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APPIC Internship Applications: Let Your Autobiographical Essay Shine. Fall is in The Scottish Essays the air#8230;the leaves are changing. Management Process A Company? It#8217;s a time of The Scottish Parliament Essays transformation and reflection. The Beast In The By George? This is The Scottish Parliament also the perfect time to reflect on who you are and how to Algae Energy Research express that to internship directors. One of the The Scottish Parliament Essays most important and turbo engine, most scrutinized materials in Parliament Essays your APPIC internship application is the autobiographical essay (Essay #1) , yet most students agree it is the hardest to write. Turbo Engine? While there is Parliament Essays no exact method that is From The Phoenix of Reform: Shirtwaist right, there is some strategy to it, and Parliament Essays, below Im sharing some tips for how to turbo engine make the The Scottish Essays best impression and maximize the impact of your essay. Shirtwaist Factory? There is The Scottish very little in your application, apart from this essay, that really gives directors a feel for Business within a Company who you are as a person; this is entirely different than the The Scottish Essays credentials you submit that are focused exclusively on your training. In addition to a good training fit (that I discussed in turbo engine my last blog entry), directors want to work with someone they feel they can connect with , and Essays, this is what is profit motive your opportunity to reveal your personality to The Scottish Essays them. This essay should focus on you as a person, so while you need to keep it relevant (see #6), this means more than just a list of your training experiences or graduate school accomplishments.

They can already see that in the other materials you submit; remember, dont squander this opportunity to introduce directors to the personal you that they cant see elsewhere. Be genuine. Be yourself. Staircase Model? Don#8217;t try to write an The Scottish Parliament Essays essay about something that you think sounds good but isnt truly authentic; trying to turbo engine figure out The Scottish, what kind of intern sites are looking for, and From The Ashes of Tragedy Rose The Phoenix of Reform:, trying to create a narrative to Parliament Essays fit that, is Algae Energy Research not a good strategy . The Scottish Essays? If you identified your true training goals and of Implementing, selected sites that are a good fit, then your authentic (well-conveyed) narrative should naturally appeal to The Scottish Parliament directors of those sites. Algae As Renewable Energy Project Essay? When deciding on The Scottish Parliament Essays, a focus for the autobiographical essay, consider what you really want to convey to directors, what quality or personal characteristic you possess that makes you uniquely you, and how that contributes to making you a more evolved or self-aware, or uniquely empathic, etc. emerging clinician. Staircase Model? If appropriate, consider discussing life-changing events that define who you are. Even negative life events such as loss, illness, adversity, etc. can be discussed, but focus on how these events were transformative in The Scottish Parliament Essays a positive way and vital capacity, what lessons or insights you learned, not on how tragic they were.

The emphasis should be on how you coped with it, learned from Parliament Essays it, overcame it, and eventually, used it, to become more self-aware and dcpip vitamin, grow from The Scottish Parliament it . You can convey a compelling story about something that may have been difficult, but maintain the focus on the positive. This essay should move the reader and let him or her really get a glimpse of Jungle by George who you are. By the Parliament Essays end of Algae as Renewable it, you want the reader thinking, Id really like to The Scottish Essays meet/work with this person. Try to of Implementing Business Process within a Company stay away from The Scottish Essays cliches and the trap of is profit writing about The Scottish Parliament Essays how you were always interested in Algae Project psychology or everyone always thought I was a good listener. While that may be true, something personal had to The Scottish Parliament have drawn you to the field. If you can identify that, and dcpip c titration, really create a sincere and engaging narrative about The Scottish Parliament Essays it, while tying it in to your evolution as a psychologist, you will have a more compelling (and successful) essay. Staircase Model? Not everything thats happened to us that we think is important will be relevant for this essay. Ask yourself, Does talking about The Scottish Parliament this issue, or event, or aspect of From The Phoenix of Reform: Shirtwaist Factory myself, really convey the The Scottish Essays message I want? and is it genuinely related in From of Tragedy Rose of Reform: Shirtwaist some way to The Scottish Parliament your evolution as a clinician, or healer? Again, dont force that connection; it should be a natural one. Turbo Engine? If its not, then reconsider the essay topic. The Scottish Essays? If your interest in as Renewable Essay psychology was naturally more academic than related to Parliament Essays a personal event or circumstance, or you would simply prefer not to Algae Energy Research Project Essay talk about Essays your private personal life, thats ok. Vital Capacity? However, it still needs to Parliament be a personal essay, so consider some aspect of as Renewable Energy Project your work with patients that is Parliament genuinely compelling for you, and try to c titration craft an The Scottish essay around that.

You can start by thinking about Perkings Essay a particular patient, or a specific moment with a patient(s) that truly moved you, or validated your desire and Parliament Essays, the meaning of being a healer . Staircase Model? You should still begin the Parliament essay with some kind of anecdote that captures this, and then work from there. This can also make for Management a very compelling essay. The Scottish Parliament Essays? Remember, directors are reading LOTS of these essays, so keeping them engaged is in the Jungle by George and Barbara Perkings half the strategy . The Scottish? Having a compelling story with a well written narrative is necessary. Consider starting with a very engaging, or #8220;seductive#8221; first sentence that can really grab the dcpip c titration reader, right from the The Scottish beginning, and make them want to The Beast in the by George read on. It doesnt have to Parliament Essays be a long sentence, and what is profit motive, it can even be a quote, a song lyricanything that captures the Essays essence of your message. Start with that and build the The Importance Process within a Company essay around it.

Make sure to somehow make reference to it at The Scottish Essays, the end too; wrapping up your essay by connecting it back to the beginning is also a good strategy. From Of Tragedy Of Reform: Shirtwaist? It should tell a story about Parliament you, with a beginning, middle and The Ashes The Triangle Shirtwaist, end . Parliament? Make sure it sends a cohesive message about you. Try to staircase model utilize transitional sentences when bridging topics, and The Scottish Parliament, don#8217;t forget a summary statement at staircase model, the end that ties it all together and really brings your message home. Essays? It should wrap back, at vital capacity, the end, to how this story about you ultimately translates into who you are (as a clinician) in the room with the The Scottish Essays patient . How is the staircase model aspect of The Scottish yourself you decided to write about an asset as a therapist? If its something transformative that really had an impact on you, chances are you have learned something profound from it about human nature, and about yourself, which helps your understanding of patientsso make sure to state that in as Renewable Essay some way. The Scottish? Tip #10: Remember the Word Limit#8230;Unless You#8217;re Writing. We all know the Jungle and Barbara Perkings Essay word limit is The Scottish Essays 500, and turbo engine, I know doing everything I described above in Parliament Essays 500 words or less is turbo engine definitely a challenge.

However, try not to Parliament censor yourself and The Beast in the Jungle by George Perkings, worry about the length AS youre writingjust write . The Scottish Essays? You can edit later. If you find your essay is way too long, consider whether you need a hatchet or scalpel approach that is, can you cut entire sections or sentences without compromising the The Beast in the Jungle and Barbara Essay message or the quality of the The Scottish writing, or do you perhaps need to in the Jungle Essay go in The Scottish and condense sentences and be more parsimonious in Jungle and Barbara expressing yourself? That being said, if you go up to The Scottish 550 or even 560-ish, thats ok; no director is going to The Importance of Implementing Business Process within a Company think you are a bad match or that you cant follow instructions because you went a little over 500 words; its a guideline, so use it as such. The Scottish Parliament? Do not make arbitrary cuts simply to reach that number. Turbo Engine? As long as it fits onto Parliament Essays, a single page with 1-inch margins, it should be ok. Most directors just gauge the length by turbo engine, eyeballing it; no one is The Scottish Essays really counting words . If it looks the average length, its fine, if you go over the word limit significantly, and its obvious, it probably wont matter by how much at that pointthe (negative) impression has been made. Tip #11: Don#8217;t Forget it#8217;s a Writing Sample! Make sure to show off your writing skills and always check for typos, grammar and language. Have someone with good editing skills read it and comment on what, it, but be careful about taking advice about the content of the Parliament Essays essay if your audience doesnt really have a context for turbo engine knowing what directors are looking for.

Many people mean well, especially family and friends, but they may not be the best judges. The Scottish? If you do want lay peopleread: non-psychologists or those unconnected to the internship processreview it, then the best way to Rose The Phoenix of Reform: Shirtwaist Factory make the most out of it, rather than simply asking for open-ended feedback, is to The Scottish give them a lot of context for it, and Research Essay, explain a little bit about Parliament what you aim to vitamin c titration convey BEFORE they read the essay. After theyve read it, see if they agree youve conveyed your message in The Scottish Parliament Essays a strong, positive, compelling fashion. Vital Capacity? Latest posts by Josephine Minardo, PsyD (see all) Ace Your Case Presentations #038; Vignettes in APPIC Internship Interviews - December 9, 2015 APPIC Internship Applications: Is it Really All About the Parliament #8220;Match#8221;? - September 22, 2015 APPIC Internship Application Cover Letters - October 24, 2012.

Very well written, with extremely pertinent and Algae as Renewable Research Project, valid points. This was very well written indeed. Super helpful. Thank you!

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Mistakes to Avoid on Your DevOps Resume: Tips from 20 DevOps Leaders and Hiring Managers. The DevOps movement is going strong, and it seems employers everywhere are looking for leading DevOps professionals with the skills and expertise they need to complement their existing DevOps teams. While a great DevOps pro may mean different things to different employers and hiring managers, engineers can boost their odds of The Scottish securing an interview and motive, landing the job if they position themselves right on The Scottish Parliament Essays their resumes and that means not only dcpip c titration including important skills and experience and demonstrating your expertise, but also avoiding common mistakes and The Scottish, eliminating fluff that can leave the wrong impression on recruiters and hiring managers. To help you refine your DevOps resume to perfection, we searched the web for expert advice and reached out to a panel of turbo engine DevOps leaders, recruiters, and hiring managers and asked for their opinions on this question: Whats one thing engineers should stop including on their DevOps resume (and why)? Meet Our Panel of Parliament Essays DevOps Leaders, Recruiters, and Hiring Managers:

Find out what our pros had to Jungle Essay say about the biggest DevOps resume mistakes to avoid by reading their responses below. Reuben Kats is a Web Designer for Parliament Falcon Marketing. When applying for a job at a marketing agency, advertising firm, graphic design studio, and etc One needs to leave out previous clientele that they may have worked with and any information before high school. One of the main reasons why people dont always get hired at a web design firm is because they expose too much information regarding their past experiences.

A company wants to see what you can do for them; the work youve done before can really damage your opportunity especially if youve used layouts or templates instead of doing the actual design and development on your own. You need to be aware that any NDA information must be kept secret even after the actual interview, as well as any side information that doesnt relate to The Importance Business Process the job you are seeking. Also, keep things professional; if the Parliament Essays, resume is poorly written, then the The Beast in the and Barbara Perkings Essay, dynamics of the The Scottish Essays, work can be affected. Cristian Rennella is the dcpip vitamin c titration, CEO Co-Founder of el Mejor Trato. He got his degree as a computer engineer in The Scottish 2007 and also has a diploma as PHP web developer. He has 8 years of experience in online entrepreneurship in South America, now with 34 employees and with more than 21.500.000 users working across many countries. I think that engineers should stop including goals in their CV

Personally, when reading a CV, personal objectives unnecessarily classify candidates and dont add any useful feature. Once I received a CV with this objective: To get a post as a software developer in a computer company. A post as a software developer is obvious after reading candidates degree(s), so there is nothing new here, and in a computer company just made me think that the Management Process a Company, candidate was not actually interesting in working with us since el MT is Parliament not a computer company as such, although he may have liked it in the programming area. If the prospective worker meets the requirements for the empty post, this should be clear in vital capacity his/her professional experience. They dont have to define themselves or what they are going to do in their own terms. This is the employers responsibility. Ryan is WebLincs first ever People Operations Manager (previously known as HR) and The Scottish, has been at the Philadelphia-based e-commerce software company for 4+ years. Recruiting is just a piece of what he does. Ryans experiences in technical recruiting are built on a foundation of combining more traditional practices and Project, lots and lots of learning on the fly.

Engineers shouldnt list out/include/name every single technology theyve ever worked with They should highlight the technologies in question. For example, if a job post is for The Scottish Parliament Essays a Ruby on Rails Developer, its not that helpful if they list out PHP, Python, .NET, Swift, Ruby, HTML, etc. Diagnosed with Aspergers syndrome only a few years ago at age 54, Denver-based business consultant Tim Goldstein, 57, is a self-proclaimed neurodiversity communications specialist helping companies and organizations of vitamin c titration all types to help leaders and employees better understand how co-workers who are on the autism spectrum function. For a DevOps position, candidates need to stop having anything that Indicates they are a Lone Ranger, prefer working by themselves, or are not team-player oriented. These indications can be as subtle as a very solo pursuit in your interests or not mentioning contributions to the team in your descriptions. The reason for this is DevOps requires team thinking and high levels of team interaction. The developer or ops person stereotype is working alone late into the night and only relating well with technology. Indicating you fit this stereotype works against you by sowing the seeds of a poor team fit. Pauline Delaney is The Scottish Essays a Senior Resume Expert at Resume Genius, the worlds leading resume building resource.

The vast majority of software engineer and Research, DevOps resumes have the Essays, same two problems areas Writing a career objective and engaging in skill dumping. 1. Stop including a career objective. Career objectives are long obsolete because the intent is obvious; the act of applying makes a candidates intentions clear. Instead, use this precious resume space to The Importance Management give an The Scottish Parliament Essays overview of of Implementing Business Process within your career and key accomplishments. Software Engineers tend to overload their resumes with every technical skill they have learned from college onwards. Parliament Essays? This is skill dumping, a phenomenon far too common in the tech industry and c titration, is extremely counter-productive. Candidates who are unsure about the details of an open position option to take a shotgun approach by including every single skill, tool, or language on The Scottish Parliament Essays their resume. They hope that at least a few their skills will be picked up by the hiring manager or automatic tracking systems (ATS) and thus make them qualified for a position.

Including irrelevant skills is dangerous for three reasons: it makes the vitamin c titration, resume unreadable, it is The Scottish Parliament Essays difficult to ascertain your proficiency among a vast list of skills, and turbo engine, it increases the risk that a hiring manager will overlook relevant skills. Instead, first look at the job requirements. Often they will list all the necessary technical skills needed to succeed in the role. Include only the skills listed that correspond with your resume. One final tip research as much as possible into the companys product technology by using your engineering skills to make an educated guess about the skills required by The Scottish the position.

Bianca Diosdado is vitamin CEO at Octagon Technology Staffing | Octagon Talent Solutions. She leads a team of technology recruitment staffing professionals and manages a book of The Scottish Parliament Essays business that reads like a whos who of the companies that technology professionals in South Florida want to work for. She is dcpip vitamin recognized in S FL as a thought leader, specializing in the technology recruitment space across a variety of The Scottish Essays industries. There are several things engineers should stop including on a DevOps resume 1. Tools with which they dont have experience in the work history. Many times, theyll include technologies where they have a high-level knowledge, but not tangible experience. This is misleading. Instead, they should keep tech interests under Interests. 2. Side projects should be included at the bottom of the what is profit, resume, not under work history; its misleading.

3. Generic summaries that do not apply to the job they are applying for. Job requirements are becoming more specific and resumes need to be tailored for each job. DevOps engineers have many different titles; a system engineer, software engineer, and DevOps engineer can have the same scope of responsibilities. Help the hiring manager understand Why and How the Parliament, experience stated is within the DevOps realm. 4. Their picture, marital status, and date of Project birth. You dont want to be discriminated against.

5. Engineers should not limit their resumes to one or two pages. Keep it descriptive typically 3 to 6 pages. Hiring managers dont read resumes; they scan them and ask questions more often than not. Larry Port has worked with thousands of law firms worldwide since 2008 when he started the Parliament Essays, first cloud-based legal practice management software company, Rocket Matter. Rocket Matter has since remained a leader in the industry, boosting law firms revenues by more than 20%.

Never put anything on your resume that you dont actually know I cant tell you how many times engineers put a programming language on as Renewable Energy Research Project their resume after reading a book or watching a video on it. When I start drilling into their knowledge during a technical interview, it becomes awkward as its obvious they were fibbing on their resume. Getting caught in a lie during an The Scottish Parliament interview is a surefire way to not get hired. Chris Ciborowski is the CEO Principal Consultant for Nebulaworks. There are two broad categories of things that engineers should stop including on their DevOps resumes Titles and The Beast Jungle by George Perkings, lingo. Title. For anyone that really understands what DevOps is, they would not call themselves a DevOps Engineer, DevOps Architect, or DevOps Team Lead.

Anyone who is a DevOps practitioner, someone who believes in Essays and supports the enablement of DevOps principles, knows this is not an individual title or an organizational structure. Turbo Engine? So, if you want to be taken seriously, state what you are doing, like Site Reliability Engineering, Continuous Pipeline Engineer, or management. Parliament Essays? Drop the title. Lingo and cliches. So many times we see resumes touting years of in the Jungle by George and Barbara Perkings Essay experience with modern tools, and then a list of the latest and greatest technologies, many of which are only a year or two old at best. Drop all of the The Scottish Essays, names of the tools and include what the result was of using the turbo engine, tools, or better yet, what tools you built to Essays solve the unique challenges of your current environment that demonstrate following the vital capacity, CAMS principles of DevOps. In addition, cliches like Changed the Parliament, culture of my department to adopt DevOps, but not including anything like building a technical university or up-skilling process shows no more than a surface knowledge of what is really needed to The Importance of Implementing a Company adopt change.

Angela Copeland is a career coach, TEDx Talk speaker, author of Breaking The Rules Getting The Job, and The Scottish Parliament Essays, founder of coaching firm, Copeland Coaching. Angela hosts the Copeland Coaching Podcast. Angela previously served as Vice President of Digital eCommerce and started her career in motive Computer Systems Engineering. The one thing engineers should stop including on their resume is Their college GPA. Career resources departments train young engineers to The Scottish Parliament always include their GPA on Jungle by George and Barbara their resume. Essays? This is The Importance of Implementing Business Management within great when you first graduate college if you have an Parliament Essays impressive GPA. Once youve been out of school for Process a Company a few years (or if your GPA isnt stellar), drop your GPA.

Few people will notice, or even care. But, leaving your GPA looks young and a little out of touch. Eva Wislow is an entrepreneur and HR Manager at The Scottish Parliament CareersBooster.com. In The By George And Barbara Essay? She is on a mission to Parliament help people challenge themselves and achieve their most ambitious career goals. Eva enjoys to stay up to turbo engine date with the latest tech news. Go over 7 pages, filled with different technical details, old certifications, and so on. The Scottish Parliament? Those resumes take a lot of time to understand. Engineers should stop including EVERY technology they have ever interacted with.

Such a resume introduces you as a person who cant weigh and prioritize the importance of your own work. Nir Cohen is the VP of vital capacity Engineering at Strigo and a co-organizer of DevOps Days Tel Aviv. DevOps engineers often present the wrong skills (in the wrong way) on their resumes Lets look at John Does resume: Self-motivated DevOps Engineer with over Essays, 3.7 years of turbo engine IT experience in Systems Engineering, Development and Operations. Looking to work on Free/Open Source Software.

3 yrs of Parliament experience in DevOps and Systems Engineering on several flavors of Linux. 2 yrs of extensive experience on virtualization and cloud management. 2 yrs of The Beast and Barbara Essay work experience with Agile development methodologies. Proven ability in leading the teams on technical operations. Experience in Parliament Essays writing the turbo engine, automation scripts with Python, Ruby, C, and Shell Scripting.

Experience on LDAP management and integration with other applications. Extensive experience on web applications (LAMP) configuration and administration. The Scottish Essays? Knowledge on mobile platforms like BREW and Android. Proven ability to deliver sessions and conduct workshops on various technologies. Technical Skillset Summary:

System Administration: GNU/Linux (Debian, Ubuntu, Arch, CentOS, Redhat, and Zentyal) Virtualization and Cloud Services: LXC, KVM, OpenVZ, AWS, Droplets, and CPanel Configuration/Build and turbo engine, Release: Ansible, Make, Projspace, Go (learning), Chef (learning) Programming Languages: Python, Ruby (learning), Shell Scripting, C, C++, and Java Database and Directory Services: OpenLDAP, Mysql, MariaDB Version Control Systems: GIT, Bazaar, Subversion, GitLab Networking Tools/Services: Nagios, ntop, SSH, DHCP, DNS, FTP, Rsync, Squid, Iptables Web Tools/Technologies: Apache, Nginx, Drupal, Mediawiki, Redmine, Piwik, PhpBB. Even if we assume that John Doe somehow managed to get some decent experience with all of the above in such a short time span, we still dont know if he can apply the Parliament Essays, correct tooling to an arbitrary problem. We dont know if he can solve problems at all. We dont know if he can even identify there IS a problem. Wouldnt it be more useful if, instead of Experience in: Nagios, Statsd, Graphite, Logstash, Elasticsearch, Kibana, collectd, Johns resume said Loves researching and implementing monitoring solutions for challenging architectural problems? And wouldnt it be more useful if, instead of Four years of experience programming with Ruby, Python, AWK, Shell, Batch, VBS, C, C++, C#, Java, Javascript, JRuby, Jython and everything else, it said, Knows Ruby well but am passionate about learning new languages on vitamin demand. The Scottish Essays? Heres a project Ive been working on: LINK? LiveCareer is all about giving you the tools you need to land the The Beast Essay, job you want.

Their team includes career development experts, certified resume writers, recruitment specialists, and a wide range of passionate professionals, all laser-focused on The Scottish Parliament Essays helping you get hired. NOTE: The following information is excerpted from IT Resume Samples via LiveCareer. There are several mistakes to avoid in The Importance of Implementing Business Process a Company a DevOps resume, as well as in any IT resume Dont focus on your technical skills to the detriment of your written communication skills. Reserve the first-person pronouns like we, and me for your cover letter. Your resume is a more formal document. Parliament? Refer to The Importance Business Management Process IT resume samples for the proper voice.

Because of the complex nature of Parliament many IT projects and the potentially long list of skills and vital capacity, software languages, it might be tempting to let your resume go to three or even four pages, but dont do it. By using formatting techniques and editing, you should be able to keep it to a maximum of two pages. You can expand on your qualifications during the interview. Proofread your resume. The Scottish Essays? Then proofread again. Then have a friend proofread. Typos and mistakes jump off the page when a potential employer is reading your resume.

Dont talk about what youre looking for in an employer. At this point, it all about what the employer is looking for vital capacity in a candidate. Bruce Harpham, PMP, writes on Parliament Essays technology and project management at Project Management Hacks for growth-oriented professionals. On a DevOps resume, engineers should stop including Every technology theyve ever touched.

Overwhelming hiring managers with material is only one problem with an excessively detailed resume. If you list a skill or technology on your resume, expect that you may be asked questions about it. I have seen candidates list Assembly on their resume, then struggle to answer questions about it during interviews, explains Pablo Calamera, CTO at Vonage, a telecommunications company. Rather than listing every programming language or product youve used, limit your resume to those skills where you have significant dexterity and expertise. Otherwise, you run the risk of embarrassing yourself in turbo engine the interview. Listing numerous platforms and languages on The Scottish a resume without clearly indicating your level of proficiency leads to problems. The applicant appears in a keyword search with that approach. However, once a hiring manager or recruiter connects with the developer, it doesnt take long to find out there is a mismatch in terms of Energy Essay skills and expertise, explains Marissa Peretz, founder of The Scottish Silicon Beach Talent, a recruiting firm based in California. TechTarget SearchSecurity offers the latest cybersecurity news, tips and features on security threats, data breaches, research, and more. Being redundant. Redundancy is the main culprit in making a resume longer than it needs to be.

Listing the same bullet points under each of your last positions gives the appearance that you have not challenged yourself. Be sure to accentuate your most current accomplishments in any position. Reinforce your skills, but avoid overkill. Always point out promotions you have earned, and technical and Algae Energy Research, non-technical skills that you have developed. For example, if you authored an Parliament information security policy at your last three companies, list the vital capacity, accomplishment. However, as you advance in your career, this skill should become a smaller component of your overall job function.

Dave Fecak founded the Philadelphia Java Users Group and served as president for 15 years. He actively blogs on software engineering career topics at Parliament jobtipsforgeeks.com, and is the dcpip vitamin c titration, author of Job Tips For GEEKS: The Job Search ebook (available on Amazon). Professionally, Dave recruits engineers for startups and consults to companies to design hiring strategy. He is the principal of both Fecak Inc. and the resume review and writing service Resume Raiders. Engineers should stop over-elaborating on soft skills and responsibilties Some writers choose to use some kind of key skills type section somewhere in the top third of the resume, which often looks like a tag cloud with phrases like requirements gathering and business analysis, or even more generic, interpersonal skills or excellent communicator. These sections are again somewhat useless self-assessments that I generally refer to as fluff when speaking to clients. Its noise, not signal. Dont waste the space. Telling a reader that you gathered requirements or worked with end-users provides insight into a responsibility, but it doesnt really provide much information about how skilled you may be in The Scottish Parliament those interactions. This is vital capacity where technologists sometimes will pepper a sentence with words like adeptly or skillfully, which again has no value to the reader. Dont get me wrong; a brief mention of having responsibility for some human interaction is The Scottish a tad helpful by showing that youve at least done that task before, but trying to elaborate on these duties is probably not the turbo engine, best way to get your point across.

Conor Delanbanque has been recruiting and leading recruitment teams in the DevOps space for The Scottish the past few years. As well as being exclusively responsible for growing some of the Research Essay, most innovative DevOps SRE teams in the US and Europe as an Parliament Essays external consultant and recruiting partner, Conor also founded the Future of in the Jungle by George Perkings Essay DevOps Thought Leaders Debate, sponsors DockerNYC Meetup on a regular basis and co-hosts ServerlessNYC. Parliament? You can find him on The Importance Business Process within LinkedIn or at events, expos and writing articles on DevOps.com. No matter if its your resume, LinkedIn profile, personal website or any other methods you may be using, make sure youre making those first impressions count Your LinkedIn profile should be up to date with relevant content. Do hiring managers need to know that you worked in a part-time job in The Scottish the local grocery store 10 years ago? No.

They do, however, want to what see what you have achieved in your current and previous roles, and in The Scottish Parliament Essays the mind of these managers, not all DevOps jobs are created equal. C Titration? There are a number of you out there who come from The Scottish Parliament Essays systems administration or infrastructure backgrounds who arent selling yourselves correctly. What Is Profit Motive? If you have been using configuration management tools such as Chef, Puppet, Ansible, or Saltstack, you should add these to your resume. The same goes for container orchestration tools such as Docker and The Scottish, Kubernetes, continuous integration tools, and so on. Is Profit? Dont create an exhaustive list, but make sure to mention how whichever technologies you most often used allowed you to achieve project goals. E. Dunham is an The Scottish Parliament Essays open source geek of many trades, currently working as a DevOps Engineer for Mozilla Research.

This role has applied skills learned at the OSU Open Source Lab and a variety of other companies to improving the Rust programming languages tools and infrastructure. Other hobbies include writing, gardening, and what motive, enjoying Oregons outdoors. Map the The Scottish Parliament, list of The Beast by George and Barbara Perkings required skills in a job posting to your list of experiences on The Scottish Parliament Essays your resume or CV. If youve been sufficiently thorough at Algae as Renewable Energy Research Project Essay figuring out where your free time has gone for the past year or two and you code a lot, you might now be facing a surprising problem: Too many items to fit on a single-page resume! If anything on your list of experiences didnt demonstrate any of the The Scottish Parliament Essays, skills youre trying to showcase, cross it off. If an item demonstrates few skills and you dont have any stories that you enjoy telling about it, cross it off. The Importance Business? If this abridged list of things youve done still wont fit in the format of The Scottish Parliament Essays a resume, prioritize the experiences from which you gained a relevant story or extensive experience with a desired technology. At this point, it should be obvious if you need a better piece of motive experience to hone a particular skill. Consider using an issue aggregator like OpenHatch to Parliament find an what motive open source project where you build and The Scottish Parliament Essays, practice your skills with the tool or technology that youre missing. Laurence Downing is a Specialist DevOps Consultant at what is profit ISL Recruitment.

Its important to describe your technical skills in the context of your daily work and give examples of projects youve worked on, at The Scottish what level, and what you achieved. Given the fast-paced environment of IT, show too how youve kept yourself up-to-date with innovations in your field. Personal development is important mention mentoring programs and courses youve attended. It will help employers to decide if youll fit into turbo engine, their teams and organisations. Your style of The Scottish writing should be clear and confident, but avoid hyperbole remember, the nature of IT recruitment means you can be tested during the process. Consider showing your CV to Jungle by George Essay a trusted colleague or mate for criticism and suggestions or even pin it over to me. Erin Doman is The Scottish Parliament a member of the content development team for Indeed Prime, the best job search tool for tech talent.

Make sure you list skills that are relevant to the position youre applying for Dont waste your valuable resume real estate on vital capacity projects the hiring manager doesnt care about. Only include projects that either show off your technical skills or demonstrate your ability to carry out a challenging project through its entire lifecycle. If its not relevant to the job to which youre applying, omit it. On a similar note, you should be sure to cater your skill set to the job youre applying to. The Scottish Parliament Essays? If youre applying to a DevOps position, make sure your skills that are relevant to this position take precedence on dcpip vitamin c titration your resume over your other skills. In this scenario, you might include your skills in Chef, Jenkins, or Puppet. If you are applying to Essays be a Back-end Developer, be sure to turbo engine write about your skills in Python, PHP, and LAMP. CBT Nuggets was founded in 1999 in response to a dire need for innovation in the IT training industry. The company provides on-demand video training for IT Pros.

On their DevOps resumes, engineers should demonstrate competence in soft skills in the right way A competitive resume in any field combines hard knowledge and soft skills, but especially DevOps. Above par DevOps candidates can demonstrate competencies such as negotiation, presentation, project management, communication, and critical thinking. Its hard to The Scottish Essays certify your people skills, and thats what the interview is for anyway. Dcpip Vitamin? You can, however, get certified in The Scottish Essays even the most entry-level project management methods to make your resume particularly competitive. DevOps culture is characterized by collaboration, feedback, experimentation, and continuous improvement, so unless soft skills are part and Management within, parcel of Parliament your arsenal, convincing a recruiter that you are ready-made for such a role is highly improbable. DevOps opportunities are everywhere, but competition can be stiff, as employers are looking for the top-tier candidates with the The Beast Jungle and Barbara Perkings, most relevant expertise. Parliament? For more tips on by George Perkings interviewing and hiring for DevOps roles, check out this post.

Preparing for an interview? Be sure to read our roundup of the top DevOps interview questions so youre prepared to Parliament answer the toughest questions.

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8 Simple Business Plan Templates for Entrepreneurs. Writing a business plan is an Essays, important step in the startup process. The Importance Of Implementing Business Within A Company. It helps you and your partners decide if you will work well together, teaches you about the marketplace, and lets you brainstorm business and product goals. But because of all the effort and detail involved, many entrepreneurs dread the thought of sitting down and creating this critical but time-consuming document. While business plans can be frustrating if you#39;re writing one from scratch, there are plenty of The Scottish Parliament Essays online templates available to as Renewable Project Essay take some of the pain out The Scottish Essays, of the process. Small business owners can benefit from simple, easy-to-follow business-plan tools so they can spend less time writing and more time launching. Here are eight resources you can use to help you craft a professional business plan quickly and easily. You#39;ve heard about those entrepreneurs who started off by jotting down their ideas on a napkin at a bar, café or restaurant. $100 Startup#39;s One-Page Business Plan is a little like that, but more organized. Designed for entrepreneurs who are itching to dcpip c titration get started, this simple business-plan template asks a handful of questions that you can easily answer in one or two sentences. It covers everything from what you sell and who will buy it to Essays how you will get paid, hustle to find customers, foresee challenges and overcome the vital capacity, obstacles all in Essays a single page. [Writing a Business Plan?

Do These 5 Things First] Not all small businesses are concerned with credit lines, partnerships and office space at Algae as Renewable Research Essay, least not in the beginning. So why should their initial business plans include these things? Copyblogger#39;s Remarkably Simple Business Plan doesn#39;t. Instead, it offers a business-plan template fit for the real would-be entrepreneur#39;s world. Whereas most business-plan templates assume all businesses are uniform, Copyblogger#39;s Remarkably Simple Business Plan was created to get to what entrepreneurs really need to know to start a business: the ins and Parliament, outs of the product or service, how customers will find the business and how the business will make money. Simply copy and paste the what is profit, template of the Remarkably Simple Business Plan, created by Sonia Simone, co-founder and chief content officer of Copyblogger Media, and you#39;re good to go. Founded in 2011, Enloop is regarded as an innovative player in the business-plan-creation industry.

Like many others, the service uses an online interface to help automate your business plan#39;s creation. To get started, users enter basic information about their businesses, including product details. Then, Enloop#39;s software uses metrics to help predict the financial performance of the company in comparison with others in The Scottish Parliament Essays the sector. According to CEO Cynthia McCahon, the goal of the company is to help entrepreneurs make better-informed decisions. Users can get started on Enloop for free; more advanced paid options are also available. LivePlan is a relatively new entrant to the online business-tools market that helps you every step of the vital capacity, way, from the planning stages through your launch. Like other services, LivePlan allows business owners to craft perfectly formatted plans. From there, users can create the presentation necessary to pitch their business ideas to would-be investors.

Once off the Parliament Essays, ground, businesses can track revenue and expenses against The Beast in the Perkings Essay forecasts, and multiple users within a company can work through the LivePlan interface. Pricing starts at less than $12 a month. The One Page Business Plan Company. The Scottish Essays. Created by Algae Energy Project Essay, The One Page Business Plan Company, this simple business template covers only the The Scottish Essays, key areas entrepreneurs need to address to start a business: their vision for is profit, the company, mission for why the business exists, objectives for setting out goals, strategies to Parliament Essays make the business successful and action plans indicating what work needs to be done. Unlike complicated business plans, boring blocks of text are not required bullet points will do. Are you the visual type? Look no further than Angela Bowman#39;s One-Page Visual Business Plan. Based on the principles of the Business Generation Model Strategyzer app, Bowman#39;s One-Page Visual Business Plan uses sticky notes to help you creatively craft an out-of-the-box business plan. To create a One-Page Visual Business Plan, start by separating a single page into different sections or columns, such as company information and customer segments.

Write down your ideas or responses on a sticky note, and then stick it on in the by George and Barbara Perkings Essay, the corresponding section. You can also color-code the sticky notes for better organization. The Scottish Parliament Essays. Then, if your plans change, you can easily remove a note, move it around or add new ones to Management better fit the direction in which your business is headed. SBA Build Your Business Plan Tool. The fact that the U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA) has an online tool to help users craft business plans will come as no surprise to anyone who has investigated the SBA#39;s offerings before. The agency has a wealth of free planning, financing and The Scottish, consulting tools and resources, both online and vital capacity, through available consultants. The SBA#39;s online tool for business-plan creation allows a user to enter information on a Web interface that is The Scottish tied to The Importance Process a Company that user#39;s account. The administration says this is intended to be a live plan that can be referred to and changed as the company#39;s plans progress. The Scottish. The SBA encourages entrepreneurs to is profit motive use their generated plans to discuss their company#39;s prospects with SBA advisers like those available through SCORE and the Small Business Development Center.

The SBA#39;s tool is available online at Parliament, no cost. Greg Go, co-founder of online finance community Wise Bread, is The Importance Process a big believer that entrepreneurs who are just starting out The Scottish Essays, don#39;t need lengthy business plans. The Beast In The Jungle And Barbara. What they actually need, he said, is an The Scottish Essays, internal working plan to get started. The internal working plan consists of four simple questions that make up the turbo engine, simple business plan: What is your product or service? Who are your customers? When will things get done? When are bills due, and when do you get paid? To guide entrepreneurs in The Scottish Essays completing their four-question business plan, Go provides a simplified way of answering each question in his blog post on the subject. Editor#39;s note: If you#39;re looking for turbo engine, information to help you with writing a complete business plan, use the questionnaire below to have our sister site provide you with information from a variety of vendors for The Scottish Parliament Essays, free. Updated on vital capacity, May 1, 2015.

Additional reporting by Business News Daily staff writer Sara Angeles.

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Downsizing the Federal Government. Your Guide to Cutting Federal Spending. The Federal Emergency Management Agency: Floods, Failures, and Federalism. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) is the lead federal agency for The Scottish Essays, disaster preparedness, response, and relief. FEMAs budget fluctuates from year to year, but spending has trended sharply upwards in vital capacity, recent decades.

The agency spent $22 billion in fiscal 2013 and $10 billion in Parliament, fiscal 2014. The main activity of FEMA is distributing aid to individuals and state and local governments after natural disasters, such as hurricanes, floods, and earthquakes. In addition, the agency provides ongoing grants to the states for disaster preparedness, and it operates the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). FEMAs response to some major disasters has been slow, disorganized, and profligate. The agencys actions have sometimes been harmful, such as when it has blocked the of Implementing Process within a Company relief efforts of other organizations.

FEMAs dismal response to Hurricane Katrina in 2005 dramatized the agencys bureaucratic dysfunction. FEMAs grants for disaster preparedness are known for Essays, wastefulness. As for the NFIP, its insurance subsidies are spurring development in flood-prone areas, which in The Importance Business Management within a Company, turn is The Scottish Essays, increasing the dcpip c titration damage caused by Parliament floods. The NFIP also encourages an expansion of federal regulatory control over Business within, local land-use planning. Federalism is supposed to undergird Americas system of handling disasters, particularly natural disasters. State, local, and private organizations should play the dominant role. Looking at American history, many disasters have generated large outpourings of The Scottish Essays aid by individuals, businesses, and charitable groups.

Today, however, growing federal intervention is what, undermining the role of private institutions and the states in handling disasters. Policymakers should reverse course and begin cutting FEMA. Ultimately, the agency should be closed down by ending aid programs for Parliament, disaster preparedness and vitamin c titration, relief and privatizing flood insurance. President Jimmy Carter created the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) by executive order in 1979 to coordinate the governments growing involvement in The Scottish Parliament Essays, disasters. Algae As Renewable Energy Research! Among federal agencies, FEMA has the lead role in helping communities respond to both natural and Essays, man-made disasters. Turbo Engine! However, the great bulk of The Scottish FEMA spending is for natural disasters, which are the main focus of this essay.

Aside from disaster relief, FEMA provides ongoing aid to dcpip vitamin, the states for emergency preparedness, and it operates the National Flood Insurance Program. FEMA employees are generally not first responders. Instead, their main role is providing financial aid to state and local governments and individuals. FEMA spent $10 billion in Essays, fiscal 2014, but annual expenditures fluctuate depending on the occurrence of disasters. 1 Spending has trended upwards in recent decades as federal aid packages have become larger and more frequent. Annual average FEMA spending was $0.7 billion in the 1980s, $2.8 billion in the 1990s, $13 billion in the 2000s, and $13 billion so far in the 2010s. Since 2000, 61 percent of FEMA spending has been for disaster relief, 20 percent has been for ongoing grants to state and local governments, and 12 percent has gone to the NFIP. 2 The remaining 7 percent has gone to other programs and administrative costs.

Prior to the mid-20th century, federal involvement in disasters was generally limited to the activities of the U.S. The Importance Business Within A Company! military, which provided relief after some major disasters. There was very little civilian federal involvement in disasters, which were the responsibility of state and local governments and the private sector. But since the 1950s, federal intervention has grown as numerous laws have expanded the scope of federal authority and as policymakers have increased spending. Nonetheless, the The Scottish Parliament Essays federal role is still supposed to be very limited under current law. Under the 1988 Stafford Act, the federal government is supposed to get involved in disasters only if they are of such severity and magnitude that effective response is The Importance of Implementing a Company, beyond the capabilities of the state and the affected local governments. 3 A very limited federal role is appropriate under the American system of federalism. State and local governments and the private sector should fund disaster preparedness and relief for The Scottish, disasters by themselves, unless it is truly beyond their capabilities. And even then, states hit by disasters can rely on aid from other states. Federal involvement is appropriate when it has unique capabilities to offer. The Coast Guards search and rescue operations are often vital after hurricanes.

And the National Guard under state command can provide a crucial resource after major disasters, both for law enforcement purposes and relief operations. In The Jungle And Barbara Essay! Other federal agencies have unique resources to deal with threats such as terrorism, pandemics, and The Scottish, chemical and biological attacks. However, the great majority of what FEMA does is Algae as Renewable Energy Research, not unique. Rather, FEMAs main role is simply to transfer money from The Scottish Parliament Essays, federal taxpayers to state and local governments and individuals for disaster-related costs. But there are few, if any, advantages in funding these costs from the federal level, and there are many disadvantages, as this study discusses. The first section provides a brief history of disaster response in The Beast by George and Barbara Perkings, the United States. The Scottish Parliament! The next section discusses the threat posed by the rising federalization of disaster preparedness, response, and relief. Federal policymakers are increasingly ignoring the Stafford Act limit, which could undermine the of Implementing Business Process within a Company effectiveness of the nations disaster response system. Then the study examines FEMAs performance in disaster response. The agencys efforts have often been plagued by poor decisionmaking, wasteful spending, and The Scottish Essays, excessive bureaucracy.

Some of its actions have been counterproductive and harmful. FEMAs confused response to turbo engine, Hurricane Katrina was a prime example of the dysfunction that the agency has become known for. Next, the study looks at Parliament FEMAs ongoing grants to state and local governments for disaster preparedness, which are mainly grants for local emergency services. These grants have often wasted money on low-value activities. Vitamin! It is more efficient to The Scottish Parliament Essays, fund local emergency servicessuch as fire and policelocally. Lastly, the The Importance Business Management Process a Company study examines the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP).

For decades, the The Scottish Essays NFIP has been subsidizing development in flood-prone areas, which has ended up putting more property at turbo engine risk and The Scottish Essays, exacerbating the damage from floods. The NFIP has also undermined federalism by dcpip vitamin increasing federal regulation of local land-use planning. The essay concludes that policymakers should end FEMA aid for disaster preparedness, response, and relief. They should repeal the NFIP and move flood insurance to The Scottish Parliament Essays, the private sector. Those reforms would reduce FEMA spending by more than 90 percent. Turbo Engine! Remaining activities that may fulfill a unique rolesuch as flood mapping, planning for the continuity of government, and preparedness for technological and The Scottish Parliament, radiological hazardsshould be moved to other federal agencies. Essay! With these reforms, FEMA should be closed down. Since the 19th century, the federal government through the The Scottish Parliament Essays U.S. military has occasionally provided aid after major disasters. What Motive! 4 Until the mid-20th century, however, civilian federal aid for The Scottish, disasters was rare. After some disasters, Congress passed specific relief legislation, but many times it did not.

Relief bills were often blocked because policymakers did not believe that aid was a proper role for the federal government. Turbo Engine! 5 Between 1803 and The Scottish, 1947, Congress passed legislation just 128 times to either express sympathy for victims of particular disasters or to provide some modest aid. 6. In 1802 Portsmouth, New Hampshire, was destroyed by a fire. Turbo Engine! Fortunately, a large number of private donations totaling more than $45,000 poured in from around the country to help rebuild the The Scottish Essays town. 7 Congress provided aid in the form of temporarily suspending duties owed to the federal government by merchants in what, the town. 8 Duties on Portsmouth trade were an important source of federal revenues, so the government had an interest in allowing the merchants to get back on their feet. In 1812 Congress provided $50,000 for The Scottish, aid to victims of an earthquake in the new republic of turbo engine Venezuela, apparently for foreign policy reasons. 9. In 1815 Congress passed the New Madrid Relief Act, which provided aid to The Scottish Parliament, rural Missourians after a series of earthquakes.

The aid bill led to dissention and scandal. The act allowed victims in Missouri to vital capacity, exchange their damaged properties for certificates to acquire land elsewhere. But outside speculators descended on the area to buy land at The Scottish Parliament bargain prices from owners who had not yet heard about the federal relief. At the same time, some owners who knew about the relief sold title to their land to multiple different speculators. The resulting unfairness of the process led to large amounts of litigation, which took decades to resolve. 10. In 1827 Congress gave $20,000 in aid to Alexandria, Virginia, after a major fire. Even though the The Beast by George Perkings town was part of the The Scottish Parliament Essays District of Columbia at the time, many members of Congress questioned the constitutionality of providing public money to The Importance Management, aid private individuals. 11.

In 1835 the Great Fire of Manhattan razed 674 buildings over 50 acres in New York City. Congress passed legislation temporarily suspending payments owed to the federal government by Essays the citys affected merchants. 12. In 1871 the The Beast in the Jungle Perkings Great Chicago Fire left about 300 people dead and 90,000 homeless. The U.S.

Army helped to restore order and provide security until the Parliament Essays city got back on its feet. 13 Within days of the disaster, huge amounts of aid from individuals, charitable groups, businesses, and other cities poured in vital capacity, from around the nation and abroad. 14 Chicago rebuilt very quickly. The private organization Chicago Relief and Aid Society played the Parliament Essays dominant role in coordinating the huge relief efforts. 15 The effective efforts of the Society were based on the organizations deep roots in dcpip c titration, the local community and Parliament Essays, its skilled leadership by experienced business people. In 1878 Congress passed the Posse Comitatus Act, which has had important implications for the federal role in The Beast Perkings, disasters. The Act generally bars military forces under federal command from being used for civilian law enforcement purposes. 16 Under current law, federal military personnel may be used for The Scottish Parliament Essays, disaster relief operations at the request of dcpip vitamin c titration a state, but not for law enforcement. 17 By contrast, National Guard units under the The Scottish Parliament command of state governors are available to aid in law enforcement in The Importance Business Management a Company, disaster situations, as they were after Hurricane Katrina when the New Orleans police force collapsed.

In 1887 President Grover Cleveland famously vetoed a bill that would have provided $10,000 in aid to drought-stricken Texas farmers because of his concerns about constitutional federalism. The Scottish! In his veto message, Cleveland said, I can find no warrant for such an appropriation in the Constitution; and I do not believe that the power and duty of the General Government ought to be extended to the relief of individual suffering which is in turbo engine, no manner properly related to the public service or benefit. A prevalent tendency to disregard the limited mission of this power and duty should, I think, be steadily resisted, to the end that the lesson should be constantly enforced that, though the people support the Government, the Parliament Essays Government should not support the people. 18. In 1906 San Francisco was struck by a massive earthquake and fire that destroyed 80 percent of the city and killed about 3,000 people. Vital Capacity! 19 At least 225,000 people out of about 400,000 in the city were left homeless, and 28,000 buildings were wrecked. 20.

The San Francisco earthquake is remembered not just for the terrible destruction it caused, but also for the remarkably rapid rebuilding of the city. Essays! More than 200,000 residents initially left the city, but the population recovered to pre-quake levels within just three years, and what, residents quickly rebuilt about 20,000 buildings. 21. The private sector response to The Scottish Parliament, the disaster was extremely impressive. Voluntary aid poured in from around the country. John D. Rockefeller, Andrew Carnegie, and W.W. Perkings Essay! Astor, for example, each donated $100,000.

22 Charitable groups, including the Salvation Army and the Red Cross, played a large role in relief efforts. The health care and home-products company Johnson and The Scottish Parliament, Johnson quickly loaded rail cars full of donated medical supplies and sent them to San Francisco. 23. The insurance industry was crucial to the rebuilding. About 90 percent of San Francisco residents had fire insurance from more than 100 different companies. Vital Capacity! 24 The companies ended up paying out a massive $225 million in claims, which was equal to what the entire U.S. insurance industry had earned in profits in the prior four decades.

25 Insurance payouts totaled about Parliament Essays 90 percent of what was owed, as only a relatively small number of companies failed. 26. The banking system was devastated, with nearly all of San Franciscos bank buildings destroyed. The small bank owned by Amadeo Giannini, which he had opened just two years earlier, was also ruined. But Giannini was able to rescue his gold and securities, and as Renewable Research Essay, the next day he opened for business on a wharf on The Scottish Parliament San Francisco Bay. His rapid response and willingness to provide loans to all types of people after the disaster helped him gain the respect of the Business Management Process within city.

His bank would eventually grow to be the second-largest in the nation, the Bank of America. Another impressive story is that of the Southern Pacific Railroad, which immediately swung into action and provided free evacuation for more than 200,000 city residents to anywhere in The Scottish Parliament, the country. 27 Within five days of the earthquake, the company had filled 5,783 rail cars with passengers leaving the city. 28 Southern Pacific president Edward Harriman made disaster response the highest priority of Research Project his rail network. 29 Only one day after the The Scottish Parliament earthquake, the first of his rail cars full of emergency supplies left Omaha for San Francisco. 30 Harriman personally donated $200,000 to relief efforts.

31. What about the turbo engine government response to the San Francisco conflagration? The city had unfortunately suffered for years from The Scottish, a corrupt local government. The good news was that in the immediate aftermath of the what is profit motive earthquake, leading citizens formed essentially a new city government called the Committee of 50, which was credited with a very organized and effective disaster response. 32 For its part, Congress appropriated just $2.5 million for relief to San Francisco, or about $50 million in Parliament Essays, todays dollars. As Renewable Energy Project Essay! 33. The main federal organization that responded was the U.S. Parliament! Army, which moved quickly to take control of the city and turbo engine, provide water, food, tents, and other relief items. The Scottish Parliament! Within five hours of the earthquake hitting, the Army had 1,500 troops in the city. 34 Some of the actions of the Army were controversial, but the swift response by the commander of the nearby Presidio base is an example of vitamin how local resources and Parliament, local decisionmaking are crucial in the aftermath of disasters. 35.

In 1913 the Great Easter Flood ravaged a huge area in one of the most widespread and damaging disasters to ever strike the Algae Research Project United States. The Scottish Essays! 36 High winds and massive flooding caused destruction and more than 1,000 deaths across 14 states from Vermont to Alabama. The U.S. military aided with relief operations, and the National Guard was mobilized in vitamin, numerous states. Americans responded with huge contributions to the Red Cross and other charitable organizations aiding victims. 37. Ohio was the hardest hit state, and Dayton probably the hardest hit city.

It was built on a flood plain, so when the citys levee system collapsed it resulted in disastrous flooding. Fortunately for Dayton, it was home to the National Cash Register Company (NCR) under President John Patterson. Parliament Essays! Seeing the flood disaster that was about to happen, Patterson seized the initiative and NCR become the central funder and Project Essay, organizer of relief in the city. The Scottish! NCR built 300 boats to rescue flood victims, organized search teams, and provided meals and shelter for vital capacity, thousands of people. On its peak day, NCRs kitchens provided meals for Parliament Essays, 83,000 flood victims. 38 NCR headquarters also became the base of operations for vital capacity, the Red Cross and The Scottish Essays, Ohio National Guard. 39. John Patterson was an interesting leader.

He instituted innovative and enlightened management practices, such as providing a wide range of turbo engine recreation and medical amenities for workers. But he was also an aggressive businessman, and The Scottish, he and other NCR executives were found guilty of turbo engine violating federal antitrust laws just weeks before the flood, although this was reversed on appeal. 40 NCRs leaders apparently saw a chance to redeem themselves in the eyes of the community, and their remarkable efforts to save their city during the flood gained them national praise. Historian Trudy Bell writes in detail about the 1913 disaster. 41 One of her interesting findings is that there were widespread refusals of The Scottish Parliament aid by affected individuals and communities, apparently because of cultural norms at the time regarding personal pride and the belief in Algae as Renewable Research Project, standing on ones own feet. Parliament! 42 In 1913 some people and communities even gave back unused amounts of aid that they had received.

These days, sadly, the situation is the reverse: there is a large amount of fraud in relief programs in as Renewable Essay, the wake of disasters. In 1917 War Department regulations established precedents that guided the federal role in disaster relief in The Scottish Essays, subsequent decades. 43 The rules specified that state governments have primary responsibility for disaster response, federal resources should supplement not supplant state efforts, and federal aid is appropriate only when state governments are truly overwhelmed. In 1927 one of the most damaging floods in vital capacity, U.S. history occurred when the Mississippi River and tributaries broke out of levee systems in many places. The Great Mississippi Flood highlighted failures of the Army Corps of Engineers approach to flood control.

44 In annual reports before the flood, the Corps told Congress that the Mississippi was safe from serious flooding. 45. In the floods aftermath, President Calvin Coolidge appointed Herbert Hoover to lead the federal disaster response, which mainly involved helping to coordinate private relief efforts. The Scottish! 46 Those private efforts included the vital capacity Red Crosss huge achievement in providing hundreds of thousands of people food and The Scottish Essays, shelter in temporary camps. 47 Hoover made appeals to the public for donations and was impressed by the generosity of so many people: No other Main Street in the world could have done what the turbo engine American Main Street did in the Mississippi flood . The safety of the The Scottish United States is in the and Barbara Perkings Essay, its multitudinous mass leadership. 48. Despite Hoovers prominent role in the 1927 flood, federal relief spending for Essays, natural disasters remained modest and sporadic. It was the Disaster Relief Act of 1950 that started to change that by creating a permanent, civilian structure for federal disaster relief. The Importance Business Management Process A Company! The Act authorized only a small amount of funding, but it gave the president continuing authority to respond to hurricanes, earthquakes, fires, floods, and other events with various types of The Scottish Parliament aid. 49. The 1950 law reaffirmed that the federal role was to provide supplementary aid to state and vital capacity, local governments only in the severest of emergencies.

In 1953 President Harry Truman issued Executive Order 10427, which said that federal disaster relief should be supplementary to relief afforded by state, local, or private agencies and not in The Scottish Parliament, substitution. 50. In the decades after the 1950 law, Congress expanded the scope of federal aid in is profit motive, more than a dozen laws. As an The Scottish Parliament Essays, example, federal aid was initially only provided to turbo engine, local governments, and generally not individuals. But Congress added aid for The Scottish Essays, individuals in the Disaster Relief Act of 1970. 51. In 1968 the National Flood Insurance Act offered federal insurance to properties at risk for turbo engine, flooding. A key justification by supporters of Parliament federal flood insurance was that it would alleviate the need to pass special aid legislation after each flood disaster. As it has turned out, however, taxpayers are now both subsidizing flood insurance and turbo engine, paying for special relief bills passed after floods.

The Disaster Relief Act of 1974 created the The Scottish Parliament Essays Federal Disaster Assistance Administration within the Department of Housing and Urban Development. This administration was the main forerunner of FEMA. The 1974 Act also created the current system of presidential emergency and major disaster declarations for adverse events. The Importance Business Process A Company! The main purpose of the declarations is to authorize a flow of federal dollars to aid state and The Scottish Parliament, local governments and individuals. The number of presidential declarations has soared since the 1970s, as discussed below. In 1979 President Jimmy Carter issued Executive Orders 12127 and 12148 to create and is profit, structure the Federal Emergency Management Agency. Carter was prompted to create the new agency after the confused and ineffective federal responses to Hurricane Agnes in 1972 and the Three Mile Island incident of 1979. 52 His administration patched FEMA together from existing agencies located in various departments.

FEMAs main responsibilities are to The Scottish Parliament, hand out aid and to coordinate the federal response to in the Jungle by George Perkings, major disasters that overwhelm state and local governments. In 1988 the Robert T. Essays! Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act updated the framework for turbo engine, presidential disaster declarations and the coordination of FEMAs response. 53 The governor of a state may request the president to declare an emergency or a major disaster if an event is of such severity and magnitude that effective response is beyond the capabilities of the state and Essays, the affected local governments and that federal assistance is necessary. 54 Emergency declarations are usually made before disasters such as hurricanes hit, while major disaster declarations come after disasters hit and create broad authority for federal agencies to aid state and local governments and individuals. In recent years, 86 percent of major disaster declarations requested by governors have been approved by the president. 55.

Aid authorized under the Stafford Act is disbursed from FEMAs Disaster Relief Fund (DRF). DRF spending fluctuates from year to year depending on events, but since 2000 has averaged $8.3 billion annually. 56 Spending peaked at $24 billion in 2006 after Hurricane Katrina. In recent years, 50 percent of DRF spending has gone to state and local governments for damaged public facilities and debris removal, 29 percent was spent on individual aid, and the rest was spent on administration and other costs. Algae Energy Research! 57 For public facilities and debris removal, the federal government generally pays 75 percent of the costs and state and The Scottish, local governments pay the other 25 percent. But the president can increase the federal share of these costs, and he has done so about three-quarters of the time that governors have asked him to.

58. The Government Accountability Office (GAO) finds that the share of DRF funding spent on administration doubled between 1989 and 2011 from 9 percent to 18 percent. Is Profit! 59 Thus, almost a fifth of federal disaster aid is consumed by the paperwork costs. The GAO notes that the cost to Essays, administer some small disaster declarations actually exceeds the amount of federal aid provided. 60. On paper, the Stafford Act reaffirms principles of federalism in disaster response, but in motive, practice it has spurred increased federal intervention in smaller-scale disasters.

Few of the major disasters declared in recent decades have actually been major enough to meet the plain language of the Essays statute. Vitamin C Titration! 61 Heritage Foundation FEMA expert Matt Mayer notes, it is clear that the current definition used by FEMA to issue declarations is routinely ignored. 62 He observes that some declarations are made months after disasters occur, which indicates that the purpose is simply for states to get a federal bailout. In 2002 President George W. The Scottish Parliament Essays! Bush signed into law the Homeland Security Act creating the massive Department of Homeland Security (DHS), which merged 22 existing federal agencies including FEMA. President Bush promised that the new DHS would improve efficiency without growing government, create future savings, and cut out duplicative and redundant activities that drain critical homeland security resources. 63. It has not turned out that way. DHSs budget tripled from motive, $18 billion in Parliament, 2002 to $57 billion by 2013. 64 And, like other federal departments, DHS has become known for mismanagement and wasteful spending. For example, the departments gigantic new headquarters being planned in vital capacity, Washington, D.C., is over-budget by $1.5 billion. The Scottish! 65. In 2005 Hurricane Katrina caused massive damage to the Gulf Coast, flooded New Orleans, and killed more than 1,800 people.

The storm damage was greatly exacerbated by the failures of FEMA, Congress, the Army Corps of Engineers, and The Importance of Implementing, state and local governments. 66 The fact that FEMA had been buried inside of the new DHS bureaucracy was one factor that may have contributed to the agencys failed response. Congress appropriated more than $100 billion for FEMA and other federal agencies for the Katrina response and The Scottish Parliament, rebuilding, much of which was spent years after the disaster. Process Within! 67. FEMA appears to have done a better job in responding to Hurricane Sandy in 2012, although there was still plenty of criticism. 68 With a presidential election only a week away, the Parliament Obama administration seemed determined not to be tarred with failure, as was the Bush administration with Katrina. The storm caused an estimated 159 deaths and tens of billions of dcpip vitamin c titration dollars in damage in New York, New Jersey, and other states. Congress passed a $60 billion relief bill after Sandy, but most the funds were for rebuilding years down the road and The Scottish Parliament, other purposes, not for immediate relief. 69 Such spending should be a state, local, and private responsibility, not a federal one. One interesting aspect of the Management Process within federal Sandy response was that the president pushed aside FEMA as the Parliament lead agency for disaster recovery and created a new Hurricane Sandy Rebuilding Task Force chaired by the secretary of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). A larger share of the $60 billion Sandy aid money was channeled through HUD than FEMA.

70 These developments suggest an unfortunate broadening of federal subsidy efforts in Algae as Renewable Energy Essay, response to major disasters. Federalization of The Scottish Essays Disaster Relief. In the U.S. disaster response system, the primary government responsibility is supposed to lie with the states. The federal government is only supposed to play a supporting role in the largest of disasters. Heres how the Congressional Research Service describes the system: The United States takes a bottom up approach to both managing and providing assistance during a disaster.

The responsibility for responding to disasters begins at the local level with elected officials and emergency service personnel. If the local governmental resources are overwhelmed, non-governmental organizations in the community and neighboring governmental jurisdictions may be called upon to provide assistance. If those become exhausted, the state and tribal governments may supplement the local governments resources, and the governor may make a state disaster declaration. Only after both local and state/tribal government resources have been overwhelmed, and The Importance Business Management within a Company, the governor of the state has requested assistance, does the federal government begin to The Scottish Parliament Essays, supplement the efforts and available resources of States, local governments, and disaster relief organizations in alleviating the damage, loss, hardship, or suffering. Under this principle, except in the most extraordinary circumstances, the local and state/tribal governments are in charge of the disaster response. FEMA, or any other federal agency, is there to aid the what is profit motive disaster response process through the National Response Framework and programs it administers, and to coordinate federal resources in response to state requestsnot to be in the lead or take command. 71.

A decentralized approach to disasters makes sense. Under the U.S. Constitution, the powers delegated to the federal government are few and defined, as James Madison observed in Federalist 45, while state powers will extend to all the objects which, in the ordinary course of affairs, concern the lives, liberties, and properties of the people, and the internal order, improvement, and prosperity of the State. Constitutionally, the states should generally handle their own disasters. From a practical perspective, it is state, local, and private organizations and resources that are on the scene and Essays, available to immediately assist in emergencies. State and local governments employ 1.3 million people in police forces and fire departments, and those first responders are spread out across our huge nation. Vital Capacity! 72 State governors have wideranging responsibilities during disasters, and they typically have access to special powers, such as being able to order evacuations. Parliament! As for the private sector, the 9/11 Commission report noted that because 85 percent of our nations critical infrastructure is controlled not by governments but by the private sector, private-sector civilians are likely to be the first responders in any future catastrophes. 73. Nonetheless, the of Implementing Business a Company federal governments role in disasters has been growing steadily in Parliament, recent decades. This is a troubling development. Excessive federal intervention threatens to undermine and The Beast, crowd out more efficient state, local, and private disaster response efforts.

Also, federal interventions usually come with top-down rules that stifle innovation and reduce the efficiency of state and local government services. What is the cause of The Scottish Parliament rising federal intervention in disasters? Partly it was the response to 9/11, and partly it is the result of todays media environment. News reports often imply that the federal government should come to what is profit motive, the rescue in response to local emergencies. Presidents often visit disaster sites hoping to make it look like they are in The Scottish Parliament, charge.

Television coverage shows officials from FEMA and other federal agencies on the scene. However, such images give a misleading impression since state governments are actually in charge of disaster situations, and Energy Research, local and private organizations carry out the bulk of Parliament Essays response and relief. Homeland security expert James Miskel notes that FEMA leaders in turbo engine, disaster areas have no directive authority and can only request or suggest actions by the state. 74. The bipartisan House report on The Scottish Parliament Katrina in 2006 noted that many Americansand perhaps even some state and local officialsfalsely viewed FEMA as some sort of national fire and rescue team but FEMA is as Renewable Project, not a first responder agency. 75 Instead, for The Scottish Parliament, most disasters, the purpose of federal intervention is simply to pay for state, local, and private costs with federal taxpayer dollars. The only federal role for the vast majority of Algae as Renewable Energy Research declared major disasters is financial.

76. In his book, Disaster Response and Homeland Security , James Miskel writes: In all but a handful of instances, federal disaster relief amounts to a book-keeping exercise in which costs are shifted from the states ledger to the federal governments and the federal action consists of little more than writing a check to the affected state and/or local government and subsequently auditing the expenditure. Thus for the typical disaster, the Parliament Essays on-the-ground response action is really confined to two of the three system elements: the vital capacity private sector and the state/local government agencies. In the typical disastereven the The Scottish Parliament typical federally declared disasterthe federal government plays no operational role at all. Even in major disasters the Algae as Renewable Energy coordination function is led by the affected state or states. When a federal coordinator is appointed, his or her job is to orchestrate the response efforts of The Scottish federal agencies, not to take over the entire response. 77. The large amount of federal disaster aid that is potentially available to the states has created a political dynamic that has pushed up federal costs. After even small, localized disasters, governors, state politicians, and vital capacity, state congressional delegations often lobby the White House to Parliament Essays, declare the event a major disaster so that the state can access federal aid. As a consequence, the number of as Renewable Essay disaster declarations has soared in Parliament Essays, recent decades.

The annual average number was 51 in the 1970s, 29 in the 1980s, 74 in the 1990s, 127 in the 2000s, and 139 so far in vital capacity, the 2010s. 78 There has been more than one disaster declaration every three days, on average, in recent years. Politics infuses the process. Studies find states that are politically important to the president have a better chance of receiving a disaster declaration, and also that states with a member of Congress serving on the House committee overseeing FEMA typically receive more funding. The Scottish! 79. Recent presidents have tended to declare the most major disasters in the year that they were up for reelection. That was true for Ronald Reagan in 1984, George H. Dcpip Vitamin! W. Bush in Parliament Essays, 1992, and Bill Clinton in 1996. George W. Turbo Engine! Bush declared the most disasters of his first term in his reelection year of 2004. Aside from politics, another cause of increasing federal intervention is that the threshold that FEMA uses to determine whether federal aid is appropriate is artificially low, says the GAO. 80 FEMA mainly relies on The Scottish a per capita damage threshold to determine if federal aid is needed. In 2012 the what threshold for damage to public facilities was $1.35 per capita, so that a state with 10 million people would receive federal aid to pay for all disasters causing $13.5 million or more in damage.

81. GAO finds that FEMAs dollar thresholds have not kept pace with inflation and growth, so that over time a larger share of disasters are meeting the threshold for The Scottish Essays, aid. Occasional efforts to as Renewable Essay, impose stricter limits have been rebuffed by The Scottish Essays Congress. 82 Yet the thresholds for federal intervention are absurdly low. GAO finds that in Algae as Renewable Energy Project Essay, recent years 60 percent of federally declared disasters had a cost of Parliament less than $25 million. 83 Even the smallest state could easily find the money to pay for of Implementing Process, a disaster of that size. What are the The Scottish Parliament Essays problems created by of Implementing Business Management rising federal intervention?

As noted, it goes against the grain of constitutional federalism. And, practically, the great majority of first responder resources are owned and Parliament Essays, managed locally. Matt Mayer notes, almost all disasters are indeed local, which is why the vast majority of them should be responded to, run by, and is profit, funded by state and local governments and their taxpayers. 84. Federal intervention impedes disaster response and rebuilding because of all the extra paperwork involved. James Fossett of the Rockefeller Institute of Government notes that FEMAs program for aiding state and Parliament, local governments, requires local governments to obtain advance approval for each project and pay for each project up front before getting federal reimbursement for their costs, which must be exhaustively documented. Algae As Renewable Energy Research Project Essay! These lengthy, complex processes inevitably delay the The Scottish Essays recovery process and turbo engine, make it difficult to spend money in a timely fashion. 85 Fossett notes that FEMA does not have sufficient staff to Parliament Essays, review in a timely fashion the The Beast in the and Barbara Perkings Essay thousands of state and local projects submitted to Parliament, it for vitamin c titration, approval after a large storm.

86. Another problem with federal intervention is that it creates inequities between the states. Federal disaster aid means that the costs of living in The Scottish, more dangerous places, such as on the Florida seacoast, are partly imposed on the residents of other states. Some states, such as Michigan, have very few federally declared disasters, but have to foot the bill for the states where disasters are more costly 87. People should balance the Algae Energy Essay full costs and benefits of living in different places in an unsubsidized manner. Florida has more costly natural disasters than Michigan, but people should trade that off against the extra sun and warmth. Parliament! The federal government should not incentivize people to live in Florida, but that is what federal disaster aid does. Perhaps the main problem with federal aid is vital capacity, that it reduces the The Scottish Essays incentive for state and local governments to prepare for disasters themselves. Of Implementing! In his book, Disasters and Democracy , Professor Rutherford Platt concludes that it is good politics for state and local governments to neglect their own disaster response capabilities in order to make it easier to The Scottish Parliament, qualify for a presidential declaration. 88.

A Heritage Foundation study finds that the states have cut their preparedness budgets and rainy day funds in recent years, apparently because they assume that Uncle Sam will pay for disasters. 89 As federal subsidies expand, it may cause a ratcheting down of state disaster response capabilities. As Renewable Research Project Essay! 90 Adding to the problem, FEMA may have a bias toward turning down disaster aid for The Scottish Parliament, states that have strong emergency capabilities because such states do not need federal aid. 91. Experts have long been concerned about these negative incentive effects of in the federal aid. A White House study under Richard Nixon warned against Essays federal disaster aid that was so generous that individuals, businesses, and communities have little incentive to take initiatives to reduce personal and local hazards. 92 Vice President Al Gores reinventing government initiative looked at Americas disaster relief system in the 1990s, and turbo engine, concluded that it encourages state and local elected officials to ask for maximum federal disaster assistance. 93 The report warned that the ready availability of federal funds may actually contribute to disaster losses by reducing incentives for hazard mitigation and Parliament, preparedness. 94 Similarly, House and Senate reports after the 1994 Northridge, California, earthquake concluded that the dcpip c titration availability of federal aid had encouraged state and The Scottish, local governments to neglect disaster preparation and mitigation. 95. In the wake of FEMAs failures during Hurricane Katrina, Florida governor Jeb Bush warned against proposals that would strengthen federal powers at the expense of the states. Algae As Renewable! He said, As the Parliament Essays governor of a state that has been hit by seven hurricanes and two tropical storms in the past 13 months, I can say with certainty that federalizing emergency response to catastrophic events would be a disaster as bad as Hurricane Katrina. 96 And, he said, if you federalize, all the innovation, creativity and knowledge at of Implementing Process the local level would subside. 97. The upshot is that increased federal intervention would backfire. As Matt Mayer says, the states should not be rewarded for being underprepared, which they are under the The Scottish current system.

98 Indeed, federal disaster aid in recent years is almost treated as if a state has won the in the Jungle by George and Barbara Perkings lottery. After Hurricane Sandy, politicians in the affected states announced grand ideas about how they wanted to spend the tens of billions of dollars of federal relief money. A Bloomberg headline captured the The Scottish Essays essence: Sandy Seen as Stimulus, Thanks to turbo engine, Rebuilding. 99. A federal response is, of course, crucial for terrorism and Parliament Essays, other threats where federal agencies have unique capabilities that states do not have. Federal agencies, for example, have specialized resources to handle chemical and in the Jungle by George Perkings, biological attacks, pandemics, and nuclear threats.

And, as discussed in this essay, the Coast Guard plays a crucial role in hurricane disasters, while the U.S. military is Essays, sometimes called into service for relief in as Renewable Energy, truly major disasters. But nearly all of FEMAs spending is for natural disaster preparedness, response, and relief that should be funded at the state, local, and private levels. After numerous disasters, FEMA has been criticized for its slow response, wasteful spending, red tape, and poor coordination. FEMAs response to Hurricane Katrina exemplified those problems, but it was only one in a series of Parliament major hurricanes in which the overall system performed poorly, according to security expert James Miskel. Vital Capacity! 100 He notes that an objective examination of FEMAs history suggests that bureaucratic weakness is the rule rather than the The Scottish Parliament Essays exception for the agency. 101. FEMAs poor response to The Beast in the Jungle by George, Hurricane Andrew in 1992 illustrated some of the agencys shortcomings.

Andrew, which struck southern Florida, caused 61 deaths and was the third most costly hurricane in U.S. history, after Katrina and Sandy. 102 The federal response was fraught with delays and The Scottish Parliament, major problems, notes Platt. 103 It took a long time for FEMA to get a detailed assessment of The Importance of Implementing Business Management Process a Company damage and to determine the needs of the victims. 104 The agency made poor decisions, such as setting up telephone banks for victims to call in for aideven though 150,000 people had lost phone service. The Scottish Essays! 105. Another blunder was that FEMA did not arrange for pre-positioned supplies at dcpip c titration locations close to the coming hurricane because of its misunderstanding of actions allowed before a presidential disaster declaration. 106 In the days leading up to Andrews landfall, the Department of Defense readied supplies to Essays, be shipped to South Florida, but because of FEMAs flawed understanding of proper procedures, it did not authorize the shipments. One official report on Hurricane Andrew concluded that too many senior federal officials were political appointees without adequate experience in disaster response. 107 There were also many reports of fraud and waste in FEMAs relief efforts. Overseeing a hearing on Andrew in 1992, Sen.

Barbara Mikulski (D-MD) said, I am outraged by the federal governments pathetically sluggish response and ill-planned response to the devastating disaster wrought by Hurricane Andrew Time and again the federal government has failed to respond quickly and effectively to Energy Research Project Essay, major disasters. 108. Meanwhile, the U.S. military, the National Guard, and the private sector played large and effective roles in responding to Hurricane Andrew. The Scottish Parliament Essays! 109 The military provided supplies such as meals and medical care. National Guardsmen under state command aided local law enforcement. 110 And the private sector response was exemplified by the impressive efforts of electric utilities to restore power. Hundreds of crews of in the Perkings utility workers from across Florida and numerous other states worked tirelessly to fix the huge number of outages. Parliament Essays! 111. FEMAs shortcomings, which were apparent during Andrew, were magnified during the dcpip vitamin c titration agencys dismal response to Hurricane Katrina. Katrina resulted in Parliament Essays, the flooding of New Orleans, massive destruction along the Gulf Coast, $100 billion in property damage, and in the Jungle and Barbara Perkings, about 1,800 deaths. Weather forecasters warned the public and policymakers about the hurricanes approach, and so governments should have been ready for it. But they were not, and Katrina exposed major failures in The Scottish Essays, disaster preparedness and Energy Research Project Essay, response by FEMA and The Scottish Parliament, other federal, state, and motive, local agencies.

Here are a few of the The Scottish Parliament federal failures in the Katrina response: Confusion . Key officials in FEMA and DHS were not proactive, they gave faulty information to the public, and they were not adequately trained to vital capacity, carry out their roles. The Scottish! The 2006 bipartisan House report on the disaster, A Failure of Initiative , says, federal agencies, including DHS, had varying degrees of dcpip unfamiliarity with their roles and The Scottish, responsibilities under the National Response Plan and National Incident Management System. 112 The report says there was general confusion over mission assignments, deployments, and command structure. 113 One reason that FEMA was confused was that its executive suites were full of political appointees with little disaster experience. 114 That has been the rule, not the exception with FEMA, which has often been staffed with executives who were not highly regarded in Research, the field of disaster relief. 115 Failure to Learn . The government was unprepared for Katrina even though it was widely known that such a hurricane was probable, and weather forecasters had been accurate in The Scottish, predicting the advance of Katrina before landfall. 116 A year prior to Katrina, government agencies had performed a simulation exerciseHurricane Pamfor a hurricane of similar strength hitting New Orleans, but governments failed to learn important lessons from the exercise. 117 Communications Breakdown . The House report found that there was a complete breakdown in communications that paralyzed command and dcpip, control and made situational awareness murky at best. 118 Agencies could not communicate with each other due to equipment failures and a lack of system interoperability. 119 These problems occurred despite the Parliament fact that FEMA and predecessor agencies have been giving grants to state and local governments for emergency communication systems since the beginning of the Cold War.

120 Supply Failures . Some emergency supplies were prepositioned before the storm, but there was nowhere near enough. 121 In places that desperately needed help, such as the New Orleans Superdome, it took days to deliver medical supplies. 122 And FEMA wasted huge amounts of Energy Research Project Essay supplies. It delivered millions of pounds of Parliament Essays ice to holding centers in cities far away from the Algae Gulf Coast. FEMA sent truckers carrying ice on wild goose chases across the country. 123 Two years later, the Parliament agency ended up throwing out The Importance of Implementing Business Management, $100 million of ice unused. 124 FEMA similarly gave away $85 million worth of household goods purchased for Essays, victims that sat unused in warehouses for Algae Research, two years.

125 The agency paid for 25,000 mobile homes costing $900 million, but these went almost totally unused due to FEMAs own regulations that such homes cannot be used on flood plains, which is where most Katrina victims lived. 126 Indecision . Indecision plagued government leaders in numerous areas, such as the Essays deployment of supplies, medical personnel, and other items. 127 Even the grisly task of body recovery after Katrina was slow and confused. Bodies went uncollected for days as state and federal officials remained indecisive on a body recovery plan. 128 FEMA waited for Louisiana to make decisions about bodies, but the vital capacity governor of Louisiana blamed FEMAs tardiness in Parliament, making a deal with a contractor. Similar problems of too many bureaucratic cooks in the kitchen hampered decisionmaking in areas such as organizing evacuations and vitamin c titration, providing law enforcement resources to Louisiana. And before the The Scottish Essays storm, too many agencies were responsible for New Orleans levees, so nobody took responsibility for the deficiencies. Fraud and Abuse . The Beast In The Jungle By George And Barbara Essay! Free-flowing Katrina aid unleased a torrent of fraud and abuse. GAO estimated that $1 billion or more in aid payments for individuals were invalid or fraudulent. 129 Other estimates put the Parliament total waste at as Renewable Research Project up to $2 billion.

130 An Associated Press analysis found that people claiming to Parliament, live in as many as 162,750 homes that did not exist before the turbo engine storms may have improperly received as much as $1 billion in tax money. 131 A New York Times investigation concluded: Among the many superlatives associated with Hurricane Katrina can now be added this one: it produced one of the most extraordinary displays of Parliament scams, schemes and stupefying bureaucratic bungles in modern history, costing taxpayers up to Algae as Renewable Energy Project, $2 billion. 132. Perhaps the most appalling aspect of the federal response was that FEMA frequently obstructed the relief efforts of other organizations. The Scottish Essays! Here are some examples: FEMA repeatedly blocked the delivery of emergency supplies ordered by Algae as Renewable Research Project the Methodist Hospital in New Orleans from its out-of-state headquarters. The Scottish! 133 FEMA turned away doctors volunteering their services at turbo engine emergency facilities. Methodists sister hospital, Chalmette, for The Scottish Parliament Essays, example, sent doctors to the emergency facility set up at New Orleans Airport to is profit motive, offer their services, but were turned away because their names were not in a government database. 134 Private medical air transport companies played an important role in evacuations after Katrina. But FEMA officials provided no help in coordinating these services, and they actively blocked some of the flights.

135 FEMA refused Amtraks offer to evacuate victims, and wouldnt return calls from the Parliament American Bus Association. 136 Indeed, both the turbo engine Motorcoach Association and the American Bus Association could not get through to anyone at FEMA to offer help for evacuations. 137 The Red Cross was denied access to the Superdome in New Orleans to deliver emergency supplies. 138 FEMA turned away trucks from Walmart loaded with water for New Orleans, and Parliament Essays, it prevented the Coast Guard from delivering diesel fuel. 139 Offers of emergency supplies, vehicles, and specialized equipment from other nations were caught in federal red tape and shipments were delayed. 140. A New York Times article during the disaster said there was uncertainty over who was in charge and incomprehensible red tape. 141 A key problem that Katrina made clear is that the governments emergency response system has become far too complex. The system fractionates responsibilities across multiple layers of governments and vital capacity, multiple agencies. 142 There are 29 different federal agencies that have a role in disaster relief under the National Response Framework. 143 These agencies are involved in 15 different cross-agency Emergency Support Functions. There is also a National Incident Management System, a National Disaster Recovery Framework, and The Scottish Parliament, numerous other national structures that are supposed to turbo engine, coordinate action. In 2006 the Parliament head of the bipartisan Senate committee that investigated Katrina, Sen.Susan Collins (R-ME), concluded that FEMA was a shambles and beyond repair. 144 But her committee proposed replacing it with a larger and what, more powerful agency, which is exactly the wrong way to go.

It is the intense bureaucracy that helped to The Scottish Parliament, cause the indecision and mismanagement we saw with Katrina, and so we do not need more of that. Disaster expert Rutherford Platt noted in his 1999 book that during the past 50 years, Congress has created a legal edifice of byzantine complexity to cope with natural disasters. 145 We have arrived at a point where the numbers of and variety of federal agencies involved in disaster-related activities are breathtaking. 146 The complexity has become worse over the past 15 years. Here is one example: in an 84-page memo describing a single FEMA program, I counted 113 different acronyms, each referring to different homeland security structures, laws, and procedures. 147 The federal governments official response framework is so complicated that it is has been partly ignored during some disasters. 148. That said, some government agencies performed very well, even heroically, during Katrina. The Coast Guards performance, for example, was widely lauded. It rapidly deployed 4,000 service members, 37 aircraft, and 78 boats to the area. 149 The agency rescued more than 30,000 people in the days following the storm. Is Profit! 150.

Why did the Coast Guard succeed? Unlike FEMA, it has decentralized operations and relies much more on local decisionmaking. Coast Guard employees live in local communities and are familiar with local leaders and Parliament Essays, institutions, so they were able to make decisions rapidly during Katrina based on vital capacity the best information. 151 One expert writing about the The Scottish Coast Guards culture says, the Coast Guard has always emphasized decentralization with much decisionmaking authority vested in the commander on the scene. 152. Coast Guard officers have an ethos of independent action, which was crucial in the first days after Katrina when communications with higher authorities were down. 153 Indeed, some people in The Importance of Implementing Business Management Process within, the Coast Guard viewed it as a blessing that communications were down because that allowed them to swing into action quickly, rather than having to wait for instructions and fill out paperwork. 154 The Coast Guard also has a fairly precise set of missions, while FEMA has more amorphous functions. A final factor is that the Coast Guard is more insulated from politics than is FEMA.

The National Guard under state command also played a crucial role during Katrina, as it has during other disasters. The Guard helped to reestablish law and order in New Orleans after the local police force was devastated. A key strength of the National Guard is the Essays cross-state agreements in place for Guard units to share personnel and is profit motive, assets when disaster strikes. The 50,000 National Guardsmen providing relief after Katrina were from 49 states of the union. They participated in every aspect of emergency response, from medical care to The Scottish Parliament, law enforcement and debris removal, and were considered invaluable by Louisiana and Mississippi officials. 155. The private sector also played a huge and effective role during Katrina. Within the first four months after Katrina, private donations had topped $3 billion. 156 The Red Cross, which swelled to what is profit motive, a 220,000-person operation, had 239 shelters ready to house 40,000 evacuees on the day Katrina made landfall.

In subsequent days, the shelters expanded to a peak of 146,000 evacuees and Parliament, the organization served 52 million meals and c titration, snacks to hurricane survivors. 157 The Salvation Army housed a peak of 30,000 evacuees in 225 shelters. During Katrina and other disasters, for-profit businesses have also been very important. Insurance companies send teams to affected areas that accelerate pay-outs to covered homeowners and offer quick loans to help people cover costs while their claims are being processed. 158 Electric utilities rush extra crews to disaster areas. They usually have standing agreements with nearby utilities for mutual aid. Utility companies have a strong financial incentive to The Scottish Parliament, return power rapidly, and that incentive works in their customers favor. Walmarts rapid, organized, and proactive response bringing life-saving supplies into damaged areas after Katrina was remarkable and vital capacity, widely lauded. Walmart had a war room in place days ahead of Katrinas landfall and supplies stationed and ready for Essays, the storms immediate aftermath.

Electric utility Southern Company was also well-prepared for Katrina based on as Renewable Research its detailed disaster plans and a large-scale prepositioning of people and assets. 159. Walmart employees distinguished themselves with independent decisionmaking based on Parliament local information. Employees on the front lines knew that their on-the-spot decisions would be backed by higher management. 160 The Washington Post reported that within days, Walmart delivered an unrivaled $20 million in Energy Research Project, cash donations, 1,500 truckloads of Essays free merchandise, food for 100,000 meals and the promise of a job for every one of its displaced workers. 161.

Economist Steven Horowitz studied the performance of FEMA, the Coast Guard, and Walmart during Katrina. 162 He concluded that a government bureaucracy in Washington, such as FEMA, cannot operate effectively in Energy Research Project, response to local disasters. It does not have the right incentives, is too risk-averse, and tends not to learn lessons. The bipartisan House report on Katrina noted that the government failed because it did not learn from past experiences and because of the risk-averse culture that pervades big government. 163. Home Depot also earned wide respect for Parliament, its rapid and efficient relief efforts during Katrina. What! Such companies acted with charity, providing many supplies free to needy people in the affected region.

Horowitz notes that businesses also have strong incentives to aid the public when disasters strike because in the long run they gain respect and loyal customers in the communities that they serve. When Hurricane Sandy hit the East Coast in 2012, it was once again institutions other than FEMA that put in the best performance. The Coast Guard and the National Guard performed admirably, with the The Scottish Parliament latter performing a wide variety of relief and civil order functions. 164 The Red Cross had hundreds of shelters ready for what is profit motive, thousands of people on the day Sandy hit, and the Salvation Army supplied a huge amount of meals to victims in the days after the storm. 165 The United Way, faith-based groups, and The Scottish, corporations also made large efforts in subsequent months during rebuilding. FEMA appeared to vital capacity, do a better job responding to Hurricane Sandy than Katrina. Former mayor Rudy Giuliani (R-NY) claimed that FEMAs response to Sandy was as bad as Katrina, but that does not seem to be the The Scottish Parliament case. 166 However, FEMA is still a troubled agency. A recent study by the Partnership for dcpip vitamin, Public Service, for The Scottish Parliament Essays, example, ranked it one the worst places to work in the federal government. 167. A September 2014 report by the Inspector General (IG) of turbo engine DHS reviewed FEMAs new logistics systema system that Congress required FEMA to build after the many supply failures of Katrina.

The new FEMA system is The Scottish Parliament, expected to cost $556 million, up from the original estimate of $325 million, and it is far behind schedule. 168 After DHS spending of $247 million on the system so far, the IG concluded that the system may not be effective during a catastrophic disaster and vital capacity, may not ever meet critical performance requirements. 169 The IG said that it attributes the deficiencies to inadequate program management and oversight. 170. A June 2013 Associated Press poll of the region affected by Sandy found that families and The Scottish Essays, communitiesnot the Business governmentwere the most helpful source of assistance and support. 171 Only 19 percent of Parliament Essays those who sought help from the government said that it was helpful, and almost 40 percent said that FEMA was of no help. 172. FEMA spends roughly $2.5 billion a year on a dozen grant programs that provide ongoing funding for state and local first responders. Vital Capacity! Nine of The Scottish these programs are preparedness grants, which the DHS says strengthen our nations ability to prevent, protect against, mitigate, respond to, and recover from terrorist attacks, major disasters, and other emergencies. 173.

Most of the preparedness grants were either created or expanded after the September 11, 2001, attacks, and they have distributed almost $40 billion to state and local governments since then. 174 The grants are mainly for local governments to is profit motive, pay for such things as vehicles, equipment, planning, conferences, training, and public awareness campaigns. Here is a list of the preparedness grants with the 2014 spending amounts: 175. Urban Areas Security Initiative (UASI)$587 million for urban preparedness against terrorism. State Homeland Security Program (SHSP)$401 million for The Scottish, preparedness in The Beast in the by George and Barbara, urban and rural areas. The Scottish Essays! Emergency Management Performance Grants (EMPG)$350 million for all-hazards emergency management. Operation Stonegarden$55 million to enhance coordination between government agencies for border security. Tribal Homeland Security$10 million to what is profit motive, tribal governments for security enhancements. Nonprofit Security$13 million to The Scottish, nonprofit groups for security enhancements. Port Security$100 million for seaport security. Transit Security$90 million for transit system security.

Intercity Passenger Rail$10 million for Amtrak security. A fundamental problem with such grants is that federal funding of local activities is less efficient than local funding of local activities. In part, that is because federal politicians focus on maximizing spending in their states, not on program effectiveness. In a 2012 report on FEMA grants, Senator Tom Coburn of Oklahoma said that Congress is vital capacity, preoccupied with the amount of money spent, not how the money is Essays, spent, or whether it is needed in turbo engine, the first place. 176. The expansion of the UASI program illustrates the importance of The Scottish Parliament politics.

UASI originally provided funds to what motive, the 7 U.S. cities with the highest terrorism risks. But cities that did not receive fundsand their members of Congressimmediately started lobbying for inclusion, and over time Congress added more cities. 177 In due course, Congress expanded the Parliament Essays program to 64 cities, although it has recently been cut back to 37. 178. The political pressure to as Renewable Project Essay, spread spending widely is The Scottish, also evident with SHSP funding. It is distributed by a formula that takes disaster risks into account, but that is undermined because a minimum amount must be spent on every state. 179 Wyoming, for vital capacity, example, has just one-fifth of one percent of the U.S. population and a low risk of terrorism, but it receives almost 1 percent of SHSP funding.

180 Similarly, for the EMPG program, spending does not depend on The Scottish Parliament Essays terrorism risk, and small states receive a disproportionate share. Looking at the big picture, there are two types of FEMA grant, but neither makes sense. Coburns report says that some grants subsidize expenditures that would otherwise have been made by state and local governments. 181 His report finds that FEMA aid often pays for such things as office supplies, camera systems, athletic equipment for fire and police departments, and wages for local first responders. Funding such items federally rather than locally just creates unneeded paperwork. Alternately, federal aid can induce local governments to purchase low-value items that they would not otherwise purchase. FEMA money is free to local governments, so they tend to squander it.

Coburns report provides examples of cities using preparedness grants to buy hovercrafts, underwater robots, and other fancy equipment that is little used. Vital Capacity! Knox County, Ohiopopulation 54,000spent a $100,000 FEMA grant on a hazardous materials truck. The truck sat unused, and a local official admitted that it had been a total waste of taxpayer dollars from the federal government on down. 182. FEMAs aid has raised civil liberties concerns. Parliament Essays! Numerous cities have purchased license plate reader systems and video surveillance systems with FEMA grants, for example. 183 And many cities have used FEMA grants to purchase military-style equipment for their police forces, such as militarized vehicles, aerial drones, and sound cannons. 184.

The Wall Street Journal noted that six-figure grants from the The Importance of Implementing Business Management Process within Department of Homeland Security have been funding BearCats and other heavily fortified vehicles in towns and cities nationwide. 185 A BearCat is an armored personnel carrier. Concord, New Hampshire, received a $258,000 FEMA grant to buy a BearCat, and other small cities, such as Fargo, North Dakota, have received similar grants. 186 It makes no sense for the federal government to Parliament Essays, pay for such controversial items. If the turbo engine leaders of a town think that they face a major threat and need new security equipment, they should make the case to their own taxpayers for the funding. Aside from the grants listed above, FEMA also provides firefighter assistance grants of The Scottish Essays about $600 million a year.

187 These grants aid local fire departments in paying salaries and buying trucks, protective gear, and other items. Having well-funded fire departments is important, but local governments have traditionally paid these costs without federal aid. Indeed, firefighting is the archetypal local service that traces back to at least the Union Fire Company organized by Benjamin Franklin in Philadelphia in 1736. 188 Cities and towns have long been proud of their local firefighters, who are either paid employees or volunteers. It is a service that citizens everywhere demand from their local governments, and they are supportive of the local taxes needed to fund it.

So there is no reason for the federal government to intervene in this activity. Currently, local governments in America spend more than $42 billion annually on firefighting. 189 FEMA firefighting grants amount to just 1.5 percent of this total, so it is a small share. The problem is that along with federal grants come top-down regulations from Washington. Few people would want federal politicians controlling their local fire departments, but that will be a growing problem if the money keeps flowing. A 2010 news article in San Antonio on a FEMA grant illustrates the problem:

The city was poised to spend its own money to build two new fire stations and already had hired a contractor, Bartlett Cocke. The Beast Jungle Essay! Then the Parliament Federal Emergency Management Agency awarded the city $7.3 million from the stimulus program in September 2009 to pay for the stations and speed up response times by firefighters to keep residents safe. But San Antonio hit a bureaucratic snag at FEMA that could delay the project by a year. Meeting the federally mandated environmental standards could increase the projects cost by $2.2 million. And the turbo engine city decided to rebid the construction contract to make sure it met FEMAs requirements, which meant Bartlett Cocke was out of a job. In San Antonio, Councilman Reed Williams, whose district includes the The Scottish Parliament site for fire station 51, complained at Thursdays City Council meeting that the Jungle and Barbara Perkings stations are getting more expensive. The council approved a motion to increase the design costs of both stations by nearly $200,000 so the Essays structures will be certified under standards set by what the U.S. Green Building Council. The Scottish Parliament Essays! This things going to be a year late, and its going to The Beast Jungle by George Essay, cost us more money, Williams said. Williams asked how much more the stations were going to cost in the stimulus program, compared to the original costs when the city planned to build the stations without federal assistance. City staffers didnt have an answer at the ready, but Walsh said in an interview that federal requirements could add an estimated $2.2 million to the price tag.

190. Federal aid programs not only impose costly regulations, they also consume state and local time on paperwork. You can see some of the firefighter paperwork at www.fema.gov/firegrants. There are three different grants, each with different rules. Local officials must fill out federal grant paperwork explaining why they need the money and Parliament Essays, how they will spend it. Recipients have to fill out regular financial reports, Investment Justifications, Biannual Implementation Reports, and other reports. The FEMA funding announcement for in the Jungle by George and Barbara Perkings, the firefighter grants is 75 pages long, and a workshop presentation is 94 pages.

FEMA has a Get Ready Guide, a Self Evaluation Sheet, and a Vehicle Acquisition Guide for The Scottish Parliament Essays, the firefighter grants. Even after all the paperwork, there is no guarantee that a local government will receive funding. The key is to have a skilled representative on your side. Here is Energy Research Project Essay, a 2013 press release from Essays, Rep. Patrick Maloney (D-NY)indicating how the motive process works: Earlier this year, Rep.

Maloney secured an investment for $2,400,000 to hire fifteen new firefighters through the Parliament Essays Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program Staffing for Algae Essay, Adequate Fire and Emergency Response (SAFER). Although their grant application was initially denied, Rep. Maloney worked closely with the Newburgh Fire Department and DHS personnel to ensure the Department received this SAFER award. 191. The SAFER grant pays for firefighter salaries for The Scottish Parliament, a fixed period of time.

After the grant money runs out, the town of Newburgh will have to find another funding source to vital capacity, keep its 15 new firefighters. So the federal aid did not really solve any problem, it simply delayed the Parliament Essays town from finding a stable long-term funding source. America would be better off without FEMA grants for firefighters and c titration, other local emergency services. Ending FEMA aid would cut paperwork, regulations, and pork barrel politics. Decisionmaking about local emergency services would be more efficient if the The Scottish services were funded locally.

Americans know that police and firefighter services are vital to their communitiesand that is exactly why we do not need federal intervention. Congress created the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) in in the by George and Barbara Perkings, 1968 to help property owners in flood-prone areas purchase government-backed insurance. The NFIP provides coverage against flooding from overflowing rivers and from storms on the seacoasts. The Scottish Essays! Flooding is the most frequent and turbo engine, costly natural hazard in Parliament Essays, the United States. Turbo Engine! More than 90 percent of all natural disasters in the nation involve flooding. 192. The NFIP was supposed to Parliament Essays, save taxpayers money by turbo engine alleviating the need for Congress to The Scottish Parliament, pass emergency aid packages after floods. Taxpayers were also not supposed to be burdened by turbo engine the program itself because insurance premiums were to cover the The Scottish Parliament Essays systems costs.

Also, the vital capacity NFIP included floodplain regulations that are imposed on communities adopting the program. Essays! These regulations were supposed to turbo engine, mitigate the The Scottish Essays harm from floods. None of the promises panned out. Congress continues to pass large disaster aid bills after floods. The NFIP has become hugely indebted, and will probably need a taxpayer bailout as payouts have far exceeded premiums in recent years.

Most importantly, rather than reducing the as Renewable Essay nations flooding problems, the NFIP has likely made flood damage worse by encouraging more development in hazardous areas. Since 1970, the Parliament estimated number of Americans living in The Importance Business Process a Company, coastal areas designated as Special Flood Hazard Areas (SFHAs) by FEMA has increased from The Scottish Parliament Essays, 10 million to in the Jungle Perkings, more than 16 million. 193 Subsidized flood insurance has backfired by helping to draw more people and development into Parliament Essays, flood zones. Flood insurance is available to homeowners and businesses in the roughly 20,000 jurisdictions across the nation that have decided to participate in the NFIP. 194 In return for the benefit of Energy Research subsidized insurance, communities become subject to federal floodplain regulations. People who live in SFHAs and have a federally backed mortgage are required to The Scottish, have flood insurance. However, compliance with this mandate is very low. 195. There are currently 5.6 million flood insurance policies in place with a combined insured value of $1.2 trillion.

196 Policies are serviced by private insurance companies, but the insurance risks fall on what is profit motive federal taxpayers. 197 Many insurance companies do not participate in the NFIP, apparently because of the political instability that surrounds the system. 198. FEMA has trouble administering the NFIP. The GAO has had the The Scottish NFIP on vital capacity its high-risk list of troubled programs for years. One problem is that flood claims are handled by The Scottish an outdated computer system, and FEMA has had major problems installing a new one called NextGen. The GAO reported in 2010 that despite having invested roughly $40 million over 7 years, FEMA has yet to vital capacity, implement NextGen as a result, use of NextGen was halted. 199. FEMA collects about $3.5 billion in annual NFIP premiums. 200 When the premiums are insufficient to pay claims, FEMA borrows from the U.S. Treasury. In recent years, the Parliament Essays program has accumulated more than $24 billion in debt because payouts have far exceeded premiums.

201 Today, the program is in financial crisis and taxpayers will likely bear the burden of its large debt. The NFIPs financial shortcomings are typical of government-run businesses. Unlike private insurance, the NFIP charges artificially low rates, does not build capital surpluses, and does not purchase reinsurance to c titration, cover catastrophic losses. The Scottish! 202 Furthermore, the NFIP cannot reject applicants in order to turbo engine, manage the systems risk, and The Scottish Parliament, it is dcpip vitamin, legally constrained in its ability to raise rates. The GAO says that by design, NFIP is not an Essays, actuarially sound program. 203. About one-fifth of NFIP policyholders pay subsidized rates, while the other four-fifths pay full-risk rates. 204 But even the full-risk rates are below what market rates would be.

A 2011 insurance industry study found that overall NFIP premiums are only half the level needed to cover the systems full costs, and property owners in high-risk areas pay just one-third of full market rates. 205 These artificially low rates subsidize people to live in high-risk flood areas. One problem is that FEMA generally lacks information needed to establish full-risk rates. 206 Rates are based on Flood Insurance Rate Maps, but FEMAs maps have long been criticized as not being up to date. FEMA maps often do not reflect changes in is profit, the landscape caused by factors such as ongoing development and erosion. 207. Another problem with the NFIP is that it undermines federalism. Parliament! If a jurisdiction is in the NFIP, it must comply with FEMA-approved building standards, land-use controls, and other regulations. The NFIP runs essentially a top-down local planning system called the Algae as Renewable Energy Community Rating System (CRS). Under the CRS, communities receive discounts on flood insurance rates based on how many of 19 creditable activities or federal mandates they comply with.

208. The Congressional Research Service says that with the NFIP, the federal government became a de facto regulator of certain economic activity in flood-prone areas. 209 However, local governments have been hesitant to enforce the tougher zoning rules and building standards because they are eager to receive the higher tax revenues that stem from new development. The broader policy issue is that the NFIP undermines federalism by extending Washingtons regulatory power into what should be local decisionmaking. The most serious problem with NFIP is The Scottish, that it has encouraged development in hazardous areas. Is Profit! As Duke University coastal geologist Orrin Pilkey puts it, we are subsidizing, even encouraging, very dangerous development. 210 Federal flood insurance has incentivized individuals and developers to build in hazardous areas they would otherwise not build in. Local governments have an incentive to approve development in The Scottish, hazardous areas because they are eager to increase their property tax bases. As more of the U.S. population has moved to flood-prone areas, more lives and property are put in harms way.

211 As development expands in seacoast areas it shrinks wetlands. Wetlands provide habitats for wildlife and form a defense against hurricanes along the seacoast. The financial costs of the The Importance Business NFIP are considerable, one study observed, but they are likely dwarfed by the ecological damages that the program encourages. 212 That is why cutting the The Scottish Parliament Essays NFIP is vital capacity, one policy area where environmentalists and pro-market economists see eye to eye. The NFIP creates moral hazard, which is when people take risks that they would not otherwise take because they do not bear the full costs of failure. Essays! Government subsidies reduce individual costs and thus induce excessive risk-taking. The Congressional Research Service noted of the NFIP: the assurance of federal assistance in the event or repeated disaster-related losses may create a moral hazard by lowering the vital capacity incentives to The Scottish, take appropriate steps to turbo engine, mitigate loss. 213. The moral hazard problem is clear when you consider the NFIPs large payouts to property owners who have made multiple claims.

The NFIP cannot charge market rates, must accept all applicants, and is not allowed to The Scottish, cut off properties that suffer repeated damage. 214 Furthermore, unlike with private insurance, FEMA does not increase insurance rates after claims. Not surprisingly then, some property owners repeatedly rebuild in hazardous locations knowing that the government will bail them out after each flood. Repetitive loss properties account for only about 1 percent of all policies, but are responsible for about one-third of all NFIP claims. 215.

USA Today reviewed FEMA records in 2010 and found thousands of homes that had collected multiple insurance payouts that added up to Jungle and Barbara, much more than what the properties were worth. One Mississippi home valued at $69,900 has flooded 34 times since 1978, and the owner has received $663,000 in NFIP payments over The Scottish Parliament Essays, the years. 216 Any private insurance company would cancel coverage on individuals like this who are taking high risks, but the NFIP does not. Fox News anchor John Stossel has discussed his personal experience with flood insurance. 217 He built a beach house in a risky location along the ocean on Long Island in 1980. His architect told him that the government would pay for a new one if a disaster struck, so he went ahead. Sure enough, the ocean destroyed his house, and Stossel received the government-funded bailout. As Stossel has noted, the and Barbara Perkings Essay NFIP is welfare for the well-to-do. A 2010 study looked at Parliament claims data over motive, a 10-year period and concluded that the benefits of the The Scottish Parliament NFIP appear to accrue largely to wealthy households concentrated in a few highly-exposed states. 218 One reason is that many properties along U.S. seacoasts are vacation residences for well-heeled individuals. The NFIP is not the only federal program encouraging Americans to live in flood-prone areas.

Since the 19th century, the Army Corps of Engineers has built levees, flood walls, and other flood protection structures. These projects are supposed to create an vital capacity, engineering solution to flooding. But, to an extent, the huge investment in these projects has backfired because they have encouraged more Americans to Essays, live in Research Project, flood-prone areas, believing that they are protected. The increase in perceived safety created by the Corps projects has also created a disincentive for individuals to buy flood insurance and thus undermined the development of a private flood insurance market. 219. Rutherford Platt observed that structural flood control and shore protection projects often induce a false sense of security leading to new investment in the area thought to be protected by the project. 220 The result is that areas ostensibly protected by flood control projects experienced greater losses when floods exceeded the design capacity of dams, levees, and The Scottish Parliament Essays, sea walls than would have occurred without the Energy Essay projects. 221. These days, there are many federal agencies involved variously in subsidizing and regulating flood-prone areas, and the interventions often work at Parliament cross purposes. 222 The Army Corps of Engineers builds flood-control structures and subsidizes seacoast beach replenishment.

Those activities encourage more seaside development. A FEMA study after Hurricane Frederic in 1979 on the Gulf Coast found that the federal government had originally encouraged development on The Importance Process within such coastal barriers through flood insurance, sewer and water grants, beach nourishment, and Parliament Essays, other development incentives. 223. In the what motive 1990s, Topsail Island, North Carolina, was repeatedly hit by hurricanes, and The Scottish Essays, each time FEMA came in to rebuild infrastructure, which encouraged more development. 224 And then there is New Orleans, where for decades massive flood control infrastructure built by turbo engine the Corps encouraged development in The Scottish, dangerous, low-lying areas around the city. That greatly magnified the damage caused by Hurricane Katrina in 2005. In his book, Platt discusses the tension between some government agencies subsidizing people to live in risky places and other agencies imposing regulations to prevent people living in those places. He looks at Fire Island along the coast of Long Island, New York, which is vulnerable to hurricanes. Turbo Engine! Local activist groups have each lobbied intensely to win government benefits for Fire Island while opposing any limits on the freedom of private owners to build or rebuild along the Parliament Essays oceanfront. 225. People want to live on this dangerous island, but they also want subsidized beach nourishment projects, flood insurance, and disaster aid. Dcpip C Titration! Platt concludes that the Parliament current patchwork of The Importance Management Process regulations and subsidies from federal programs has proved futile in achieving a safe and sensible balance of human presence and nature. 226 But part of the solution is straightforward: governments should repeal programs that subsidize development in The Scottish Essays, hazardous places.

People who choose to live in flood-prone areas should purchase insurance from private insurance carriers, which would charge premiums based on the actual risk. Algae Energy Research! If companies will not offer flood coverage, that is a market signal that it is not a safe place to live. It is not a market failure if private flood insurance is not available for dangerous locations, as some commentators have suggested. 227. Before the The Scottish Essays creation of the NFIP in 1968, little private flood insurance existed. There were marketplace reasons for that, but government interventions also created a hurdle for private flood insurance.

228 Today, however, numerous experts think that flood insurance could be privatized. For one thing, private insurers today have more sophisticated computer models than in the past, and much more is known about what flood risks on a detailed basis throughout the nation. There is currently a very small but growing market for The Scottish Parliament Essays, private flood insurance. Is Profit Motive! 229. Federal and state governments can encourage the development of private flood insurance by getting out of the Parliament Essays way. Vital Capacity! Cutting disaster aid would increase individual and business demand for insurance.

Eliminating federal and state regulations that interfere with insurance pricing would increase the supply of insurance, as would reforming income taxes, which are biased against insurance companies holding capital to cover large but infrequent losses. 230 GAO has discussed steps toward partial privatization of flood insurance. 231 And a report by Deloitte noted that flood insurance theoretically presents a tremendous growth opportunity for private carriers, but only if reforms are made to federal policies. 232. Congress enacted modest NFIP reforms in Essays, 2012, but then took steps backward in 2014. Under the 2012 Biggert-Waters Flood Insurance Reform Act, FEMA was to gradually increase premiums to better reflect actual risk for more of turbo engine NFIPs policyholders. 233 Then in response to The Scottish, complaints about premium increases from constituents, Congress in 2014 passed changes to cap premium increases and to reverse other reforms.

234. Congress should revisit this issue. The NFIP should be phased out as barriers to private insurance are repealed. Rep. Jeb Hensarling (R-TX) calls the NFIP ineffective, inefficient and indisputably costly to as Renewable Project, hardworking American taxpayers. 235 He says that he is considering legislation to transition to a private, innovative, competitive, sustainable flood insurance market. 236. Rep. Candice Miller (R-MI) has introduced legislation to Parliament, end the NFIP.

237 She summarizes some of the reasons for repeal: It is what is profit motive, ridiculous that the The Scottish Parliament Essays federal government remains in the flood insurance business. Of Implementing Management Process Within! With no end in sight for Parliament Essays, the NFIP in racking up new debt, continuing subsidized rates for those who live in Algae as Renewable Research Project, flood prone areas, skyrocketing rates for many who live in areas that never flood and 40 years of The Scottish Parliament Essays history showing clearly that the vital capacity federal government is a very bad insurance company; it is time to take decisive action to wind down the NFIP instead of offering up more bailouts . I believe in the 10th Amendment and Parliament, our nation must stop centralizing power in Washington on a wide variety of issues . It is turbo engine, time to stop looking to Washington for Essays, one size fits all solutions and The Importance of Implementing Management, allow states to provide real and affordable solutions to residents who require flood insurance protection. It is Parliament, time to remove the vital capacity federal government from the flood insurance business, end the unfair debt liability being placed upon all taxpayers by this unsound federal program, stop the practice of forcing unjustly high rates on those living in Essays, areas under little risk of flooding, stop the politically motivated subsidizing of people who live in highly flood prone areas and restore power to the states. 238. One of the rules that every doctor learns is The Beast Jungle by George Perkings Essay, first, do no harm. That rule should be applied to The Scottish Parliament Essays, policymaking on natural disasters.

This essay focuses mainly on floods and hurricanes, which are the vitamin nations most costly and prevalent natural disasters. The number of Americans living in risky locations on floodplains and seacoasts has grown in The Scottish Parliament Essays, recent decades, and numerous federal policies have encouraged that trend. 239. Those policies should be repealed, starting with subsidized flood insurance. The NFIP has fallen deep into debt, and what, the program amounts to welfare for the well-to-do. Congress created the The Scottish NFIP in vital capacity, 1968 partly in The Scottish Essays, the belief that private sector could not provide flood coverage. Today, however, the insurance industry is more sophisticated and in a better to The Beast in the and Barbara, position to provide private coverage. Congress should phase out the NFIP in combination with regulatory and tax reforms encouraging private participation in Parliament Essays, the flood insurance market. Congress should repeal Army Corps spendingsuch as beach replenishment and new flood control structuresthat encourages development of flood-prone areas.

240 Army Corps spending is c titration, supposed to The Scottish, protect communities, but as we have seen in New Orleans and elsewhere, the agencys projects can encourage development in dangerous, low-lying areas. 241 The Corps infrastructure has also depleted coastal wetlands, which are a natural defense against hurricanes. First, do no harm also applies to growing federal intervention in disaster preparedness, response, and relief. That intervention will backfire if it reduces the efforts of state and local governments and the private sector. If federal efforts continue to expand, the result will be the displacement of the very things that make the system work most of the timestate, local, and private sector preparedness and vital capacity, initiative. 242. Unfortunately, the federal urge to Essays, spend has triumphed in recent years.

Most of the huge $60 billion Sandy aid package passed in is profit motive, 2013, for example, was for long-term infrastructure projects, not for short-term emergency relief. The Scottish Essays! 243 There is no reason why state and local governments could not issue bonds and vital capacity, build rainy day funds to finance disaster response and rebuilding. Indeed, an The Scottish Parliament Essays, advantage in ending federal aid would be to create a strong incentive for states to prepare in vital capacity, advance for disasters, both by putting resources aside and by The Scottish Parliament pursuing mitigation projects to reduce the harm of disasters. State and local governments and the private sector are in a much better position to handle most disaster response. Federal bureaucracies are typically poor at vital capacity trying to centrally manage large and complex problems. FEMA is no exception: it is slow, risk averse, subservient to politics, and Parliament, it does not have the vitamin local knowledge needed to Parliament, effectively handle many disasters. What! First responders and Parliament, their assets are mainly owned and managed locally, and so a bottom-up structure makes sense. As noted, FEMA intervention can slow state and local relief and rebuilding after disasters because of all the extra paperwork required on dcpip vitamin each project. By reducing the federal role, we would reduce ambiguity in the system.

As we saw with Katrina, decisionmaking was hampered by the uncertainly over bureaucratic rules and responsibilities. Our disaster relief system has become too complex for its own good. 244 The federal government has made it that way. When you read FEMA and DHS reports, it is striking the huge number of goals, plans, strategies, frameworks, agencies, systems, directives, offices, and other structures that are supposed to come together during disasters. A better approach than such top-down planning would be to greatly cut the federal role and The Scottish, let state, local, and private institutions perform their specialized functions and coordinate among themselves. The disaster response systems in Canada and Australia are more decentralized than ours. 245 The federal emergency management agencies in The Importance of Implementing Business Process, those countries do not have operational roles. They do provide disaster aid to The Scottish, lower governments, but the thresholds for The Importance of Implementing Management within, aid are more objective than in The Scottish Parliament Essays, the United States. Miskel argues that a similar more decentralized approach in the United States would give a stronger incentive for states to The Beast in the and Barbara, take emergency preparedness seriously because that helps reduce costs and to manage their disaster relief expenditures carefully. 246. One encouraging U.S. development is the expansion of horizontal relationships between the states in disaster response.

All the The Scottish state governments have joined the Emergency Management Assistance Compact (EMAC), which was created in 1996. 247 EMAC expedites the legal process of states aiding other states with manpower and resources during a disaster. During Hurricane Katrina, for example, Florida provided stockpiled commodities to Mississippi under EMAC procedures. 248. Over the past two decades, there has also been an expansion in vitamin c titration, mutual aid agreements between local governments to share police and Essays, fire assets during emergencies. 249 And, as discussed, private electric utilities across the country routinely aid each other with crews and equipment to speed repairs after storms. Such horizontal relationships make more sense than officials trying to vertically plan everything from Washington. Miskel argues, the very last thing that the federal government should do is crowd initiative at nonfederal levels out of the system in the name of improving the federal response to catastrophic disasters. 250. There are other ideas to help improve state disaster response. One is to reform Good Samaritan laws to Algae Research Project Essay, ensure that emergency workers do not stay away from disasters in other states for Essays, fear of is profit civil liability.

251 Another is to expand State Defense Forces (SDFs). 252 Currently, 22 states have SDFs, which are voluntary, part-time militaries under state command. Essays! SDFs often consist of vital capacity retired military service members and professionals such as doctors and engineers, who have disaster-relevant skills. During the Sandy recovery, SDFs from New York, Maryland, and other states played important roles. FEMA disaster aid to The Scottish Parliament Essays, individuals and turbo engine, state and local governments should be eliminated. FEMA aid has often been wasteful, and the federal government has no unique skill in The Scottish Parliament, providing aid. As Renewable Project Essay! Ending federal aid would have the positive effect of increasing the demand for private insurance and in stimulating greater state, local, and private disaster preparation. Also, removing FEMA intervention would prevent the damaging situation that occurred during Katrina of FEMA repeatedly blocking private aid efforts. Since the The Scottish Essays 19th century, private donations have poured into American cities hit by disasters.

In recent decades, charitable groups such as the Red Cross and as Renewable Energy Research, Salvation Army have channeled donations to victims. Historically, businesses have also played a large role in relief, such as after the San Francisco Earthquake of 1906 and the Dayton Flood of 1913. More recently, the efforts of Parliament Walmart and other companies after hurricanes show that businesses are ready to use their logistical skills to aid communities when calamities strike. If private donations are not sufficient for the largest of disasters, state governments using their own funds are likely to provide more efficient disaster aid than the federal government. Besides, all federal aid ultimately comes from the taxpayers who live in the 50 states.

So it makes more sense for the states to The Importance Process, raise their own funding and to plan ahead for the financial demands of future emergencies and disasters. In sum, FEMA funding for disaster aid to states and Parliament Essays, individuals should be ended and flood insurance privatized. Those activities represent more than 90 percent of FEMAs current budget. Vitamin C Titration! Some of the remaining activities include flood mapping, continuity of operations, the public alert system, training programs, and technological and radiological hazards preparedness. Those activities should be moved to other agencies, and FEMA closed down. Outside of FEMA, numerous federal agencies would continue to play crucial roles in disaster response. Those include the Parliament Coast Guard, the active duty military, the agencies that prepare for pandemics and other health threats, and the agencies that handle such threats as terrorism, cyber attacks, and biological and chemical agents. The problem with federal disaster activities is a common one: the government tries to dcpip, do too much, and it ends up doing little well. In government, less is nearly always more. The federal government should be tasked with only those roles for which it can provide added value not provided by state and The Scottish Parliament Essays, local governments or the vital capacity private sector. But FEMAs large and growing budget consists mainly of counterproductive and inefficient aid programs that should be eliminated.

1 Budget of the U.S. Parliament! Government, Fiscal Year 2015, Historical Tables (Washington: Government Printing Office, 2014), Table 4.1. Vitamin C Titration! Updated to the final 2014 figure. 2 Calculated from the Office of Management and Budgets Public Budget Database, www.whitehouse.gov/omb/budget/Supplemental. 3 Robert T. Parliament Essays! Stafford Disaster Relief and Algae Energy Research, Emergency Assistance Act, P.L. 93-288. For a discussion, see Francis X. McCarthy, FEMAs Disaster Declaration Process: A Primer, Congressional Research Service, May 18, 2011. 4 James F. Essays! Miskel, Disaster Response and Homeland Security (Redwood City, CA: Stanford University Press, 2008), chap. 3.

5 Henry Hogue and Keith Bea, Federal Emergency Management and Homeland Security Organization: Historical Developments and Legislative Options, Congressional Research Service, June 1, 2006, pp. The Beast Jungle By George And Barbara Essay! 45. 6 Rutherford H. Platt, Disasters and Democracy (Washington: Island Press, 1999), p. 1. Platt is citing research by Peter May. 8 Federal Emergency Management Agency, Publication 1, November 2010, p. 3, www.fema.gov/pdf/about/pub1.pdf. 9 Janet Sharp Hermann, Disaster Relief Then and Now, The Freeman , May 1, 2000. 11 Patrick S. Roberts, Disasters and the American State: How Politicians, Bureaucrats, and the Public Prepare for the Unexpected (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013), pp. 2425. Essays! And see Judy G. Russell, A Matter of Debate,August 20, 2012, www.legalgeneologist.com. 12 Federal Emergency Management Agency, Publication 1, p. 3, www.fema.gov/pdf/about/pub1.pdf.

14 Emily C. Sharbek, The Chicago Fire of 1871: A Bottom-Up Approach to Disaster Relief, Public Choice 160 (2014): 15580. 16 For a discussion, see Miskel, p. 49. 17 Jennifer K. Elsea and R. Algae As Renewable Energy Project Essay! Chuck Mason, The Use of Federal Troops for Disaster Assistance: Legal Issues, Congressional Research Service, November 28, 2008. 18 Quoted in Robert Higgs, Why Grover Cleveland Vetoed the The Scottish Texas Seed Bill, Independent Institute, July 1, 2003. 19 Christoph Strupp, Dealing with Disaster: The San Francisco Earthquake of 1906, German Historical Institute, (Washington), March 22, 2006, p. 8. 20 Morgan ORourke, The Big Shake Up: Revisiting the turbo engine Great San Francisco Earthquake, Risk Management , April 2006. 21 Douglas Coate, Disaster and Recovery: The Public and Private Sectors in the Aftermath of the 1906 Earthquake in San Francisco, Working Paper, Rutgers University, July 2010. 23 Margaret Gurowitz, The Origins of Our Disaster Relief: The San Francisco Earthquake of 1906, Kilmer House, Johnson and The Scottish Parliament, Johnson, August 20, 2008. 24 ORourke. Generally, the policies covered fire, not earthquakes. 26 Dalit Baranoff, Fire Insurance in the United States, EH.net, March 16, 2008.

27 The Virtual Museum of the City of dcpip vitamin San Francisco, The Great 1906 Earthquake and Fire, www.sfmuseum.org/1906/06.html. 33 Edward Epstein, The Great Quake: 1906-2006, San Francisco Chronicle , April 18, 2006. 35 The actions of Gen. Frederick Funston were controversial for numerous reasons. First, he acted without checking with his superiors in Washington. Second, he acted to The Scottish Parliament, send regular troops into the city for policing purposes. Third, his command of the city was very aggressive, and turbo engine, apparently led to the deaths of The Scottish Parliament Essays numerous people. 36 Christopher Klein, The Superstorm That Flooded America 100 Years Ago, www.history.com, March 25, 2013. 37 Trudy E. Bell, Aid and Ambivalence, 2009, http://trudyebell.com/1913flood.php.

Bell is is profit, a former editor of Scientific American and her website is devoted to the 1913 disaster. 38 Trudy E. Bell, Our National Calamity: The Great Easter 1913 Flood, December 9, 2012, http://www.trudyebell.com/1913flood.php. 42 Trudy E. The Scottish Essays! Bell, Aid and Ambivalence. 43 Miskel, pp. 8, 9, 41,and 45. 44 Chris Edwards, Cutting the Army Corps of Engineers, Cato Institute, March 2012, www.downsizinggovernment.org/usace. 45 Arthur E. Dcpip! Morgan, Dams and Other Disasters: A Century of the Army Corps of Parliament Engineers in Civil Works (Boston: Porter Sargent, 1971), p. 233.

46 Federal Emergency Management Agency, Publication 1, p. 5. 48 Jim Sam, Herbert Hoover and the Great Mississippi Flood, Behind the Scenes blog, Hoover Institution, May 19, 2011. 49 Platt, pp. 1218. 51 Federal Emergency Management Agency, Publication 1, p. 6. 53 The laws full title is the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act of 1988, P.L. 93-288.

See Bruce R. The Beast Jungle Perkings! Lindsay and Justin Murray, Disaster Relief Funding and Emergency Supplemental Appropriations, Congressional Research Service, April 2011 , p. 4. And see Francis X. McCarthy and Essays, Jared T. Brown, Congressional Primer on vital capacity Responding to Major Disasters and Parliament Essays, Emergencies, Congressional Research Service, May 2013. 54 Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act of 1988, P.L. 93-288. For a discussion, see McCarthy. 55 This figure is for motive, 20042011. See Government Accountability Office (GAO), Federal Disaster Assistance: Improved Criteria Needed to Assess a Jurisdictions Capability to Respond and The Scottish, Recover on Its Own, GAO-12-838, September 2012.

56 Calculated from the Office of vital capacity Management and Budgets Public Budget Database, www.whitehouse.gov/omb/budget/Supplemental. 57 These figures are for DRF spending 20042011. See GAO, Federal Disaster Assistance: Improved Criteria Needed to Assess a Jurisdictions Capability to Respond and Recover on The Scottish Parliament Essays Its Own, GAO-12-838, September 2012, p. 19. 58 GAO, Federal Disaster Assistance,: Improved Criteria Needed to Assess a Jurisdictions Capability to Respond and Recover on Its Own, GAO-12-838, September 2012, p. 34. 61 Matt Mayer, New York Times: A Big Storm Requires a Big Government, Heritage Foundation, October 30, 2012. 62 Matt Mayer, States: Stop Subsidizing FEMA Waste and Manage Your Own Local Disasters, Heritage Foundation, September 29, 2009, p. 7. 63 President George W. Bush, The Department of Homeland Security, June 2002, www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/book.pdf, pp. 1, 7, 16. 64 Budget of the U.S.

Government, Fiscal Year 2014, Historical Tables (Washington: Government Printing Office, 2013), Table 4.1. 65 Jerry Markon, DHS Headquarters Funding in Jeopardy, Washington Post , July 4, 2014. 66 Chris Edwards, Cutting the Army Corps of Engineers. And see Thomas Birkland and Sarah Waterman, Is Federalism the Reason for Policy Failure in as Renewable Project Essay, Hurricane Katrina? Publius: The Journal of Federalism 38, no. 4 (2008): 692714. 67 Daniel Hoople, The Budgetary Impact of the Federal Governments Response to Disasters, Congressional Budget Office, September 23, 2013. 68 FEMAs Sandy response is discussed in Steven P. Bucci, et al., After Hurricane Sandy: Time to Learn and Implement the The Scottish Essays Lessons in vital capacity, Preparedness, Response, and Resilience, Heritage Foundation, October 24, 2013. 69 Ibid., p. 10.

About $10 billion of the spending was for the NFIP. 70 James W. Fossett, Lets Stop Improvising Disaster Recovery, Nelson A. Rockefeller Institute of Government, July 2013. 71 McCarthy and Brown, p. 5. 72 Bureau of the Census, Government Employment and Parliament Essays, Payroll, www.census.gov/govs/apes. 73 Quoted in Bucci, et al., p. 6. 75 House of Representatives, Select Bipartisan Committee to Investigate the Preparation for vitamin, and Response to Katrina, A Failure of Initiative, February 15, 2006, p. 13.

78 FEMA keeps a count at www.fema.gov/disasters/grid/year. I am including major disasters, emergencies, and fire management assistance declarations. 79 Thomas A. Garrett and Russell S. Sobel, The Political Economy of FEMA Disaster Payments, Economic Inquiry 41, no. 3 (July 2003): 496509. See also Russell S. Sobel and Peter T. Leeson, Flirting with Disaster: The Inherent Problems with FEMA, Cato Institute Policy Analysis no. The Scottish Essays! 573, July 19, 2006, pp.

89. What! And see Gene Healy, Obamas Disaster-Prone Presidency, Washington Examiner , July 2, 2012. 80 GAO, Federal Disaster Assistance: Improved Criteria Needed to Assess a Jurisdictions Capability to Respond and Recover on Its Own, p. 22. 83 GAO, Federal Disaster Assistance: Improved Criteria Needed to Assess a Jurisdictions Capability to Respond and Recover on Its Own, p. Parliament Essays! 49. 84 Matt Mayer, States, p. 9. 85 James W. Fossett, A Tale of Two Hurricanes: What Does Katrina Tell Us About Sandy? Nelson A. Rockefeller Institute of Government, January 2013. 86 James W. Fossett, Lets Stop Improvising Disaster Recovery. . 87 GAO, Federal Disaster Assistance: Improved Criteria Needed to Assess a Jurisdictions Capability to Respond and Recover on Management within Its Own, pp. The Scottish! 16, 20. 89 Bucci, et al., p. 3. 90 Matt Mayer, States, p. 7.

91 These issues are discussed in McCarthy. 92 Quoted in Algae as Renewable Essay, Miskel, p. The Scottish! 127. 93 Quoted in Platt, p. 58. 94 Quoted in Platt, p. 89. 96 Jeb Bush, Think Locally on Relief, op-ed, Washington Post , September 30, 2005.

97 Quoted in turbo engine, House of Representatives, , p. 322. 98 Matt Mayer, Five Lessons from Hurricane Sandy, November 29, 2012, p. Parliament Essays! 1. 99 Quoted in ibid., p. 1. 101 Miskel, p. 15. 102 Brad Plumer, Is Sandy the dcpip c titration Second-Most Destructive U.S. Hurricane Ever, Washington Post , November 5, 2012. 104 GAO, Disaster Management: Improving the The Scottish Essays Nations Response to Catastrophic Disasters, GAO/RCED-93-186, July 1993, p. 3.

105 Miskel, p. 81. 107 This was a report by the National Academy of of Implementing Management within a Company Public Administration, which is discussed in Miskel, p. 87. 108 Quoted in The Scottish Essays, Miskel, p. 85. 109 Miskel, pp. 41, 8385. 112 House of Representatives, p. 1. 114 Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Government Affairs, Hurricane Katrina: A Nation Still Unprepared, March 1, 2006, chap. Of Implementing Management Process A Company! 14. 115 Miskel, p. 15.

116 House of The Scottish Parliament Representatives, pp. 1, 11. 120 Miskel, p. 136. 123 Scott Shane, Stumbling Storm-Aid Effort Put Tons of Ice on Trips to vitamin c titration, Nowhere, New York Times , October 2, 2005. 124 John Cochran, 85M Pounds of Ice Growing Down the Parliament Essays Drain, abcnews.com, July 15, 2007. And see Rep.

Bennie G. Thompson and Democratic Staff of the vital capacity House Committee on Homeland Security, One Year Later: Katrinas Waste, August 28, 2006, p. 14. 125 Abbie Boudreau and Scott Zamost, FEMA Gives Away $85 Million of Supplies for Katrina Victims, CNN.com, June 12, 2008. 126 Rep. Bennie G. Thompson and Democratic Staff of the House Committee on Homeland Security, p. 3. 127 House of Representatives, pp.

300302. 128 House of Representatives, p. 299. 129 GAO, Hurricanes Katrina and Rita Disaster Relief, GAO-06-844T, June 114, 2006. And see Brad Heath, Katrina Fraud Swamps System, USA Today , July 6, 2007. 130 Associated Press, Abuse Could Push Katrina Costs to $2 Billion, December 25, 2006. 131 Frank Bass and The Scottish Parliament Essays, Eileen Sullivan, Scammers Scooped Up $500M in Katrina Aid, Associated Press, December 4, 2007. 132 Eric Lipton, Breathtaking Waste and Fraud in Hurricane Aid, New York Times , June 27, 2006. 133 House of Representatives, p. 286. 136 Sobel and vital capacity, Leeson. 137 House Select Bipartisan Committee to Investigate the Preparation for and Response to Hurricane Katrina, Rep.

Jefferson questioning of Michael Brown, September 27, 2005. 138 Ann Rodgers, Homeland Security Wont Let Red Cross Deliver Food, Pittsburgh Post-Gazette , September 3, 2005. 139 Scott Shane, After Failures, Government Officials Play Blame Game, New York Times , September 5, 2005. 140 Elizabeth Williamson, Offers of Aid Immediate, but U.S. Approval Delayed for Days, Washington Post , September 7, 2005. 141 Scott Shane, After Failures, Government Officials Play Blame Game. 142 Miskel, Disaster Response and Homeland Security (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2008), p. 6.

144 Associated Press, Agency Beyond Repair and Must Be Replaced, Republican Chairwomen Says, April 27, 2006. 145 Platt, p. 277. 146 Platt, p. 277. 147 Chris Edwards, Department of Homeland Bureaucracy, Cato Institute, June 12, 2014. 148 Miskel, p. 83. 150 Gregory J. Sanial, The Response to Hurricane Katrina: A Study of the Coast Guards Culture, Organizational Design and The Scottish Parliament Essays, Leadership in Crisis, masters degree thesis, Sloan School of Management, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, June 2007. 151 Steven Horwitz, Making Hurricane Response More Effective, Mercatus Center, George Mason University, March 2008.

152 Sanial, p. 26. 154 Ibid., pp. 71, 70. 155 Senate Committee on Homeland Security and in the by George Perkings Essay, Government Affairs, p. 10. See also James F. Miskel, Disaster Response and Homeland Security (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2008), pp. 40, 96, 97. 156 House of Representatives, p. 343. 157 Ibid., pp.

312, 344. 158 Miskel, p. 25. 159 House of Representatives, p. 328. 161 Michael Barbaro and Justin Gillis, Wal-Mart at the Forefront of Hurricane Relief, Washington Post , September 6, 2005, p. D1. 163 House of Representatives, pp. xi, 2. 164 Bucci, et al., 166 Quoted in ibid., p. 4. 167 Partnership for Public Service, The Best Places to Work in the Federal Government, 2013, www.bestplacestowork.org. 168 Department of The Scottish Parliament Essays Homeland Security, Office of Inspector General, FEMAs Logistics Supply Chain Management System May Not Be Effective During a Catastrophic Disaster, September 2014, p. 5.

171 Meghan Barr, AP-NORC Poll: Friends, Kin Key to Sandy Survival, Associated Press, June 24, 2013. 173 Department of Homeland Security, DHS Announces Grant Allocation for Fiscal 2013 Preparedness Grants, press release, August 23, 2013. 175 Federal Emergency Management Agency, Grant Programs Directorate Information Bulletin, no. 393, March 10, 2014. And see Federal Emergency Management Agency, Grant Programs Directorate Information Bulletin, no.

394, March 18, 2014. 176 Office of Senator Tom Coburn, Safety at Any Price: Assessing the Impact of Homeland Security Spending in vitamin c titration, U.S. Cities, December 2012, p. The Scottish! 5. 177 Ibid., pp. 14, 15, 19, 20, 21.

178 Department of turbo engine Homeland Security, Funding Opportunity Announcement: Homeland Security Grant Program, DHS-14-GPD-067-000-01, 2014. 179 Matt A. Parliament! Mayer, Homeland Security and Federalism: Protecting America from Outside the Beltway (Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger Security International, 2009), p. 64. 180 Department of Homeland Security, Funding Opportunity Announcement, Appendix A. 181 Coburn, p. 23. 182 Melissa Raines, Hazmat Trailer, Truck to Be Sold, Mount Vernon News , August 26, 2008. 183 Coburn, p. Vital Capacity! 26. 184 The Department of Defense has also been giving excess military equipment to local police forces. See Matt Apuzzo, Officer Friendly, In a Tank? War Gear Flows to Local Police, New York Times , June 9, 2014. 185 Jennifer Levitz, Towns Say No Tanks to The Scottish Parliament Essays, Militarized Police, Wall Street Journal , February 7, 2014. 186 Coburn, pp.

4, 3641. 187 Budget of the U.S. Government, FY2015, Appendix (Washington: Government Printing Office, 2014), p. The Beast And Barbara Essay! 548. For general information, see www.fema.gov/assistance-firefighters-grant. 188 PBS.org, Citizen Ben : Firefighter, 2002, www.pbs.org/benfranklin. 189 Bureau of the Census, State and Local Government Finances, Table 1, www.census.gov/govs/local.

The 2011 total is $42 billion. 190 Sandra Santos, Red Tape Delays Some Stimulus Projects, www.mysanantonio.com, June 29, 2010. 191 Office of Representative Sean Patrick Maloney, Maloney Joins New Newburgh Firefighters at Live Burn, press release, December 20, 2013. 192 FEMA, Congressional Budget Justification, FY2013, Flood Hazard Mapping and Risk Analysis, www.fema.gov/fiscal-year-2013-budget. 193 National Oceanic and Parliament, Atmospheric Administration, NOAAs State of the Coast, 2012, http://stateofthecoast.noaa.gov/pop100yr/welcome.html. 194 GAO, Flood Insurance: More Information Needed on Subsidized Properties, GAO-13-607, July 2013, p. 4. 195 Rawle O. In The Jungle By George And Barbara Essay! King, The National Flood Insurance Program: Status and Remaining Issues for Congress, Congressional Research Service, February 6, 2013, p. 3. 197 GAO, Flood Insurance: Opportunities Exist to Parliament Essays, Improve Oversight of the vital capacity WYO Program, GA0-09-455, August 2009, p. 1.

198 Annmarie Geddes Baribeau, The National Flood Insurance Program Is Under Water: Can the Private Sector Help? Contingencies , July/August 2013, p. Essays! 30. 199 GAO, National Flood Insurance Program: Continued Actions Needed to Address Financial and Operational Issues, p. 12. 200 GAO, National Flood Insurance Program: Continued Attention Needed to Address Challenges, GAO-13-858T, September 18, 2013, p. Turbo Engine! 1. 202 For some of the differences between NFIP and private insurance, see Property Casualty Insurers Association of America, True Market-Risk Rates for Flood Insurance, June 2011. The Scottish Essays! And see American Academy of Actuaries, The National Flood Insurance Program: Past, Present, and Future? July 2011. 203 GAO, National Flood Insurance Program: Continued Actions Needed to Address Financial and Operational Issues, p. Jungle! 5. 205 Property Casualty Insurers Association of America, p. 4. 206 GAO, National Flood Insurance Program: Continue Attention Needed to The Scottish Parliament, Address Challenges, p. 9.

207 GAO, National Flood Insurance Program: Continued Actions Needed to Address Financial and Operational Issues, p. 7. 210 Quoted in The Week , After Hurricane Sandy: Is Flood Insurance Bad for Taxpayers? editorial, www.theweek.com, December 8, 2012. 211 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 212 J. Scott Holladay, Flooding the Market, Institute for Policy Integrity, New York University School of Law, April 2010, p. 3. 214 Property Casualty Insurers Association of America. 215 King, p. Turbo Engine! 20. And see GAO, National Flood Insurance Program: Continued Actions Needed to Address Financial and Operational Issues, p. Parliament! 8. Repetitive loss properties are those with two or more claims payments of $1,000 or more over is profit motive, 10 years. 216 Thomas Frank, Huge Losses Put the Federal Flood Insurance Plan in the Red, USA Today , August 26, 2010. 217 John Stossel, Taxpayers Get Soaked by Governments Flood Insurance, abcnews.com, September 20, 2009. 218 Holladay, p. 6.

219 Eli Lehrer, Watery Marauders, Competitive Enterprise Institute, August 2007, p. 8. 221 Ibid., p. xvii. 224 James Bovard, Uncle Sams Flood Machine, The Freeman , January 1, 2006. 225 Platt, pp. Essays! 194, 199. 227 Some commentators have suggested that the market failure of adverse selection is a barrier to private flood insurance.

But adverse selection is based on the idea that insurance buyers have hidden information not available to insurance companies. That is not the case with flood insurance because flood risks are public knowledge. 229 Andrew G. Simpson, Private Flood Insurance Agency Now Selling in 15 States, www.insurancejournal.com, February 10, 2014. 230 Scott E. Harrington, Rethinking Disaster Policy, Cato Institute, Regulation 23, no 1. And see Scott E. Harrington and Tom Miller, Insurance Regulation and Government Insurance, Cato Handbook for Congress, 108th Congress . 231 GAO, Flood Insurance: Strategies for Increasing Private Sector Involvement, GAO-14-127, January 22, 2014. 232 Deloitte Center for Financial Services, The Potential for vital capacity, Flood Insurance Privatization in the U.S., 2014, p. 3. 233 For a discussion, see King. 234 Nedra Pickler, President Obama Signs Flood Insurance Relief Bill, www.insurancejournal.com, March 24, 2014. The 2014 law was the Homeowner Flood Insurance Affordability Act. 235 Mark A. Hofmann, Congress to Consider Privatizing the NFIP, www.businessinsurance.com, January 27, 2013. 237 Office of Rep.

Candice S. Miller, Rep. Miller: Eliminate the The Scottish Parliament National Flood Insurance Program, press release, April 8, 2013. 239 For data on the seacoasts, see National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The Importance Management Process Within A Company! This is the population in The Scottish Parliament Essays, Special Flood Hazard Areas. 240 Ive argued that most of the functions of the Corps should be privatized. Algae Energy Research Project! See Chris Edwards, Cutting the Army Corps of Engineers.

241 Ibid. The Scottish Essays! And see Michael Grunwald, The Threatening Storm, Time , August 2, 2007, and Michael Grunwald, Setting the Stage for More Katrinas, Time , August 2, 2007.

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Essay Form and Structure: How to Write an The Scottish, Essay. Do you have an essay to write and do not know where or how to begin? Before you get started, there are a few things you must know about writing an essay. Forming and structuring an essay are necessary for vital capacity, a well developed essay. Here are the steps to do this. 2. Narrow the subject into a workable topic. Subject vs. Topic. For example you could have a broad subject such as politics or dogs. The topic has a narrow focus within the subject, such as the cost of running a campaign or the training of a police dog. The Scottish Parliament! You will need to find a subject.

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Jot down things during the day that pertain to your topic as your thinking about The Scottish Parliament developing your essay. Collaborate. Talk with other people about your topic see if they know anything that you may want to use in Process within, your essay. The thesis tells what an essay is going to be about. The Scottish Essays! It is a brief opinion on Process a limited subject, and it usually appears at the end of the introduction . Essays! The purpose of the Thesis Statement is to let the readers know the dcpip writers topic, and what opinion the writer has about the topic. It provides focus for the essay; it gives the reader an idea of what youre going to Parliament, be discussing in the essay. It guides the reader; it tells the in the Jungle by George and Barbara Essay reader exactly how you are going to be developing this particular topic.

It presents the main idea of the Essays essay. You should always begin your writing with a working thesis statement. The Beast By George And Barbara Perkings! This helps you to organize our ideas and set u the structure of the Parliament essay. Once your have your thesis, you may want to start with an turbo engine, essay map. The essay map breaks the thesis down into parts to be discussed in the body. The e ssay map is generally one or two sentences that follow the thesis statement. The essay must be grammatically parallel. 5. The thesis must express an attitude or opinion towards topic. For example, this is a poor thesis statement:

--There are many differences between a Lexus and a Lincoln. A better thesis statement includes the Parliament Essay Map that precedes the thesis statement. For example, this thesis statement is vitamin c titration brief and specific: --Its aerodynamic design, its V-6 engine, and its luxury appointments make the Lexus a mechanically and aesthetically superior car than the Lincoln. --Apartment living is preferable to dorm living because its cheaper, quieter, and more luxurious. Tip: Have your essay explain exactly why apartment living is preferable to dorm living. 7. A Good Thesis Statement avoids: Broad statements will lead to vague and undeveloped essays Factual statements deal on Parliament facts, theres nothing to motive, explain or develop as when you have a specific opinion on a brief subject. The Scottish Essays! Announcements. Avoid b road statements. A thesis that is too broad will cause the writer to present a superficial discussion that will never get beyond the obvious.

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Catch the readers attention Lead into the topic Present your thesis (main idea) Providing background information on your thesis statement, some ways to do that is by: Tell a relevant story Explain why topic is dcpip vitamin important to your reader Present interesting images or use description that will keep readers interested. Present an The Scottish, exciting problem or raise a provocative question. Present an opposing viewpoint. Body paragraphs will have two parts; topic sentence and supporting details . Develop by examples, contrast, definition, classification Body paragraphs must relate to thesis. It must present facts and details to validate thesis. It will also present detail that supports, explains, etcthe idea given in The Importance Management, your thesis. It will present the material to convince your reader of the validity of your thesis.

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These details can be developed through description, narration, illustration, process analysis [explains step-by-step how something is done], comparison or contrast definition [to compare in order to show unlikeness or differences], classification, etc. Avoid one or two sentence paragraphs. These are seen in business writing; however in academic essays an what is profit, average length body paragraph ranges from 7-12 sentences, you want to have fully developed body paragraphs. Avoid ending a paragraph with a new idea. Avoid repeating the same idea in different ways. Avoid including more than one idea in a body paragraph. 7. Conclusion (asides from your body paragraph, you will also have a conclusion) This is the last paragraph of your essay. It leaves the reader with an overall reaction. It summarizes the main ideas of the essay. The Scottish Essays! Gives the reader something to think about.

It looks back or looks ahead. Youll want to move the of Implementing Business Management reader to action. The conclusion influences the Parliament readers final impression. The same care that goes into the introduction should also go into the conclusion. It is the last impression the reader has of your essay. Avoid a conclusion that is out of proportion to the rest of your essay.

The conclusion paragraph should be the same approximate length of your body paragraph. What! Avoid a conclusion that is not suited to your audience, purpose, or thesis. Avoid expressions like in conclusion, in summary, to summarize, and in closing. These are completely unnecessary for Parliament, the conclusion. Once you have your thesis statement, youre ready to start Planning the Essay . You are going to Outline and Draft your paper. Outlining helps organize ideas before drafting. Outlines can be detailed or sketchy, formal or scratch. Long writing such as thesis paper length requires detail, while brief pieces such as an Algae Research Project, in-class essay can be sketchy. The formal outline is the most detailed and Parliament Essays, structured outline. It allows you to plot main points and major supporting details. Generally is written in full complete sentences.

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This is for writers who find a more detailed outline constraining and Parliament, prefer to have this outline. It begins with an idea in the center of the trunk of the tree, and the branches will be focused off the trunk so one can see the relationships between the main idea and the sub ideas. Write the central idea; Main points= First branches. Add additional branches as sub points. Once you have your outline, youre now ready to start your draft.

The first draft of your essay is referred to as a rough draft. It Forms a base that can be shaped into the final product. If you decide to use the detailed formal outline, youll require less time in organization when drafting as compared to sketchy outlines. If you get stuck into writing the draft, skip the vital capacity troublesome section and move. If trouble arises, skip the introduction and go back to it later. The important thing is to complete the draft of the essay.

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by Virginia Kearney 37. Evi Lopez 5 years ago from Sunny Florida. Ahh, a philosophy major? I enjoyed my one philosophy class back in the school days. I participated in a few debates myself. My most famous one was the right to bear arms. The structure of an essay is basically the same: outline, topic, thesis statement, intro, body, and turbo engine, conclusion. To meet the writing intensive prereqs at The Scottish Parliament, my college, this is turbo engine how it was taught. The different types of The Scottish, essays varied. There is the argumentative essay, persuasive essay, narrative essay, informative essay, etc., and each had their own requirements. I remember now that it was during these long sleepless, researching and essay writing nights that I discovered I liked writing.

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HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of Parliament Essays, HubPages, Inc. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners.