. (Page last updated October 2001, Added 2001-11-27, Author Gordon Benett, Publisher Intranet Journal).

Tips: Some e-commerce consultants cite an attention span on kansas, the order of eight seconds as the threshold for giacomo rizzolatti, abandoning a slow retail site. Kansas Experiment. Where broadband connections are the norm, pages that don't appear instantly stand a good chance of never being seen: slow pages might as well be no pages. Systems can only be designed to meet performance goals if those goals have been identified. Determine what range of response times will be acceptable. Try to understand the performance impacts of your design decisions. However the performance of some design choices can be hard to predict and may remain unclear before testing. Test the raped porn, system under conditions that simulate real patterns of use. Experiment. Intermittent hard to repeat performance problems are not worth addressing unless they are in a business critical part of the website which provides corporate revenue.

Use a rapid, iterative development process in blackberry seamus, combination with frequent performance testing. Try to plan up-front rather than have to rely on late-phase tuning. High performance graphics (Page last updated February 2002, Added 2002-03-25, Author ?, Publisher Sun). Tips: The large number extra features and increased cross-platform compatibility added to the Java Graphics framework in SDK 1.2 made the experiment, graphics slower than the 1.1 Graphics. SDK 1.4 targeted these performance issues head on. About Technology. VolatileImage allows you to create hardware-accelerated offscreen images, resulting in better performance of kansas, Swing and gaming applications in particular and faster offscreen rendering. When filling a shape with a complex paint, Java 2D must query the Pride and Prejudice, Paint object every time it needs to kansas experiment assign a color to a pixel whereas a simple color fill only About requires iterating through the pixels and assigning the same color to kansas experiment all of blackberry picking, them. The graphics pipeline (from SDK 1.4) only kansas gets invalidated when an attribute is changed to a different type of value, rather than when an attribute is The American The Battle of Many, changed to a different value of the same type. For example rendering one opaque color is the kansas experiment, same rendering another opaque color, so this would not invalidate the pipeline. But changing an opaque color to a transparent color would invalidate the pipeline.

Smaller font is rendered faster than larger font. Hardware-accelerated scaling is currently (1.4.0 release) disabled on Win32 because of raped porn, quality problems, but you can enable it with a runtime flag, -Dsun.java2d.ddscale=true. From SDK 1.4 many operations that were previously slow have been accelerated, and produce fewer intermediate temporary objects (garbage). Alpha blending and anti aliasing adversely affect performance. Only opaque images or images with 1-bit transparency can be hardware accelerated currently (1.4.0). Use 1-bit transparency to kansas experiment make the seamus heaney, background color of a sprite rectangle transparent so that the kansas, character rendered in the sprite appears to move through the landscape of your game, rather than within the raped porn, sprite box. Create images with the same depth and type of the screen to avoid pixel format conversions. Use either Component.createImage() or GraphicsConfiguration.createCompatibleImage(), or use a BufferedImage created with the ColorModel of the kansas experiment, screen.

Rectangular fills--including horizontal and vertical lines--tend to and Prejudice Essay example perform better than arbitrary or non-rectangular shapes whether they are rendered in software or with hardware acceleration. If your application must repeatedly render non-rectangular shapes, draw the shapes into 1-bit transparency images and copy the images as needed. If you experience low frame rates, try commenting out pieces of your code to find the particular operations that are causing problems, and kansas, replace these problem operations with something that might perform better. Various flags are available that affect performance, but may affect quality in Essay the 60s, some environments. These include: NO_J2D_DGA (no Solaris hardware acceleration); USE_DGA_PIXMAPS (use Solaris DGA acceleration of pixmaps); -Dsun.java2d.noddraw=true (turn off DirectDraw); -Dsun.java2d.ddoffscreen=false (disable DirectDraw offscreen acceleration); -Dsun.java2d.ddscale=true (enable hardware acceleration in Win32); -Dsun.java2d.pmoffscreen=true/false (store images in pixmaps under Unix); You can trace graphics performance using the flag -Dsun.java2d.trace=optionname,optionname. where the options are log (print primitives on execution); timestamp (timestamp log entries); count (print total calls of each primitive used); out:filename (send logs to filename); verbose (whatever); help (help); Assertions (Page last updated April 2002, Added 2002-04-26, Author Glen McCluskey, Publisher Sun). Experiment. Tips: Disabled assertions add a cost of one check of a global state flag Enabled assertions add a cost of Battle of Many Essay, a check of kansas, a global state flag and evaluating the boolean expression. Also the cost of throwing a new exception is added if the technology, assertion fails. Use the conditional compilation idiom applied to assertions to remove assertions completely from the experiment, bytecode.

GC performance tuning (Page last updated February 2002, Added 2002-03-25, Author Alka Gupta and Michael Doyle, Publisher Sun). Tips: The point when garbage collection kicks in is out of the control of the application. This can cause a sequential overhead on The American Revolution: Battle, the application, as the garbage collector suspends all application threads when it runs, causing inconsistent and unacceptable application pauses, leading to high latency and decreased application efficiency. verbosegc provides detailed logs of the garbage collector activities The live transient memory footprint of an application is the (Garbage generated per call) * (duration of the call) * (number of calls per second) . GC pause time caused by kansas, two-space collection of short-lived objects is directly proportional to the size of the heaney, memory space allocated to kansas experiment holding short-lived objects. But smaller available space can mean more frequent GCs. Higher frequency GC of and Prejudice example, short-lived objects can inadvertently promote short-lived objects to old space where longer lived objects reside [because if the the object is in kansas experiment, short-lived object area for several GCs, then GC decides it's long-lived.] The promoteAll option will force the GC to assume that any object surviving GC of young space is long-lived, and is immediately promoted to old space.. The short-lived object space needs to be configured so that GC pause time is not too high, but GCs are not run so often that many short-lived objects are considered long-lived and so promoted to the more expensively GCed long-lived object space.

The long-lived object space needs to be large enough to avoid an out-of-memory error, but not so high that a full GC of old space pauses the JVM for too long. [Article covers 1.2 and 1.3 GC memory space models]. A significant GC value to raped porn focus on kansas, is the GC sequential overhead, which is the the percentage of the system time during which GC is Essay the 60s Generation, running and application threads are suspended: (Sequential GC pause time added together) * (100) / (Total Application run time) . The concurrent garbage collector runs only experiment most of the old space GC concurrently. Some of the giacomo rizzolatti, old space GC and all the young space GC is sequential. GC activity can take hours to experiment settle down to raped porn its final pattern. Kansas. Fragmentation of old space can cause GC times to degrade, and it may take a long time for the old space to and Prejudice become sufficiently fragmented to show this behavior. GC options can reduce fragmentation (such as bestFitFirst). The promoteAll option produced a significant improvement in performance [which I find curious]. Minimizing bytecode size for experiment, J2ME (Page last updated February 2002, Added 2002-03-25, Author Eric Giguere, Publisher Sun). Tips: Eliminate unnecessary features. On Talkin’ The 60s. Avoid inner classes: make the kansas, main class implement the raped porn, required Listener interfaces and handle the callbacks there.

Use built-in classes if functionality is close enough, and work around their limitations. Collapse inheritence hierarchies, even if this means duplicating code. Shorten all names (packages, classes, methods, data variables). Some obfuscators can do this automatically. MIDP applications are completely self-contained, so you can use the default package with no possible name-clash. Convert array initialization from code to extract data from kansas a binary string or data file. Array initialization generates many bytecodes as each element is separately initialized.

Sun engineering report on performance tests of various configurations of the 1.2.2 and 1.3 JVM (Page last updated February 2001, Added 2001-02-21, Author Ed Ort, Publisher Sun). Tips: Different versions of the Sun JVM support different optimization flags. Some flags may allow you to configure the garbage collector generational spaces. Configure heap space using -Xms and -Xmx [-ms and giacomo, -mx for 1.1.x JVMs] to optimize the JVM heap memory for kansas experiment, improved performance. If the JVM supports configuring the garbage collector generational spaces (-Xgenconfig in 1.2.2; -XX:newSize, -XX:MaxNewSize, -XX:SurvivorRatio in on Talkin’ About the 60s Generation, 1.3), then you can improve performance by specifying generation spaces more appropriate for your application [you can start with some appropriate configuration depending on the ratios of short-lived to medium-lived to long-lived objects, then test multiple configurations to experiment determine the optimal config]. Technology. The 1.3 JVM appears to be faster when run with the -server flag. The -Xoptimize flag seems to improve performance on kansas experiment, those 1.2.x JVMs that support it. Discussion on raped porn, JDBC performance (Page last updated August 2000, Added 2001-02-21, Author , Publisher JGuru). Experiment. Tips: Use a connection pool mechanism whenever possible. Use prepared statements.

Use stored procedures. The American Revolution: Battle Of Many Essay. Select only required columns rather than using select * from Table xyz. Always close Statement and ResultSet objects as soon as possible. Work with DatabaseMetaData to get information about database functionality. Always catch and handle database warnings and exceptions.

Time DB queries. Use the most appropriate datatype specific kinds of data, e.g. store dates as a date type rather than varchar. Use scrollable ResultSet (JDBC 2.0). Stay away from the JDBC-ODBC and other Type 1 drivers where possible. Improving J2EE performance (Page last updated May 2002, Added 2002-07-24, Author Scott Marlow, Publisher The Server Side). Tips: Set performance goals before development starts. If supporting clients with slow connections, consider compressing data for network communication. Minimize the experiment, number of network round trips required by essay, the application.

For applications to scale to many users, minimize the amount of shared memory that requires updating. Cache data to minimize lookup time, though this can reduce scalability if locks are required to access the cache. Kansas. If there are more accesses than updates to a cache, share the access lock amongst all the accessors, though be aware that this reduces the window for updators to lock the cache. For optimum performance, zero shared memory provides a cache per user. Be methodical to ensure that changes for raped porn, performance do actually improve performance. Eliminate memory leaks before tuning execution speed. Kansas Experiment. Use a test environment that correctly simulates the expected deployment environment.

Simulate the expected client activity, and compare the performance against technology your expected goals. Consider which metrics to measure, such as: Max response time under heavy load; CPU utilization under heavy load; How the application scales as additional users are added. Profile the application to find the bottlenecks. Correct bottlenecks by making one change at a time and testing for improvement. Generate stack traces to look for experiment, bottlenecks which are multi-thread conflicts (waiting for locks). Improving the performance of a method that is called 1000 times and takes a tenth of a second on Pride and Prejudice Essay, average each call, is kansas experiment, better than improving the performance of a method that is only called 10 times but takes 1 second each call.

Don?t cache data unless you know how and when to invalidate the cached entries. An assortment of tips (Page last updated 2000, Added 2000-10-23, Author Curt Smith, Publisher Smith). Tips: Use the Java compiler?s optimization flag (javac -O) Profile the application (using -prof) re-code the methods that are taking the longest. Avoid repeatedly instantiating exceptions. Pride. Reuse exceptions in preference. Move common subexpressions to kansas one execution. Eliminate casts, or reduce the number of raped porn, casts being made.

Method local variables are faster than Class variables Declare method arguments final if they are not modified in the method. In general declare all variables final if they are not modified after being initialized or set to some value. Declare methods private and/or final whenever that makes sense. This can help the compiler inline methods. [final methods are of experiment, dubious value] Buffer i/o. Use BufferedReaders.

DON?T create static strings via new(). Raped Porn. Use String.intern() to reduce the number of strings in kansas experiment, your runtime. [but this is an expensive operation] Use char[] arrays for essay technology, all character processing in loops, rather than using the experiment, String or StringBuffer classes. StringBuffer default size is Essay on Talkin’ About the 60s Generation, 16 chars. Set this to kansas experiment the maximum expected string length. Rizzolatti. StringTokenizer is inefficient. It can be optimized by storing the string and delimiter in a character array instead of in a String, or by storing the highest delimiter character to allow a quicker check. Kansas. Accessing arrays is much faster than accessing vectors, String, and StringBuffer. Use System.arraycopy() to improve performance.

Initialize expensive arrays in class static initializers, and create a per instance copy of this array initialized with System.arrarycopy(). Vector is convenient to essay about use, but inefficient. For best performance, use it only when the structure size is kansas, unknown, and efficiency is not a concern. Essay. When using Vector, ensure that elementAt() is not used inside a loop. Vector element access is faster using a subclassed non-synchronized accessor. Re-use Vectors by using Vector.removeAllElements().

Initialize Vector to kansas the maximum expected size. Raped Porn. Re-use Hashtables by using Hashtable.clear(). Set the Hashtable size to be large enough to hold the expected elements. Use a prime number for table size. Override hashcode() methods of Hashtable keys to experiment improve hashing efficiency. Use non-synchronized hash table classes. Increase heap size to Pride and Prejudice Essay example reduce garbage collection [actally to defer it - this is kansas experiment, a balancing act]. Giacomo. Use the experiment, -verbosegc option to monitor garbage collection.

Use arrays of smaller datatypes (short rather than int) is possible. Avoid allocating objects in loops (readLine() is Revolution: Battle, a common example). Minimizing synchronization may take work, but can pay off well. Polling is only acceptable when waiting for outside events and should be performed in a side thread. Use wait/notify instead. Eliminate calls to synchronized methods (but be careful of being overly ambitious in this).

It is slightly faster to call a synchronized method than to enter a synchronized block. Calling a synchronized method when the monitor is kansas, already owned by blackberry seamus heaney, the thread executes somewhat faster than calling a synchronized method when the monitor isn't already owned by kansas, the thread. Creating objects is blackberry, expensive. Kansas Experiment. Consider reusing objects in reuse pools. Move new(), invariants and constant conditionals outside of The American The Battle, loops. Unroll loops.

Make tests in experiment, loops as simple as possible. The American. Loop tests run backwards are slightly faster [actually the test comparing to 0 is kansas experiment, what is faster]. Picking Seamus. Use local variables, rather than any other type of variable, in loops. Combine similar loops. Nest the busiest loop, if loops are interchangeable. Convert expressions to experiment table lookups [doesn't always work]. Cache values that are expensive to fetch or compute. Pre-compute results. About Technology. Delay computation of results until they are needed [if the computation comes at a bad time] Put all one-time initializations into a class initializer. Various performance tips (Page last updated May 2001, Added 2001-06-18, Author Asha Balasubramanyan, Publisher Nandighosha). Tips: Use buffered I/O.

Use stream I/O rather than character I/O (Readers/Writers) if you are dealing with only ASCII characters. Avoid premature flushing of buffers. Kansas Experiment. Recycle objects. try to minimize the number of rizzolatti, objects you create in your java programs. Factor out constant computations from loops. Push one-time computations into methods called once only.

Use StringBuffer when dealing with mutable strings. Initialize the StringBuffer with the proper size. Comparison of two string objects is faster if they differ in kansas experiment, length. Giacomo. Avoid converting Strings to bytes and back. StringTokenizer is slow.

Write your own tokenizer. Kansas. Use charAt() instead of StartsWith() in case you are looking for a single character within a String. Avoid premature object creation. Creation should be as close to the actual place of blackberry seamus heaney, use as possible. Avoid initializing twice. Zeroing buffer contents is not usually required. Be careful about the order of evaluation of kansas experiment, expressions with OR and AND conditions. Use ArrayList for non-synchronized Vectors.

Minimize JNI calls in your code. Minimize calls to Date and related classes. Avoiding synchronization deadlocks (Page last updated October 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author Brain Goetz, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: Deadlocks are difficult to identify from code analysis, and can occur unexpectedly. Always acquire locks in the same order to giacomo avoid one common cause of deadlocking. Kansas Experiment. If you can guarantee that all locks will always be acquired in picking heaney, a consistent order, then your program will not deadlock. Try to avoid acquiring more than one lock at a time (though this is usually impractical). Keep synchronized blocks of code as short as possible.

Counting object creation (Page last updated December 2001, Added 2002-02-22, Author Heinz M. Kabutz, Publisher Kabutz). Tips: Add a counter in to the Object constructor to trace object creation. Doesn't trace arrays [nor objects created from deserialization]. Performance tuning (Page last updated September 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author James McGovern, Publisher Java Developers Journal). Tips: Often there's a trade-off between designing for reuse and designing for performance. Performance generally wins: customers understand fast-performing systems when they don't necessarily understand code reuse. Exceptions degrade performance and kansas experiment, should be used for and Prejudice example, error conditions only, not control flow. Don't initialize variables twice: Java by default initializes variables to a known value. Use the kansas experiment, factory pattern to enable reuse or cloning of objects. Make classes final. Use local variables as much as possible.

Use non-blocking I/O (available from 1.4, or use mdw/proj/java-nbio/download.html for technology, earlier versions). Create/Use method interfaces that reduce overhead. Use bit-shifting instead of experiment, multiplication or division by blackberry picking heaney, powers of two. Choose the experiment, JVM that runs your application fastest. Use clustering application servers. Avoid stateful sessions. Profile and tune the application (architecture and code).

Set aside at least 20% of the total project time for performance. Make sure your QA environment mirrors your production environment, and your QA procedure tests the application at different loads, including a low and fully scaled loads. Why CMP is raped porn, better than BMP (Page last updated April 2002, Added 2002-04-26, Author Tyler Jewell, Publisher Weblogic Developers Journal). Tips: Use CMP except in specific cases when BMP is kansas, necessary: fields use stored procedures; persistence is not simple JDBC (e.g. JDO); One bean maps to about multiple tables; non-standard SQL is used. CMP can make many optimizations: optimal locking; optimistic transactions; efficient lazy loading; efficiently combining multiple queries to the same table (i.e. multiple beans of the same type can be handled together); optimized multi-row deletion to handle deletion of beans and kansas experiment, their dependents. Scalable recoverable applications (Page last updated May 2002, Added 2002-07-24, Author Billy Newport, Publisher The Server Side). Tips: [Article describes several approaches to Pride building a scalable recoverable system] Split the application into a transactional part and a non-transactional part. The non-transactional part can be replicated. Using a single machine limits both reliability and scalability.

Scalability is completely dependent on how powerful the single machine can become. Multiple front-end machines with http request load balancing is more reliable, but the experiment, database machine is still a single point of failure. Blackberry Picking Seamus Heaney. A database caching layer in the servlet helps performance. An EJB caching layer is difficult to achieve. Kansas Experiment. Oracle 9i includes queryable snapshots of the main database which can offload the query to run against the clients local snapshot. An in-memory database (such as TimesTen) is very, very fast and can act as a queryable cache for a back end database. Database instances on each machine, with replication increases reliability and access speed.

But updates now need to be handled differently. Alternatives include: buffering updates; using message queues; database update replication. Partitioning the database across multiple machines adds scalability, but must be done with care. If you want very reliable systems then everything has to be controlled. A load balancing message queue may be needed for a high rate of messages (500/sec). Note that reliable systems should ensure that all duplicated data have no single points of failure in the software or hardware chain behind the data (different controllers, UPSs, etc). Techniques to avoid deadlocks (Page last updated September 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author Mark Dykstra, Publisher Java Developers Journal). Tips: Potential deadlocks can be caused by coding styles. Always acquire a set of locks in the same set order.

Don't hold a lock and wait for an event. Specify which thread should have access to data at About the 60s Generation, any time. Ensure that both access and experiment, update to giacomo rizzolatti the same variable is synchronized on the same monitor. Stateful to Stateless Bean (Page last updated February 2002, Added 2002-03-25, Author Brett McLaughlin, Publisher OnJava). Tips: Stateless session beans are much more efficient than stateful session beans.

Stateless session bean have no state. Most containers have pools of experiment, stateless beans. Essay About Technology. Each stateless bean instance can serve multiplw clients, so the experiment, bean pool can be kept small, and doesn't need to change in size avoiding the rizzolatti, main pooling overheads. A separate stateful bean instance must exist for every client, making bean pools larger and kansas experiment, more variable in size. [Article discusses how to move a stateful bean implementation to giacomo rizzolatti stateless bean implementtaion]. Alternatives to using 'new'. (Page last updated March 2002, Added 2002-03-25, Author Jonathan Amsterdam, Publisher Dr. Dobb's). Tips: The 'new' operator is not object oriented, and prevents proper polymorphic object creation. Experiment. Constructors must be made non-public and preferably private to limit the number of objects of blackberry picking, a class. Kansas Experiment. The Singleton pattern and the Flyweight (object factory) pattern are useful to limit numbers of objects of various types and to assist with object reuse and reduce garbage collection. Giacomo Rizzolatti. The real-time specification for kansas, Java allows 'new' to allocate objects in The Battle Essay, a 'current memory region', which may be other than the heap.

Each such region is a type of MemoryArea, which can manage allocation. Using variables to provide access to limited numbers of objects is efficient, but a maintenance problem if you need to change the kansas, object access pattern, for example from a global singleton to a ThreadLocal Singleton. A non-static factory method is polymorphic and so provides many advantages over static factory methods. Essay On Talkin’ The 60s. The Abstract Factory design pattern uses a single class to experiment create more than one kind of object. An alternative to the Flyweight pattern is the Prototype pattern, which allows polymorphic copies of existing objects. Essay About Technology. The Object.clone() method signature provides support for the Prototype pattern.

Prototypes are useful when object initialization is expensive, and you anticipate few variations on the initialization parameters. Then you could keep already-initialized objects in kansas, a table, and clone an About existing object instead of expensively creating a new one from scratch. Immutable objects can be returned directly when using Prototyping, avoiding the experiment, copying overhead. Timing out rizzolatti, sockets (Page last updated 2000, Added 2001-06-18, Author David Reilly, Publisher JavaCoffeeBreak). Tips: Use a timer thread to monitor socket activity and timeout if blocked.

Use the socket option SO_TIMEOUT, set by using the setSoTimeout() method, to automatically timeout blocked sockets. Deadlocks (Page last updated November 2000, Added 2002-04-26, Author Heinz M. Kabutz, Publisher Kabutz). Kansas Experiment. Tips: Use CTRL+BREAK to get a thread dump when a deadlock occurs, to find where the giacomo rizzolatti, deadlock is. Use SwingUtlities.invokeLater() to experiment run any Swing GUI changes and avoid deadlocks, but note that this will hold up GUI processing while running, so make the run() call quick. Use SwingUtilities.isEventDispatchThread() to test if can run code immediately without calling SwingUtlities.invokeLater(). Load testing of giacomo, web applications (Page last updated June 2001, Added 2001-06-18, Author Frank Cohen, Publisher IBM).

Tips: Current Web-application architectures consists many small servers that are accessed through a load balancer, providing a front-end to a powerful database server. This architecture provides a foundation for achieving good performance. Load testing of kansas experiment, web applications should include: State machine testing (entries in a shopping basket, should still be there when checked out); Really long session testing (session started then continued several hours later); Hordes of savage users testing (users do lots nonsensical activity); Privileged testing (only some users should be able to access some functionality); Speed testing (do tasks complete within the required times?). Each type of test should be run with several different user loads. Test suites should be automated and easily changed. [Article discusses Load , an open-source set of tools with XML scripting language] J2EE design patterns to improve performance (Page last updated June 2001, Added 2001-06-18, Author Daniel H. Essay Technology. Steinberg, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: Combine multiple remote calls for state information into one call using a value object to wrap the kansas, data (the Value Object pattern, superceded by local interfaces in EJB 2.0).

Where long lists of data are returned by queries, use the Page-by-Page Iterator pattern: a server-side object that holds data on essay, the server and supplies batches of results to the client. Oracle JDBC tips (Page last updated December 2001, Added 2001-12-26, Author Donald Bales, Publisher OnJava). Tips: Although Oracle recommend using the OCI driver for kansas experiment, optimal client side access, the writer finds the Revolution: Battle of Many Essay, Thin driver to have have better performance. Kansas Experiment. Turn off autocommit, Connection.setAutoCommit(false). About Technology. From the client side, Statement is faster than PreparedStatement (except if you are batching statements) when using dynamic SQL. Experiment. Use PreparedStatements for all, except dynamic, SQL statements. Use PreparedStatements for batching repetitive inserts or updates. Revolution: Battle Of Many Essay. OraclePreparedStatement.setExecuteBatch() (proprietary method) is the experiment, fastest way to execute batch statements. Use SQL's set based processing capabilities to operate on multiple rows simultaneuosly, rather than blindly operating on one row at a time as the simplest Java-RDB architectural mapping will produce. Chapter 19, Performance of Java Programming with Oracle JDBC (Page last updated December 2001, Added 2001-12-26, Author Donald Bales, Publisher O'Reilly). Tips: Performance should be considered at the start of a project.

Use the EXPLAIN PLAN facility to explain how the database's optimizer plans to execute your SQL statements, to identify performance improvements such as additional indexes. Giacomo Rizzolatti. If more than one SQL statement is executed by your program, you can gain a small performance increase by turning off auto-commit. It takes about 65 iterations of a prepared statement before its total time for execution catches up with a statement, because of prepared statement initialization overheads. Use PreparedStatements to batch statements for optimal performance. The Thin driver is faster than the OCI driver. This is contrary to Oracle's recommendation. A SELECT statement makes two round trips to the database, the kansas, first for metadata, the second for data. Use OracleStatement.defineColumnType() to predefine the SELECT statement, thus providing the JDBC driver with the column metadata which then doesn't require the The American Revolution:, first database trip.

Given a simple SQL statement and a stored procedure call that accomplishes the same task, the simple SQL statement will always execute faster because the kansas, stored procedure executes the same SQL statement but also has the overhead of the procedure call itself. On the other hand complex tasks requiring several SQL statements can be faster using stored procedures as fewer network trips and data transfers will be needed. Database performance (Page last updated December 2001, Added 2001-12-26, Author Peter Varhol, Publisher JavaPro). Tips: Thoughtful page design makes for a better user experience by enabling the application to seem faster than it really is. Use the flush method associated with the out object to display static text and graphics on the browser page before the database query returns, to about technology prevent the user from having to look at experiment, a blank page for a long time. ResultSet types affect updates.

TYPE_FORWARD_ONLY: no updating allowed; TYPE_SCROLL-SENSITIVE: update immediately; TYPE_SCROLL_INSENSITIVE: update when the Pride example, connection is closed. (Concurrency type must be set to CONCUR-UPDATABLE to allow the table to be updated.) Performance can be better if changes to the database are batched: turn off autocommit; add multiple SQL statements using the Statement.addBatch() method; execute Statement.executeBatch(). Scaled systems need optimized SQL calls, querying the right amount of experiment, data, and essay about, displaying pages before the query is complete. Prepared statements also speed up database access, and should be used if a statement is to be executed more than once. JDBC tutorial (requires free registration) (Page last updated November 2001, Added 2001-12-26, Author Robert J. Brunner, Publisher IBM). Tips: Type 1 (JDBC-ODBC-DB) drivers incur a performance penalty because of the bridging needed to reach the database. [Type 2 (JDBC-clientDBAgent-DB) drivers seem to have middling performance]. Experiment. Type 3 (JDBC-Middleware-DB) drivers incur a performance penalty because of the bridging needed to essay about technology reach the database, but does introduce optimization potential from the location of the middleware. Type 4 (JDBC-DB) drivers typically provide optimum driver performance.

The higher the level of transaction protection, the higher the performance penalty. Experiment. Transaction levels in order of increasing level are: TRANSACTION_NONE, TRANSACTION_READ_UNCOMMITTED, TRANSACTION_READ_COMMITTED, TRANSACTION_REPEATABLE_READ, TRANSACTION_SERIALIZABLE. On Talkin’ About The 60s. Use Connection.setTransactionIsolation() to set the desired tansaction level. The default autocommit mode imposes a performance penalty by making every database command a separate transaction. Turn off autocommit (Connection.setAutoCommit(false)), and kansas, explicitly specify transactions. Batch operations by combining them in and Prejudice, one transaction, and in one statement using Statement.addBatch() and experiment, Statement.executeBatch(). Savepoints (from JDBC3.0) require expensive resources. Release savepoints as soon as they are no longer needed using Connection.releaseSavepoint(). Each request for a new database connection involves significant overhead. This can impact performance if obtaining new connections occurs frequently. Reuse connections from connection pools to limit the cost of creating connections. [The tutorial lists all the overheads involved in creating a database connection].

The ConnectionPoolDataSource (from JDBC3.0) and PooledConnection interfaces provide built-in support for connection pools. Use setLogWriter() (from Driver, DataSource, or ConnectionPooledDataSource; from JDBC3.0) to help trace JDBC flow. Essay About. Use Connection.setReadOnly(true) to optimize read-only database interactions. Use Connection.nativeSQL() to see how the kansas experiment, SQL query will execute in the database to help ensure that the Pride and Prejudice Essay, SQL is optimized. Advanced JDBC tutorial (requires free registration). Kansas. (Page last updated November 2001, Added 2001-12-26, Author Robert J. Brunner, Publisher IBM).

Tips: PreparedStatement objects are compiled (prepared) by The American The, the JDBC driver or database for faster performance, and accept input parameters so they can be reused with different data. Stored procedures are functions that execute inside a database which provides faster performance than plain SQL. Java supports stored procedures from CallableStatement objects. Performance optimizing design patterns for J2EE (Page last updated December 2001, Added 2001-12-26, Author Vijay Ramachandran, Publisher Sun). Tips: For read-only access to experiment a set of data that does not change rapidly, use the Fast Lane Reader pattern which bypasses the EJBs and uses a (possibly non-transactional) data access object which encapsulates access to the data. Use the Fast Lane Reader to read data from the server and display all of them in one shot. When you need to access a large remote list of objects, use the Page-by-Page Iterator pattern which sends smaller subsets of the data as requested until the client no longer want any more data. Use the Page-by-Page Iterator to send lists of The American Revolution: Battle of Many Essay, simple objects from EJBs to clients.

When the client would request many small data items which would require many remote calls to satisfy, combine the multiple calls into one call which results in kansas, a single Value Object which holds all the about technology, data required to kansas be transferred. Use the Value Object to send a single coarse-grained object from the server to the client(s). Flicker-free graphics with the Mobile Information Device Profile (Page last updated July 2001, Added 2001-08-20, Author Eric Giguere, Publisher Sun). Tips: Use double buffering: draw into an offscreen buffer, then copy into the display buffer. Copying buffers is giacomo, very fast on most devices, while directly drawing to a display sometimes causes users to see a flicker, as individual parts of the display are updated. Kansas Experiment. Double buffering avoids flickering by combining multiple individual drawing operations into raped porn, a single copy operation. Use the Canvas.isDoubleBuffered() method, to experiment determine if double buffering is already automatically used: on some implementations the blackberry, Canvas object's paint method is already a Graphics object of an kansas offscreen buffer managed by raped porn, the system. (The system then takes care of copying the offscreen buffer to the display.) Use javax.microedition.lcdui.Image class to create an offscreen memory buffer, and use Graphics to draw to the offscreen buffer and to copy the contents of the experiment, offscreen buffer onto the display. The offscreen buffer is created by calling one of the Image.createImage methods.

Double buffering does have some overhead: if only making small changes to the display, it might be slower to use double buffering. On some systems image copying isn't very fast and flicker can can happen even with double buffering. Keep the number of The American The, offscreen buffers to a minimum. There is a memory penalty to pay for double buffering: the offscreen memory buffer can consume a large amount of memory. Free the offscreen buffer whenever the canvas is hidden (use the canvas' hideNotify() and kansas experiment, showNotify() methods.) Some killer quotes, leading to the odd tip. (Page last updated 2000, Editor Elliotte Rusty Harold, Publisher IBiblio).

Tips: A Vector may be convenient and generalized, but it's almost always overkill, and you pay the price for it in speed and other ways. --Greg Guerin on the MRJ-dev mailing list A lot of Pride Essay, speed (or memory) can go down the kansas experiment, drain if the underlying structure is essay technology, a poor fit to the problem, or is inefficient for a particular program's common actions. Kansas. --Greg Guerin on blackberry, the MRJ-dev mailing list It is perfectly legal for available() to always return 0, even when there are a zillion bytes available, and in experiment, fact the default implementation in Inputstream.available() does just that. --Thomas Maslen on rizzolatti, the mrj-dev mailing list Seeing the wrong solution to a problem (and understanding why it is wrong) is often as informative as seeing the correct solution. --W. Richard Stevens You need to run your full QA cycle on _all_ platforms you plan on experiment, supporting your app on . real software releases need to about be tested on a large variety of different systems and OS versions because there _are_ differences. Kansas. Just like there are differences between different Java implementations. --Jens Alfke on the mrj-dev mailing list I often find with Java that if you run the same program twice, the Essay About, second run is significantly faster, presumably because the JVM is remembering something. --Michael Kay on the xsl-list mailing list Java isn't inherently slow, it just encourages a create and forget [objects] type of programming which is. --Oren Ben-Kiki on the XSL mailing list Java does not expose many of the I/O capabilities that are synonymous with high performance. Experiment. Examples include memory mapped files and asynchronous I/O. Heck, it doesn't even expose non-blocking I/O. Example. --Gabe Beged-Dov on the xml-dev mailing list I/O performance issues, usually overshadow all other performance issues making them the first area to concentrate on when tuning performance. Unfortunately, optimal reading and experiment, writing can be challenging in Java. --Daniel Lord and Achut Reddy, Streamlining the use of I/O often results in greater performance gains than all other possible optimizations combined. --Daniel Lord and Achut Reddy Modern super-scalar processors with deep memory hierarchies and complex compiler optimization stages make it *extremely* difficult to predict which code or data structure variant is more efficient.

Old rules of raped porn, thumb and experiment, common sense are not of much use any more for distinguishing more and less performant algorithms of comparable complexity on a late 1990s processor. Surprises are frequent. Design decisions on performance grounds should today only be made after real measurements and much of what you learned 10 years ago about manual optimization is obsolete these days. Blackberry Heaney. --Markus Kuhn on kansas experiment, the Unicode mailing list Most Java VM implementations search the interface list back to picking heaney front so that most often used interface should be the last interface in the 'implements' list. --Don Park on experiment, the xml-dev mailing list. Article about optimizing I/O performance. (Page last updated November 2000, Added 2000-12-20, Author Brian Goetz, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: Measure early, measure often. You can't effectively manage performance if you don't know the source of your problem. Spending days tuning a subsystem that accounts for 1 percent of an application's total runtime simply cannot yield more than a 1 percent improvement in blackberry picking seamus heaney, application performance. Use performance measurement tools to experiment identify where your application spends its time and focus your energy on blackberry seamus, those hot spots. Object creation is an expensive operation: avoid excessive object instantiations. Use buffered I/O (with buffering classes or by explicitly buffering to an array). Experiment. InputStream runs faster than Reader.

Combine tasks from multiple classes to avoid extra overhead and redundant object creation. Particle's pretty good coverage of the main Java data structures. Only a few tuning tips: reuse, pools, optimized sorting. The American Revolution: The Battle. But knowing which structure to use for a particular problem is an important performance tuning technique. (Page last updated April 2000, Added 2000-12-20, Author J. Particle, Publisher Particle). Tips: Make linked lists faster by having dummy first and last nodes. Reusing code is easier than reimplementing, but can lead to slower performance. Use node pools to reduce memory impact. Sorting elements on insertion means they don't need to be sorted later. [Article includes several(non-optimized) standard sort algorithms implemented in Java, and compares their performance.] [Article discusses optimizing a quicksort.] If you are using many small collections, carefully consider the collection structure used. Kansas Experiment. Some structures may have large memory overheads that should be avoided in this case. Some discussion of hidden surface removal for graphics.

Article on recycling resource pools (Page last updated 1998, Added 2000-12-20, Authors Philip Bishop and Nigel Warren, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: Check for broken resources when putting them back in the pool. Use the giacomo, builder pattern: break the construction of complex objects into a series simpler Builder objects, and a Director object which combines the Builders to form the complex object. Kansas. Then you can use Recycler (a type of Director) to replace only the Essay on Talkin’ About the 60s Generation, broken parts of the complex object, so reducing the amount of objects that need to experiment be recreated. Article on building an on Talkin’ the 60s object pool for improved performance. (Page last updated June 1998, Added 2000-12-20, Author Thomas E. Kansas Experiment. Davis, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: [Article discusses generic pool issues including storage, tracking, and expiration times of raped porn, pool elements.] Use connection pools to recycle connections and reduce overheads [Article includes a JDBC connection pool implementation.] Article on improving object pools performance. (Page last updated September 1998, Added 2000-12-20, Author Thomas E. Davis, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: Use an expiration thread to clean up excessive amounts of objects in the pool. Use java.lang.ref.Reference objects to determine when objects checked out but never checkd in have been released by the application.

Limiting the size of the experiment, pool can adversely impact performance. Optimizing JDBC (Page last updated August 2001, Added 2001-08-20, Author John Goodson, Publisher Java Developers Journal). Tips: Minimize the use of Metadata: Cache all metadata as they will not change; Avoid using null arguments in metadata methods; Use a dummy query with getMetadata() rather than getColumns(). Retrieve data as efficiently as possible: Minimize the amount of raped porn, data returned by the query; Don't make average users pay the experiment, same query cost of the users with extensive query requirements; Remember that users seldom want to see too much data in rizzolatti, one go; Use setMaxRows(), setMaxFieldSize(), and SetFetchSize(); Decrease the column size; Use the kansas experiment, smallest packet size that will meet your needs (if the Pride Essay, driver supports packet sizing). Use a parametrized remote procedure call (RPC) rather than passing parameters as part of the RPC call, e.g. use Connection.prepareCall(Call getCustName (?)).setLong (1,12345) rather than Connection.prepareCall(Call getCustName (12345)) Minimize connections; try to reuse connections. Turn autocommit off. Experiment. Avoid using distributed transactions. Use getBestRowIndentifier() to determine the optimal set of columns to blackberry heaney use in the Where clause for updating data. (The columns returned could be pseudo-columns that can provide pointers to kansas experiment the exact location of the data, and are not obtained by getColumns().) EJB performance tips (Page last updated November 2001, Added 2001-12-26, Authors Ravi Kalidindi and Rohini Datla, Publisher PreciseJava). Tips: EJB calls are expensive.

A method call from the Essay About the 60s Generation, client could cover all the following: get Home reference from the NamingService (one network round trip); get EJB reference (one or two network roundtrips plus remote creation and initialization of kansas experiment, Home and EJB objects); call method and return value on giacomo, EJB object (two or more network rountrips: client-server and [mutliple] server-db; several costly services used such as transactions, persistence, security, etc; multiple serializations and deserializations). If you don't need EJB services for an object, use a plain Java object and not an EJB object. Use Local interfaces (from EJB2.0) if you deploy both EJB Client and kansas, EJB in the same JVM. (For EJB1.1 based applications, some vendors provide pass-by-reference EJB implementations that work like Local interfaces). Wrap multiple entity beans in heaney, a session bean to kansas change multiple EJB remote calls into one session bean remote call and several local calls (pattern called SessionFacade). Change multiple remote method calls into one remote method call with all the data combined into a parameter object. The Battle. Control serialization by modifying unnecessary data variables with 'transient' key word to avoid unnecessary data transfer over network. Cache EJBHome references to avoid JNDI lookup overhead (pattern called ServiceLocator).

Declare non-transactional methods of session beans with 'NotSupported' or 'Never' transaction attributes (in the ejb-jar.xml deployment descriptor file). Transactions should span the minimum time possible as transactions lock database rows. Set the transaction time-out (in the ejb-jar.xml deployment descriptor file). Use clustering for kansas experiment, scalability. Tune the EJB Server thread count. Use the HttpSession object rather than a Stateful session bean to Essay About maintain client state. Use the ECperf benchmark to help differentiate EJB server performances. Kansas Experiment. Tune the picking seamus heaney, Stateless session beans pool size to minimize the kansas, creation and destruction of beans. Use the setSessionContext() or ejbCreate() method to cache bean specific resources. Release acquired resources in the ejbRemove() method.

Tune the example, Stateful session beans cache size to and time-out minimize activations and passivations. Allow stateful session beans to kansas be removed from the container cache by explicitly using the remove() method in the client. Tune the entity beans pool size to minimize the creation and destruction of beans. Pride And Prejudice Example. Tune the entity beans cache size to minimize the activation and passivation of beans (and associated database calls). Use the setEntityContext() method to experiment cache bean specific resources and release them from the unSetEntityContext() method. Rizzolatti. Use Lazy loading to avoid unnecessary pre-loading of experiment, child data. Choose the lowest cost transaction isolation level that avoids corrupting the about, data.

Transaction levels in kansas, increasing cost are: TRANSACTION_READ_UNCOMMITED, TRANSACTION_READ_COMMITED, TRANSACTION_REPEATABLE_READ, TRANSACTION_SERIALIZABLE. Use the lowest cost locking available from the database that is technology, consistent with any transaction. Create read-only entity beans for read only operations. Use a dirty flag where supported by the EJB server to avoid writing unchanged EJBs to the database. Commit the data after the transaction completes rather than after each method call (where supported by kansas, EJB server). Do bulk updates to reduce database calls. Use CMP rather than BMP to utilize built-in performance optimization facilities of The Battle of Many, CMP. Use ejbHome() methods for global operations (from EJB2.0). Tune the connection pool size to minimize the creation and destruction of database connections.

Use JDBC directly rather than using entity beans when dealing with large amounts of data such as searching a large database. Combine business logic with the entity bean that holds the data needed for that logic to process. Tune the Message driven beans pool size to optimize the concurrent processing of messages. Use the kansas, setMesssageDrivenContext() or ejbCreate() method to cache bean specific resources, and release those resources from the ejbRemove() method. JDBC performance tips (Page last updated November 2001, Added 2001-12-26, Authors Ravi Kalidindi and Rohini Datla, Publisher PreciseJava). Example. Tips: Use the fastest driver available to the database: normally type 4 (preferably) or type 3. Tune the defaultPrefetch and kansas experiment, defaultBatchValue settings. Get database connections from a connection pool: use javax.sql.DataSource for Pride and Prejudice Essay, optimal configurability.

Use the vendor's connection pool; or ConnectionPoolDataSource and kansas experiment, PooledConnection from JDBC2.0; or a proprietary connection pool. Batch your transactions. Turn off autocommit and explicitly commit a set of statements. Blackberry Picking Heaney. Choose the fastest transaction isolation level consistent with your application requirements. Levels from fastest to kansas experiment slowest are: TRANSACTION_NONE, TRANSACTION_READ_UNCOMMITED, TRANSACTION_READ_COMMITED, TRANSACTION_REPEATABLE_READ, TRANSACTION_SERIALIZABLE. Close resources (e.g. connections) when finished with them.

Use a PreparedStatement when you execute the same statement more than once. Use CallableStatement to execute stored procedures. This is faster than a prepared statement, but loses database independence (stored procedures are not standardized unlike SQL). Rizzolatti. Batch updates and accesses with Statements and ResultSets (with executeBatch() and setFetchSize()). Set up the proper direction for processing rows. Use the proper getXXX() methods. Write SQL queries that minimize the data returned. Cache read-only and read-mostly tables data. Experiment. Use the Page-by-Page Iterator pattern to repeatedly pass small amounts of data rather than huge chunks. Servlet performance tips (Page last updated November 2001, Added 2001-12-26, Authors Ravi Kalidindi and Rohini Datla, Publisher PreciseJava).

Tips: Use the technology, servlet init() method to cache static data, and release them in the destroy() method. Use StringBuffer rather than using + operator when you concatenate multiple strings. Use the print() method rather than the println() method. Use a ServletOutputStream rather than a PrintWriter to send binary data. Initialize the PrintWriter with the optimal size for pages you write. Flush the experiment, data in sections so that the user can see partial pages more quickly.

Minimize the synchronized block in Revolution: The of Many Essay, the service method. Implement the kansas experiment, getLastModified() method to use the browser cache and the server cache. Use the about, application server's caching facility. Session mechanisms from fastest to slowest are: HttpSession, Hidden fields, Cookies, URL rewriting, the persistency mechanism. Remove HttpSession objects explicitly in your program whenever you finish the session. Set the session time-out value as low as possible. Use transient variables to reduce serialization overheads.

Disable the servlet auto reloading feature. Tune the thread pool size. High load web servlets (Page last updated July 2002, Added 2002-07-24, Author Pier Fumagalli, Publisher OnJava). Kansas. Tips: Hand off requests for static resources directly to the web server by specifying the URL, not by redirecting from the servlet. Giacomo Rizzolatti. Use separate webservers to deliver static and dynamic content. Cache as much as possible. Kansas. Make sure you know exactly how much RAM you can spare for caches, and essay technology, have the right tools for measuring memory. Kansas. Load balance the Pride and Prejudice Essay, Java application using multiple JVMs.

Use ulimit to experiment monitor the number of file descriptors available to the processes. Raped Porn. Make sure this is high enough. Logging is more important than the experiment, performance saved by not logging. Monitor resources and prepare for spikes. JSP performance tips (Page last updated November 2001, Added 2001-12-26, Authors Ravi Kalidindi and Rohini Datla, Publisher PreciseJava). Tips: Use the jspInit() method to cache static data, and release them in the jspDestroy() method. Essay About. Use the jspInit() method to cache static data. Use StringBuffer rather than using + operator when you concatenate multiple strings. Use the kansas, print() method rather than the println() method.

Use a ServletOutputStream rather than a PrintWriter to send binary data. Initialize the Essay, PrintWriter with the optimal size for pages you write. Flush the data in sections so that the kansas, user can see partial pages more quickly. Minimize the synchronized block in the service method. Avoid creating a session object with the directive %@ page session=false % Increase the buffer size of System.out with the directive %@ page buffer=12kb % Use the blackberry picking seamus, include directive instead of the include action when you want to include another page. Experiment. Minimize the scope of the 'useBean' action. Custom tags incur a performance overhead. Use as few as possible.

Use the application server's caching facility, and the session and about, application objects (using getAttribute()/setAttribute()). Kansas. There are also third-party caching tags available. Session mechanisms from fastest to slowest are: session, Hidden fields, Cookies, URL rewriting, the persistency mechanism. Remove 'session' objects explicitly in your program whenever you finish the about technology, session. Reduce the session time-out as low as possible.

Use 'transient' variables to reduce serialization overheads. Disable the JSP auto reloading feature. Tune the thread pool size. JMS performance tips (Page last updated November 2001, Added 2001-12-26, Authors Ravi Kalidindi and kansas experiment, Rohini Datla, Publisher PreciseJava). Tips: Start the consumer before you start the producer so that the initial messages do not need to rizzolatti queue. Use a ConnectionConsumer to process messages concurrently with a ServerSessionPool. Close resources (e.g. connections, session objects, producers, consumers) when finished with them. Kansas Experiment. DUPS_OK_ACKNOWLEDGE and AUTO_ACKNOWLEDGE perform better than CLIENT_ACKNOWLEDGE.

Use separate transactional sessions and blackberry picking seamus heaney, non-transactional sessions for transactional and non-transactional messages. Tune the experiment, Destination parameters: a smaller capacity increases message throughput; a higher redelivery delay and giacomo rizzolatti, lower redelivery limit reduces the kansas experiment, overhead. Choose non-durable (NON_PERSISTENT) messages wherever appropriate to avoid the persistency overhead. Set the TimeToLive value as low as feasible (default is for messages to raped porn never expire). Receive messages asynchronously with a MessageListener implementation. Choose the message type that minimizes memory overheads. Use 'transient' variables to reduce serialization overheads. Pattern performance tips (Page last updated November 2001, Added 2001-12-26, Authors Ravi Kalidindi and Rohini Datla, Publisher PreciseJava). Tips: The ServiceLocator/EJBHomeFactory Pattern reduces the expensive JNDI lookup process by kansas, caching EJBHome objects. Blackberry Picking Seamus Heaney. The SessionFacade Pattern reduces network calls by combining accesses to multiple Entity beans into one access to the facade object.

The MessageFacade/ServiceActivator Pattern moves method calls into a separate object which can execute asynchronously. The ValueObject Pattern combines remote data into experiment, one serializable object, thus reducing the number of network transfers required to access multiple items of remote data. The ValueObjectFactory/ValueObjectAssembler Pattern combines remote data from multiple remote objects into rizzolatti, one serializable object, thus reducing the number of network transfers required to access multiple items of remote data. The ValueListHandler Pattern: avoids using multiple Entity beans to access the database, using Data Access Objects which explicitly query the kansas, database; and returns the data to essay about technology the client in batches (which can be terminated) rather than in experiment, one big chunk, according to the Page-by-Page Iterator pattern. The American Revolution: The Essay. The CompositeEntity Pattern reduces the number of kansas experiment, actual entity beans by wrapping multiple java objects (which could otherwise be Entity beans) into raped porn, one Entity bean.

Writing a seamless audio looper (Page last updated August 2001, Added 2001-08-20, Author Greg Travis, Publisher EarthWeb). Tips: Switching audio streams from one piece of experiment, sound to another requires some fiddly managing of the transition delay in order to avoid a gap in Pride and Prejudice example, the audio output. To avoid the transition delay, you need to: flush the output buffer; find out how much data was dumped; add a fudge factor; and combine these values to determine from kansas experiment where to start playing the Battle of Many Essay, new audio stream. Generating code dynamically (Page last updated February 2002, Added 2002-02-22, Author Norman Richards, Publisher Java Developers Journal). Tips: Compiling code into experiment, classes at runtime, such as for JSP pages, provides excellent flexibility with almost no performance overhead. XSLTC can compile XSL stylesheets to speed up transforming XML input files.

If a complex interpreted procedure is expected to be used more than once, it can be more efficient to convert the procedure into essay technology, an expression tree which will apply the kansas, procedure optimally. Converting a complex interpreted procedure into code that can be compiled, then using a compiled version normally results in the fastest execution times for the procedure. Sun's javac is not a very efficient compiler. Faster compilers are available, such as jikes. Compiling code at runtime can take a significant amount of time. If the compile time needs to be minimized, it is important to use the fastest compiler available. Giacomo Rizzolatti. An in-memory compiler is significantly faster than compiling code using an external out-of-process Java compiler.

Generating bytecode directly in-process is significantly faster than compiling code using an kansas experiment external out-of-process Java compiler, and is also faster than using an in-memory compiler. BCEL, the Bytecode Engineering Library, is one possible bytecode generator. Java 3D performance tips (Page last updated June 2001, Added 2001-08-20, Author Doug Twilleager, Publisher J3D). Tips: Once an on Talkin’ About the 60s Generation application calls BranchGroup.compile() or SharedGroup.compile(), only objects with their capability bits set can be modified. Use capability bits to describe which objects change at runtime, so that J3D can optimize the app.

Only set capability bits when needed, to let J3D maximally optimize performance. Set the experiment, bounds of objects so that J3D can ignore objects outside target object spatial scopes. Reorder leaf nodes for the most efficient rendering. When rendering check only the changes in rendering characteristics rather than all characteristics. Minimize the number of Shape3D nodes, but don't combine while ignoring spatial locality. Use the about technology, stripifier, or manually stripify the application: try to convert the geometry into experiment, long strips of triangles rather than fans of triangles. Share Appearance/Texture/Material NodeComponent objects when possible. Pride And Prejudice Essay. Set the kansas, thread priorities appropriately, or use the default priority. Minimize thread activity.

Note the performance effects of the J3D threads, specifically Behaviors, Collision and Sounds. J3D fully supports multi-processor machines. Use native threads where possible. Use application knowledge to turn off currently non-visible Switch nodes. Raped Porn. Use a Switch node to animate a sprite by putting all the kansas, animation frames under one Switch node and using a SwitchValueInterpolator. This increases memory consumption in raped porn, favor of smooth animations. Unordered groups are faster than ordered groups. Experiment. LOD Behaviors can be to reduce geometry rendering requirements with lower levels of detail. Use bounds based picking rather than geometry based picking. Essay Technology. Transform the ViewPlatform rather than every object for a scene transformation. The Verified Service Locator pattern (Page last updated July 2002, Added 2002-07-24, Author Paulo Caroli, Publication JavaWorld, Publisher JavaWorld).

Tips: The Service Locator pattern improves performance by caching service objects that have a high-lookup cost. Kansas Experiment. The Service Locator pattern has a problem in that cached objects may become invalid without the service locator knowing. The Verified Service Locator pattern periodically tests the validity of the caches objects to avoid providing invalid service objects to requestors. Sun Community chat on seamus, Java BluePrints (Page last updated May 2002, Added 2002-07-24, Author Edward Ort, Publication Sun Developer, Publisher Sun). Tips: For very large transactions, use transaction attribute TX_REQUIRED for EJB methods to have all the method calls in a call chain use the kansas, same transaction.

Make tightly coupled components local to each other. Put remote beans primarily as facades across subsystems. The page-by-page pattern is designed to handle cases where the result set is raped porn, large, and the end-user is not interested in experiment, seeing all of the heaney, results. There is really no upper threshold for the size of result set in kansas experiment, the pattern. Clustering with JBoss (Page last updated July 2002, Added 2002-07-24, Authors Bill Burke, Sacha Labourey, Publisher OnJava). Tips: A hardware- or software-based HTTP load-balancer usually sits in front of the Revolution: The Battle Essay, application servers within a cluster. The load balancer can decrypt HTTPS requests and distribute load.

HTTP session replication is expensive for a J2EE application server. If you can live with forcing a user to log in again after a server failure, then an HTTP load-balancer probably provides all of the fail-over and load-balancing functionality you need. If you are storing things other than EJB Home references in your JNDI tree, then you may need clustered JNDI. 24/7 availability needs the ability to hot-deploy and undeploy new applications and new versions, and to experiment apply patches, without bringing down the application server for maintenance. Smart proxies can be used to implement load-balancing and fail-over for EJB remote clients. These proxies manage a list of available RMI connections one of which it will use to service an invocation. Speeding web page downloads using compression (Page last updated July 2002, Added 2002-07-24, Author Steven Chau, Publication, Publisher Tips: Browsers sending Accept-Encoding: gzip will accept gziped compressed pages. Return the raped porn, page compressed with Content-Encoding: gzip using GZIPOutputStream. Use a servlet filter to transparently compress pages to browsers that accept compressed pages. Optimizing JDBC Prepared Statments.

Also a followup discussion at (Page last updated July 2001, Added 2001-08-20, Author ?, Publisher The Server Side). Tips: Databases analyze query statements to decide how to process them most optimally, then cache the resulting query plan, keyed on experiment, the full statement. Reusing identical statements reuses the query plan. Altering the The Battle of Many, statement causes a new query plan to be generated for each new statement. However statements with parameters can have the query plan reused, so use parameters rather than regenerating the kansas experiment, statement with different values. Using a new connection requires a prepared statement to be recreated. Reusing connections allows a prepared statement to be reused.

Connection pools should have associated PreparedStatement caches so that the PreparedStatements are automatically reused. Swing performance tips (Page last updated 1999, Added 2001-05-21, Author Bill Harlan, Publisher Harlan). Tips: Redraw events can easily be generated faster than the redraw can execute. Ignore redraw events (or block their generation) until the current redrw is finished. Raped Porn. Don't up redraw events.

Consider holding redraw events for a few milliseconds to see if it can be discarded due to getting another redraw event. If possible, consider drawing to off-screen buffers, and execute copies from that buffer in response to redraws, rather than actualy redrawing. Kansas Experiment. Extend from JPanel, not Canvas; override paintComponent(), not paint(). Action listeners are all executed in the one event-dispatching thread. Time-consuming listeners should execute their work in a separate thread and should avoid blocking the event-dispatching thread. Raped Porn. (To reenter the event-dispatching thread calling SwingUtilities.invokeLater() or invokeAndWait()). Add event listeners after initialization of components have finished. Swing performance tips (Page last updated March 2001, Added 2001-05-21, Author Steve Wilson, Publisher Sun). Tips: Use the latest version of Swing available, as the kansas, Swing development team have an ongoing project tp improve performance. When JScrollPane is scrolled, the entire visible contents of the scroll pane are redrawn. Raped Porn. A backing store (off screen buffer) can be enabled using setBackingStoreEnabled(true) to speed up redraws, but this has some limitations: an extra buffer to copy can be significant for simple drawing operations; the backing store doesn't work when scrollRectToVisible() is called directly by the programmer (depends on Swing version); extra RAM is needed to maintain the extra backing buffer. Kansas. Use window blitting (may be default depending on Swing version) enabled with scrollpane.getViewport().putClientProperty(EnableWindowBlit, Boolean.TRUE).

Enable outline dragging (no redrawing while dragging) with JDesktopPane.putClientProperty(JDesktopPane.dragMode, outline). Enable faster dragging using blitting with JDesktopPane.putClientProperty(JDesktopPane.dragMode, faster). Chapter 10, Serialization from Java RMI (Page last updated November 2001, Added 2001-12-26, Author William Grosso, Publisher OnJava). Tips: Use transient to avoid sending data that doesn't need to be serialized. Serialization is a generic marshalling mechanism, and generic mechanisms tend to be slow. Serialization uses reflection extensively, and this also makes it slow. Serialization tends to Revolution: The Battle generate many bytes even for small amounts of data.

The Externalizable interface is provided to solve Serialization's performance problems. Externalizable objects do not have their superclass state serialized, even if the superclass is Serializable. This can be used to reduce the data written out during serialization. Use Serializable by kansas experiment, default, then make classes Externalizable on essay, a case-by-case basis to improve performance. Web application scalability. (Page last updated June 2000, Added 2001-05-21, Author Billie Shea, Publisher STQE Magazine). Kansas Experiment. Tips: Web application scalability is the ability to sustain the required number of simultaneous users and/or transactions, while maintaining adequate response times to end users. Blackberry Picking Seamus Heaney. The first solution built with new skills and new technologies will always have room for improvement. Avoid deploying an experiment application server that will cause embarrassment, or that could weaken customer confidence and business reputation [because of bad response times or lack of calability]. Consider application performance throughout each phase of development and into production.

Performance testing must be an integral part of designing, building, and maintaining Web applications. There appears to The of Many be a strong correlation between the use of performance testing tools and the likelihood that a site would scale as required. Automated performance tests must be planned for and iteratively implemented to identify and remove bottlenecks. Validate the architecture: decide on the maximum scaling requirements and then performance test to validate the necessary performance is achievable. This testing should be done on the prototype, before the application is built. Have a clear understanding of how easily your configurations of Web, application, and/or database servers can be expanded.

Factor in experiment, load-balancing software and/or hardware in picking seamus heaney, order to efficiently route requests to the least busy resource. Consider the effects security will have on performance: adding a security layer to transactions will impact response times. Kansas Experiment. Dedicate specific server(s) to handle secure transactions. Select performance benchmarks and use them to quantify the scalability and determine performance targets and future performance improvements or degradations. Include all user types such as information-gathering visitors or transaction visitors in the 60s, your benchmarks. Kansas Experiment. Perform Performance Regression Testing: continuously re-test and on Talkin’ the 60s Generation, measure against kansas the established benchmark tests to ensure that application performance hasn?t been degraded because of the changes you?ve made.

Performance testing must continue even after the application is deployed. For applications expected to Pride perform 24/7 inconsequential issues like database logging can degrade performance. Kansas. Continuous monitoring is key to spotting even the slightest abnormality: set performance capacity thresholds and monitor them. When application transaction volumes reach 40% of maximum expected volumes, it is time to start executing plans to on Talkin’ About the 60s Generation expand the system. Web Load Test Planning (Page last updated April 2001, Added 2001-05-21, Author Alberto Savoia, Publisher STQE Magazine). Tips: The only reliable way to determine a system?s scalability is to kansas perform a load test in rizzolatti, which the volume and characteristics of the anticipated traffic are simulated as realistically as possible. It is hard to design and develop load tests that come close to experiment matching real loads. Characterize the anticipated load as objectively and systematically as possible: use existing log files where possible; characterize user sessions (pages viewed - number and types; duration of session; etc). Determine the range and blackberry picking seamus, distribution of variations in sessions. Don't use averages, use representative profiles. Estimate target load and kansas, peak levels: estimate overall and peak loads for the server and expected growth rates.

Estimate how quickly target peaks levels will be reached, and for how long they will be sustained. The duration of the Essay on Talkin’ About the 60s Generation, peak is important and kansas experiment, the server must be designed to handle it. The key elements of a load test design are: test objective (e.g. The Battle Of Many. can the server handle N sessions/hr peak load level?); pass/fail criteria (e.g. pass if response times stay within define values); script description (e.g. user1: page1, page2, . ; user2: page1, page3, start transaction1, etc); scenario description (which scripts at which frequency, and how load increases). Performance chapter (chapter 20) from Professional JSP 2nd Edition (Page last updated August 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author Simon Brown, Robert Burdick, Darko Cokor, Jayson Falkner, Ben Galbraith, RodJohnson, Larry Kim, Casey Kochmer, Thor Kristmundsson, Sing Li, Dan Malks, Mark Nelson, Grant Palmer, Bob Sullivan, Geoff Taylor, John Timney, Sameer Tyagi, Geert Van Damme, Steve Wilkinson, Publisher The Server Side). Tips: The user's view of the response time for a page view in his browser depends on download speed and on experiment, the complexity of the page. e.g. the blackberry picking heaney, number of experiment, graphics. A poorly-designed highly graphical dynamic website could be seen as 'slow' even if the web downloads are individually quite fast. No web application can handle an unlimited number of technology, requests; the trick in optimization is to anticipate the likely user demand and ensure that the kansas experiment, web site can gracefully scale up to the demand while maintaining acceptable levels of speed. Profile the server to identify the bottlenecks. Note that profiling can be done by about technology, instrumenting the code with measurement calls if a profiler is unavailable. One stress test methodology is: determine the maximum acceptable response time for getting a page; estimate the kansas, maximum number of about, simultaneous users; simulate user requests, gradually adding simulated users until the web application response delay becomes greater than the acceptable response time; optimize until you reach the desired number of users. Pay special attention to experiment refused connections during your stress test: these indicate the servlet is overwhelmed.

There is little performance penalty to using an MVC architecture. Use resource pools for expensive resources (like database connections). Giacomo Rizzolatti. Static pages are much faster than dynamic pages, where the web server handles static pages separately. Kansas Experiment. Servlet filtering has a performance cost. Test to rizzolatti see if it is an acceptable cost.

Ensure that the webserver is kansas experiment, configured to rizzolatti handle the expected number of user for example: enough ready sockets; enough disk space; enough CPU. Use the fastest JVM you have access to. Chapter 3 of kansas experiment, High Performance Java Computing : Multi-Threaded and Networked Programming, Race Conditions and Mutual Exclusion (Page last updated January 2001, Added 2001-02-21, Authors George Thiruvathukal, Thomas Christopher, Publisher Sun). Essay. Tips: Execute I/O in blocks rather than one byte at a time. I/O reads are normally faster than writes. This means that I/O performance can be improved by decoupling reading and kansas, writing to dedicated threads, rather than interleaving reads and rizzolatti, writes.

NOTE THE TIP volatile primitive datatypes have atomic ++ operations HAS BEEN SHOWN TO BE INVALID [The chapter describes implementations for lock objects (wait until unlocked), counting semaphore objects (wait until positive), barrier sempahore objects (wait until last thread is finished), future objects (wait until a variable is first set). These do not directly improve performance, but provide useful techniques for kansas experiment, synchronizing threads that assist a multi-threaded program in giacomo, being efficient]. Use resource enumeration (acquire resources in a set order) to kansas avoid deadlocks. Chapter 4 of High Performance Java Computing : Multi-Threaded and Networked Programming, Monitors (Page last updated January 2001, Added 2001-02-21, Authors George Thiruvathukal, Thomas Christopher, Publisher Sun). Tips: Java monitors are not necessarily the Pride Essay, most efficient synchronization mechanism, especially if transferring the lock can lead to kansas experiment a race condition [chapter discusses a more complete Monitor class]. volatile fields can be slower than non- volatile fields, because the system is raped porn, forced to store to kansas experiment memory rather than use registers. Picking Seamus Heaney. But they may useful to avoid concurrency problems. Kansas. [The chapter discusses various policies for synchronizing threads trying to read from or write to shared resources, which provide different scheduling policies: one thread at a time; readers-preferred (readers have priority); writers-preferred (writers have priority); alternating readers-writers (alternates between a single writer and a batch of readers); take-a-number (first-come, first-served)]. Benchmarking JMS (Page last updated March 2001, Added 2001-03-21, Author Dave Chappell, Bill Wood, Publisher Java Developers Journal). Tips: Scaling middleware exposes a number of Pride and Prejudice Essay example, issues such as threading contention, network bottlenecks, message persistence issues, memory leaks, and overuse of object allocations. [Article dicusses questions to ask when setting up benchmarks for messaging middleware]. Message traffic under high-volume conditions are unpredictable and bursty. Messages can be produced far faster than they can be consumed, causing congestion.

This condition requires the message sends to be throttled with flow control (could be an exception, or an experiment automatic resend). When testing performance, run overnight and over on Talkin’ About Generation weekends to generate longer term trends. Some concerns are: testing without a real network connection can give false measures; low user simulation can be markedly different from experiment high user simulations; network throughput may be large than the deployed environment; nonpersistent message performance is dependent on processor and memory; disk speed is crucial for Generation, persistent messages. [Article provides a benchmark harness for testing JMS]. Designing Java Performance: reducing object creation (Page last updated March 2001, Added 2001-03-21, Author Brian Goetz, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: Watch out for method interfaces which force unnecessary or inefficient object creation. Immutable objects are inefficient if you want to kansas alter their structure, but efficient for sharing.

One way to avoid creating objects simply for information is to provide finer-grained methods which return information as primitives. This swaps object creation for increased method calls. A second technique to avoid creating objects is to provide methods which accept dummy information objects that have their state overwritten to pass the information. A third technique to avoid creating objects is to provide immutable classes with mutable subclasses, by having state defined as protected in the superclass, but with no public updators. The American Revolution: Essay. The subclass provides public updators, hence making it mutable. Don't try to speed up the application if there is kansas, no performance problem. Some performance tips (Page last updated January 2001, Added 2001-01-19, Author Shyam Lingegowda, Publisher The Server Side). Tips: Use buffering for files stream i/o . Use byte streams (not char-streams) for ASCII characters. Recycle objects wherever possible.

Factor out constant computations from loops. For Servlets, push one time computations into the init() method. Use StringBuffer when dealing with mutable strings. Initialize the StringBuffer with proper size. Let the The American Revolution:, compiler do compile time string concatenation.

Comparison of two string objects is faster if they differ in length. StringTokenizer is slow. minimize the experiment, number of objects you create. Avoid initializing twice. Order boolean expressions so that they execute as fast as possible. ArrayList is faster than Vector.

Minimize calls to Date and related classes. Expiring cached data (Page last updated January 2001, Added 2002-01-25, Author William Grosso, Publisher OnJava). Tips: Caching data on the client can improve performance, reduce communication overheads and increase the scalability of an application. Essay On Talkin’ The 60s. Be careful when caching information that the cache doesn't contain out-of-date or incorrect information. Servlet sessions expire after a settable timeout, but screens that automatically refresh can keep a session alive indefinitely, even when the screen is no longer in kansas, use.

Database connection pools can take one of Revolution: of Many Essay, two strategies: a limited size pool, where attempts to make connections beyond the pool size must wait for a connection to become idle; or a flexible sized pool with a preferred size which removes idle connections as soon as the preferred size is exceeded (i.e. temporarily able to exceed the preferred size). The fixed size pool is generally considered to be the better choice. Kansas Experiment. A time-based expiration strategy is appropriate for most types of cache elements. The timestamp strategy is: Timestamp the objects; Update the time stamp when you use the objects or refresh the information; Throw away objects whose timestamps have expired. Battle Of Many. Only data that must be always totally up to date cannot effectively use a time-based expiration strategy. Experiment. [Article discusses and The American The Battle of Many, implements a time-based expiration framework]. J2ME game building (Page last updated April 2002, Added 2002-05-19, Author Dale Crowley, Publisher DevX). Experiment. Tips: J2ME device memory and speeds are very limited which affects everything from the data-loading speed to the frame/refresh rate, and seriously limits the ability to animate characters or otherwise rapidly change the screen. Smart graphics is important: you need to picking draw clear, concise images at extremely low resolutions and with very small palettes. Kansas Experiment. Animated characters need dynamic, easily-read poses which avoid kicks looking like a dance steps, or punches looking like an arm waves.

Use public variables in your classes, rather than using accessors. This is technically bad programming practice but it saves bytecode space. Be extra careful to place things in Pride Essay, memory only experiment when they are in use. For example, discard an introduction splash screen after display. Try to reduce the number of essay about technology, classes used. Combine classes into one if they vary only slightly in experiment, behavior. Every class adds size overheads. Remember that loading and giacomo, installing applications into J2ME phones is a relatively slow process. Sun community chat on High Performance GUIs with the kansas, JFC/Swing, with Steve Wilson, Scott Violet, and Chet Haase (Page last updated April 2002, Added 2002-05-19, Author Edward Ort, Publisher Sun). Tips: [Some discussion of performance improvents in 1.4] Multi-threading with swing must be done correctly, using invokeAndWait() and invokeLater().

Default models have performance limitations. On Talkin’ The 60s. Create dedicated models for kansas, high performance. Consider using a custom RepaintManager for very large tables. Don't use a MouseListener with a renderer BufferedImage is Pride and Prejudice Essay, treated more optimally than MemoryImageSource Try using createImage(w,h), which returns an image in the same format as the screen, which allows faster copies from that image to the screen (important for copying speed issues). LinkedHashMap and RandomAccess (Page last updated July 2002, Added 2002-07-24, Author Glen McCluskey, Publisher Sun). Tips: LinkedHashMap preserves various ordering information, optionally including access ordering which makes LinkedHashMap appropriate for a least recently used (LRU) cache. ArrayList has fast random access of experiment, elements, LinkedList has slow random access of elements.

List classes that implement the RandomAccess interface have fast random access and Essay example, using get() to iterate their elements is efficient. If RandomAccess is kansas, not implemented, use an Essay About Generation Iterator to iterate the elements. Data expiration in caches (Page last updated January 2002, Added 2002-02-22, Author William Grosso, Publisher OnJava). Tips: [Article discusses and implements a framework for experiment, a cache with built in element expiration handling]. Emulating another system (a ZX Spectrum) (Page last updated July 2002, Added 2002-07-24, Author Razvan Surdulescu, Publisher Java Developers Journal).

Tips: Painting pixel by pixel by repeatedly calling fillRect() is The American The Battle Essay, slow. Instead create the offscreen image as a decorator for a java.awt.image.MemoryImageSource object containing a byte array in RGB format with the pixel data. The rendering code updates the byte array and then calls MemoryImage-Source.newPixels() to notify the object that the data has been updated. Pre-render common images or pixel combination, retain them as Image objects and use java.awt.Graphics.drawImage() (Java 1) or java.awt.image.BufferedImage.setRGB() (Java 2) to render the kansas, image to the graphics buffer. Report of how Ace's Hardware made their SPECmine tool blazingly fast (Page last updated December 2001, Added 2002-02-22, Author Chris Rijk, Publisher Ace's Hardware). Tips: Tranform your data to minimize the costs of searching it. The American Battle Of Many Essay. If your dataset is small enough, read it all into memory or use an in-memory database (keeping the primary copy on disk for recovery). Kansas Experiment. An in-memory datavase avoids the following overheads: no need to pass data in from a separate process; less memory allocation by avoiding all the data copies as it's passed between processes and layers; no need for Revolution: The of Many, data conversion; fine-tuned sorting and filtering possible; other optimizations become simpler. Pre-calculation makes some results faster by making the database data more efficient to access (by ordering it in advance for example), or by kansas experiment, setting up extra data in Pride and Prejudice, advance, generated from the main data, to make calculating the results for a query simpler.

Pre-determine possible data values in queries, and use boolean arrays to access the chosen values. Pre-calculate all formatting that is experiment, invariant for generated HTML pages. Cache all reused HTML fragments. Caching many strings may consume too much memory. IF memory is limited, it may be more effective to generate strings as needed. Write out strings individually, rather than concatenating them and writing the result. Extract common strings into an identical string object.

Compress generated html pages to send to the user, if their browser supports compressed html. This is a heavier load on the server, but produces a significantly faster transfer for limited bandwidth clients. Some pages are temporarily static. Essay About. Cache these pages, and only re-generate them when they change. Experiment. Caching can significantly improve the responsiveness of a website. Email summarizing best practices for Promoting Scalable Web Services (Page last updated January 2002, Added 2002-02-22, Author Roger L. Costello, Publisher Costello).

Tips: Web services best practices are mainly the same as guidelines for developing other distributed systems. Stay away from using XML messaging to essay do fine-grained RPC, e.g. a service that returns a single stock quote (amusingly this is the classic-cited example of a Web service). Do use course-grained RPC, that is, use Web services that do a lot of kansas experiment, work, and return a lot of information. When the transport may be slow and/or unreliable, or the processing is complex and/or long-running, consider an asynchronous messaging model. Always take the raped porn, overall system performance into account. Don't optimize until you know where the bottlenecks are, i.e., don't assume that XML's bloat or HTTP's limitations are a problem until they are demonstrated in your application. Take the frequency of the messaging into kansas, account. Replicate data as necessary. For aggregation services, try to retrieve data during off-hours in large, course-grained transactions. Caching SOAP services (Page last updated March 2002, Added 2002-03-25, Author Ozakil Azim and Araf Karsh Hamid, Publisher JavaWorld). Raped Porn. Tips: Repeated SOAP-client calls to access server state can choke a network and experiment, degrade the server performance.

Cache data on the client whenever possible to avoid requests to the server. Ensure the of Many Essay, client data remains up to kansas experiment date by using a call to a server service which blocks until data is changed. String concatenation, and IO performance. (Page last updated March 2002, Added 2002-03-25, Author Glen McCluskey, Publisher Sun). Tips: String concatenation '+' is implemented by the Sun compiler using StringBuffer, but each concatenation creates a new StringBuffer so is inefficient for about, multiple concatenations. Immutable objects should cache their string value since it cannot change. Operating systems can keep files in their own file cache in experiment, memory, and accessing such a memory-cached file is much faster than accessing from about technology disk.

Be careful of this effect when making I/O measurements in performance tests. Fragmented files have a higher disk access overhead because each disk seek to find another file fragment takes 10-15 milliseconds. Keep files open if they need to be repeatedly accessed, rather than repeatedly opening and closing them. Use buffering when accessing file contents. Explicit buffering (reading data into an array) gives you direct access to experiment the array of data which lets you iterate over the elements more quickly than using a buffered wrapper class. Giacomo Rizzolatti. Counting lines can be done faster using explicit buffering (rather than the readLine() method), but requires line-endings to experiment be explicitly identified rather than relying on the library method determining line-endings system independently. Sun community chat on EJBs with Pravin Tulachan (Page last updated March 2002, Added 2002-03-25, Author Edward Ort, Publisher Sun). About The 60s. Tips: CMP (container managed persistence) is generally faster than BMP (bean managed persistence).

BMP can be faster with proprietary back-ends; with fine-grained transaction or security requirements; or to gain complete detailed persistency control. Scalability is improved by passing primary keys rather than passing the entities across the network. Kansas. EJB 2.0 CMP is Revolution: of Many Essay, far faster than EJB 1.1 CMP. EJB 1.1 CMP was not necessarily capable of scaling to kansas experiment high transaction volumes. If EJBs provide insufficient performance, session beans should be used in preference. Don't make fine-grained method calls across the essay about, network. Use value object and session facade design patterns instead. Multithreading and read-write locks (Page last updated January 2002, Added 2002-01-25, Author Nasir Khan, Publisher EarthWeb).

Tips: When a thread passes through a synchronized block, all variables throughout the thread are synchronized with main memory, not just the kansas, set of variables in the current method. Multithreading and read-write locks, part 2 (Page last updated January 2002, Added 2002-01-25, Author Nasir Khan, Publisher EarthWeb). Tips: Operations on primitive variables are atomic (except double and long), but a combination of two atomic operations is not atomic, and it is easy to make a mistake about raped porn this. Kansas. Volatile variables are always synchronized with the main memory copy. Hotspot garbage collection in essay about technology, detail (Page last updated January 2002, Added 2002-01-25, Author Ken Gottry, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: HotSpot garbage collection default parameters are effective for most small applications, but can be tuned to improve throughput for large, server-side applications. The most straightforward garbage collection algorithms iterate over every reachable object: this takes an amount of time proportional to the number of living objects.

Throughput (the percentage of total time not spent in GC) is normally the kansas, relevant metric for a server process since GC pauses may be tolerable or simply obscured by essay, network latency. Pauses (the times during GC when an application is kansas, unresponsive) is the more relevant metric for interactive graphical programs and other programs where short pauses may upset the user experience. On systems with limited physical memory, footprint (the working set of a process, usually measured in pages) may dictate scalability. [Article dicusses various parameters available to tuning HotSpot heap space]. Use verbosegc to The American Revolution: The Battle of Many Essay capture garbage collection statistics. Quality of service for web services (Page last updated January 2002, Added 2002-02-22, Author Anbazhagan Mani, Arun Nagarajan, Publisher IBM). Tips: Quality of service requirements for web services are: availability (is it running); accessiblity (can I run it now); integrity/reliability (will it crash while I run/how often); throughput (how many simultaneous requests can I run); latency (response time); regulatory (conformance to standards); security (confidentiality, authentication). HTTP is a best-effort delivery service. Kansas Experiment. This means any request could simply be dropped. Web services have to raped porn handle this and retry.

Web service latencies are measured in the tens to thousands of milliseconds. Asynchronous messaging can improve throughput, at the cost of experiment, latency. SOAP overheads include: extracting the essay technology, SOAP envelope; parsing the contained XML information; XML data cannot be optimized very much; SOAP requires typing information in every SOAP message; binary data gets expanded (by an average of 5-fold) when included in experiment, XML, and also requires encoding/decoding. Giacomo Rizzolatti. Most existing XML parsers support type checking and conversion, wellformedness checking, or ambiguity resolution, making them slower than optimal. Experiment. Consider using of stripped down XML parser which only pe4rforms essential parsing. The American Of Many Essay. DOM based parsers are slower than SAX based ones. Compress the XML when the CPU overhead required for compression is less than the network latency.

Other factors affecting web service performance are: web server response time and availability; web application execution time (like EJB/Servlets in Web application server); back-end database or legacy system performance. Requests results should be cached where possible. Requests should be load balanced, prioritized according to kansas experiment the business value it represents. Carry out capacity planning to blackberry seamus heaney enable the performance to be maintained in the future. Extreme care should be taken to make sure that resources are not locked for long periods of time, to avoid serious scalability problems. Measure the performance of your web services by adding code measuring elapsed time to the generated service proxy (and recompiling). [Article gives an example]. Object Resource Pooling (Page last updated March 2002, Added 2002-03-25, Author Paul King, Publisher OCI). Kansas. Tips: If the overhead associated with creating a sharable resource is expensive, that resource is a good candidate for about, pooling. Pooled objects create a resource in advance and kansas experiment, store it away so it can be reused over-and-over. Pooling may be necessary if a limited number of shared resources are available. Pooling supports strategies such as load balancing, all-resources-busy situations, and other policies to optimize resource utilization. [Article discusses pooling characteristics].

Load balancing is possible by Revolution: The, varying how pooled objects are handed out. Pool size can be tuned using low-water and kansas experiment, high-water marks. Waiting time when accessing empty pools can be tuned using a timeout parameter. Unusable pooled objects may be recovered when most efficient, not necessarily when the underlying resource fails. The Recycler pattern fixes only the broken parts of a failed object, to minimize the replacement cost.

Using NIO (Page last updated March 2002, Added 2002-03-25, Author Aruna Kalagnanam and Balu G., Publisher IBM). Tips: A server that caters to hundreds of clients simultaneously must be able to use I/O services concurrently. Essay About. Prior to 1.4, an almost one-to-one ratio of threads to kansas clients made servers written in Java susceptible to raped porn enormous thread overhead, resulting in both performance problems and experiment, lack of scalability. The Reactor design pattern demultiplexes events and Revolution: The of Many Essay, dispatches them to registered object handlers. (The Observer pattern is similar, but handles only a single source of events where the Reactor pattern handles multiple event sources). [Articles covers the changes needed to kansas experiment use java.nio to blackberry picking seamus heaney make a server efficiently muliplex non-blocking I/O from SDK 1.4]. J2EE best practices. (Page last updated February 2002, Added 2002-03-25, Author Chris Peltz, Publisher HP). Kansas Experiment. Tips: Executing a search against giacomo the database calls one of the kansas experiment, finder() methods. finder() methods must return a collection of remote interfaces, not ValueObjects. Consequently the client would need to Essay on Talkin’ make a separate remote call for experiment, each remote interface received, to acquire data. The SessionFacade pattern suggests using a session bean to encapsulate the query and return a collection of ValueObjects, thus making the request a single transfer each way.

The Value Object Assembler pattern uses a Session EJB to aggregate all required data as various types of ValueObjects. This pattern is The American Revolution: Battle of Many, used to satisfy one or more queries a client might need to execute in order to kansas display multiple data types. MIDP GUI programming (Page last updated March 2002, Added 2002-03-25, Author Qusay Mahmoud, Publisher OnJava). Pride And Prejudice Essay. Tips: Applications with high screen performance needs, like games, need finer control over MIDP screens and kansas experiment, should use the javax.microedition.lcdui package which provides the low-level API for handling such cases. Always check the drawing area dimensions using Canvas.getHeight() and Canvas.getWidth() [so that you don't draw unnecessarily off screen]. Not all devices support color. Use Display.isColor() and Display.numColors( ) to Essay About determine color support and avoid color mapping [overheads].

Double buffering is possible by using an kansas offscreen Image the size of the screen. Creating the image: i = Image.createImage(width, height); Getting the Graphics context for drawing: i.getGraphics(); Copying to the screen g.drawImage(i, 0, 0, 0); Check with Canvas.isDoubleBuffered(), and don't double-buffer if the The American The Battle, MIDP implementation already does it for you. To avoid deadlock paint() should not synchronize on any object already locked when serviceRepaints() is kansas experiment, called. Entering alphanumeric data through a handheld device can be tedious. If possible, provide a list of choices from which the user can select. Article on the cost of casts (Page last updated December 1999, Added 2000-12-20, Author Dennis M. Sosnoski, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: Casting can be detrimental to performance. Improve performance by minimizing casting in heavily used code. Some casts take nearly as long as a simple object allocation. Pride And Prejudice Example. [Article discusses various ways of avoiding casts, showing advantages and drawbacks.] Article on Java 2 collections (Page last updated , Added 2000-12-20, Author Dennis M. Kansas. Sosnoski, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: Convert collections into arrays for improved access speed.

The conversion can be made slightly faster by heaney, implementing it in a subclass so that collection element access can avoid access methods, accessing elements directly. Customized implementations of Hashtables can perform better. Use type specific implementations of collections for better performance (e.g. IntegerVector rather than Vector) [Article describes a type-generic base class for typed arrayed collections.] Scaling SOAP-based web services. (Page last updated November 2001, Added 2001-11-27, Author Frank Cohen, Publisher IBM). Tips: Cache the web services description language (WSDL) in a centralized database and periodically check for newer versions. Cache schema definitions for scalability. Use simple SOAP data types (String, Int, Float, NegativeInteger).

Each new data type introduces a serializer to convert from the XML value into experiment, a Java value and Essay the 60s, back again, which may cause performance problems. SOAP messages move much more data than the average HTTP GET or POST call, adversely impacting network performance. Transactional SOAP calls need to cache the experiment, state of sessions. [Article dicusses a free open-source utility called Load to giacomo rizzolatti stress test SOAP-based web services]. Rules and Patterns for Session Facades (Page last updated June 2001, Added 2001-07-20, Author Kyle Brown, Publisher IBM). Tips: Use the Facade pattern, and specifically Value objects, to transfer all the subset of data needed from an entity bean in one transfer. EJBs are wonderful (Page last updated December 2001, Added 2001-12-26, Author Tyler Jewell, Publisher OnJava). Tips: The out-of-the-box configuration for Entity EJB engines, such as WebLogic, are designed to handle read-write transactional data with the kansas, best possible performance. There are studies that demonstrate entity EJBs with CMP have lackluster performance when compared with a stateless session bean (SLSB) with JDBC. [Author points out Revolution:, however that SLSB/JDBC combination is less robust, less configurable, and less maintainable]. Configure separate deployments for kansas, each entity bean for different usage patterns (e.g. typical 85% read-only, 10% read-write, 5% batch update), and partition the Pride Essay, presentation layer to use the appropriate corresponding deployment (e.g. read requests use the read-only deployment).

EJB performance tips (Page last updated December 2001, Added 2001-12-26, Author Krishna Kothapalli and Raghava Kothapalli, Publisher JavaPro). Tips: Design coarse-grained EJB remote interfaces to experiment reduce the number of seamus heaney, network calls required. Combine remote method calls into one call, and combine the data required for the calls into one transfer. Reduce the number of JNDI lookups: cache the kansas experiment, home handles. Pride And Prejudice Essay Example. Use session bean wrapper for returning multiple data rows from an entity bean, rather than returning one row at a time. Use session beans for kansas experiment, database batch operations, entity beans typically operate only one row at Revolution: The Battle of Many, a time. Use container-managed persistence (CMP) rather than bean-managed persistence (BMP). Use entity beans when only a few rows are required for kansas, the entity, and when rows need to be frequently updated. Use the lowest impact isolation (transaction) level consistent with maintaining data coherency. Essay About Technology. Highest impact down: TRANSACTION_SERIALIZABLE, TRANSACTION_REPEATABLE_READ, TRANSACTION_READ_COMMITED, TRANSACTION_READ_UNCOMMITED. Experiment. Correctly simulate the production environment to Essay example tune the application, and use profiling and other monitroing tools to identify bottlenecks.

Tune the underlying system, e.g. TCP/IP parameters, file limits, connection pool parameters, EJB pools sizes, thread counts, number of JVMs, JVM heap size, shared pool sizes, buffer sizes, indexes, SQL queries, keep/alive parameters, connection backlogs. Kansas Experiment. Use clustering to essay technology meet higher loads or consider upgrading the hardware. Both Java specific and Java on OS/390 tips. (Page last updated 2000, Added 2000-10-23, Author ?, Publisher IBM). Tips: Use the latest release of the SDK. Use zip and jar files.

Partition classes to different zip/jar files according to usage. Order the entries in CLASSPATH so that classes are found quickly (the default classloaders do a linear search in each entry's directory or zip/jar file). Experiment. If using a large number of threads (thousands) tune the underlying OS to support this. Vary the -ss parameter to optimize for The American Revolution: The Battle Essay, threads. Threads generally don't need more than 256K stack size. Minimize the experiment, number of JNI calls Use primitive types for giacomo, variables Avoid excessive writing to the Java console Use synchronized methods only when necessary Cache/reuse frequently used objects when possible Declare methods as final [dubious tip].

Use static final when creating constants Use int instead of long. Use local variables in preference to class and instance variables. Kansas Experiment. Use arrays instead of vectors Consider when to use a temporary variable to manipulate class and instance variables in loops (speed vs. memory) Add and delete items from the end of and Prejudice Essay example, a vector Avoid unnecessary cast and instanceof Avoid using String when doing a lot of character manipulation. Kansas. Use StringBuffer instead. Avoid using long divides. Javaworld tip article, detailing a buffered RandomAccessFile class. (Page last updated 1998?, Added 2000-10-23, Author Nick Zhang). Unfortunately the getNextLine() is essay about technology, too system specific - don't forget systems where lines are 'r' terminated. Kansas. Tips: Use buffered i/o classes. Re-implement classes to avoid synchronization, where this is applicable. RMI performance tuning (Page last updated September 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author Ashok Mathew and Mark Roulo, Publisher JavaWorld).

Tips: Use netperf to measure network bandwidth. Generation. Consider altering the TcpWindowSize parameter. Configure RMI garbage collection by kansas experiment, setting the The Battle, properties sun.rmi.dgc.client.gcInterval and sun.rmi.dgc.server.gcInterval . Send groups of experiment, objects together rather than one object at raped porn, a time. Kansas Experiment. Implementing Externalize can speed up transfers. Pack data to reduce the number and amount of reads and writes, and raped porn, the amount of experiment, data transferred. Have object directly serialize contained objects or tell those objects to serialize themselves using Externalize methods (i.e. Generation. chain Externalize methods for all contained objects). Use special codes to handle special cases such as singleton or reusable objects. Don't introduce extra complications once performance targets have been met.

Local entity beans (Page last updated October 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author Alex Pestrikov, Publisher Java Developers Journal). Tips: Local entity beans do not need to kansas be marshalled, and do not incur any marshalling overhead for Essay on Talkin’ Generation, method calls either: parameters are passed by reference. Local entity beans are an experiment optimization for beans which it is technology, known will be on the same JVM with their callers. Facade objects (wrappers) allow local entity beans to be called remotely. This pattern incurs very little overhead for experiment, remote calls, while at the same time optimizing local calls between local beans which can use local calls. Nice article on understanding bytecodes by raped porn, Peter Haggar, Added 2000-10-23, Author of Practical Java. Explains why a synchronized method is faster than a functionally identical synchronized block. Experiment. (Page last updated 2000, Added 2000-10-23, Author Peter Haggar, Publisher IBM).

Tips: Understanding bytecodes can help determine how to improve performance. About. It can also help you to kansas experiment create smaller sized class files. Don't synchronize code unless synchronization is required. Use synchronized methods rather than synchronized blocks where the code would be functionally identical. The -O option in SDK 1.2 does nothing. Use the -g:none option to rizzolatti make files class smaller [or use a better optimizing compiler] Move invariants out of loops. Apply simple optimizations like loop unrolling, algebraic simplification, and strength reduction by hand. Chapter 1 of Enterprise Java Performance, Performance in General. Includes the infamous sentences It is kansas experiment, likely that the code will not meet the performance requirements the very first time it runs.

Even if it does, it may be worthwhile to look for some ways to improve it. NO NO NO! If the code meets the performance requirements, DON'T CHANGE IT. Next time guys, ask me to review your book before you publish. (Page last updated 2000, Added 2000-10-23, Authors Steven Halter Steven Munroe, Publisher Sun). Essay. Tips: The simplest code usually performs best. Consider performance requirements before coding. Kansas. Write reasonable code without worrying too much about performance until later. If the design identifies a critical section of code, spend time considering that code's performance before and while writing it. Define performance requirements explicitly. Redefine fuzzy requirements to be more explicit. Revolution: The Battle Essay. The target machine affects performance requirements.

Use the simplest classes possible--but no simpler. [Don'cha just love it. And here I was using classes simpler than is possible. Gotta make 'em more complex now.] Don?t recalculate things that are constant in kansas, loops. Reuse objects where possible. Choose the blackberry heaney, correct collection for performance. Kansas Experiment. Use the default Java data values where possible to avoid reassigning them. Use raw arrays in raped porn, preference to collections. Performance fixing is iterative. Fixing one bottleneck often reveals another previously hidden one.

Keep performance in mind during the design phase. Avoid monopolizing shared resources. Design is important for any distributed parts of a distributed application. The real performance limitations are physical limitations: bandwidth, communication distance, access speed, unavoidable overheads, resource limitations, etc. JNI calls are not necessarily faster than using pure Java because of JNI overheads.

Schema mapping is complex. [Buy a product that does it for you.] Chapter 4 of kansas, Enterprise Java Performance, Local/Remote Issues. (Page last updated 2000, Added 2000-10-23, Authors Steven Halter Steven Munroe, Publisher Sun). Tips: RMI over IIOP has a higher overhead than plain RMI. Raped Porn. Objects that can be configured to be local or remote at any time, provides the flexibility to optimize performance. Large grained remote calls [i.e. batched calls] perform better than small grained remote calls [lots of little calls]. Persistency adds overheads that make persistent objects slower. Instead of serializing the transitive closure (recursive traversal of all objects referenced), break up objects into smaller chunks. Use stubs, proxies and handles [essentially objects that indirectly refer to other objects] to kansas experiment break up serialization into smaller chunks. Unless the application is rizzolatti, put together with care, the remote method call costs may dominate. Group objects that interact strongly [a lot] in the same physical location.

The closer they are, the more efficient their interaction. Kansas Experiment. Cache in the client any read-only objects, for Revolution: The Battle Essay, the whole session. Replicate any data needed so that queries run locally in the client. Written objects can be held in the client and periodically written to the server, rather than updating the server object on each change. Kansas Experiment. Good partitioning of objects in distributed applications limits interactions between objects in different partitions and takes advantage of local method access for objects within each partition.

Application partitioning is best addressed early in the design. How to use java.rmi.MarshalledObject (Page last updated March 2001, Added 2001-04-20, Author Stuart Halloway, Publisher Sun). Tips: MarshalledObject lets you postpone deserializing objects. Raped Porn. This lets you pass an object through multiple serialization/deserialization layers (e.g. passing an object through many JVMs), without incurring the serialization/deserialization overheads until absolutely necessary. Doug Bell's article with various low-level techniques and benchmark applets. (Page last updated 1997, Added 2000-10-23, Author Doug Bell, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: Don't optimize unless necessary. Optimizing can: introduce new bugs; make code harder to understand and maintain; reduce the extensibility of the experiment, code. 90 percent of Pride and Prejudice Essay example, a program's excution time is spent executing 10 percent of the code. (Some people use the 80 percent/20 percent rule).

Optimizing the kansas experiment, other 90 percent of the program (where 10 percent of the execution time was spent) has no noticeable effect on performance. Blackberry Heaney. General optimization techniques include: strength reduction; common sub expression elimination; code motion; unrolling loops. Use compiler features: constant folding; branch folding; dead code elimination. Use the -O option (javac -O). Use a profiler to experiment identify bottlenecks. Always time the code before and after making changes to verify that, at raped porn, least on the test platform, your changes improved the program.

Try to make each timing test under identical conditions. If possible, contrive a test that doesn't rely on any user input, as the variations in kansas, user response can cause the raped porn, results to fluctuate. Tuning the kansas experiment, IBM JVM and Essay, Linux (Page last updated May 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Authors Duc Vianney and James Phelan, Publisher IBM). Tips: [Article also has detailed coverage of experiment, tuning Linux]. Use the -Xms and giacomo, -Xmx parameters to set the experiment, heap size. Use -verbosegc to Essay About the 60s measure garbage collection statistics. Keep heap size smaller than physical memory. Experiment. Keep heap size small enough that all other necessary processes also fit into physical memory. The IBM JVM has extra options to control JVM Focus initially on design, data structures, and algorithms. Do not rely on raped porn, compile-time code optimization.

Understand runtime code optimization. Experiment. Use StringBuffer, rather than String, for concatenation. Minimize the cost of object creation. Guard against unused objects. The American Battle Of Many. Minimize synchronization.

Use stack variables whenever possible. Kansas. Use static, final, and private methods to allow inlining. Initialize instance variables only once. Use primitive types for Generation, faster and smaller code. Do not use an Enumeration or an kansas Iterator to traverse a Vector. Use System.arraycopy for copying arrays. The American Revolution: Essay. Prefer an array to a Vector or ArrayList. Reuse objects whenever possible.

Use lazy evaluation. Kansas Experiment. Optimize source code by hand. Compile to native code. Performance tuning embedded Java (Page last updated August 2001, Added 2001-08-20, Author Vincent Perrier, Publisher OnJava). Tips: All the The American, following affect embedded Java performance: hardware processor selection; (real-time) operating system selection; supported Java APIs; application reliability and scalability; graphics support; and the ability to kansas experiment put the application code into The Battle Essay, ROM. Various approaches for boosting bytecode execution speed include: a JIT compiler (usually too big for kansas experiment, embedded systems); an ahead-of-time compiler (requires more ROM, may disallow or slowdown dynamically loaded classes); a dynamic adaptive compiler (half-way house between last two options); putting the Java application code into ROM; rewriting the JVM interpretation loop in assembly; using a Java hardware accelerator. Use the lightweight graphical toolkit. To keep down the memory footprint, eliminate any classes that are not used (java -v lists all classes as they are loaded), and run in interpreted mode as much as possible. Benchmark results are not necessarily applicable to your application [article reviews the applicability of The American Revolution: Battle Essay, standard and proprietary benchmarks]. Caching (Page last updated July 2001, Added 2001-08-20, Author Jonathan Lurie, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: Nice description of caching using a filing system analogy.

Nice introductory description of implementating caching, and of managing caching overheads and kansas experiment, element expiration. J2EE challenges (Page last updated June 2001, Added 2001-07-20, Author Chris Kampmeier, Publisher Java Developers Journal). Tips: Thoroughly test any framework in essay about technology, a production-like environment to ensure that stability and performance requirements are met. Each component should be thoroughly reviewed and experiment, tested for Revolution: of Many, its performance and security characteristics. Using the underlying EJB container to manage complex aspects such as transactions, security, and kansas, remote communication comes with the about technology, price of additional processing overhead. To ensure good performance use experienced J2EE builders and kansas experiment, use proven design patterns.

Consider the impact of session size on on Talkin’ About the 60s Generation, performance. Avoid the following common mistakes: Failure to experiment close JDBC result sets, statements, and connections; Failure to remove unused stateful session beans; Failure to invalidate HttpSession. Performance test various options, for example, test both Type 2 and The American The, Type 4 JDBC drivers; Use a load-generation tool to simulate moderate loads; monitor the server to experiment identify resource utlization. Perform code analysis and profiling. Performance requirements include: the required response times for end users; the perceived steady state and peak user loads; the average and peak amount of picking seamus, data transferred per Web request; the expected growth in user load over the next 12 months. Note that peak user loads are the number of concurrent sessions being managed by the application server, not the number of experiment, possible users using the raped porn, system. Larger loads require greater amounts of hardware to satisfy that load. Applications that perform very little work can typically handle many users for a given amount of hardware, but can scale poorly as they spend a large percentage of time waiting for experiment, shared resources. Applications that perform a great number of computations tend to Essay the 60s Generation require much more hardware per kansas, user, but can scale much better than those performing a small number of computations.

Processor integer performance is usually the most important hardware factor, though a server can scale poorly if shared resources cause significant contention. Cache design and memory bandwidth play a big role in Pride and Prejudice, determining how much extra performance is experiment, achieved, as processors are added to a server. Additional capacity should be designed into raped porn, the system. Extrapolate from known performance test results to predict the performance of the system when varying amount of resources are available. EJB Clustering (Page last updated February 2002, Added 2002-04-26, Author Tyler Jewell, Publisher BEA).

Tips: Four locations that can provide clustering logic for an EJB are: the JNDI naming server where the home stub is bound, the container, the kansas experiment, home stub, and the remote stub. J2EE Application servers (Page last updated April 2001, Added 2001-04-20, Authors Christopher G. Chelliah and Sudhakar Ramakrishnan, Publisher Java Developers Journal). Tips: A scalable server application probably needs to be balanced across multiple JVMs (possibly pseudo-JVMs, i.e. Technology. multiple logical JVMs running in the same process). Performance of an application server hinges on caching, load balancing, fault tolerance, and kansas, clustering. Picking Heaney. Application server caching should include web-page caches and data access caches. Other caches include caching servers which guard the application server, intercepting requests and either returning those that do not need to go to the server, or rejecting or delaying those that may overload the kansas experiment, app server. Application servers should use connection pooling and database caching to minimize connection overheads and The American Battle of Many, round-trips. Load balancing mechanisms include: round-robin DNS (alternating different IP-addresses assigned to a server name); and re-routing mechanisms to distribute requests across multiple servers. By maintaining multiple re-routing servers and a client connection mechanism that automatically checks for experiment, an available re-routing server, fault tolerance is added. Using one thread per user can become a bottleneck if there are a large number of concurrent users. Distributed components should consider the proximity of components to The American Revolution: The Battle of Many their data (i.e., avoid network round-trips) and how to distribute any resource bottlenecks (i.e., CPU, memory, I/O) across the different nodes.

Hans Bergsten's top ten JSP tips (Page last updated November 2000, Added 2001-01-19, Author Hans Bergsten, Publisher O'Reilly). Tips: The include directive (%@ include %) is faster than the include action (jsp:include page=pagename.jsp flush=true/). redirect s are slower than forward s because the browser has to make a new request. Database access is typically very expensive in terms of kansas, server resources. Blackberry Picking Heaney. Use a connection pool to kansas share database connections efficiently between all requests, but don't use the JDBC ResultSet object itself as the cache object. The Optimistic Locking pattern (Page last updated July 2001, Added 2001-07-20, Author Yasmin Akbar-Husain and Eoin Lane, Publisher JavaWorld).

Tips: Pessimistic locking, where database data is locked when read, can lead to high lock contention. Optimistic locking only checks data integrity at update time, so has no lock contention [but can have high rollback costs]. Raped Porn. This is Optimistic Locking pattern is usually more scalable than pessimistic locking. Detection of write-write conflicts with optimistic transactions can be done using timestamps or version counts or state comparisons. Reusing objects in embedded Java (Page last updated July 2001, Added 2001-07-20, Author Angus Muir and Roman Bialach, Publisher Micro Java). Tips: A lot of kansas, object creation and destruction can lead to a fragmented heap, which reduces the ability to create further objects.

Define the bulk of memory you need (buffers, etc.) up-front at initialization, and use object pooling to avoid further creation or destruction of objects. Raped Porn. Throwing/catching exceptions are tremendously expensive. Pooling is kansas, not always faster than object creation. Object recycling part 2 (Page last updated February 2002, Added 2002-02-22, Author Angus Muir and blackberry picking seamus heaney, Roman Bialach, Publisher Micro Java). Tips: The efficiency of pooling objects compared to creating and disposing of objects is experiment, highly dependent on the size and complexity of the objects. Object pools have deterministic access and reclamation costs for both CPU and memory, whereas object creation and garbage collection can be less deterministic. Chapter 2, Java: Fat and seamus, Slow?, of Java 2 Micro Edition: Professional Developer's Guide referenced from last updated May 2001, Added 2001-07-20, Author Eric Giguere, Publisher Micro Java). Tips: Reduce compiled code size by using implicit instruction bytcodes wherever possible.

For example, limiting a method to four or fewer local variables (three on non-static methods as this takes the first slot), allows the compiler to use implicit forms of instructions (such as aload, iload, fload, astore, istore, fstore, and kansas, so on). Similarly numbers -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 ,5 have special bytecodes Java class files are standalone - no data is shared between class files. Essay. In particular strings are repeated across different files (one reason why they compress so well when packaged together in kansas, JAR files). An empty class compiles to raped porn about 200 bytes, of which only experiment 5 bytes are bytecode. Pride And Prejudice. There are no instructions for initializing complete arrays in the Java VM. Instead, compilers must generate a series of bytecodes that initialize the array element by experiment, element. This can make array initialization slow, and adds bytecode to the class. Raped Porn. You can reduce bytecode bloat from array initialization by encoded values in strings and using those strings initialize the experiment, arrays.

Explicitly set references to null when they are no longer needed to ensure that the objects can be garbage collected. Rizzolatti. Allocate objects less often and allocate smaller objects to reduce garbage collection frequency. Animation in java applets article. Kansas Experiment. Old article, but basically sound (the basics haven't changed). (Page last updated March 1996, Added 2000-12-20, Authors Arthur van Hoff and Kathy Walrath, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: Use a separate thread to draw the animation. Do not use the paint() method. Destroy the raped porn, animation drawing thread when the user leaves the page (Applet.stop() is called) to avoid consuming CPU when nothing is being viewed. Keep the correct frame rate by calculating elapsed time and delaying for the remaining time, rather than always simply delaying for a contant time period.

Override the update() method to avoid flashing (update() clears the frame each time it is painted). Use double buffering to eliminate further flashing and usually faster drawing: drawing offscreen is potentially faster, and experiment, mapping blocks of pixels oto the screen is normally very fast. Essay About Technology. Use a media tracker class to avoid displaying images until they are fully loaded. [This still applies, but Java 2 has more interfaces to help you do this.] Use image strips to load multiple images in one action. Kansas Experiment. Inter-frame compression can reduce the total size of multiple images of an animation, and so improve animation network/disk transfer rates. Another tutorial from Sun. Blackberry Seamus. This ones on kansas experiment, animation (Page last updated ?, Added 2000-12-20, Author ?, Publisher Sun). Tips: Normal frame rates for animation: 8 frames per second (fps) for poor quality animation; 12 fps for and Prejudice Essay example, standard animation; 24 fps for short bursts of smooth, realistic motion. Animation loop (usually a separate thread) keeps track of frames and requests screen updates. Suspend the animation whenever it is not visible. Use the MediaTracker to load all required images before drawing, using checkID(anInt, true)/checkAll(true) [asynchronously] or waitForID()/waitForAll() [synchronous]. [example code included in article] Combine images in kansas experiment, a single file (e.g. Rizzolatti. jar file, or single image strip) to improve image loading if transferring them over a network. Basic animation tutorial (Page last updated ?, Added 2000-12-20, Author Dave ?, Publisher ?).

Tips: Avoid flicker by overriding the update() method to avoid blanking the canvas. Use a separate thread to manage the kansas experiment, calculations and drawing. The American Revolution: The Battle Essay. Use MediaTracker to load all required images before drawing. Kansas Experiment. Use double buffering (draw image on offscreen buffer, then map onto rizzolatti, screen buffer). Use synchronization to synchronize methods in the two threads. Moving from experiment JSP to EJB (Page last updated June 2001, Added 2001-06-18, Author Patrick Sean Neville, Publisher Java Developers Journal). Tips: Entity EJBs should contain aggregate get/set methods that return chunks of data rather than fine-grained get/set methods for seamus heaney, individual attributes, to reduce unnecessary database, transactional, and kansas experiment, network communication overheads. Avoid stateful session beans as they are resource-heavy, since one instance is Revolution: Battle Essay, maintained for each client. Under heavy loads, entity beans should do more than merely represent a table in a database.

If you are merely retrieving and experiment, updating data values, consider using JDBC within session beans instead. If you have one large database host but only a small Web and middleware host, consider moving much of and Prejudice Essay example, your logic into stored procedures and calling them via JDBC in session beans. If your database host is weak or unknown, or you require greater portability, keep the data calculations in entity beans. Consider using a single stateless session bean to kansas experiment provide access to other EJBs (this is a fa?ade pattern). This optimizes multiple EJB references and Pride example, calls by keeping them in-process. Container Managed Persistence (CMP) typically provides better performance (due to data caching) than Bean Managed Persistence (BMP). Judging various aspects of Java, including performance (Page last updated May 2001, Added 2001-06-18, Author Brian Maso, Publisher DevX). Tips: J2EE defines component models with high scalability potential.

Maximizing scalability requires sticking to stateless session beans and handling all database interactions programmatically (through pooled JDBC connections). EJBs are slower and kansas, more complex than proprietary server implementations when high scalability is not needed. Java (to 1.3) does not have non-blocking I/O, which virtually guarantees Java server implementations bind one thread per The Battle of Many Essay, client connection. This limits communication throughput. Some Java application servers provide proprietary non-blocking I/O to improve throughput. From the 1.4 SDK, Java includes non-blocking I/O. Using java.lang.reflect.Proxy (Page last updated July 2001, Added 2001-07-20, Author Tom Harpin, Publisher Sun). Kansas. Tips: Interposing proxy objects is a useful approach to trace or profile method calls. The java.lang.reflect.Proxy class allows you to create a wrapper around any object which implements an interface. Appendix A (Garbage Collection) of Java Platform Performance: Strategies and Tactics. (Page last updated 2001, Added 2001-04-20, Authors Steve Wilson, Jeff Kesselman, Publisher Sun). Giacomo. Tips: Large RAM requirements can force the OS to use virtual memory, which slows down the application.

Most JVM implementations will not dereference temporary objects until the method has gone out of scope, even if the object is kansas, created in an inner block which has gone out of rizzolatti, scope. So you need to explicitly null the variable if you want it collectable earlier. Adding a finalizer method extends the experiment, life of the object, since it cannot be collected until the finalize() method is run. Do not use finalizers to free resources in a timely manner. Various performance tips from a JavaOne 1998 presentation. (Page last updated September 1998, Added 2000-12-20, Author Tony Squier Steven Meloan, Publisher Sun). Giacomo Rizzolatti. Tips: Minimize the kansas experiment, number of Pride and Prejudice Essay example, times that an applet has to request data from the server. Package Applet images into a single class file.

Use Thread pools where these improve performance. Use BufferedIO streams to experiment access URLConnection's Input/Output streams. Load Balancing Web Applications (Page last updated September 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author Vivek Veek, Publisher OnJava). Pride Example. Tips: DNS round-robin sends each subsequent DNS lookup request to the next entry for that server name. This provides a simple machine-level load-balancing mechanism, but is only appropriate for session independent or shared-session servers. DNS round-robin has no server load measuring mechanisms, so requests can still go to overloaded servers, i.e. the load balancing can be very unbalanced. Hardware load-balancers solve many of the problems of DNS round-robin, but introduce a single point of failure. A web server proxy can also provide load-balancing by kansas, redirecting requests to Revolution: The multiple backend webservers. Article on using CachedRowSet, a ResultSet that doesn't need continuous connection to the database (Page last updated February 2001, Added 2001-02-21, Author Taylor G. Cowan, Publisher JavaWorld).

Tips: CachedRowSet provides cached result sets that do not require continuous connection to the database, allowing connections to be reused more efficiently. Using CachedRowSet lets you batch updates, and execute them asynchronously. CachedRowSet also supports offline work which is later synchronized. CachedRowSet is probably not appropriate for managing large datasets. JMS vs RMI (Page last updated February 2002, Added 2002-02-22, Author Kevin Jones, Publisher DevX). Tips: RMI calls marshall and kansas, demarshall parameters, adding major overhead.

Every network communication has several overheads: the distance between the sender and the receiver adds a minimum latency (limited by the speed the signal can travel along the wire, about two-thirds of the speed of light: London to New York would take about 3 milliseconds); each network router and switch adds time to The American The Battle of Many Essay respond to kansas data, on the order of 0.1 milliseconds per device per technology, packet. Part of most network communications consists of small control packets, adding significant overhead. Kansas Experiment. One RMI call does not generally cause a noticeable delay, but even tens of RMI calls can be noticeable to the users. Beans written with many getXXX() and blackberry picking heaney, setXXX() methods can incur an kansas experiment RMI round trip for every data attribute. And Prejudice Example. Messaging is naturally asynchronous, and allows an application to decouple network communications from ongoing processing, potentially avoiding threads from being blocked on experiment, communications. Proxy code generation (Page last updated February 2002, Added 2002-02-22, Author Paul McLachlan, Publisher Java Developers Journal). Tips: Generative programming is a class of techniques that allows for more flexible designs without the performance overhead often encountered when following a more traditional programming style. Seamus. JSP engines are one example. java.lang.reflect.Proxy is another. More advanced code obfuscations (such as control-flow obfuscation) can produce slower programs as the obfuscated bytecode is kansas, more difficult to optimize by the JIT or HotSpot compiler. A reflective lookup [obtaining the method reference from its name] is much slower than a reflective invoke [invoking the method from the blackberry heaney, reference] once you have a method reference. [Article provides an implementation of the kansas, JNI call using the JVM_OnLoad() function to and Prejudice example trap class bytecodes as they are loaded].

A generated Proxy class uses the Reflection API to look up the interface methods once in its static initializer, and generates wrappers and access methods to handle passing primitive data between methods. [This means that a generated Proxy class will have a certain amount of overhead compared to the equivalent coded file]. Finalizers (Page last updated March 2002, Added 2002-04-26, Author Phil Vickers, Publisher IBM). Tips: Adding finalizers to your code makes GC much more expensive and unpredictable. Finalizers are not executed at a predictable time. Sun community chat session: Tuning the Java Runtime for Big Iron (Page last updated March 2001, Added 2001-04-20, Author Edward Ort, Publisher Sun). Kansas. Tips: Use the -server option. Giacomo. Use -XX:+UseLWPSynchronization (better threading) or on Solaris set LD_LIBRARY_PATH=/usr/lib/lwp:/usr/lib (even better threading). Experiment. Set the young generation space to 1/4 to about technology 1/3 of kansas, heap space, e.g. -Xms1024m -Xmx1024m -XX:NewSize=256m -XX:MaxNewSize=256m. On Solaris use vmstat, pstat (utilities) and -verbose:gc (runtime option). GC is single-threaded (at least to 1.3.x), so cannot take advantage of multiple-CPUs (i.e. can end up with multi-processor mostly idle during GC phases if using a single JVM).

Too many threads can lead to about technology thread starvation [presumably thrashing]. Use at least one thread per CPU, more if any threads will be i/o blocked. On Solaris use the mpstat utility to monitor CPU utlization. 1.4 will include concurrent GC that should avoid large GC pauses. The biggest performance problem is bad design. Use: -XX:NewSize=value -XX:MaxNewSize=value rather than -XX:SurvivorRatio and experiment, -XX:NewRatio. Pride And Prejudice. Set initial heap size to max heap size when you know what size heap you'll want and you want to avoid wasting time growing the heap as you'll fill up space. Kansas. If you're not sure how big you'll want your heap to be you might want to set a smaller initial size and only grow to use the space if you need it. Raped Porn. Low CPU utilization together with bad performance may indicate GC, synchronization, I/O or network inefficiencies. -XX:MaxPermSize affects Perm Space size (storage for HotSpot internal data structures), and only needs altering if a really large number of classes are being loaded. [The session also discussed some Solaris OS parameters to tune]. Kansas. For JDK 1.3, the heap is: TotalHeapSize = -Xmx setting + MaxPermSize; with -Xmx split into new and and Prejudice example, old spaces [i.e. total heap space is old space + new space + perm space, and settable heap using -Xmx defines the size of the old+new space. -XX:MaxNewSize defines how much of -Xmx heap space goes to new space].

JMS JCACHE (Page last updated February 2002, Added 2002-02-22, Author Steve Ross-Talbot, Publisher Java Developers Journal). Tips: Asynchronous messaged communications allows subsystems to decouple and kansas, work more efficiently in parallel, more closely reflecting actual workflows. Read-only caches are a simple way of reducing communication overheads and improving the performance and scalability of distributed systems. Event-driven systems tend to be more scalable. Hierarchical caching replicates data across n-tiers, using finer and finer grained replication as the data approaches the requesting tier. Read-write caching is an Essay example efficient technique when the number of kansas, [write-write transaction] conflicts it produces is low. Pseudo Sessions for JSP, Servlets and HTTP (Page last updated March 2001, Added 2001-03-21, Author Budi Kurniawan, Publisher OnJava). Tips: Use pseudo sessions rather than HttpSession s to improve web server scalability. Pseudo sessions reside on file instead of in blackberry, memory, thus both decreasing memory and allowing sessions to be distributed across multiple servers. Pseudo sessions do not use cookies, instead they alter URLs to encode the session, and so reduce the generation of session objects by cookie-declining browsers. Clustering for J2EE and Java application servers.

Looks at kansas experiment, Bluestone Total-e-server, Sybase Enterprise Application Server, SilverStream Application Server, and WebLogic Application Server. Pride And Prejudice Example. (Page last updated February 2001, Added 2001-03-21, Author Abraham Kang, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: A cluster in this context is a group of kansas, machines working together to transparently provide enterprise services. A cluster can be implemented using a dispatcher which accepts requests and passes them on to other servers (either by redirecting the client or directly). Essay On Talkin’ Generation. Clusters target to provide scalability and high-availability. J2EE application servers implement clustering around their implementation of JNDI.

Clustering should allow failover if a machine/process crashes. Kansas. For stateful sessions, this requires state replication. Database and filesystem session persistence can limit scalability when storing large or numerous objects in the HttpSession. To scale the static portions of your Website, add Web servers; to Revolution: The Battle of Many Essay scale the dynamic portions of your site, add application servers. Multicasting efficiency (Page last updated January 2002, Added 2002-02-22, Author Paul Timberlake, Publisher Message MQ).

Tips: When dealing with large numbers of active listeners, multicast publish/subscribe is kansas experiment, more efficient than broadcast or multiple individual connections (unicast). When dealing with large numbers of listeners with only giacomo rizzolatti a few active, or if dealing with only a few listeners, multicasting is kansas, inefficient. This scenario is common in enterprise application integration (EAI) systems. Inactive listeners require all missed messages to raped porn be resent to them in order when the listener becomes active. A unicast-based message transport, such as message queuing organized into a hub-and-spoke model, is more efficient than multicast for most application integration (EAI) scenarios. NIO (Page last updated Daniel F. Savarese, Added 2002-02-22, Author February 2002, Publisher JavaPro). Tips: GatheringByteChannel lets you to write a sequence of kansas, bytes from multiple buffers, and ScatteringByteChannel allows you to read a sequence of bytes into giacomo rizzolatti, multiple buffers. Both let you minimize the number of system calls meade by combining operations that might otherwise require multiple system calls.

Selector allows you to kansas experiment multiplex I/O channels, reducing the Pride and Prejudice example, number of threads required for kansas experiment, efficient concurrent I/O operations. FileChannels allow files to be memory mapped, rather than reading into a buffer. This can be more efficient. [But note that both operations bring the essay technology, file into memory in kansas, different ways, so which is raped porn, faster will be system and data dependent]. Optimizing Searches via Rare Events (Page last updated April 2002, Added 2002-05-19, Authors ANDREA MONTANARI RICCARDO ZECCHINA, Publisher Nature). Tips: Re-starting a search algorithm at random times can improve the kansas experiment, average time required to reach the solution. Compression in Java (Page last updated February 2002, Added 2002-02-22, Author Qusay H. Mahmoud and Konstantin Kladko, Publisher Sun). Tips: Compression techniques have efficiencies that vary depending on the data being compressed. Pride And Prejudice Essay Example. It's possible a proprietary compression technique could the most efficient for a particular application. For example, instead of transmitting a compressed picture, the component objects that describe how to draw the experiment, picture may be a much smaller amount of data to transfer.

ZIPOutputStream and GZIPOutputStream use internal buffer sizes of 512. BufferedOutputStream is unnecessary unless the size of the The American Revolution: The Battle of Many Essay, buffer is kansas experiment, significantly larger. GZIPOutputStream has a constructor which sets the internal buffer size. Essay About Technology. Zip entries are not cached when a file is kansas, read using ZipInputStream and FileInputStream, but using ZipFile does cache data, so creating more than one ZipFile object on the same file only opens the file once. The Battle Of Many. In UNIX, all zip files opened using ZipFile are memory mapped, and therefore the performance of ZipFile is kansas experiment, superior to ZipInputStream. If the contents of the same zip file, are frequently changed then using ZipInputStream is more optimal. Compressing data on Revolution: The Battle, the fly only improves performance when the experiment, data being compressed are more than a couple of hundred bytes. Porting to Pride and Prejudice Essay example KVM (Page last updated February 2002, Added 2002-02-22, Author Shiuh-Lin Lee, Publisher Micro Java). Kansas. Tips: Minimize program runtime size. Avoid third-party class libraries if not necessary, for example kAWT (a GUI toolkit library) and MathFP (Fixed point math).

Store big lookup tables in the user database rather than as part of the program. Giacomo. Call GC functions manually. Kansas Experiment. Dispose of giacomo rizzolatti, Objects; close the database and the network connections as soon as they are no longer needed. Kansas Experiment. Only load or transfer minimal required data structures and records into memory. Avoid float and double calculations. Avoid data conversions: store and use the data in the final required format, or execute conversions on the server. Use client caching. Data compression has to be tuned to minimize both client CPU impact as well as transfer size. Use tabbed panels to hold different groups of information. Giacomo Rizzolatti. Scrollable panel can have higher memory requirements than a tabbed panel. Kansas. Avoid some KVM user components (like ScrollTextBox), because they are runtime memory hogs.

Use selection lists rather than manual entry to speed up user data entry. Tracking Memory leaks (Page last updated February 2001, Added 2001-03-21, Author Jim Patrick, Publisher IBM). Tips: An object is only counted as being unused when it is no longer referenced. If objects remain referenced unintentionally, this is a memory leak. If you get a java.lang.OutOfMemoryError after a while, memory leakage is a strong suspect. If an application is meant to run 24 hours a day, then memory leaks become highly significant.

Most JVMs grow towards the upper heap limit (-Xmx/-mx options) when more memory is required, and do not return memory to Essay on Talkin’ the 60s Generation the operating system, even if the memory is no longer needed, until the experiment, JVM process terminates. [Article provides an example of tracking memory leaks using JProbe]. BigDecimal and Enumerations (Page last updated August 2001, Added 2001-08-20, Author Glen McCluskey, Publisher Sun). Tips: BigDecimal provides arbitrary-precision floating point number arithmetic, at the cost of performance. Type-safe enumeration is safer than using ints for Revolution:, enum values, and you can still use comparison by identity for fast performance. But you lose the performance potential of using the enum values directly as array indices, switch constants and experiment, bitmasks. Article on connection pools (Page last updated September 1999, Added 2001-02-21, Author Hans Bergsten, Publisher Web Developers Journal). Essay Generation. Tips: Reuse database connections using a connection pool.

Put helper classes (non-servlet classes used by servlets) in the CLASSPATH of the servlet engine. Weblogic's RMI framework (Page last updated January 1999, Added 2001-03-21, Author , Publisher BEA). Tips: Use a single, multiplexed, asynchronous, bidirectional connection for RMI client-to-network traffic instead of the standard reference implementation using multiple sockets. Try to improve the experiment, serialization mechanism for faster RMI [Externalization is Revolution: Battle, better]. Use local calls for objects located in the same JVM. Minimize distributed garbage collection. Use smart stubs which provide data caching and localized execution in addition to the normal remote execution and data fetching capabilities. Using VolatileImage (Page last updated May 2001, Added 2001-07-20, Author Someone@sun, Publisher Sun). Tips: Graphics performance in 1.2 is worse than 1.1. 1.3 is better, and 1.4 should be the fastest yet.

From 1.2 direct access to experiment image pixels was available, but was too slow to be usable because it involved copying many bits around in memory. Use BufferedImage to move offscreen images to system memory rather than copying pixels. Essay Technology. For even faster image mapping, VolatileImage allows a hardware-accelerated offscreen image to kansas be drawn directly on the video card. VolatileImage is volatile because the image can be lost at raped porn, any time, from experiment various causes: running another application in fullscreen mode; starting a screen saver; changing screen resolution; interrupting a task. Only constantly re-rendered images need to be explicitly created as VolatileImage objects to be hardware accelerated. Such images include backbuffers (double buffering) and animated images. All other images, such as sprites, can be created with createImage, and Java 2D will attempt to accelerate them. If an image, such as a sprite, is drawn once and copied from many times, Java 2D makes a copy of it in accelerated memory and The American The, future copies from the image can perform better. To render sprites to the screen, you should use double-buffering by: creating a backbuffer with createVolatileImage, copying the sprite to the backbuffer, and copying the backbuffer to the screen. If content loss occurs, Java 2D re-copies the sprite from kansas software memory to The American Revolution: The accelerated memory.

Only some graphics operations (e.g. curved shapes) are accelerated on some platforms. Use profiling to determine what works best for your situation. From 1.4 Swing uses VolatileImage for kansas, its double buffering. VolatileImage.getCapabilities() provides an picking ImageCapabilities object which gives details of the details of the kansas experiment, runtime VolatileImage. The ImageCapabilities allows the application to decide to use less images, images of lower resolution, different rendering algorithms, or various other means to raped porn attempt to get better performance from the current situation and platform.

Sun community chat session on Optimizing Java Program Performance with Peter Haggar. (Page last updated January 2001, Added 2001-02-21, Author Edward Ort, Publisher Sun). Tips: Try faster JVMs if possible. Never tune code unless you have identified a performance problem with a profiling tool. Kansas. Beware that tuning techniques may not work well on all platforms. Speed start-up time by: minimizing the .class sizes (use -g:none or a shrink tool e.g. DashO, JAX, JOpt); turn off the JIT Good design, data structures, and and Prejudice Essay example, algorithms are the best things to produce good performance. Check String manipulation code. It is much more efficient to experiment read data from disk all at once rather than with multiple reads. Use the buffered classes when doing i/o. import is a compile time function, so has no effect on about technology, runtime (i.e. Kansas. import a.b.*; or import a.b.c; make no difference to runtime performance). Optimize conditionals to have the most likely true results first. Java transaction management (JTS) (Page last updated April 2002, Added 2002-04-26, Author Brian Goetz, Publisher IBM).

Tips: A container managing transactions can identify communications to the same database, and automatically convert a two-phase transaction into Essay About the 60s Generation, a more efficient single-phase commit. Article about frameworks and the effective memory management of objects; avoiding memory leaks by design. (Page last updated January 2001, Added 2001-01-19, Author Leonard Slipp, Publisher Java Report). Kansas Experiment. Tips: Define the life cycles of picking seamus heaney, objects and the duration of object interrelationships. Then manage objects according to whether the framework retains exclusive control of them, or whether the kansas experiment, object can be accessed from outside the framework. Minimize the number of giacomo, objects that can be accessed from outside the framework. Kansas Experiment. In general, the creator of an object should be responsible for the objects' life cycle. Where this is heaney, not the experiment, case, the about, transfer of ownership of the object should be explicit and emphasized. Similarly object relationship management should be explicit and reversible: for every add() action, there must be a remove(); for every register() action, there must be a deregister(). Various strategies for connecting to databases (Page last updated March 2001, Added 2001-04-20, Author Prakash Malani, Publisher Java Report). Tips: Use pooled connections to reduce connection churn overheads. Experiment. javax.sql.DataSource provides a standard connection pooling mechanism [example included]. Obtain and release pooled conections within each method that requires the Essay, resource if the connection is very short (termed Quick Catch-and-Release Strategy in the article).

However do not release the connection only to kansas experiment use it again almost immediately, instead hold the rizzolatti, connection until it will not be immediately needed. The performance penalty of obtaining and releasing connections too frequently is quite small in comparison to potential scalability problems or issues raised because EntityBeans are holding on to the connections for too long. The Quick Catch-and-Release Strategy is the best default strategy to ensure good performance and scalability. Basic article on kansas experiment, performance tuning techniques. (Page last updated January 2001, Added 2000-12-14, Author Tarak Modi, Publisher Java Pro). Tips: [The compiler concatenates strings where they are fully resolvable, so don't move these concatenations to runtime with StringBuffer.] Where the compiler cannot resolve concatenated strings at Revolution: Battle, compile time, the code should be converted to StringBuffer appends, and the StringBuffer should be appropriately sized rather than using the default size. Using the concatenation operator (+) in a loop is very inefficient, as it creates many intermediate temporary objects. Kansas Experiment. Presizing collections (like Vector) to raped porn the expected size is more efficient than using the default size and letting the collection grow. Removing elements from a Vector will necessitate copying within the Vector if the element is kansas, removed from anywhere other than the essay, end of the collection.

Cache the size of the collection in a local variable to use in a loop instead of kansas experiment, repeatedly calling collection.size(). The American The Battle Of Many Essay. Unsynchronized methods are faster than synchronized ones. [Article discusses applying these optimzations to a thread pool implementation.] Object creation tuning (Page last updated 2000, Added 2001-07-20, Author Daniel F. Savarese, Publisher Numega). Tips: Creating and dereferencing too many objects can adversely impact performance. Avoid holding on to objects for experiment, too long by About, explicit dereference (setting variables to null) and by using weak references. Use a profiler to determine which objects may be created too often, or may not be being dereferenced. When looking for memory problems, look at methods that are called the kansas experiment, most times or use the Essay on Talkin’ the 60s, most memory.

Frequently called methods may unnecessarily allocate objects on each call. Methods that use a lot of memory may not need to experiment use as much memory or they may be a source of memory leaks. Try to use mutable objects like StringBuffers or a char array instead of immutable objects like String. Don't restrict object state initialization to the arguments passed to a constructor. Provide a zero-argument constructor that creates reasonable default values and include setter methods or an raped porn init method to allow objects of that class to experiment be reused. If you have to wrap primitive types, such as an int, define your own wrapper class which can be reused instead of using java.lang.Integer. Pride Essay. If you need to create many instances of kansas experiment, a wrapper class like Integer, consider writing your algorithm to accept primitive types. Use a factory class instead of directly calling the new operator, to allow easier reuse of objects. Object pooling and database connection pooling are two techniques for reducing object creation overheads. Object pools can be sources or memory leaks and and Prejudice Essay example, can themselves be inefficient. The java.nio packages (updated) (Page last updated December, 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author John Zukowski, Publisher Sun).

Tips: Direct buffers have a higher creation cost than non-direct buffers because they use native system operations rather than JVM operations. Direct buffers optimize access operations by using the system's native I/O operations. Kansas Experiment. Reduce threads by multiplexing I/O using selectors: The new I/O capabilities, allow you to create a Web server that does not require one thread per connection. How to Climb a B-tree (Page last updated December 2001, Added 2001-12-26, Author Rick Grehan, Publisher JavaPro). Pride. Tips: A B-tree outperforms a binary tree when used for kansas experiment, external sorting (for example, when the index is The American The of Many Essay, stored out on disk) because searching a binary tree cuts the number of keys that need searching in half for kansas experiment, every node searched, whereas B-tree searching cuts the number of keys that have to be searched by approximately 1/n, where n is the Essay example, number of kansas, keys on a node. B-tree variants provide faster searching at the cost of slower insertions and deletions. Two such variants are the B-tree with rotation (more densely packed nodes) and the B+tree (optimized for sequential key traversing). [Article discusses building a B-tree class, and persisting it to provide a disk-based searchable index].

Database comparison (Page last updated February 2002, Added 2002-04-26, Author Timothy Dyck, Publisher E-Week). Pride And Prejudice Essay Example. Tips: SQLServer has driver problems that slow access to it. Connection memory requirements vary dramatically between databases, and affect how much memory can be allocated to other resources. In-memory query result caches (such as with mySQL) improves performance significantly. Kansas Experiment. (Works by retrieving cached results of byte-for-byte identical queries, with no query compilation required). Add extra indexes. Essay On Talkin’. Arrange the stored order of rows to best satisfy the queries. Some drivers store the entire result set in memory when using bidirectional cursors - which does not scale. File Channels, StackTraceElements, (Page last updated May 2002, Added 2002-05-19, Author Glen McCluskey, Publisher Sun). Tips: File Channels (from the 1.4+ nio package) provide optimized mapping and a transferTo() method which is the fastest way to copy files. StackTraceElement provides access to kansas experiment the stack from excception objects, useful for the 60s Generation, analyzing stack elements.

Article about garbage collection and kansas experiment, finalization. (Page last updated December 2001, Added 2001-12-26, Author Jeff Friesen, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: [No specific performance tips, but its always helpful to know about GC]. Java Transaction Service (Page last updated March 2002, Added 2002-03-25, Author Brian Goetz, Publisher IBM). Tips: Writing every data block to disk when any part of it changes would be bad for system performance. Deferring disk writes to a more opportune time can greatly improve application throughput.

Transactional systems achieve durability with acceptable performance by summarizing the results of multiple transactions in a single transaction log. The transaction log is stored as a sequential disk file and will generally only be written to, not read from, except in the case of rollback or recovery. Writing an update record to a transaction log requires less total data to be written to essay disk (only the data that has changed needs to be written) and fewer disk seeks. Changes associated with multiple concurrent transactions can be combined into a single write to the transaction log, so multiple transactions per disk write can be processed, instead of requiring several disk writes per transaction. HTTP sessions vs. stateful EJB (Page last updated July 2002, Added 2002-07-24, Author Peter Zadrozny, Publisher Weblogic Developers Journal). Tips: The comparative costs of kansas experiment, storing data in an HTTP session object are roughly the same as storing the about technology, same data in a stateful session bean. Kansas. Failure to remove an EJB that should have been removed (from the Pride, HTTP session) carries a very high performance price: the EJB will be passivated which is a very expensive operation. Chapter 1, What Is Performance? of Java Platform Performance. (Page last updated 2000, Added 2001-11-27, Author Steve Wilson and Jeff Kesselman, Publisher Sun). Kansas Experiment. Tips: Design your software with the target configuration (e.g. RAM) in raped porn, mind. If your program consumes all of your user's memory resources, they probably won't be happy.

Measure performance under loads comparable to expected deployed loads. Perceived performance is a highly important aspect of performance. How fast a program feels is more important than how fast it really is. Chapter 2, The Performance Process of kansas experiment, Java Platform Performance. (Page last updated 2000, Added 2001-11-27, Author Steve Wilson and Jeff Kesselman, Publisher Sun). Tips: It's nearly impossible to achieve good performance through optimizations alone, without considering performance in rizzolatti, analysis and design stages. Creating clear system and kansas experiment, performance requirements is the key to evaluating the success of your project.

Use cases provide excellent specifications for building benchmarks. Specify the limitations of the application: well-defined boundaries on heaney, the application scope can provide big optimization opportunities. Specifications should include system and kansas, performance requirements, including all supported hardware configurations (RAM/CPU/Disk/Network) and other software that normally executes concurrently. You should specify quantifiable performance requirements, for example a response time of two seconds or less. Scalability is Essay, more dependent on good design decisions than optimal coding techniques. Encapsulation leads to slowdowns from kansas experiment increased levels of indirection, but is essential in large, scalable, high-performance systems. For example, using a java.util.List object may be slower than using a raw array, but allows you to change very easily from The Battle of Many ArrayList to experiment LinkedList when that is faster. Meeting or exceeding your performance requirements should be part of the shipping criteria for The of Many, your product.

Once you've determined that a performance problem exists, you need to begin profiling. Profilers are most useful for kansas experiment, identifying computational performance and RAM footprint issues. Performance tuning is an iterative process. Data gathered during profiling needs to be fed back into the development process. Chapter 3, Measurement Is Everything of Java Platform Performance. (Page last updated 2000, Added 2001-11-27, Author Steve Wilson and About Generation, Jeff Kesselman, Publisher Sun). Tips: Benchmarks are typically time-related, but can also measure quantities such as how much memory is used. Experiment. A stopwatch is a versatile benchmarking tool. System.currentTimeMillis() provides millisecond timing for benchmarking [A Stopwatch class based on using System.currentTimeMillis() is presented]. Use benchmarks to: Compare the performance of alternative solutions; Profile performance; Track performance changes. Micro-benchmarks (repeatable sections of code) can be useful but may not represent real-world behavior.

Factors that can skew micro-benchmark performance include Java virtual machine warm-up time, and global code interactions. Macro-benchmarks (repeatable test sequences from the user point of view) test your system as actual end users will see it. About. Extract minima, maxima and averages from repeated benchmark data for analysis. Use these to compare progress of benchmarks during tuning. [I like to experiment add the 90th-centile value too]. Profilers help you find bottlenecks in applications, and should show: the Essay, methods called most often; the methods using the largest percentage of time; the methods calling the most-used methods; and the methods allocating a lot of kansas experiment, memory. The Sun JVM comes with the hprof profiler. Bottlenecks can be tuned by making often-used methods faster; and by calling slow methods less often.

Backtrace methods to understand the context of the bottleneck. For example, caching a value may be a better optimization than speeding up the repeated calculation of that value. Memory usage is raped porn, often of critical importance to the overall application performance. Excessive memory allocation is often one of the experiment, first things that an experienced developer looks for giacomo rizzolatti, when tuning a Java program. Examine bottlenecks for memory allocation. Experiment. For example you may be able to replace a repeated object allocation in About the 60s Generation, a loop with a reusable object allocated once outside the loop.

Memory leaks (not releasing objects for the garbage collector to reclaim) can lead to a large memory footprint. You identify memory leaks by: determining that there is a leak; then identifying the objects that are not being garbage colleted; then tracing the references to those leaking objects to kansas experiment determine what is holding them in memory. If your program continues to use more and more memory then it has a memory leak. This determination should happen after all initializations have completed. Identify memory leak objects by marking/listing the objects in some known state, then cycling through other states and back to Pride example that known state and seeing which extra objects are now present. When there are obvious bottlenecks, the method profile should show these. Kansas. A flat method profile is Essay Generation, one where there are no obvious bottlenecks, no methods taking vastly more time than others. In this case you should look at cumulative method profiles, which show the relative times taken by a method and kansas, all the about, methods it calls (the call tree ). This should identify methods which are worthwhile targets for optimization. Chapter 4, I/O Performance of kansas experiment, Java Platform Performance: Strategies and Tactics. (Page last updated 2000, Added 2001-12-27, Author Steve Wilson and picking, Jeff Kesselman, Publisher Sun).

Tips: Buffer i/o operations. Custom buffering (using your own array of bytes/chars) is quicker than using a Buffered class. Application specific i/o can be tuned, e.g. caching in kansas experiment, memory frequently served pages of a HTTP server. The 60s Generation. Default Serialization is slow. Kansas Experiment. Use the blackberry seamus, transient keyword to kansas define fields to avoid having those fields serialized. Examine serialized objects to determine which fields do not need to Essay About the 60s be serialized for kansas experiment, the application to work. Chapter 5, RAM Footprint of Java Platform Performance: Strategies and Tactics. (Page last updated 2000, Added 2001-12-27, Author Steve Wilson and Jeff Kesselman, Publisher Sun). The American Revolution: The Essay. Tips: Virtual memory is many times slower than RAM: try to fit the application into available RAM on the target platform.

Runtime.totalMemory() and Runtime.freeMemory() measure available heap memory, but not the RAM footprint of the application. Use operating system monitoring tools to determine the RAM footprint of the application: e.g. task manager on Windows NT, pmap -x and ps on Solaris. Small GUI apps need several hundred classes to be loaded just to start the app. Experiment. Small GUI apps need to reduce the number of classes loaded to improve startup time. Giacomo. You can approximate sizes of objects based on the number of experiment, fields and their types: byte-1 byte; char-2 bytes; short-2 bytes; int-4 bytes; float-4 bytes; long-8 bytes; double-8 bytes; references-4 bytes. JVMs will impose additional overheads. You can determine actual object sizes for a particular JVM by measuring the heap space taken by multiple instances of a class. Raped Porn. Use profiling to kansas experiment determine the overal size cost of a class of objects, to determine whether it is Essay example, worth reducing the size cost of the class.

Some JVM/OS combinations can impose a significant memory overhead on kansas experiment, each thread. Pride Essay. Use 'java -verbose MyMainClass' to identify all classes that are loaded. Chapter 6, Controlling Class Loading of Java Platform Performance: Strategies and kansas, Tactics. (Page last updated 2000, Added 2001-12-27, Author Steve Wilson and Jeff Kesselman, Publisher Sun). Tips: To avoid loading unnecessary classes (e.g. when the JIT compiles methods which refer to unused classes), use Class.forName() instead of directly naming the class in source. This tactic is useful if large classes or a large number of classes are being loaded when you don't think they need to be. Pride Essay. Combine listener functionality into one class to avoid an explosion of experiment, generated inner classes. This technique increases maintenance costs.

Use a Generic ActionListener which maps instances to method calls to avoid any extra listener classes. This has the blackberry, drawback of losing compile-time checks. java.lang.reflect.Proxy objects can be used to kansas generalize this technique to multiple interfaces. Essay. Run multiple applications in experiment, the same JVM. [Chapter discusses how to do this, but see Multiprocess JVMs and raped porn, Echidna for more comprehensive solutions]. Chapter 7, Object Mutability: Strings and other things of Java Platform Performance: Strategies and kansas, Tactics. (Page last updated 2000, Added 2002-02-22, Author Steve Wilson and Jeff Kesselman, Publisher Sun). Tips: The allocation, initialization, and collection of many short-lived useless objects can cause major inefficiencies in your software, even when running on an advanced runtime such as the HotSpot VM. Be cautious when the number of objects you're allocating becomes very high-for example, when allocating objects inside loops.

For heavy-duty text processing, however, some uses of the String class can become major performance bottlenecks. Raped Porn. StringBuffer can be used to experiment improve the Pride, performance of common text processing operations. Kansas Experiment. Avoid creating new strings in Pride and Prejudice, compute intensive parts of code. Be careful of the concatenation operators '+' and '+=' when used with strings. To avoid spurious object creation, create methods which return primitive data for multiple data items, rather than one method returning an object holding multiple data items.

Use immutable objects to prevent the need to copy objects to pass information between methods. Object pooling small objects is often counterproductive. The overhead of managing the object pool is often greater than the small object penalty. Pooling can also increase a program's memory footprint. Experiment. Pooling large objects (e.g. large bitmaps or arrays) or objects that work with native resources (e.g. Threads or Graphics) can be efficient.

Chapter 8, Algorithms and data structures of Java Platform Performance: Strategies and Tactics. (Page last updated 2000, Added 2002-02-22, Author Steve Wilson and Jeff Kesselman, Publisher Sun). On Talkin’ About The 60s Generation. Tips: Choosing the kansas experiment, best algorithm or data structure for a particular task is Pride Essay example, one of the keys to writing high-performance software. The optimal algorithm for a task is highly dependent on the data and data size. Special-purpose algorithms usually run faster than general-purpose algorithms. Testing for easy-to-solve subcases, and using a faster algorithm for those cases, is a mainstay of kansas experiment, high-performance programming. Collection features such as ordering and duplicate elimination have a performance cost, so you should select the collection type with the rizzolatti, fewest features that still meets your needs.

Most of the time ArrayList is the best List choice, but for some tasks LinkedList is more efficient. Experiment. HashSet is much faster than TreeSet. Pride And Prejudice. Choosing a capacity for HashSet that's too high can waste space as well as time. Experiment. Set the Pride and Prejudice example, initial capacity to about twice the size that you expect the kansas experiment, Set to grow to. The default hash load factor (.75) offers a good trade-off between time and space costs. Higher values decrease the space overhead, but increase the time it takes to look up an seamus heaney entry. Experiment. (When the number of entries exceeds the product of the load factor and the current capacity, the giacomo rizzolatti, capacity is kansas, doubled). And Prejudice Example. Programs pay the costs associated with thread synchronization even when they're used in a single-threaded environment. The Collections.sort() method uses a merge sort that provides good performance across a wide variety of kansas experiment, situations. When dealing with collections of primitives, the Generation, overhead of kansas experiment, allocating a wrapper for each primitive and then extracting the primitive value from the wrapper each time it's used is quite high.

In performance-critical situations, a better solution is to work with plain array structures when you're dealing with collections of primitive types. Random number generation can take time. If possible you can pre-generate the Pride and Prejudice Essay example, random number sequence into an array, and use the elements when required. Chapter 10 (Swing models and renderers) of Java Platform Performance: Strategies and Tactics. Kansas. (Page last updated 2000, Added 2000-10-23, Authors Steve Wilson, Jeff Kesselman, Publisher Sun). Essay On Talkin’ About Generation. Tips: Swing?s model-view architecture is critical for building scalable programs. When changing data stored in models, perform the operations in bulk whenever possible. Kansas. E.g. use the interface that adds an array of elements rather than one element at a time. Use custom models to handle large datasets.

The default models provided with Swing are generic and raped porn, designed for kansas experiment, light-duty use [i.e. are slow]. Custom renderers can sometimes be used to improve performance. But watch out as it is easy to badly construct a custom renderer, making performance worse. A custom model and a custom renderer can be used together in rizzolatti, the same Component. When initializing or totally replacing the contents of a model, consider constructing a new one instead of reusing the existing one, as this avoid posting notifications to any listeners. [Or reuse the kansas experiment, object but deregister the listeners first]. Improving socket transfer rates (Page last updated May 2001, Added 2001-05-21, Author Rama Roberts, Publisher Sun). Tips: The usual StringBuffer better than String tip applies to socket communications too. PrintWriters are not suitable for socket communications because they flush at each newline. Socket.setTcpNoDelay(true) may help speed if you have many small packets sent frequently across the connection. Server performance testing (Page last updated 2000, Added 2001-05-21, Author Floyd Marinescu, Publisher The Server Side). The American Revolution: The Of Many Essay. Tips: Test response times against average current data/user volumes, then repeat the same test against four times as much volume as you expect in 3 years time.

This defines your long term target - getting the response times the same for that latter test. Response time increasing too much when database is over populated probably indicates lack of or inappropriate indexing on the database. Response time increasing exponentially as load increases, you need to improve scalability by optimizing the application or adding resources. Use SQL clause with EXPLAIN or similar (e.g. Explain select * from table where tablefield = somevalue) to kansas ensure that the giacomo rizzolatti, database is doing an indexed search rather than a linear searches of large datasets. Use a profiler to determine object usage, garbage collection behaviour and method bottlenecks in the application. Minimize network calls, especially database calls: make one large database call rather than many small ones; make sure ejbStore isn?t storing anything for read only operations; use Details Objects to get entity bean state rather than making many trips for each aspect of kansas experiment, state. Use caching where possible. Use session beans as a fa?ade to your entity beans to encapsulate the workflow of one entire usecase in Essay on Talkin’ the 60s Generation, one network call to one method on experiment, a session bean (and one transaction). Optimizing entity beans (Page last updated May 2001, Added 2001-05-21, Author Akara Sucharitakul, Publisher Sun). Tips: Use container-managed persistence when you can.

An efficient container can avoid database writes when no state has changed, and reduce reads by retrieving records at the same time as find() is Essay, called. Minimize database access in kansas experiment, ejbStores. Use a dirty flag to blackberry picking seamus avoid writing tee bean unless it has been changed. Always cache references obtained from lookups and experiment, find calls. Always define these references as instance variables and look them up in raped porn, the setEntityContext (method setSessionContext for kansas, session beans). Essay About Technology. Always prepare your SQL statements. Close all database access/update statements properly. Avoid deadlocks.

Note that the sequence of experiment, ejbStore calls is not defined, so the developer has no control over the access/locking sequence to database records. EJB best practices (Page last updated April 2001, Added 2001-05-21, Author Sandra L. Emerson, Michael Girdley, Rob Woollen, Publisher Java Developers Journal). Essay. Tips: To avoid resources being held unnecessarily for long periods, a transaction should never encompass user input or user think time. Container managed transactions are preferred for consistency, and should provide extra optimization options. Don't model a shared cache or any shared resource as a stateful session bean. Stateless session beans are easier to scale than stateful session beans. With stateful session beans, every client will need its own session bean instance, reducing scalability. Always call remove after finishing with a stateful session bean instance, otherwise the EJB container will eventually passivate the bean, incurring extra unnecessary disk writes. J2EE clustering (Page last updated August 2001, Added 2001-08-20, Author Abraham Kang, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: Consider cluster-related and load balancing programming issues from the kansas, beginning of the development process. The 60s. Load balancing has two non-application options: DNS (Domain Name Service) round robin or hardware load balancers. [Article discusses the pros and cons].

To support distributed sessions, make sure: all session referenced objects are serializable; store session state changes in a central repository. Try to keep multiple copies of experiment, objects to a minimum. SoftReference-based HashMap (Page last updated August 2001, Added 2001-08-20, Author Heinz Kabutz, Publisher Kabutz). Heaney. Tips: WeakHashMaps are not ideal if you want the values to be weakly referenced rather than the keys. Experiment. SoftReferences may be better for memory sensitive caches since they are supposed to be collected in the reverse order to which they were last referenced. Adding the raped porn, capability to strongly reference some of the values ensures those objects will be retained through a garbage collection. Avoiding memory leaks in EJBs (Page last updated April 2001, Added 2001-05-21, Author Govind Seshadri, Publisher IT World). Tips: Make sure that any beans which have session scope implement the HttpSessionBindingListener interface Explicitly release any resources that may be used within the bean by implementing the valueUnbound() callback. Explicitly release the user's session by invoking invalidate() when they log out.

Try setting the kansas experiment, session invalidation interval to About the 60s Generation a smaller value than the default 30 minutes. Make sure that you are not placing any large grained objects into the servlet context (application scope) as that can also prove problematic sometimes. Parallel clustering of machines using Java (Page last updated April 2001, Added 2001-04-20, Author Aashish N. Patil, Publisher IBM). Tips: [Article describes an implemented architecture for distributing Runnable threads across multiple computer nodes]. The Javap disassembler (Page last updated August 2000, Added 2001-04-20, Author Stuart Halloway, Publisher Sun). Tips: [Article describes using the javap disassembler, useful for identifying exactly what the code has been compiled into]. Kansas Experiment. Use the raped porn, javap disassembler to determine the efficiency of generated bytecodes. Kansas. javap is not sufficient to determine code efficiency, because JIT compilers can apply additional optimizations. Speeding up file searching in JFileChooser (Page last updated February 2001, Added 2001-03-21, Author Slav Boleslawski, Publisher JavaWorld).

Tips: [Article discusses JFileChooser's operation in detail, including multi-threading, filename caching and batched delivery. Article discusses how to about technology add type-ahead lookup functionality to choosing files]. Various tips. (Page last updated 1999?, Added 2000-10-23, Author Nate Sammons, Publisher Sammons). Tips: Use StringBuffer for String concatenations, rather than the '+' operator. Use static strings, String.intern() or a static Hashtable to reduce the number of occurrances of identical string objects. Modify java.lang.String to cache the kansas, hashCode if you are using many string keys in hash tables [note Sun added this optimization to the String class in SDK 1.3] String.getBytes() is very inefficient with a method call for every character.

Use getBytes(int, int, byte[] int) instead, or some other mecahnism. Use non-synchronized Vector, Hashtable, etc. where possible. Size Vector, Hashtable, etc. appropriately. Giacomo. Object creation is expensive. Pool your objects where possible. Inner class object creation is even more expensive than normal. Use non-public concrete support classes instead. Method call times: static 220ns; final 300ns; instance 550ns; interface methods 750ns; synchronized methods 1,500ns. [But times vary enormously depending on the VM and context]. Kansas. Use static final methods where possible. [And do functional programming too ;-)] Rewrite loops so that the termination test compares against blackberry seamus 0. Use exception terminated infinite loops for long loops. Use System.arraycopy() to copy arrays. Use temporary local variables to manipulate instance variables.

EJB2 clustering with application servers (Page last updated December 2000, Added 2001-01-19, Author Tyler Jewell, Publisher OnJava). Tips: [Article discusses multiple independent ways to load balance EJBs] Sun community chat session with Steve Wilson and Jeff Kesselman on Java Performance (Page last updated August 2000, Added 2001-01-19, Author Edward Ort, Publisher Sun). Tips: HotSpot JVMs can return heap memory to the OS while running. Kansas. HotSpot Client VM (JVM 1.3) is optimized for quick startup time and low-memory footprint. The server VM (HotSpot 1.0/2.0) is designed for peak performance (may take a little longer to get up-to-speed but it will go faster in the end). Always use System.arraycopy to copy arrays.

Sticky applets available with the 1.3 plugin speeds startup (persistently caches classes on clients). Also put resources together into jar file to reduce download requests. Giacomo. SwingSet2 (demo in SDK distribution) provides a good example of large numbers of Swing components in a window, created asynchronously. Don't use use finalizers for anything that must be done in a timely manner. Use primitives and transients to speed up serialization. Kansas. Use a concentrator object to limit the essay about, repaint events to once every 100 milliseconds in heavily loaded systems and in multi-threaded swing environments. There is some overhead for context switching (using invokeLater) into the AWT-event thread, which you want to experiment minimize. The key to high performance code is organization and process.

Write clean, well encapsulated code, then use a Profiler to find your true bottlenecks and raped porn, tune those. Experiences building a servlet (Page last updated June 2001, Added 2001-06-18, Author Asif Habibullah, Jimmy Xu, Publisher Java Pro). Tips: Keep the size of the client tier small so that downloads are fast. Use the kansas, servlet init() and Pride Essay, destroy() methods to start and stop limited and experiment, expensive resources, such as database connections. Make the servlets thread-safe and use connection pooling. Use PreparedStatements rather than plain Statement objects. Use database stored procedures.

Typesafe Enumeration gotchas (Page last updated January 2002, Added 2002-01-25, Author Vladimir Roubtsov, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: Implement readResolve() for Serializable Enumeration classes to maintain object identity. Ensure that the same Classloader always loads the Enumeration class to maintain object identity. Reference objects (Page last updated January 2002, Added 2002-01-25, Author Jeff Friesen, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: Cache objects such as images in The American The, memory for experiment, quicker presentation after the first display request. Use Reference objects to hold cached objects so that the garbage collector can free space when required. [Article discusses in raped porn, detail the experiment, various Reference object types]. Optimizing Java for intensive numeric calculations (Page last updated January 2002, Added 2002-02-22, Author James W. Cooper, Publisher DevX). Tips: Allocating on the heap (as with object creation) is much slower than allocating on the stack.

Making numbers into first-class objects imposes a significant overhead on Pride and Prejudice example, calculations. Hand applied optimizations may be superceded by future compiler optimizations. Kansas Experiment. Use specialized subtypes to reduce dynamic dispatching. Replace objects with their data held and passed as local variables. OS Signal handling in Java (Page last updated January 2002, Added 2002-02-22, Author Chris White, Publisher IBM). Raped Porn. Tips: [Article describes how to experiment handle operating system signals from The within Java. Useful if you want your application to be able to respond to the full gamut of system and user actions].

Natively compiled code from experiment Java source (Page last updated January 2002, Added 2002-02-22, Author Martyn Honeyford, Publisher IBM). Tips: Natively compiled code generated from Java source might be faster and might require less memory and about technology, disk resources. [But this articles show some JVMs can be faster]. Experiment. When you include the disk size of the JVM libraries, a natively compiled Java application is significantly smaller in disk size. When considering compiling Java applications to native code determine exactly what problem (or problems) you are hoping to essay about technology solve with native compilation, and experiment, try all the available native compilers. RMI arguments (Page last updated December 2001, Added 2002-02-22, Author Scott Oaks, Publisher Java Report). Tips: Some application servers can automatically pass parameters by about technology, reference if the experiment, communicating EJBs are in Revolution: The, the same JVM.

To ensure that this does not break the application, write EJB methods so that they don't modify the parameters passed to them. Choosing an application server (Page last updated January 2002, Added 2002-02-22, Author Sue Spielman, Publisher JavaPro). Tips: A large-scale server with lots of traffic should make performance its top priority. Performance factors to consider include: connection pooling; types of kansas experiment, JDBC drivers; caching features, and raped porn, their configurability; CMP support. Kansas. Inability to scale with reliable performance means lost customers. Scaling features to consider include failover support, clustering capabilities, and load balancing. Notated keys to access elements of nested Maps. (Page last updated January 2002, Added 2002-02-22, Author Matt Liotta, Publisher DevX). And Prejudice Example. Tips: Use dot separated, concatenated strings to optimize access to elements of nested Maps by kansas experiment, caching elements in the top level Map. The Garbage Collector (Page last updated January 2002, Added 2002-01-25, Author Phil Vickers, Publisher IBM).

Tips: In most current JVMs (prior to 1.4) GC starts off by and Prejudice example, locking out all other threads in the JVM. Kansas Experiment. GC is a stop-the-world, synchronous operation. Non-generationl GC requires scanning the stacks of every thread and The American Revolution: The of Many Essay, the entire Java heap. Calling System.gc() explicitly is not good for performance, as it can be called when GC is not necessary, but will still result in a long pause of all JVM operations. Object management (Page last updated January 2002, Added 2002-01-25, Author Mark Bluemel, Publisher IBM). Tips: Avoid retaining objects accidentally, by holding references beyond an appropriate time for their release.

Use profiling tools to identify unintentionally retained objects. Kansas. Garbage collection is not free; other processing will be paused during GC. On Talkin’ About The 60s. Try to reuse objects in preference to discarding and re-creating them. JViewport scrolling performance (Page last updated January 2002, Added 2002-01-25, Author Heather Brailsford, Publisher IBM). Tips: JViewport.BLIT_SCROLL_MODE is the kansas, default scrolling mode for JViewport in SDK 1.3 (available since 1.2.2). This mode paints directly to Generation the screen instead of being buffered offscreen. This normally provides optimal performance and minimum memory requirements. However complex images may display some intermediate paint operations if the painting is not fast enough, giving jerky or flashing images. If this is unacceptable, try the alternate modes: setScrollMode(BACKINGSTORE_SCROLL_MODE) (intermediate performance, higher memory requirements); or setScrollMode(JViewport.SIMPLE_SCROLL_MODE) (slowest). Using JNI Get* calls (Page last updated January 2002, Added 2002-01-25, Author Mark Bluemel, Publisher IBM).

Tips: If you use JNI Get* calls (for example, GetStringCritical), you must always use the corresponding Release* call (for example, ReleaseStringCritical) when you have finished with the data, even if the isCopy parameter indicates that no copy was taken. Servlet 2.3 events (Page last updated January 2002, Added 2002-01-25, Author Budi Kurniawan, Publisher DevX). Tips: The Servlet 2.3 specification adds application and session events. [Event driven applications can often be scaled more easily than process driven applications]. Sun presentation on J2SE performance strategies (originally accessed from Reginald Hutcherson's page) (Page last updated May 2001, Added 2001-06-18, Author Reginald Hutcherson, Publisher Sun). Tips: The Sun 1.3 JVM has a significantly faster startup time compared to any earlier Sun release. Improve bytecode (method) execution by: using JITs; reducing (byte-)code size; profiling code to eliminate bottlenecks. Reduce garbage collection overheads by: reducing the number of objects generated; reusing objects; caching objects. Experiment. Reduce multithreading overheads by targeting the Essay Generation, granularity of locks, and managing synchronization correctly.

Other operations which improve performance include: using JAR files; using arrays rather than collections; using primitive types rather than objects. If the CPU is the bottleneck, target: code; method profiler identified bottlenecks; algorithms; and object creation. Kansas Experiment. If system memory is the bottleneck, try to avoid paging by targeting: large objects; arrays; the application design. If disk I/O is the bottleneck, identify the blackberry picking heaney, problem and eliminate it. Kansas. Ensure that you have benchmarks and targets, and run reproducible benchmark tests. Target the easiest of the top 5 methods, or the top method, identified by method profiling. Blackberry Heaney. Repeat profile, fix, benchmark iterative process. Avoid runtime String concatenation. Experiment. Use StringBuffer instead.

Local variables (method arguments and tempoararies) remain on the stack and are much faster than heap variables (static, instance new objects). Use strength reduction: x = x + 5 - x += 5; y = x/2 - y = x 1; z = x * 4 - z = x Always profile the code to find where the bottlenecks are. equalsIgnoreCase() is faster than equals() in most cases (except where string sizes are the same). Loop backwards rather than forwards [actually its the comparison to The American The Battle Essay 0 that matters]. Kansas. Reduce code size by: obfuscating code; compression in jar files; excluding the manifest in jar files; reordering variable declarations; eliminating dead code; using protected methods. Manipulate data that requires parsing into a format that is Pride and Prejudice, easier to parse. Kansas Experiment. Use bitshift instead of multiplying or dividing by powers of 2. Use binary-And (on N-1) instead of modulus (on N). Use Thread.sleep() instead of Pride, a for kansas, loop for measured delays.

Use the update() method to raped porn draw things, not the paint() method. Use double-buffering. Apply faster algorithms and data structures. Use StringBuffer for String concatenations, rather than the '+' operator. Use static [pre-created] exceptions. Use final classes. Javabean component architecture (Page last updated October 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Authors David Hardin and Mike Frerking, Publisher Java Developers Journal). Tips: Reusing events reduce object creation and garbage collection overheads. Passing primitive data types directly to event handlers is the kansas, fastest way to pass event information. Generic events reduce the number of (inner) classes required to handle the events. The logging APIs (Page last updated September 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author Tom Harpin, Publisher Sun).

Tips: [Article gives a high level view of the logging APIs introduced in SDK 1.4. No application is adequately deployed unless it has some performance logging in about, place]. The performance of games on J2ME (Page last updated March 2001, Added 2001-03-21, Author Jason R. Briggs, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: Target performance for processors that you will run on experiment, when the project is deployed. Essay About Generation. Implementing the ImageProducer interface and experiment, setting an image's pixels directly eliminates one or two steps in the MemoryImageSource option and seems to be about 10 percent to 20 percent faster on Pride, average. Raw frame rate display, without taking account of the time taken to draw an kansas image, runs from 2 frames per raped porn, second (fps) to 400 fps, depending on processor and JVM. The PersonalJava runtime has no JIT, and kansas, provides the worst performance. On Talkin’ About The 60s Generation. With a JIT it might be usable. [Article includes references to kansas experiment a number of hardware based Java implementations, i.e.

Java enabled CPUs.] Introductory level article on threading applets (Page last updated March 2001, Added 2001-03-21, Author Monica Pawlan, Publisher Sun). Tips: Multi-threaded programs can allow multiple activities to Essay on Talkin’ continue without blocking the kansas experiment, user. Spawning additional threads carries extra memory and processor overhead, but can easily be worth the overheads. Applets need a separate timer thread to execute any non-short tasks so that the on Talkin’, applet remains responsive to the browser.

The volatile modifier requests the Java VM to always access the shared copy of the variable so the its most current value is always read. If two or more threads access a member variable, AND one or more threads might change that variable's value, AND ALL of the threads do not use synchronization (methods or blocks) to read and/or write the kansas, value, then that member variable must be declared volatile to raped porn ensure all threads see the changed value. Cute tip on unblocking a blocked socket by sending it data from a timer thread. (Page last updated 1997, Added 2000-10-23, Author Albert Lopez, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: Use a separate timer thread to timeout socket operations Instead of killing the blocked socket, send it some data to unblock it. J2EE design optimizations (Page last updated September 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author Vijay S. Ramachandran, Publisher Java Developers Journal). Tips: For data that changes infrequently (i.e. rarely enough that a user session will not need that data updating during the session lifetime), avoid transactional access by using a cached Data Access Object rather than the transactional EJB (this is kansas, called the Fast Lane Reader pattern). Don't transfer long lists of data to essay about the user, transfer a page at a time (this is called the Page-by-Page Iterator pattern). Instead of kansas experiment, making lots of remote requests for data attributes of an The American The of Many object, combine the attributes into another object and experiment, send the object to technology the client. Then the attributes can be queried efficiently locally (this is called the experiment, Value Object pattern). Consider caching the essay, value objects where appropriate. Choosing a J2EE application server, emphasizing the importance of experiment, performance issues (Page last updated February 2001, Added 2001-02-21, Author Steve Franklin, Publisher DevX).

Tips: Application server performance is affected by: the JDK version; connection pooling availability; JDBC version and optimized driver support; caching support; transactional efficiency; EJB component pooling mechanisms; efficiency of essay technology, webserver-appserver connection; efficiency of persistence mechanisms. Your application server needs to be load tested with scaling, to determine suitability. Experiment. Always validate the performance of the app server on the target hardware with peak expected user numbers. Decide on The American The Battle of Many, what is acceptable downtime for kansas, your application, and ensure the rizzolatti, app server can deliver the experiment, required robustness. High availability may require: transparent fail-over; clustering; load balancing; efficient connection pooling; caching; duplicated servers; scalable CPU support. Servlet Filters (Page last updated June 2001, Added 2001-07-20, Author Jason Hunter, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: Servlet Filters provide a standardized technique for giacomo, wrapping servlet calls. You can use a Servlet Filter to log servlet execution times [example provided].

You can use a Servlet Filter to compress the webserver output stream [example provided]. Implementing clustering on a J2EE web server (JBoss+Jetty) (Page last updated September 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author Bill Burke, Publisher OnJava). Experiment. Tips: Clustering includes synchronization, load-balancing, fail-over, and distributed transactions. [article discusses implementing clustering in an environment where clustering was not previously present]. The different EJB commit options affect database traffic and performance. Option 'A' (read-only local caching) has the smallest overhead. Hardware load balancers are a simple and fast solution to distributing HTTP requests to clustered servers. Making HTTP connections using background threads. (Page last updated September 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author Eric Giguere, Publisher Sun). Raped Porn. Tips: The user interface must always be responsive to the user's interaction. The application should respond to input no later than a tenth of a second after it occurs: longer delays are noticed by the user, and kansas, make the user interface seem unresponsive.

So don't do more than about a tenth of Essay on Talkin’ About the 60s, a second's worth of work in the user-service thread in response to experiment any user interface event. Use separate threads to perform operations that will last longer than one tenth of a second. Provide the rizzolatti, user with the kansas, option to Revolution: of Many cancel the operation at any time. Kansas Experiment. [Article provides an example of making an HTTP connection following these suggestions]. Article by Pride Essay example, Frederic Boulanger with tuning tips. Kansas. (Page last updated June 1998, Added 2000-10-23, Author Frederic Boulanger, Publisher Macadamian). Tips: Choose the best algorithm or data structure. Whatever can be calculated outside of a loop should be calculated outside of the loop.

Try to minimize method calls within a loop. Essay. Reduce the kansas, number of references to an array in loops. Store the value of essay about technology, array or array elements in temporary variables and experiment, use these in the loop. Giacomo. For multidimensional arrays store a reference for the currently accessed row in a variable. Store member variables in a local temporary variable in loops. IBM's list of Java performance tuning tips (same page, two URLs). (Page last updated 2000, Added 2000-10-23, Author ?, Publisher IBM). Tips: Group native operations to reduce the number of JNI calls. Kansas. Primitive types are faster than classes encapsulating types. Avoid excessive writing to the java console. Technology. Reorder CLASSPATH so that the most used libraries occur first. Don't overuse synchronized methods.

Use int instead of long when possible. When possible, declare methods as final. If needed, only call the garbage collector explicitly at an appropriate time (when things are quiet). Experiment. Prudent use of zip and jar formats can improve load time. Compile java files with the optimizer on. Cache frequently used objects when possible. Use static final when creating constants. Use StringBuffer when doing excessive string manipulations. Consider when to use local variables in loops (speed vs. memory?).

Vectors are more flexible than arrays, but much slower. It is faster to add/delete items from the giacomo, end of the kansas experiment, vector. Avoid unnecessary casts and instanceof. The American Revolution:. Scope of variables can impact performance. EJB2.0 Container-Managed Persistence (Page last updated July 2001, Added 2001-08-20, Author Beth Stearns, Publisher Sun).

Tips: EJB 2.0 Container-Managed Persistence provides local interfaces which can avoid the kansas, performance overheads of remote interfaces. FAQ site with a couple of Pride Essay example, basic performance tips. Experiment. (Page last updated 2000, Added 2000-10-23, Author Martin Webb, Publisher IRT). Tips: FAQ 4002: Use an ImageObserver (method listed in FAQ) to control how and when images are painted during loading. FAQ 4003: Minimise flicker in animations by overriding update() to simply call paint() (default action is to clear the image first), and use double buffering. FAQ 4063 4066: Use jar files to reduce the amount of time that it takes to download an giacomo applet. Anonymous inner classes (Page last updated December 2000, Added 2002-04-26, Author Heinz M. Kabutz, Publisher Kabutz).

Tips: Accessing private data members of an outer class, is done using a generated method, which is slower than normal field access. Though HotSpot can inline the access. Minimizing space taken by HTTP downloads (Page last updated October 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Authors Gary Adams and Eric Giguere, Publisher Sun). Tips: Use HttpConnection.getLength() to determine the number of bytes needed to to hold the kansas experiment, data from of Many a download. Use a ByteArrayOutputStream to accumulate results if the experiment, content length is indeterminate. The best performance is obtained from a 1.1 compliant webserver using persistent connections. Double-if on giacomo rizzolatti, multi-CPU (Page last updated February 2002, Added 2002-03-25, Author Phil Vickers, Publisher IBM). Tips: Double-if logic fails on experiment, multiple CPU machines. Raped Porn. You need to kansas synchronize around double-if logic for consistent results, though this may be inefficient.

Faster JSP with caching (Page last updated May 2001, Added 2001-05-21, Author Serge Knystautas, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: The (open source) OSCache tag library provides fast in-memory caching. Cache pages or page sections for a set length of time, rather than update the page (section) with each request. Caching can give a trade-off between memory usage and CPU usage, especially if done per-session. This trade-off must be balanced correctly for optimal performance. Scaling web services (Page last updated June 2001, Added 2001-07-20, Author Simeon Simeonov, Publisher XML Developers Journal). Tips: Use bigger, better, faster hardware, but there is a limit to the scalability of Essay example, a single server: most application performance does not scale linearly with increases in kansas experiment, the hardware power. Use more than one server in a cluster that services requests as if it were a single server using: OS-level clustering (OS level built in failover mechanisms); Software load balancing (using a loda-balancing front-end dispatcher); Hardware load balancing (e.g.

DNS round-robin to The American Revolution: The different servers). Experiment. A basic load-balancing scheme is achievable by sending documents with different binding addresses (differnent URL hosts) Use faster communication protocols (e.g. The American The Battle Of Many. plain sockets) Support asynchronous request processing message based interactions. Multithreaded Swing Applications (Page last updated September 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author Monica Pawlan, Publisher Sun). Tips: Use the kansas, SwingUtilities.invokeAndWait() and SwingUtilities.invokeLater() methods to put code on the GUI eventr queue. Spawn threads for long operations so that the user does not get a blocked GUI.

Timers and low-level GUI display effects (Page last updated September 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author Roman Bialach, Publisher Micro Java). Tips: You need a scheduling mechanism to perform animation, scrolling, updating the about technology, display, etc. The paint() method on the Canvas is called by the system only if it thinks that it needs to repaint it. So we need another timer to repaint the screen on a regular basis. Use a timer to periodically call repaint(). Architecting and experiment, Designing Scalable, Multitier Systems (Page last updated August 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author Michael Minh Nguyen, Publisher Java Report).

Tips: Separate the The American The Battle, UI controller logic from the servlet business logic, and kansas, let the controllers be mobile so they can execute on the client if possible. Validate data as close to the data entry point as possible, preferably on the client. This reduces the network and server load. Business workflow rules should be on the server (or further back than the front-end). You can use invisible applets in a browser to giacomo rizzolatti validate data on the client. Sun community discussion on Optimizing Entity Beans with Akara Sucharitakul (Page last updated June 2001, Added 2001-07-20, Author Edward Ort, Publisher Sun).

Tips: Prepared SQL statements get compiled in experiment, the database only once, future invocations do not recompile them. The result of The Battle of Many, this is a decrease in the database load, and kansas, an increase in performance of up to 5x. Container Managed Persistence (CMP) can provide 2-3x better performance than Bean Managed Persistence (BMP). Optimizing dynamic web pages (Page last updated July 2001, Added 2001-07-20, Author Helen Thomas, Publisher Java Developers Journal). Giacomo. Tips: Dynamic generation of web pages is more resource intensive than delivering static web pages, and can cause serious performance problems. Kansas. Dynamic web page generation incurs overheads from: accessing persistent and/or remote resources/storage; data formatting; resource contention; JVM garbage collection; and script execution overheads. Essay On Talkin’ The 60s Generation. Dynamic content caching tries to mitigate Dynamic web page generation overheads by reusing content that has already been generated to service a request. JSP cache tagging solutions allow page and fragment level JSP output to experiment be automatically cached.

On highly personalized sites page-level caching results in low cache hit rates since each page instance is unique to a user. Component-level caching applies more extensively when components are reused in many pages, but requires manual identification of raped porn, bottleneck components. J2ME apps, with a discussion of the needs to kansas experiment balance performance (Page last updated June 2001, Added 2001-07-20, Author Glenn Coates, Publisher Java Developers Journal). Tips: J2ME devices have limited processing power, so performance is important and giacomo, must be considered for the target device. JIT compiled or natively compiled code is preferred, but may be unobtainable because of memory resource or deployment considerations.

JVM Interpreters have a significantly lower memory overhead compared to JIT/HotSpot JVMs, but are much slower. Selectively compiled code might provide a good compromise of speed and memory if deployment considerations allow. The application does not need to be lightning fast in order to have a responsive user interface. Experiment. The perception of speed is important, for example, the and Prejudice example, user interface should give immediate feedback. JVM slection for the J2ME device is pivotal to achieving the required performance. Compared to desktop environments, embedded systems typically have: lower memory availability; less processing power; user Interface restrictions; reduced communication bandwidth or unreliable connections; battery power; higher reliability requirements; lack of a file system. Tuning JVMs for servers. (Page last updated February 2002, Added 2002-03-25, Author Timothy Dyck, Publisher E-Week).

Tips: Multiple JVMs are often available for kansas experiment, a particular platform. Choose the JVM that best suits your needs. Rizzolatti. The test here found setting min and max heaps to the same value provided the best performance. Limiting each Sun 1.3 JVM to kansas using two CPUs (test used multiple JVMs and Essay on Talkin’ Generation, 6 CPUs) provided a 30% reduction in experiment, CPU usage. IBM JVMs did not require (or benefit from) this optimization. Data compression (Page last updated December 2001, Added 2001-12-26, Author Tony Sintes, Publisher JavaWorld).

Tips: [Article covers how to The American The Essay add zip compression to RMI communications]. Creating Web-based, interactive graphics. (Page last updated December 2001, Added 2001-12-26, Author Steve Lloyd, Publisher DevX). Tips: If an applet parameter's [tags in the webpage] length is too long, the Web page's responsiveness begins to bog down. Move all but the essential parameters from the APPLET tag to kansas a dedicated HTTP link between the applet and the servlet. This allows page loading and applet initialization to occur at the same time over separate connections. Close java.sql.Statements when finished with. Inverting booleans (Page last updated February 2002, Added 2002-03-25, Author Heinz M. Kabutz, Publisher Kabutz). Tips: The fastest way to invert a boolean is to raped porn XOR it (bool ^= true). Be careful when making performance measurements with HotSpot because the optimizing compiler can kick in to adjust results. The Proxy design pattern. (Page last updated February 2002, Added 2002-03-25, Author David Geary, Publisher JavaWorld).

Tips: Creating images is expensive. ImageIcon instances create their images when they are constructed. If an application creates many large images at kansas, once, it could cause a significant performance hit. If the on Talkin’ Generation, application does not use all of its images, it's wasteful to create them upfront. Using a proxy, you can delay image loading until the image is required. The Proxy pattern often instantiates its real object, the Decorator pattern (which can also use proxy objects) rarely does. The java.lang.reflect package provides three classes to support the Proxy and kansas experiment, Decorator patterns: Proxy, Method, and seamus, InvocationHandler. Stateful vs Stateless EJBs (Page last updated May 2001, Added 2001-05-21, Author Chuck Caveness, Doug Pardee, Publisher IT World). Tips: Stateless session beans can support multiple clients, thus increasing scalability.

Webservices SOAP communications overheads (Page last updated January 2002, Added 2002-02-22, Author Leigh Dodds, Publisher XML). Tips: Generating XML produces a large amount of kansas experiment, data during communications, but this does not mean that the communication will be the bottleneck. Webservices have all the same limitations of every other remote procedure calling (RPC) methodology. Requiring synchronous communications across a WAN is a heavy overhead regardless of the protocol. Giacomo Rizzolatti. If Web services tend to be chatty, with lots of little round trips and a subtle statefulness between individual communications, they will be slow. That's a function of failing to realize that the API call model isn't well-suited to building communicating applications where caller and callee are separated by a medium (networks!) with variable and unconstrained performance characteristics/latency. Asynchronous messaging may be required for kansas experiment, efficient webservices.

Sun community chat session on Threading and The American Revolution: Battle, Concurrency in the Java Platform with Thomas Christopher and George Thiruvathukal (Page last updated January 2001, Added 2001-02-21, Author Edward Ort, Publisher Sun). Tips: If memory is at experiment, a premium, the cost of allocating a Thread object and allocating a stack can be expensive. If there are real-time considerations, you do not have any scheduling and performance guarantees for threads. Be careful about the number of threads you create: too many and you can exhaust your memory: too few and giacomo, you don't get the experiment, advantages of parallelism. Use javax.swing.SwingUtilities.invokeLater() [java.awt.EventQueue.invokeLater()] to schedule work onto the awt thread. Basic article on a minimal ArrayList implementation, from a micro-Java slant (Page last updated March 2001, Added 2001-04-20, Author Lee Miles, Publisher Micro Java).

Tips: ArrayLists are the fastest SDK collection class. Essay On Talkin’ The 60s. System.arraycopy provides an kansas experiment efficient method for copying arrays. You should request garbage collection whenever elements are dereferenced (e.g. the blackberry picking seamus heaney, list is cleared). Precompiling JSPs (Page last updated July 2002, Added 2002-07-24, Author Steve Mueller, Scot Weber, Publisher Weblogic Developers Journal). Tips: Precompile your JSPs one way or another to avoid the first user having a slow experience. High performance inserts with DB2 and JDBC (Page last updated April 2002, Added 2002-07-24, Author Krishnakumar Pooloth, Publisher IBM). Kansas Experiment. Tips: Use SQLJ to get the use of buffered inserts, and rizzolatti, modify the code generated from SQLJ to reuse the RTStatement object. Optimizing StringBuffer usage (Page last updated May 2001, Added 2001-05-21, Author Glen McCluskey, Publisher Sun). Tips: Pre-size the StringBuffer to the expected result String size where possible. Customized high-speed, fine-grained access control (Page last updated September 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author Wally Flint, Publisher JavaWorld). Kansas. Tips: [Article discusses an Access control pattern which has no performance penalty].

Connection Pooling with JRun (Page last updated June 2001, Added 2001-08-20, Author Karl Moss, Publisher Allaire). Blackberry Seamus Heaney. Tips: Establishing an initial connection is one of the experiment, most expensive database operations. Blackberry Picking Seamus Heaney. Use a pool of connections that are ready and waiting for use to minimize the connection overhead. Connection pooling is one of the experiment, largest performance improvements available for applications which are database intensive. Connections should timeout if not used within a certain time period, to reduce unnecessary overheads. About The 60s Generation. Initial and kansas experiment, maximum pool sizes provide further mechanisms for fine-tuning the pool. JDBC 2.0 supports connection pooling, though a particular driver may or may not use the support. If pooling is supported by the driver, it is probably more efficient than a proprietary pooling mechanism since it can leverage database specific features. Some IBM Java performance tips. Although intended for AS/400 Java, many tips are generally applicable (Page last updated ?, Added 2000-10-23, Author ?, Publisher IBM).

Tips: Minimize the use of synchronized methods. Use the raped porn, -O javac option. Minimize object creation, reuse objects. Use StringBuffers or char[] arrays to kansas experiment minimize the number of String objects created. Use faster accesses. Accesses from rizzolatti fastest to slowest: local variable; instance variable: accessor method in-lined; accessor method; synchronized accessor method.

Minimize the experiment, use of created exceptions. Use static final when creating constants. Use Prepared Statements. Blackberry. Store character data in DB2 as Unicode, numeric data as float. Monitoring Networked Applications (Page last updated March 2002, Added 2002-04-26, Author Russ Currie, Publisher Message MQ). Tips: Use network probes to break down how the network is being used by the various networked applications on it.

Deciding whether EJB is appropriate. (Page last updated September 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author Ed Roman, Publisher The Server Side). Tips: An HTTP layer is experiment, not always necessary. Connecting directly to Revolution: Essay EJBs is faster and provides automatic load balancing. Tips on using XSLT (Page last updated August 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author Eric M. Kansas Experiment. Burke, Publisher O'Reilly). Raped Porn. Tips: XSLT transformations are CPU memory intensive, so cache results wherever possible.

Examples include stylesheets; mainly static XML data (cache the transformation result). Rambling discussion of building J.Crew website, in experiment, Chapter 3 of J2EE Technology in Practice (Page last updated September 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Authors Dao Ren, Dr. Raped Porn. Rick Cattell and Jim Inscore, Publisher Sun). Experiment. Tips: Use database connection pooling Cache Database Requests [Statistics useful for comparison if you are building a business enterprise site: The architecture can handle 8,000 concurrent user sessions; 85 dynamic page views a second; 250,000 unique daily visitors; 8 million hits a day; 1 to 2 second average response time]. Converting booleans to strings. (Page last updated November 2001, Added 2001-11-27, Author Tony Sintes, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: Use String.valueOf(bool) to seamus heaney convert booleans to kansas strings. Generating integer random numbers (Page last updated September 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author John Zukowski, Publisher Sun). Essay About. Tips: [Article explains why ways of generating random integers produces skewed results. Important for correctly simulating a variety of things].

Tuning tips intended for kansas, Sun's Web Server product, but actually generally applicable. (Page last updated 1999, Added 2000-10-23, Author ? - a Sun document, Publisher Aikido). Tips: Use more server threads if multiple connections have high latency. Use keep-alive sockets for higher throughput. Increase server listen queues for high load or high latency servers. Avoid or reduce logging. Buffer logging output: use less than one real output per log. Heaney. Avoid reverse DNS lookups. Write time stamps rather than formatted date-times. Separate paging and application files. A high VM heap size may result in paging, but could avoid some garbage collections. Occasional very long GCs makes the VM hang for experiment, that time, leading to variability in Pride and Prejudice Essay example, service quality.

Doing GC fairly often and avoiding paging is more efficient. Experiment. Security checks consume CPU resources. You will get better performance if you can turn security checking off. Research paper on high performance Java. (Page last updated 1999, Added 2000-10-23, Author Sandeep K. The American Revolution: The Of Many. Singhal, Publisher IBM). Kansas. Tips: Use local variables as a first choice for essay technology, manipulating data. Rewrite the loop test so that it uses a comparison to kansas experiment 0. The 60s Generation. Avoid synchronization where possible. Reuse and pool objects.

Avoid throwing exceptions ( not avoid using try-catch blocks). Build specialized classes, don't rely on the general-purpose (but slow) core SDK library. Use a zip archive to download classes. Experiment. (Page last updated 1997, Added 2000-10-23, Author John D. Mitchell, Publisher JavaWorld). Blackberry Heaney. Tips: Use a zip archive to download classes. JMS CORBA (Page last updated December 2001, Added 2001-12-26, Author Steve Trythall, Publisher OnJava). Tips: Asynchronous messaging is a proven communication model for developing large-scale, distributed enterprise integration solutions. Messaging provides more scalability because senders and kansas experiment, receivers of raped porn, messages are decoupled and are no longer required to execute in lockstep. Wrapping PreparedStatement (Page last updated January 2002, Added 2002-02-22, Author Bob Byron and Troy Thompson, Publisher JavaWorld).

Tips: With Statement, the same SQL statement with different parameters must be recompiled by the database each time. Kansas Experiment. But PreparedStatements can be parametrized, and these do not need to be recompiled by the database for use with different parameters. [Article discusses a PreparedStatement wrapper class useful for debugging.] String to double (Page last updated September 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author Tony Sintes, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: Use Double.parseDouble() instead of Double.valueOf(aString).doublevalue() . Tutorial on non-blocking socket I/O available from JDK 1.4 (Page last updated September 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author Tim Burns, Publisher Owl Mountain). Tips: [No tips, and giacomo rizzolatti, a rather haphazard tutorial but beggars can't be choosers]. Sun community chat session with Bill Shannon, Kevin Osborn, and Jim Glennon on JavaMail (Page last updated December 2000, Added 2001-01-19, Author Edward Ort, Publisher Sun). Tips: You might see a performance increase by using multiple connections to your mail server.

You would need to kansas experiment get multiple Transport objects and and Prejudice, call connect and sendMessage on kansas, each of raped porn, them, using multiple threads (one per kansas, connection) in your application. The 60s. JavaMail 1.2 includes the kansas, ability to set timeouts for the initial connection attempt to the server. JavaMail tries to allow you to make good and efficient use of the The American The of Many, IMAP protocol. Fetch profiles are one technique to allow you to kansas experiment get batches of information from the server all at once, instead of single pieces on demand. Used properly, this can make quite a difference in your performance. Optimizing recursive methods (Page last updated June 2001, Added 2001-06-18, Author Eric E. Allen, Publisher IBM). Tips: Try to convert recursive methods into The American Battle of Many, tail-recursive methods. Kansas Experiment. You can test if a particular JIT is able to convert tail-recursive into loops with a dummy tail-recursive method which never terminates.

If the JVM crashes because of technology, stack overflow, no conversion is done (if the conversion is managed, the JVM loops and never terminates). Kansas. The HotSpot JVM with the 1.3 release does not convert tail-recursive methods into Pride, loops. The IBM JVM with the kansas experiment, 1.3 release does. Java collections (Page last updated June 2001, Added 2001-06-18, Author Richard G. Essay About The 60s Generation. Baldwin, Publisher EarthWeb). Tips: Choose the right structure for the right job. ArrayList may be faster than TreeSet for some operations, but ArrayList.contains() requires a linear search (as do other list structures) while TreeSet.contains() is a simple hashed lookup, so the latter is much faster. The facade pattern for internationalization (Page last updated October 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author David Gallardo, Publisher Java Developers Journal). Tips: If multiple strings will be compared using internationalized comparison, use (and reuse) CollationKeys to manage the kansas, comparisons during sorting. Computational planning and scheduling problem solving (not performance tuning) (Page last updated June 2001, Added 2001-06-18, Author Irvin Lustig, Publisher Java Developers Journal). Tips: [Article introduces the solving of planning and scheduling problems in The American Battle of Many, Java]

Various tips. For web servers? (Page last updated 2000, Added 2000-10-23, Author ?, Publisher ?). Tips: Test multiple VMs. Tune the heap and stack sizes [by trial and error], using your system memory as a guide to upper limits. Keep the system file cache large. [OS/Product tuning, not Java] Compression uses significant system resources. Kansas. Don't use it on a server unless necessary. Monitor thread utilization. Increase the number of threads if all are heavily used; reduce the number of threads if many are idle.

Empirically test for the optimal number of database connections. Optimizing padded string display (Page last updated June 2002, Added 2002-07-24, Author Gervase Gallant, Publisher JavaZoid). Tips: Avoid copying individual string characters. Use the same underlying char array, by raped porn, using methods like String.substring(). Runtime.exec() pitfalls (Page last updated December 2000, Added 2002-07-24, Author Michael C. Daconta, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: Runtime.waitFor blocks until the spawned process terminates. Avoid blocking the Java thread because the spawned process is waiting on I/O. Make sure you read and write the spawned process's I/O as required. A worked example of experiment, optimizing Lava Rocks Java Printf. (Page last updated 1999, Added 2000-10-23, Author ?, Publisher SharkySoft). Tips: When adding multiple items to a collection, add them all in blackberry heaney, one call if possible.

Avoid creating multiple objects where they can be replaced by one object referred to many times. Avoid repeatedly executing a parse [or other constant expression] in a loop when the execution can be achieved once outside the loop. Call more complex underlying methods instead of simpler wrapping methods. JMS redelivery (Page last updated March 2002, Added 2002-03-25, Author Prakash Malani, Publisher JavaWorld). Kansas. Tips: Both auto mode (Session.AUTO_ACKNOWLEDGE) and duplicate delivery mode (Session.DUPS_OK_ACKNOWLEDGE) guarantee delivery of messages, but duplicate okay mode can have a higher throughput, at the cost of the occasionally duplicated message. The redelivery count should be specified to avoid messages being redelivered indefinitely. Java I/O tutorial by Elliotte Rusty Harold (author of O'Reilly's Java I/O book). (Page last updated November 2000, Added 2001-01-19, Author Elliotte Rusty Harold, Publisher IBiblio). Technology. Tips: Sometimes output streams are buffered by the operating system for performance. The flush() method forces the data to be written whether or not the buffer is kansas experiment, full. This is Generation, not the same as the buffering performed by kansas experiment, a BufferedOutputStream. That buffering is essay about, handled by the Java runtime.

This buffering is at the native OS level. However, a call to flush() should empty both buffers It's more efficient to kansas read multiple bytes at a time, i.e use read(byte[]) rather than read(). The best size for raped porn, the buffer is highly platform dependent and generally related to the block size of the disk, at kansas, least for file streams. Less than 512 bytes is essay about, probably too little and kansas experiment, more than 4096 bytes is probably too much. Ideally you want an integral multiple of the block size of the disk. However, you should use smaller buffer sizes for unreliable network connections. iPlanet Web Server guide to servlets, with a section at blackberry seamus, the end on Maximizing Servlet Performance. (Page last updated July 2000, Added 2001-02-21, Author ?, Publisher Sun). Tips: Try to optimize the servlet loading mechanism, e.g. by listing the servlet first in experiment, loading configurations. Raped Porn. Tune the kansas, heap size. Keep the classpath short. Paul Tyma's article on low level Java optimizations. (Page last updated 1996, Added 2000-10-23, Author Paul Tyma, Publisher Dr.

Dobb's). Tips: Speed up the most-used code, such as highly iterated loops and popularly called methods. int is faster than long Performance of code that is heavily dependent upon system API calls is giacomo rizzolatti, largely out of your hands. Create classes that support primitive data types directly, rather than having to wrap the kansas experiment, data, e.g. Giacomo. a Stack class that directly stores int s. Kansas Experiment. Inline code. Raped Porn. Declare methods as static or private to allow inlining. Kansas. Apply code motion (eliminating redundant calculations).

Improving applet download time by installing the giacomo, applet on the client. (Page last updated 1997, Added 2000-10-23, Author Mark Roulo, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: Store your applet on the client machine so that applet download time is absolutely minimal. This is not worth doing for really small applets. Sun community chat on iPlanet (Page last updated November 2001, Added 2001-12-26, Author Edward Ort, Publisher Sun). Tips: Optimal result caching (caching pages which have been generated) needs tuning, especially the experiment, timeout setting. Make sure the timeout is not too short. Developing Scalable Distributed Applications (Page last updated August 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author Mario A. Raped Porn. Torres, Publisher Dr. Kansas Experiment. Dobb's). Tips: Use interfaces. Technology. Alot.

Inner classes (Page last updated August 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author Tony Sintes, Publisher JavaWorld). Experiment. Tips: Nonstatic member classes must maintain a reference to the enclosing instance, which adds overhead, so use static inner classes where no acces is need to the enclosing instance. Basic performance tuning intro (Page last updated March 2000, Added 2001-03-21, Author Reggie Hutcherson, Publisher JavaWorld). Tips: Use a JIT-enabled JVM or HotSpot. JyLog logger (Page last updated December 2001, Added 2001-12-26, Author Sanjay Dahiya, Publisher JavaWorld). And Prejudice. Tips: Using JyLog (which uses the JPDA) slows down the JVM executuion time: use standard logging, not JyLog, for deployed applications. Using Timers (java.util.Timer) (Page last updated April 2001, Added 2001-04-20, Author Eric Giguere, Publisher Sun). Experiment. Tips: Timers provide a simple mechanism for repeatedly executing a task at a set interval [with simplicity being the keyword here. Don't look for giacomo, anything sophisticated like thread interrupt control]. Article on experiment, high availability architecture. If the system isn't up when you need it, its not performing. (Page last updated November 1998, Added 2000-10-23, Author Sam Wong, Publisher Sun).

Tips: Eliminate all potential single-points-of-failure, basically with redundancy and Revolution: The of Many, automatic fail-over. Consider using the kansas experiment, redundant components to giacomo improve performance, with a component failure causing decreased performance rather system failure. Another use StringBuffer instead of '+' tip. (Page last updated Jul 1999, Added 2000-10-23, Author Real Gagnon, Publisher EarthWeb). Tips: use StringBuffer instead of '+'. Tuning the SPECjbb2000 Java specmark. (Page last updated 2000, Added 2000-10-23, Author ?, Publisher SPEC). Kansas Experiment. Tips: Use Java profilers (-prof, -Xrunhprof) to determine the routines most heavily used. Having extra stuff in CLASSPATH can degrade performance on some JVMs. Microsoft discussion about csharp garbage collection (the Java clone unsurprisingly has similar issues) (Page last updated October 2001, Added 2001-10-22, Author Brian Harry, Publisher Harry). Tips: [No performance tips here. But a fascinating discussion about all the thought that has gone in to csharp GC, only to result in a what already exists in Java]. Sun system (not Java) profiling with Sun WorkShop. (Page last updated 1998, Added 2000-10-23, Author ?, Publisher Sun).

Tips: Select the right combination of compiler options, optimized libraries, and coding techniques. Compiler optimizations: common subexpression elimination; loop-invariant hoisting; strength reduction; dead and redundant code elimination; loop pipelining/unrolling; instruction scheduling; inlining; code motion; profile feedback; tail recursion elimination; loop parallelization; loop interchange; loop fusion (combining loops to technology reduce overhead). Experiment. Cache blocking: a technique that increases the cache-hit rates of the program by increasing the reuse of the data present in the cache. (Page last updated , Added 2002-10-30, Author , Publisher ). Tips: x.

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Writing Better University Essays/Common essay problems. By following the approach of essay writing outlined in kansas experiment this book, you can avoid a whole range of very common essay problems: Unstructured: Many essays are not structured, which makes them difficult for on Talkin’ the markers to read. Without structure, reading an essay is like a discovery journey: your marker will never be sure what is experiment, around the corner. This might sound appealing, but youre not writing a thriller. Your marker will have difficulty to see whether and how what you write is raped porn, relevant to the question set. Following the advice in this book, you can avoid this problem by outlining at the beginning how youre going to answer the question ( delimit ). Your reader will know what is coming up.

The section on the main body includes a few other points to make sure your essays are structured. Kansas Experiment! Rambling: The problem of rambling is often just a symptom of the above problem: lack of structure. By thinking in a structured way, tendencies to ramble are reduced. Following a reasonable form of preparation will also help (see the section on preparation). Once you know what youre going to say, and in what order youre going to Essay About the 60s say it, its much easier to stay on track. Experiment! Not relevant: Unfortunately many essays that are written are as such great essays, but include substantive sections that are not relevant.

The problem may be that not enough time is spent planning the essay. It may also be the case, that the irrelevant bits merely appear to be irrelevant. The trick in the latter case is to link the paragraphs using suitable phrases, and actively demonstrate how the illustrations are relevant, for instance. Essay About! Unconnected: For the same reasons as in the above point, essays may be or appear unconnected. A good plan can be the first line of defence: making sure that you yourself know how the different bits link. The next thing to do, again, is kansas experiment, using phrases that connect different paragraphs and sections. Make sure that you write down how things link, because your marker will not usually be able to read your mind. On Talkin’ About The 60s Generation! Unclear: An essay can be well put together, and the reader still be left unclear about what exactly is being said. The problem is in kansas experiment most cases the lack of delimitation and rizzolatti, definition . This means that the essay does not state what is and is not written about, and also that key terms are not defined. Much unclarity can stem from misunderstandings, the reader understanding terms in a different way from kansas experiment, what you intended them to mean.

What is clear to you may not be so for the marker. Making sure its down on paper, this problem can be prevented. Difficult: Essays that are difficult to read often suffer from picking seamus, one of the following symptoms: lack of illustrations, lack of conceptual clarity, or lack of guidance. Illustrations are not a nice to kansas have, but an essential part of most essays. Think about the examples when you plan the raped porn essay. Conceptual clarity can be remedied by providing definitions, as outlined in the previous point. The lack of guidance means that your readers will feel lost, not knowing where the essay will go next. Providing a clear introduction that delimits the scope of the answer is sometimes all that is kansas, needed. Within the main body, linking sections and paragraphs helps further. The most common problem, probably, is students failing to answer the question.

By paying attention to the process and content words, the first part of the problem is already resolved. Writing in a planned and structured way, the remainder is addressed, too. By following the outlined approach to essay writing, your answers will be focused on the questions set. In this section I try to outline what differentiates good from raped porn, very good essays. Kansas! In addition to a clear structure and a relevant argument, your markers will look for conceptual clarity and consistency. You can achieve this by taking care to delimit your answer, and define key terms in raped porn a way that is relevant to your answer. A good general definition of globalization will not be as useful as one geared towards how globalization affects local consumption patterns, for kansas example. Your examiners will also look for technology critical engagement. Constantly ask yourself how important an argument is.

Use different theoretical perspectives (for example functionalism, Marxism, feminism, psychoanalysis) and think about how these help understand the problem. Chances are that some theoretical perspectives have very little to kansas experiment say on your particular question. A critical engagement will mean that youre clear and explicit about the limits of argument. Markers look out for statements like that X is important, but only in certain areas of life, or that Y is important but only when considered together with other concepts, or that Z is Essay example, not as important as X and Y. Essays with top grades identify and challenge where appropriate the assumption implicit in a question. The common essay question of provocative statement plus discuss invites you to think about the ideological, philosophical, or theoretical assumptions behind such a statement. A question may actually be the wrong question to ask if youre approaching the experiment answer from a feminist point of view, rather than a Marxist one, for example. Look out for counter-claims and examine their merit.

A top essay will have a clear and The of Many, systematic structure. Ideally, at any one point your readers will know where they are, and why they are there. In practice this means that youll be clear about kansas what you want to write before you start, and that you organize your thoughts in a coherent manner. The different sections are thus linked in a way obvious both to you and your reader. Exploring all possibilities is another way to get top grades. This means that youll be aware of the different approaches, but essentially, youll need to evaluate their usefulness.

Its not just a matter of applying a great number of perspectives, but maybe more importantly one of choosing and selecting which of those carry forward the argument most. This normally involves the rejection of some of the possibilities. A great essay will make these choices, but also demonstrate why these choices are the blackberry seamus heaney right ones. Top-grade essays are also clear about the relevance of kansas experiment, what is written. In a paragraph, you not only giacomo list the different aspects, for example, and then give an appropriate example. In addition, markers look for a few sentences on the importance of what was just written. Kansas! This can usually be achieved by linking it back to the question, or other underlying debates.

Where your course uses course themes , its almost always possible to use these as links. In their feedback, markers often use the phrase engaging with the question to refer to this aspect. In most cases when youre given an essay to write, there is a word limit stated. A word limit is raped porn, simply an indication how many words you should not exceed in kansas experiment your essay. Pride And Prejudice Essay Example! Sometimes instead a number of pages is given. Word limits exist for a number of reasons. First of all, writing to length is considered a desirable skill. Secondly, having a limit is experiment, a way to ensure that you select the most relevant bits. Blackberry Picking Heaney! Skills of selection are sought after outside of academia, too. Thirdly, word limits give an kansas experiment indication to you as the writer of what is expected from you. You should always try as hard as you can not to exceed the giacomo rizzolatti word limit.

They are called limits after all, not indications. The most powerful of reasons is kansas experiment, probably that you might be penalized. Moreover, keeping to word limits is raped porn, part of good practice, nice on your readers, and a sign that you possess certain skills. Many institutions practise a formal or informal 10% tolerance. This means that for a 2000 words essay youll not be penalized unless exceeding 2200 words. Its essential that you check, and make sure you check with someone in an adequate position. Staying within the limits is the easier and safer option.

Being limits, youll not be penalized for writing less than the indicated length. However, writing less than you could means that you choose not to experiment take the opportunities given to develop the argument as much as you can. Its for blackberry picking seamus heaney this reason that you might get lower marks. This means, that if you have significantly less than the indicated word limit, you should take some time considering why this is the experiment case. Giacomo! Its not necessarily a bad sign, but usually means that you could develop the argument further, or that there are no illustrations to bring the essay alive. In either case, your marker will be likely to experiment comment on this. Planning your essay is the best way to The American The Battle of Many stay within the limits.

When drawing up the outline, I always spend a moment thinking about how many words I want to allocate to each section. This not only helps me staying within the word limit, but more importantly, maybe, is the plan for experiment a balanced answer. On Talkin’! By planning to kansas experiment write the same amount on two contrasting views, for example, its unlikely that I write three quarters of the essay on one side only. This is the case, because were conscious of the essay structure when we plan it. During the process of writing the essay, you can monitor your progress by checking the number of words in your current section. Planning and checking section by on Talkin’, section will prevent you from panicking when looking at the overall word count.

If you go over, or run out with much to spare, flag the section. Maybe youll have an kansas experiment additional idea later on in the day, maybe your plan was not realistic, or maybe you mentioned a point in another section. Technology! By having the sections flagged, its easier to remedy the length of the essay once completed. Sometimes there is confusion over what counts as words. Kansas! Words are what you write, and giacomo, usually footnotes and appendices are not counted. However, word processors often count these, too. Kansas! In any case, do check what counts towards the word limit in the 60s your institution or course.

Some institutions count graphs (the amount of text that is covered by their space), but this is uncommon. Technically, references dont count towards the word count. If they did, this would encourage sloppy referencing. Kansas Experiment! Therefore, if your institution insists on counting references as words, (please) make a case for good referencing. The list of references at the end of the essay is not included in and Prejudice Essay example any case. In practice, your markers are very unlikely to check, especially when you submit your essay in printed form. Its for reasons like this that many institutions allow you an extra 10%. Kansas! These extra words are about as much as you need for good in-text referencing. For the same reasons, the length of essays is frequently limited in number of pages. Do check the format expected, such as double-spacing.

In any case, you should strive to giacomo rizzolatti keep within the word limit, because this is expected from kansas experiment, you. The grading of essays is always in relation to what could be said within the and Prejudice Essay example limits stated, not what possibly ever could be said about kansas experiment it. The skills of selection and summarizing are widely recognized, and many markers are very keen on these. Without word limits, why not hand in the reading list and let the marker make up his or her own mind? Surely all the raped porn relevant points would be covered It would be foolish to claim that a short book could be the definite guide to writing essays.

Of course it is not. There are a number of good books that can help you to develop your academic writing skills. Experiment! Alternatively, consult your language centre for Revolution: Battle of Many specialist courses on academic writing. Do ask for help, because otherwise you might not get the kansas support you deserve (and probably already have paid for as part of your course fees). There are books on writing that go into much greater detail than this small book. Ask your bookshop or library about what is available, and have a good look what is Revolution: of Many, covered in experiment the book. Books on essay writing in general will never offer you as much advice as those focusing on giacomo rizzolatti specific aspects of writing. Everyone has different needs, and a book focusing on the areas of essay writing youre particularly good at will probably not help you as much as another. Feedback from kansas, previous essays may help you find out what areas you want to improve. For technical details, you might need a good dictionary. If English is Generation, not your first language, get hold of kansas, a dictionary written for learners of English, such as the Essay on Talkin’ About Generation Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary (Hornby, 2005) or the Cambridge Advanced Learners Dictionary (Woodford, 2005).

These dictionaries were specifically written with the needs of non-natives in mindincluding those very fluent in English. The definitions in such dictionaries dont use very difficult language, and there are many examples. Experiment! In fact, many native speakers find such advanced learners dictionaries useful, too. The choice of grammar books is about technology, vast, and you should pick one you feel comfortable with. Kansas! Just as with dictionaries, if youre not a native speaker, look around in the section for English as a Foreign Language. Michael Swans English Usage (1995), for example, is both approachable and comprehensive. Many students do without grammar books, because realistically, we never have the time to check these obscure rules. Similarly, there are authoritative books on the style of giacomo, your documents, such as The Oxford Style Manual (Ritter, 2003). Harts rules (Ritter, 2005) are often considered authoritative, but often go far beyond the scope of kansas experiment, general essay writing. The book is more suitable in determining the conventional order of appendices, for essay about example.

For normal essays these books are far too comprehensive, and your markers are likely to be unfamiliar with all the details. For advice on kansas experiment writing style, there are a great number of Pride Essay, books available. Again, check your bookshop or library. Some books focus on the choice of the right word, others on experiment different aspects of style. Note that different books give different stylistic advice. Giacomo! If you dont want to splash out on a good book, you could do worse than bookmark Paul Brians page on common English mistakes (2006).

This free and useful guide can come in very handy when in experiment doubt (see reference at Essay the 60s Generation the end for URL).