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How Laissez-Faire Made Sweden Rich. Sweden often gets held up as an example of how socialism can work better than markets. But, as Norberg shows, Swedens history in fact points to the opposite conclusion. Once upon Essay Great and the Colonies a time I got interested in theories of economic development because I had studied a low-income country, poorer than Congo, with life expectancy half as long and infant mortality three times as high as the average developing country. That country is my own country, Swedenless than 150 years ago. At that time Sweden was incredibly poorand hungry. Texting Essays. When there was a crop failure, my ancestors in northern Sweden, in Angermanland, had to about Great American Colonies, mix bark into the bread because they were short of flour. Life in towns and cities was no easier. Overcrowding and a lack of health services, sanitation, and Systems in Finland, England, Essay refuse disposal claimed lives every day. Well into Essay American Colonies the twentieth century, an ordinary Swedish working-class family with five children might have to live in ego theory, one room and a kitchen, which doubled as a dining room and bedroom. Many people lodged with other families.

Housing statistics from Stockholm show that in about Great, 1900, as many as 1,400 people could live in a building consisting of 200 one-room flats. In conditions like these it is little wonder that disease was rife. People had large numbers of children not only for lack of contraception, but also because of the risk that not many would survive for long. As Vilhelm Moberg, our greatest author, observed when he wrote a history of the Swedish people: Of all the wondrous adventures of the Swedish people, none is more remarkable and wonderful than this: that it survived all of them. 1. But in one century, everything was changed. Sweden had the systems, fastest economic and social development that its people had ever experienced, and one of the fastest the world had ever seen. Between 1850 and 1950 the average Swedish income multiplied eightfold, while population doubled. Infant mortality fell from 15 to 2 per cent, and average life expectancy rose an incredible 28 years. Essay Britain And The American Colonies. A poor peasant nation had become one of the worlds richest countries. Many people abroad think that this was the triumph of the Swedish Social Democratic Party, which somehow found the perfect middle way, managing to tax, spend, and regulate Sweden into definition a more equitable distribution of wealthwithout hurting its productive capacity. And so Swedena small country of nine million inhabitants in the north of Europebecame a source of inspiration for people around the world who believe in Essay about Great and the, government-led development and distribution.

But there is ego theory something wrong with this interpretation. In 1950, when Sweden was known worldwide as the great success story, taxes in Sweden were lower and the public sector smaller than in the rest of Europe and the United States. It was not until then that Swedish politicians started levying taxes and disbursing handouts on a large scale, that is, redistributing the wealth that businesses and workers had already created. Swedens biggest social and economic successes took place when Sweden had a laissez-faire economy, and widely distributed wealth preceded the Essay Great Britain and the American, welfare state. This is the story about how that happened. 2 It is a story that must be learned by countries that want to Care England, Essay, be where Sweden is today, because if they are to accomplish that feat, they must do what Sweden did back then, not what an already-rich Sweden does now. In 1763 Anders Chydenius, a young priest from Osterbotten in Finland (then part of Sweden), sat down to write his contribution to an essay contest. The question he would answer was the most important in Sweden at the time: Why do so many people leave Sweden? Emigration had increased and was seen as a big problem.

The common interpretation was that people were lazy and greedy, and instead of assuming responsibility and working hard, they were tempted by promises of an easier life abroad. Chydeniuss response was the opposite. There is about Britain American Colonies nothing wrong with emigration, he wrote. The problem is the economic definition, oppressive and corrupt system that makes it impossible for people to stay in Sweden and build a good life there. In detailing all the abuses, regulations, and taxes that destroyed opportunity, Chydenius outlined a radical laissez-faire critique of the Swedish government. Colonies. He showed that privileges, license requirements, and trade prohibitions protected a small lazy aristocracy and stopped hard-working people from making their own luck. High taxes confiscated whatever they managed to create; a corrupt justice system made it impossible for cycle, them to win against Essay about Britain and the the powerful; and restrictions on the press made it illegal for them to complain about it. Fatherland without freedom and merit is a big word with little meaning, he pointed out. Chydenius was a modern priest, steeped in Enlightenment ideas. He spread science and medicine to the region and helped farmers to improve agricultural production with modern methods. He was also familiar with the French Physiocrats economic ideas.

But most of all his firsthand experience of the suffering of the people accounts for his political and economic worldview. Others thought the poor were lazy and hopeless, at best the object of their pity. Chydenius turned this perspective on its head: The poor are intelligent and hard workingthey had to Health Care Systems England, and Ethiopia Essay, be to about Great and the American Colonies, survive in such a harsh geographical and economic climate. The problem was that they had to devote most of that energy and hard work to avoiding regulations, taxes, and corruption. Economic. Therefore one thing he struggled persistently against was class legislation, which forced the poor to Essay about Britain and the American Colonies, work for the aristocrats and big farmers, and prevented them from changing employer or negotiate over wages.

Chydenius looked at particular cases of oppression, extending this belief in human liberty to new areas and universalizing it to create a consistently libertarian system of ideas. He wanted a minimal state that guaranteed the security of our lives and properties, with its only economic systems task to being prevention of foreign violence and domestic oppression. Apart from that, the government shouldnt intervene. The size of government and taxes should be drastically reduced. Markets and trade should be completely free. He opposed subsidies even to economic sectors that he appreciated himself, like farming and fishing. According to Chydenius, even government had to abide by the Seventh Commandmentnot to steal. Essay. Farmers should be given complete property rights to their land, and even the poorest peasants should be given control of their own labor. The country should open its borders and allow people to move freely to texting essays, and from Sweden/Finland.

People should be free to Essay about Great Colonies, discuss ideas and make up their own minds. Even in matters of religion, he thought that the government should be liberal and give the same rights to all beliefs. I speak exclusively for the small, but blessed word, freedom , he concluded. 3. What made Chydenius a pivotal figure in Swedish political history was that he was an activist and not just a theoretician. Health. His defense of local farmers right to trade freely made him popular, and Britain and the Colonies his regions priests elected him to parliament. In 1765-66 he traveled to ego theory, Stockholm, where he made a lasting mark on his country. This came during a brief period when Sweden had a weak monarch and a strong parliament. In 1765 the anti-Russian hat party lost power to Essay Great and the American, the caps, who were a bit more interested in peace and restraint in cycle, government spending, but had no coherent ideology. Chydenius was about to Essay Britain American, give them one. (The mercantilist, pro-war camp in parliament derided their opponents as nightcaps, and in contrast they started calling themselves hats. The names stuck.) Because of his political talent and several well-formulated pamphlets that he published while in parliament, Chydenius became a leader for cycle of socialization, the non-aristocratic wing of the cap party.

This led to and the Colonies, successful parliamentary votes for trade liberalization, reduced subsidies, and lower taxes. Most important, Chydenius managed to win support for driving, a freedom-of-the-press statute, abolishing censorship in Sweden. As a result, the Essay about Great Britain and the American Colonies, authorities decisions and japanese documents were made public. That was unique to the world in 1766, and Sweden earned a reputation for being a country where debate was free. One pamphlet that Chydenius published was more important than the others. The National Gain was a short but forceful argument for economic freedom. Chydenius explained why a free market is Essay about Great Britain and the American self-regulating because the Health Care and Ethiopia, profit motive and the price mechanism keep us all in check and stimulates us to help others by producing the kind of goods and services they want most: [E]very individual spontaneously tries to find the place and the trade in which he can best increase National gain, if laws do not prevent him from Great Britain and the, doing so.

Every man seeks his own gain. This inclination is so natural and necessary that all Communities in the world are founded upon it. Economic Definition. Otherwise Laws, punishments and Essay about and the rewards would not exist and mankind would soon perish altogether. The work that has the Health England,, greatest value is about Great and the Colonies always best paid, and of socialization what is best paid is most sought after. This conception of the National gain, however hard it may seem to and the Colonies, be on our new enterprises, is nevertheless the simplest and easiest in cycle of socialization, itself. It gives liberty to all lawful trades, though not at the expense of the others.

It protects the poorest business and encourages diligence and free trade. It weighs everybody in the same scales, and gain is the right measure that shows who should have the preference. It relieves the about Great Britain and the American Colonies, Government from thousands of systems, uneasy worries, Statutes and supervisions, when private and National gain merge into one interest, and the harmful selfishness, which always tries to cloak itself beneath the Statutes, can then most surely be controlled by mutual competition. It allows a Swede to exercise the dearest and greatest right in Nature the Almighty has given him as man, i.e. to support himself in the sweat of his brow in whatever way he thinks best. It snatches away the pillow of laziness from the arms of those who, thanks to Essay about Great Britain and the, their Privileges, can now safely sleep away two-thirds of their time. All expedients to live without work will be removed and texting while driving none but the diligent can become well-off. It makes a desirable reduction in Essay about, our Lawsuits.

The numerous Statutes, their explanations, exceptions and applications, which fetter trades in systems, one way or another, will then be unnecessary and grow silent, and when the Law is annulled, its breach will amount to nothing. 4. On these simple observations of the power of the price mechanism and the self-regulation of the free market, Chydenius built his worldview of about and the American Colonies, economic liberalism. Driving. It was the invisible hand 11 years before The Wealth of Nations , and Great Britain American Chydenius has indeed been called the Nordic Adam Smith. According to Eli Heckscher, one of Swedens most famous economists in the 20th century, the pamphlet would probably have gained an impressive international reputation if it had been translated into a major language at that time. Chydeniuss radicalism alienated the nobility within his own party, and he was actually thrown out of louis riel, sr., parliament by about Great Britain, the party because he criticized their monetary policies openly.

But his influence continued to grow, partly because the monetary policies led to a crisis, just as he had warned. Several of the most important figures in definition, the cultural elite, who were close to the King Gustaf III, were heavily influenced by Chydeniuss thoughts. That goes for Essay Great American, Nils von Rosenstein, an enlightenment proponent who led the Swedish Academy; and the famous poet Johan Henrik Kellgren, who attacked religious mysticism and conservatives in traditional japanese women, his plays and poems, and Essay and the Colonies explained why the market should be liberalized in economic essays. Von Rosenstein and Kellgren even started an organization, with themselves as the only members, to mock the occult and superstitious organizations of late 18th-century Sweden. It was called Pro sensu communi (For Common Sense) and observed August 29 as a holidayJohn Lockes birthday. Their view was that human beings were rational creatures who need to think for themselves to understand the world and decide how to live; therefore coercion should be abolished since it forces us to act against our own rational conclusions. The king himself signed a freedom-of-religion bill, drafted by Chydenius, that gave Jews the right to settle in Sweden. He also gave farmers more control over their land and liberalized agricultural trade. Ego Theory. But the Great American, king also ended the era of strong parliament and centralized power in himself. Economic. After he was murdered in 1792 by a strange conspiracy between nobles who fought for Essay about Great Britain and the American, their privileges and some who were inspired by the French Revolution, his son, Gustaf IV Adolf, used these powers to louis riel, sr., censor political debate and suspend parliament.

But liberal ideas werent dead. Georg Adlersparre, an officer who called his belief in personal freedom and property rights liberal as early as 1804, published a controversial enlightenment magazine called Readings on Mixed Subjects . And it was mixed, indeed. Poems and philosophical studies were published next to articles about the need to liberalize the alcohol industry and the first Swedish translation of Adam Smiths The Wealth of Britain and the Colonies, Nations . Adlersparre added footnotes to explain how Smiths ideas could be implemented in Sweden. When the kings policies led the traditional, country to stagnation and conflicts with Russia, Denmark, and France, Swedes grew increasingly hostile to about American, his rule. Taxation and inflation put even heavier burdens on the people. In late 1808 the japanese women, Swedish military had to abandon the eastern half of the countryFinlandto attacking Russian troops. The resentment against the king who couldnt wage war but refused to about Great Colonies, make peace grew even in military circles.

At that time, Adlersparre, who now led the Swedish western army, published a proclamation saying that military conflict and political oppression were about to destroy Sweden. It was a revolutionary manifesto: To save the country, the army should move against louis riel, sr. the king. Adlersparre and his troops began a popular march toward Stockholm. The king decided to flee southwards, but was arrested by Britain American, people within the Stockholm bureaucracy. Ego Theory. To make sure that this also led to Essay about Great Britain American, real political changes, Adlersparre continued the march and the army occupied Stockholm until a new parliament was assembled and economic definition reforms began to Essay about Great American Colonies, be implemented. This was the Revolution of 1809the only violent revolution in Swedens modern history, and it was initiated by a liberal officer and traditional women publisher inspired by Adam Smith. The path to freedom would not be as straight as the liberals hoped at the time. The parliament restored freedom of the press, carried through some economic reforms, and reduced the aristocracys privileges. Essay Great Britain And The. But the liberals, now united in the Liberal Party, were disappointedand even more so when Sweden got a new king. Always eager to make friends with the strongest powers around, the Swedish Parliament chose one of Napoleons generals, Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte (soon to be Carl XIV Johan), as the while driving, new king.

He surprised everybody by making peace with Russia (he abandoned Finland but took Norway from Great and the, Denmark) and also by being hostile to enlightenment ideals and further reforms. The liberals were once again in opposition. However, the fact that the revolution had restored Chydeniuss free-speech statute meant that debate was relatively free and that a genuine liberal movement could be formed. Influences from France and England continued to build support for libertarian ideas in the early 19th century. While. Land reforms had given farmers property rights to their land. Agricultural production grew more efficient, while many people had to leave the Essay about Great Britain and the, land. The unemployed and the poor moved to the cities, only to find that the industries with the women, potential to grow and provide jobs were stopped by antiquated policies. Local guilds controlled the urban professions and made all decisions about who had the right to work and what to produce of which quality and at what price.

Rules and Essay about Great Britain and the Colonies regulations stopped the iron and while forest industries from expanding, and a lot of imports and some exports were simply forbidden. As a result, opposition to Essay Britain and the American, economic controls grew by the day. A growing group among the nobles also began to traditional japanese women, see the Britain American Colonies, problem with a society built on privileges and hierarchies. At the same time, a middle class began to emerge. Farmers who grew richer with increased production, urban merchants who began to make some progress, and civil servants who were neither nobles nor merchants did not feel at home in the old structure or in japanese, the corporatist parliament with its four estates: nobles, priests, merchants, and farmers.

Members of these groups had capital, but werent allowed to invest it freely. Essay About Great Britain And The Colonies. They had ideas, but werent free to implement them. These groups began to find one another in the early 19th century. Economic Systems Definition. And the man who made it happen was a tall, young, red-haired radical newspaperman, Lars Johan Hierta. Hierta was a successful businessman, always fascinated by the latest technologies, and in the end he became one of the Great American Colonies, richest men in Sweden because of driving essays, his business ventures. He was also a politician, always trying to build an opposition alliance in the parliament. But most important, in Essay about Britain and the American Colonies, 1830 he founded Aftonbladet (the Evening Paper), the first modern Swedish newspaper, a bastion of Swedish laissez-faire liberalism and the first publication to driving, attack not just abuses of power, but political power as such.

Hierta launched Aftonbladet with the last of his moneyhad it failed he would have been ruined. But it was a stunning success. The revolutionary Adlersparre was the first supporter and about and the American Colonies sponsor. It was the first Swedish newspaper to combine news and advertising, and as an evening paper, it could report on the news that arrived with the morning mail. Because of Hiertas sense of humor, the paper was satirical and fun to read amidst all the texting while, serious criticism. In Aftonbladet , the Essay Britain Colonies, growing middle class could read the first real social reports on texting driving, how the country was doing: the destitution in rural areas, the horrible conditions in Britain and the, the crowded urban centers. Ego Theory. But they could also read about the solutionsliberalization and industrialization. Aftonbladet pointed to more liberal countries as positive examples: Norway, England, France and Essay about Colonies the United States. On his wall, Hierta had a copy of Trumbulls painting of the signing of the American Declaration of Independencea declaration Hierta called the most beautiful truth and foundation for a society. With his urban enlightenment-liberalism, Hierta became the voice for the emerging middle class. His first proposal in parliamentdealing with public drinkingsays a lot about Care in Finland, England, and Ethiopia Essay his worldview.

At that time it was illegal to be drunk in public. American Colonies. Hierta thought that this was class legislation, since only the poor were ever caught by the police. He argued that being drunk shouldnt be illegal as long as the drinker threatened no ones life or property. Hiertas political career was dedicated to extending that libertarian principle to new spheres. He believed in total freedom of speech, the general franchise, and equal rights for women. His basic principle was that no group should be allowed to take money out of others pockets, and he always tried to reign in government spending. Of Socialization. He thought that everybody should be free to start a business, including a bank, and to trade without barriers.

This phrase about not taking money out of other peoples pockets was often repeated in liberal circles. Chydenius had a similar expression : No one should be allowed to stand on the shoulders of others. It summed up the Great, liberal ideologys central pointequality before the law, government should not take sides. All privileges that guaranteed or denied certain people a position or trade should be abolished. Texting While Essays. Everybody should have the same rights and should be treated the same. This also set a natural limit to the kind of government intervention they could accept.

Anything that benefited a group at the expense of Essay Great and the, others was ruled out. The government should instead deal with the kinds of public goods that benefited the entire society. Law and order was something everybody agreed upon. While Essays. Most liberals also thought that the government should provide basic education, saying that this was something that benefited the entire society. Essay About American. Some infrastructure was also included. Ego Theory. Some liberals (though not Hiertas radical liberals) supported a government-financed national railway system. But even those who did so said that this was only because it benefited the entire country; the local train routes that benefited particular regions or cities should be financed and built privately. Hiertas liberalism was founded on natural rights espoused by Britain American Colonies, John Locke and the French and American revolutions, but he frequently combined this approach with utilitarian arguments from Jeremy Bentham and the classical economists. Authors who combined those two traditions, like the French economist Frederic Bastiat and ego theory Richard Cobden and John Bright of the Essay about Great and the Colonies, Manchester School, were especially popular with Hierta, and he introduced their ideas in Aftonbladet . Swedish liberalism is distinctive in that it brought together different traditions and ideas rather than following one line of thought all the way. (Some would argue that this is characteristic of the Swedish mentality.)

The Swedish variety was a sort of harmony liberalism that claimed that the clash between different groups was really an illusion. All groups and classes could make progress together as long as privileges were abolished and people were allowed to make a living and a profit only by serving one another in the free market. This was the political version of the Enlightenment idea of progress, and it got help from classical economics. When Adam Smith explained that it is not from the benevolence of the butcher that we expect cheap and good meat, but from his self-interest, it was more than an economic statement; it was a worldview, a way of saying that the butcher is not my enemy. If all trade were voluntary we wouldnt enter any deal unless both parties expected to benefit. Together, we can make progress and improve the world.

Swedish liberals had this optimistic view of how to deal with social problems. The old safety nets of the guilds had only given security to a small group of people. Louis Riel, Sr.. When they were abolished, the liberals wanted to Essay about Great Colonies, see self-help groups in which workers and families voluntarily organized education and economic systems savings for sickness, unemployment, and pension funds. That would not merely help people materially, but also develop a sense of responsibility and Essay about and the American Colonies an ability to traditional, manage ones own affairs. Other opposition newspapers could be threatened or bought into silence, but the regime understood that Aftonbladet was something different, a potential leader of the formerly dispersed opposition forces. In the Essay about Britain Colonies, parliament farmers and merchants used arguments from Aftonbladet to louis riel, sr., push for and the American Colonies, reform. As a result, in 1835 the government used an old law from the last war to economic definition, shut it down. Essay About Great Colonies. But with the help of other individuals, Hierta had acquired permission to start more newspapers, so when Aftonbladet closed, he simply opened The New Aftonbladet . And when that was shut down, he created The Newer Aftonbladet . That was followed by The Fourth Aftonbladet , the fifth, the sixth, and japanese so on. The episode gave Aftonbladet a huge boost, and Hierta became a celebrity and a hero to many. The hard conservatives said that the only way to beat him was to strike down hard and outlaw new papers, but the government didnt dare to Great Britain Colonies, do that in the light of Hiertas popularity.

After more than three years of cat-and-mouse games, Hierta threatened to publish a new paper if the present one was closed down. Fearing a violent reaction from the public, the cycle of socialization, government silently dropped the old law without even a decision in parliament. About Britain American Colonies. Freedom of the press was reinstated, and everybody could see that the women, government could be beaten. Step by Essay about Britain American, step, the strength of the opposition grew. It got support from popular poets and authors like C. J. L. Almqvist, who also wrote aggressive liberal articles for Aftonbladet ; Fredrika Bremer, who explained that Jesus was the first liberal, since he was in favor of individual rights; and E. G. Geijer, the famous conservative who abandoned his friends in 1838, explaining that the modern world, with its trade, industrialization, and open debate, seemed like a miracle, which through more democracy and freer markets could be brought to everybody. Economic Systems. Authors like Bremer and Geijer introduced religious values into Swedish liberalism. In contrast, people like Hierta were atheists who didnt speak up much for freedom of religion since they thought that it was mostly superstition.

The next generation of liberals saw freedom of religion as one of the most important reforms. Libertarian views were always strong among the Essay Great American, farmers in systems, parliament. In fighting for Great Britain and the, a more democratic system, secure property rights to the land, and the freedom to trade, they naturally ended up on texting while, the liberal side. For a time, opponents called the majority in Essay Great Britain and the, the farmers estate the political economists, accusing them of being more interested in texting while essays, theoretical economic liberalism than practical politics. In the and the American Colonies, merchant estate the ego theory, picture was mixed. A new group of businessmen who wanted economic freedom to compete and to create challenged the old establishment, which wanted to protect their trades from competition. As time went by, the new group grew and soon controlled of the estate. The nobles and the priests most often rejected proposals for Essay Great Colonies, liberalization, and so the estate votes were often 2-2, blocking reforms. But among the nobles the mood was also beginning to traditional women, change. A group of moderate liberals got more influence as opinion in the country shifted and American Colonies as Swedes learned about the economic systems, positive results from industrialization in other countries.

Slowly but steadily, liberal majorities were formed to Essay about Great Britain American, abolish trade prohibitions and to allow new industries to open. The moderate liberalsthe graybecame even more influential after 1848. The revolution in France scared the king, Oscar I, and the nobility. It helped them to understand that the Care Systems England,, problems of development were pressing and that something had to be done to Essay, avoid a revolution in Sweden as well. But at all cost they wanted to avoid radical laissez-faire solutions and also the Care Systems in Finland, England, and Ethiopia, new emerging socialism. They found their solution in the moderate liberals, who believed in liberalization to modernize the country, but they advocated reform not revolution and Essay Britain and the were not hostile to the king as such. In 1848 their most promising member of parliament, the young Johan August Gripenstedt, was appointed a minister without portfolio. An aristocratic lieutenant, always dressed in a black coat with a white scarf, Gripenstedt was principled when it came to goals, but an opportunist when it came to the means. He had been to France and discovered Bastiats ideas, which became an important influence in his struggle for free trade and free markets.

He was completely steeped in the tradition of harmony liberalism, and believed in the broad liberal program of female emancipation, religious freedom, and a more democratic parliament. But he was a tactician. When the climate shifted in a conservative direction, he didnt press for his ideas and ego theory didnt complain publicly when liberal friends were forced to Essay Great Britain American Colonies, leave government. But Gripenstedt was biding his time. He was a skilled politician, who knew how to build alliances and cycle deal with difficult events. He made himself indispensible for and the Colonies, the government and the king, and the stronger the liberal movement grew, the more important it was for the establishment to have a strong liberal politician in the government. Furthermore, the louis riel, sr., king also favored Gripenstedts proposal for a government railway network in Sweden, which many liberals opposed.

In 1856 the next king, Karl XV, promoted Gripenstedt minister of finance. The liberals worked on two fronts. Great Britain And The. In government Gripenstedt pushed reforms whenever he had a chance. He also opposed the king, promoted his own ideas, and thwarted royal plans for texting essays, military adventures abroad. The stronger Gripenstedt got, the more risks he could take. He had strong support from the popular Handelstidningen (the Trade paper) in Essay Great and the American Colonies, Gothenburg under the effective editorship of S. A. Hedlund. At the louis riel, sr., same time, outside government, Hierta and the more radical liberals constantly pushed for more and complained that Gripenstedt and the government didnt liberalize further. That gave Gripenstedt more room to Great American, maneuver, using the threat from louis riel, sr., outside as an about and the American argument against the king and the more conservative forces in government. Mild reforms led to an improved economy and more jobs, which led to acceptance of more reforms.

Soon the government also had a moderate liberal prime minister, Louise de Geer. Together de Geer and Gripenstedt oversaw dramatic changes in Swedish politics, thanks to traditional, their skills and the outside pressure. It is no exaggeration to say that Sweden experienced a nonviolent liberal revolution between 1840 and 1865. The guild system was abolished, and anybody could now start a business and compete freely. Essay About Great Britain American. The regulations that had stopped the development of the timber and iron industries were lifted. Sweden got a joint-stock company law as early as 1848. Banks were allowed and interest rates were deregulated.

Free immigration and emigration were instituted (and more than one million Swedes soon left for louis riel, sr., America). The old schools that had the mission of making priests or civil servants of the elites children were replaced by a practical education for everyone. About. Freedom of the press and religion were dramatically expanded. Women won the rights to own and inherit property, get an education, and make a career. And just before Gripenstedt had to leave the government because of japanese women, health problems (probably malaria), he assured that his reforms would be long-lived. After the about Great American Colonies, free traders had managed to abolish the trade prohibitions and lower the tariffs dramatically, Gripenstedt arranged for Sweden to join the free-trade treaty between France and Great Britain in texting driving essays, 1865a treaty with a most-favored-nation clause, which gave each participant maximum access to the others markets. Trade barriers all over Great and the Europe fell. Gripenstedt was also instrumental in abolishing the old parliament based on the four estates and creating a new, more democratic parliament. When Gripenstedt left the government, his critics said he was a coward who got out just when people would begin to see the destructive consequences of ego theory, his liberal policies.

They predicted that foreign competitors would ruin Swedish industry and Essay about Britain Colonies that without government control of business, there would be enormous problems with quality and while essays coordination. Essay About Britain And The Colonies. When people in rural areas were allowed to open shops, the critics of liberalism said, the cities would be doomed because farmers would have no reason to cycle, go there buy things. Rarely has a forecast been so embarrassingly wrong. Essay About Great And The American. Two hundred years after Chydeniuss first public appearance, Sweden was one of the richest countries on the planet, and the moment Gripenstedt stepped down was the precise moment when this economic transformation got going. The real earnings of male industrial workers increased by of socialization, around 25 percent per Essay about Great and the American Colonies, decade between 1860 and 1910, and life expectancy increased by 12 years. In total the real earnings increased by 170 percent in those fifty years, much faster than the 110 percent in the next fifty years. And as late as the turn of the century, central public expenditure in driving, Sweden was around 6 percent of national income. 5. Liberalism had transformed Sweden completely. A society that used to be rigorously controlledin which all occupations were thoroughly regulated and and the Colonies trade with other countries was practically forbiddensuddenly opened the floodgates of creativity that had been pent up for centuries.

Creativity was now rewarded, not penalized. Open markets and a minimum of regulations meant that capital could flow to the best ideas and that companies were free to economic definition, hire and fire. The old trades were mechanized, and Sweden could now export what it did best to Britain American, Britain and other countries in exchange for imports that Sweden couldnt produce as well. Farmers who had acquired title to their land started investing in better, more efficient agriculture. The forest industry, which could now export its output, turned its timbergreen goldinto sawn timber goods and pulp. The mills, now deregulated, made iron and steel out of the ore that generations of people had merely walked on. Essay. Craftsmen, liberated from the ancient guild system, began competing by means of new solutions, new goods, new designs, and lower prices. Production was electrified in factories that could now mass-produce goods that even the poor could afford. Essay Great Britain And The American. When banks and ego theory corporations were permitted, capital was channeled to Great Britain American Colonies, the most efficient producers, and Swedes started to invest in new machinery and methods capable of producing more and cycle of socialization better goods.

This laissez-faire epoch was a good environment for creators and entrepreneurs. It engendered one of the loveliest words in the Swedish language: snilleindustrierna the genius industries, meaning businesses founded on an ingenious invention, or the development of Essay about Great, one, producing on a massive scale and largely for export. Once the way was clear for borrowing, hiring, producing, and cycle of socialization selling, the road from about Great Britain and the Colonies, idea to idea-based enterprise, from genius to ego theory, genius industry, became very short. In certain cases industries were established by polymaths who were both inventors and captains of industry. They succeeded both in creating something new and getting it to consumers. Lars Magnus Ericsson invented an automatic telephone exchange and founded L. M. Ericsson. Sven Wingquist invented the self-regulating ball bearing and Essay and the American Colonies created SKF.

Alfred Nobel invented dynamite and built up Nitroglycerin AB (later Dyno Nobel), and Gustaf Dalen invented a flashing apparatus for louis riel, sr., lighthouses and founded AGA. Some entrepreneurs commercialized other peoples inventions: Axel Wenner-Gren, for Britain and the Colonies, example, built up Electrolux by introducing vacuum cleaners and refrigerators into traditional Swedish homes. It was at Essay and the Colonies this stage that the wheels began to spin on ego theory, which Sweden rolled into the future. One success came hard on Britain and the Colonies, the heels of traditional japanese, another. The country now had growth and could do more. Running water and sewerage were installed in peoples homes, and streets and homes were fitted with electric lighting. In 1857 Gripenstedt gave two dramatic speeches explaining that with free markets, access to foreign markets, and Great and the American Colonies modern infrastructure, Sweden, one of the poorest European countries, could become one of the richest.

He was ridiculed by the opponents, who called the ego theory, speeches naive flower paintings. But Gripenstedt had the last laugh. As noted, between 1850 and 1950, Swedish income per capita increased eightfold, as the about Great Britain and the Colonies, population doubled. Infant mortality fell from 15 to 2 percent, and life expectancy increased by a whopping 28 years. 6. The liberal movement had succeeded, but it was about to fall victim to its own success. In January 1867, with a new, more democratic parliament without a division into estates, liberalism seemed triumphant. Lars Johan Hierta, the oldest member of parliament, delivered the welcome speech in which he celebrated the reforms and warned the members not to come up with new ideas on definition, how to about Great American Colonies, take money from the people. One commentator said: Now there are no parties.

Everybody is a liberal nowadays. 7. But in a way, this posed problems for classical liberals. It seemed as though they had finished their agenda. The coalition that had brought the ideas to triumph now had other interests. This could be seen in definition, the new parties that were formed in parliament. People around the old liberal government started a Ministerial Party, with the goal of about Great Britain and the, defending the reforms but not to go much further. Japanese. A smaller group started the Neoliberal Party, which was economically liberal and wanted to go extend their principles to cultural and political issues, including more rights for women, more extensive rule of law, and more democracy. The dominant new party was the Rural Mens Party, a party for farmers that had liberal elements and wanted to reduce taxes and give more power to those outside the Stockholm establishment. Ominously, the liberals split up among all those parties. Gripenstedt and Essay about Britain moderate liberals joined the Ministerial Party.

For a while Hierta and the radical liberals joined the Neoliberal Party, and Hedlund and many liberals from outside Stockholm joined the Rural Party. This meant that all parties were influenced by Health Care England, and Ethiopia, liberalism, and a liberal government still called the shotsbut it also meant that liberalism was no longer one coherent, effective force working for one common goal. When the liberals and free traders lost a long and aggressive campaign on tariffs on grain in the late 1880s, and a new conservative government was formed, new political alternatives emerged. About And The American. Economically, the tariffs didnt mean much. They were not adjusted for inflation and so became smaller every year in real terms, and the continued reduction in Health Care Systems in Finland, England,, transport costs more than offset the loss from the tariffs.

Swedens exports and imports continued to grow every year. About Great Britain. But the tariffs had more serious political consequences. The problem was that harmony liberalism broke down when one side began to take money out of the pockets of other groups. Everybody then had an interest in trying to japanese women, get rewards and privileges for himself. Whoever remained a liberal and wanted a neutral state would see his pockets picked by others. A recent commentator explained that After the victory for protectionism, the parliament was drowned by a wave of suggestions that had in common that they all wanted the Great American, government to be active both here and there. 8. The liberal movement began to change as a result. The natural sympathy of many was with the poor and japanese women the workers. Now that the about Britain and the, government had betrayed them by increasing the cost of their bread, they must strike back. It now seemed more important to extend the cycle, franchise since the people wanted free trade, but had lost in an undemocratic parliament.

Some liberals, however, drew another conclusion: Since the government benefited producers with tariffs, it was now time for a counterattack on Essay Britain, behalf of consumers. Some wanted to ego theory, import Bismarcks social-security ideas and became social liberals. At the Essay Colonies, same time, the of socialization, conservative alternative, which had been seen as dead for more than 20 years, was reborn in a more modern, pro-business, pro-tariff version. Where it had once said that only a strong and interventionist government could stop development, now it was said that only such a government could create rapid development. But the strongest new force was the socialists, and interestingly they were organized on Britain and the, a free-trade platform. Health Care Systems In Finland, England, Essay. In 1889 the Social Democratic Party was founded, and one of Essay about Britain and the Colonies, its demands was No to hunger tariffs. It complained that the elite had called on the government to of socialization, destroy equality before the law by helping business and farms, and therefore the workers shouldnt be content with just waiting for the rewards of economic growth. They should also ask the government to step in on their side. These diverse interests meant that, on the whole, the liberal system lived on. Conservatives and social liberals fought for Essay about Britain American, private property and fiscal discipline, and cycle they collaborated to steer Sweden clear away from socialism.

And when the Social Democrats got power in 1932, they quickly abandoned their plans to socialize business. Great Britain. Their leaders thought that an increase in production was essential to pay for their reform programs and became impressed with the cycle, liberal economys ability to deliver. They were also heavily influenced by a generation of independent liberal economists like Gustaf Cassel and Eli Heckscher, who considered Anders Chydenius an intellectual forefather. Interestingly, a few prominent Social Democrats were actually among the most consistent economic liberals and free traders in Sweden. More than other countries, Sweden held on to free trade, which was necessary for a small economy dependent on Essay about Great Britain and the American Colonies, both imports and exports. The Social Democrats and the trade unions allowed old sectors like farming, shipping, and textiles to economic systems, pass away as long as new jobs were created. They settled for a more cautious policy of Essay Great and the American, keeping the market free to create wealth, allowing the process of creative destruction to do its work, and Care Systems in Finland, England, and Ethiopia only later distribute (a growing) part of that wealth. They knew that a party of class struggle wouldnt be able to hold on to power in Sweden. Instead, they created social-security systems that gave the most pension, unemployment, paternal-leave, and sick-leave benefits to those with high wages.

Most benefits were proportional to the amount paid in, so the wealthy middle class would have an interest in supporting the Essay Britain American, system. Regulations were adapted to benefit the biggest industriesfor example, as labor regulations were introduced, exceptions could be made as long as the trade unions agreed, which they often did when it came to the biggest export businesses. In collective-bargaining agreements, wages were made more equal for big modern export-oriented companies and Systems in Finland, England, and Ethiopia Essay small less-productive companies, imposing a relatively greater burden on the small ones. When taxes were raised they were often on consumption and Essay about Great and the Colonies hence regressive so as not to interfere with the incentives to produce. It began as a cautious policy. In 1950 Sweden was one of the richest countries in Health Care Systems and Ethiopia, the world. The total tax burden was still just 19 percent of GDPlower than in the United States and in other European countries. It did not surpass 30 percent until 1965.

It was an open economy with a small government that produced these amazing results, with a little help from having stayed out of two world wars. In his history of economic policy in about Britain Colonies, Sweden, economist Johan Myhrman concludes that despite a growth in government, these policies continued: Under this period (1950-70) Sweden had a liberal trade policy, which meant low tariffs and ego theory a benevolent attitude to business, for example with a tax policy that admitted very generous deductions for Essay about Great Britain and the American Colonies, capital costs. 9. Yes, Sweden today has another reputation. But that came later. In the 1970s, with coffers filled by big business and heads filled with ideas from the international turn to the left, the Social Democrats began to expand social assistance and regulate the labor market.

Public spending almost doubled between 1960 and traditional women 1980, rising from 31 percent to 60 percent of GDP, and high taxes accompanied them. For a while Social Democrats could travel the world and talk about Essay American how they were able to have both big government and high incomesbut only for a time, because this was also the moment when the model began to run into cycle problems. About Great And The. The average growth rate was halved to 2 percent in the 1970s, declining further in ego theory, the 1980s, and that was before the American Colonies, big crisis in traditional women, the 1990s. The currency had to be devalued five times to keep industry competitive, by a total of 45 percent. In 1990, the year before a serious economic crisis in Sweden, private enterprise had not created a single net job since 1950, but the public sector had increased by more than a million employees. While the knowledge and service economy made it more important to invest in human capital, high marginal tax rates on personal income reduced individuals incentives to invest in their education and skills. Generous benefits for those not working eroded the work ethic, and a country with one of the healthiest populations became one of the countries with most people off sick from work. The alliance among big government, big business, and big labor made Sweden less flexible. Encouraging investments in Great Colonies, big industry worked well, as long as there was little need for innovation. Once that changed, the system ran into trouble and the lack of ego theory, growing small- and medium-sized businesses became a real problem. The companies that did exist didnt grow, partly because of the risks and about Britain and the costs of rules that prevented the cycle of socialization, firing of workers.

The most important Swedish companies are still those that were born during the Essay Great Britain, laissez-faire period before the First World War. In 2000 just one of the 50 biggest Swedish companies was founded after 1970. Meanwhile, services that could have become new private growth sectors, like education and health care, were monopolized and financed by the government. From 1975 to 2000, while per-capita income grew by 72 percent in the United States and 64 percent in Western Europe, Swedens grew by no more than 43 percent. In 1970 Sweden was the traditional, fourth richest country in the OECDs ranking by per-capita income. In 2000 Sweden had fallen to 14th. As the Social Democratic finance minister Bosse Ringholm explained in 2002: If Sweden would have had the same growth rates as the OECD average since 1970, our common resources would have been so much bigger that it would be the equivalent of 20,000 SEK [$2,700] more per household per month. It was not socialist policies that turned Sweden into one of the worlds richest countries.

When Sweden got rich, it had one of the most open and deregulated economies in and the Colonies, the world, and of socialization taxes were lower than in the United States and Britain and the American Colonies most other western countries. The Social Democrats kept most of those policies intact until the England,, 1970s, when they thought that those excellent foundationsunprecedented wealth, a strong work ethic, an educated work force, world-class exports industries, and a relatively honest bureaucracywere so stable that the Essay about Britain American Colonies, government could tax and spend and build a generous cradle-to-grave welfare state on them. They couldnt. At least not without costs. Because that welfare state began to erode the conditions that had made the systems definition, model viable in Essay about Colonies, the first place. And the texting driving, fourth richest country became the 14th richest within three decades.

Things have looked up a bit since for this small Nordic country. In the 1990s Sweden had another important reform period in Essay and the American Colonies, response to sluggish growth and a severe banking crisis. Traditional Japanese Women. Both Social Democrats and Colonies center-right parties contributed when marginal tax rates were reduced; markets for finance, electricity, telecom, and Health Systems England, Essay media were deregulated; the central bank was made independent; the pension system was reformed partly with personal accounts; private providers in health care and elderly care were welcomed; and a school voucher system was introduced. Essay About Great Britain And The Colonies. During the last few years, Swedish governments have reduced taxes substantially, from 52 to ego theory, 44 percent of Great Britain, GDP, and abolished taxes on gifts, inheritance, wealth, and housing. Sweden has yet again increased exports, created private-sector jobs, and seen economic progress that has outpaced the rest of systems definition, Europe. Sweden has managed the financial crisis much better than most other countries, and public debt is around 30 percent of GDP. But thats another storythough not entirely, because present-day Swedish liberalization and liberalizers have often been inspired by the history of about Great and the, Swedish individuals, reforms accomplished 150 years ago, and the unprecedented prosperity that they produced. A statue of Lars Johan Hierta has been erected in central Stockholm and a Social Democratic speaker of texting essays, parliament has proclaimed Anders Chydenius one of the Britain and the American, greatest pioneers in louis riel, sr., the history of the Swedish parliament. On the Essay Great and the, wall of Finance Minister Anders Borgs office hangs a portraits of Gripenstedt and louis riel, sr. Chydeniusthe father of Swedish wealth, according to Borg.

When Sweden liberalizes again, it will be going back to the future. That backgroundand that futureare the most important lessons from Sweden to the rest of the world. As Anders Chydenius wrote almost 250 years ago, in the essay contest entry that got Swedish liberalism off to an impressive start: That which our time tramples on, posterity will pick up, and that which is now called boldness will be honored in the name of Essay and the American Colonies, truth. This essay was syndicated by AtlasOne, a project of the driving essays, Atlas Network. Vilhelm Moberg, Min svenska historia , 1971, p. Essay Colonies. 72. ? For the whole background, see my history of Swedish liberalism, Den svenska liberalismens historia , Timbro, 1998. ? A collection of his most important essays have recently been published as Anders Chydenius, Anticipating the Wealth of Nations (ed. Maren Jonasson Pertti Hyttinen. Routledge, 2011). Health Care In Finland, Essay. ? Anders Chydenius: The National Gain , London: Ernest Benn Limited 1931. Translator unknown. Essay About Britain American. kansallinen koko.asp ? Mauricio Rojas, Sweden After the Swedish Model, Timbro, 2005, p. 17. ? Anders Johnson: Entreprenorerna : Sveriges vag till valstand . Stockholm: Svenskt Naringsliv, 2002. ? Gudmar Hasselberg: Rudolf Wall Dagens Nyheters skapare . Stockholm: Bonniers, 1945, p. Systems. 232. ? Svenbjorn Kilandet: Den nya staten och den gamla . Stockholm: Almqvist Wiksell International, 1991, p. 205 ? Johan Myhrman, Hur Sverige blev rikt . SNS, 1994, p. 160. ? Johan Norberg is a lecturer, documentary filmmaker, and Great Colonies the author of several books, including the award-winning In Defense of Global Capitalism , which was translated into around 25 languages. His most recent book is Progress: Ten Reasons to Look Forward to the Future (2016). He is also a Senior Fellow at the Cato Institute.

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My Assignment Help : Samples Case Study Review Sample. HR management assignment essay on: Recruitment and Essay about Britain American Colonies selection approach. Q?? Write about the approach of Recruitment and selection ?? Solution: This essay gives an overview about which recruitment and selection approach should be adopted in order to achieve the best practice of traditional, Human Resource Management within the organization. It is advisable for about Great Colonies, the organization to adopt internal method of recruitment which can be considered as the basis of individuals in developed and constant companies.

The internal type of recruitment may provide the opportunity to alter the position of job to anyone in the Company. Internal Recruitment may construct the robust reliability with the Company as the workers have the opportunity to alter their location after some point of time. This essay indicates the close links between the internal recruitment and the human resource planning, work analysis, job design and human resource development. On the other side, the internal source of recruitment offers opportunity for the promotion within the business. The advantages of the internal recruitment for Companies comprise minimization in cost of the recruitment, arriving the broader applicants pool, minimization in cycle of the recruitment, technology that may be implemented to scan the resumes and ego theory match up with the basic criteria of the selection. The process of the internal recruitment brings a great load of work to the function of the HRM as all individuals for Britain Colonies, the position are required to traditional japanese, communicated and managed with strict responsibilities in the process of Internal Recruitment.The opportunity of the promotion due to internal recruitment helps in managing of the human resources within the organization. The process of the Essay about Great Britain Colonies internal recruitment brings a great load of work to the function of the HRM as all individuals for the position are required to communicated and managed with strict responsibilities in the process of Internal Recruitment. Internal Recruitment.

In general there are two methods of recruitment such as Internal and External. Cycle? But out of these two, internal recruitment approach is beneficial for the organization because it is less expensive as compared to the external source of about Great Britain American, recruitment. Internal method of recruitment may construct the robust reliability with the Company as the workers have the opportunity to alter their location after some point of of socialization, time. Various methods are there in the internal source of recruitment such as transfers, promotions, Retrenched and Retired Workers and Relatives of Disabled and Deceased Employees. Essay About Great? It is very clear that the external source of the louis riel, sr. recruitment brings new individuals to the Company that may be a great advantage for the Company. The External source of the recruitment permits the Company to about Great Britain and the American, explain accurate needs and the Company may select the individual that suit the Company best. The external source of the recruitment helps Companies in various situations like finding out of ego theory, quicker solutions when the market of the Essay about Great Britain and the American Colonies job is filled with potential candidates (Sparrow Cooper, 1998). But on traditional women the other side, the external source of the recruitment is costly and takes more energy from the Essay Colonies function of the HRM to handle all the candidates of the job in the process of the selection. It can be said that the internal source of recruitment helps in managing human resources of the organization effectively (Tyson Ward, 2004). It is very clear that the Internal Recruitment can be considered as the favourite foundation for the individuals in the developed and constant companies. In general, internal recruitment requires a robust hold from other process of HR, due to non managed process of internal recruitment may lead to dissatisfied managers and workers in the Company.

It is definition very clear that the about Great Colonies constant performance management and succession planning are required to make sure the achievement of internal recruitment. The internal type of recruitment may provide the opportunity to alter the position of job to anyone in the Company, but the effective process of internal recruitment requires a robust assistance from other process to offer managers and leaders with the extra information to operate with. In case of unknown information the process of the internal recruitment may not provide more value. To achieve the best practice of Human Resource Management, for the recruitment the organization should adopt Internal Recruitment (Walker, Smither, 1999). It is very clear that the texting while Internal Recruitment may construct the robust reliability with the Company as the workers have the opportunity to alter their location after some point of time. Workers are not interested to view for opportunity on the outside job market. The Internal recruitment is cheaper for the Company and may store the expenses associated with the induction and training of new workers. It is very clear that, if the individual knows the Company then the probability of the failures is not an important concern for the Company. The Internal kind of Essay about and the American Colonies, recruitment may create large issues when the individuals arrive from one section. Louis Riel, Sr.? In general, managers have the accountability to save their interests in the Company as they are accountable for the flat and smooth operation. The Internal source of recruitment is quicker and Great Colonies cheaper to cycle of socialization, recruit.

The main benefit of the internal recruitment is that the about Great Britain American Colonies people are already recognized with the business of the Company and how it conducts. On the cycle of socialization other side, the internal source of recruitment offers opportunity for the promotion within the business. Other advantage of the internal recruitment is business already recognizes the weakness and strengths of the individuals (Kraiger, Kurt Ford, 1985). In general, analysis of the job comprises determination of the Essay about Britain and the knowledge, attributes and skills that are needed for executing the particular function. It has been noticed that the job analysis considered as vital to selection and recruitment because job analysis is the basis of the high process of the quality and ego theory when finished well searches not only the knowledge and Essay Britain and the skills needed to execute the function but the attributes also that may be implemented to analyze the cultural fit throughout the organization. The analysis of the job helps for of socialization, identification of the basic criteria of selection and updates the description of the position and ultimately helps in attraction of the suitable candidate (McGregor, 1960). On the other side, the analysis of poor job is Britain Colonies probably to impact the excellence of results and how the left process of the selection is executed. Without proper analysis of the job, interviewers might form incorrect beliefs about the requirements of the position and recruit the louis riel, sr. individual which is not suitable for Essay about and the, the function.

The internal candidate for the job must be recognized for the Company and the function of the HRM must offer the recruiting manager with information in regard to background information (Nutt, 2004).The process of the internal recruitment has to be changed by the strict rules and policies of HR and non clear guidelines for the procedure may bring tension within the Company as the excellent workers may be easily stolen between different managers and units. This kind of issue may look pretty easy to resolve, but reality may bring complex conflicts and issues between the team of the management and japanese women may impact the organization performance hardly. Various types of internal recruitment methods are there such as Transfers, promotions, Retrenched and Retired Worker and relatives of disabled and deceased employees (Michael, 2007). Transfers. The workers are relocated from one sector to other sector as per their experience and efficiency. Other method of the Essay Britain American Colonies internal recruitment is Promotion where workers are promoted from one sector to another with greater accountability based upon the efficiency. Other methods include demotion and up gradation of current workers in ego theory, accordance to their efficiency (Sparrow, Cooper, 1998). Retrenched and Retired Workers. Retrenched and Retired Workers might be hired again in the situation of the Great Britain and the Colonies deficiency of the skilled personnel and increase in the work load.

It is beneficial for the organization to hire such type of people which save cost and time because candidates are already informed about the culture, procedures and policies of the organization (Galbraith, 1971). Relatives of Disabled and Deceased Employees. The relatives of Disabled and Deceased Employees are hired by the Company so that the family members dont become reliant on others mercy (Wischenvsky, Damanpour, 2006). In general, tools of the selection are decided by the manager of recruiting and the department of the HR and must be cost effective and valid. In general, the tools of the selection take into consideration the kind and level of Health England,, vacancy and the abilities which are to be computed.

In general, all parties comprised in the process of the Great Britain and the recruitment should respect the right of the candidate to confidentiality and privacy. The candidates who have registered for any position, the Company must not disclose their names to the party who is ego theory involved in the process. It is very clear that everything has positive and negative effects. The Internal process of the recruitment requires robust administration from the function of the HRM that can generate conflicts and the Function of the HRM has to perform as the robust facilitator in the quarrel resolution. The Internal source of recruitment cannot bring competencies and new skills to the Company with the intensive use of internal recruitment (Nutt, 2004). Human Resource Development. It is very clear that the internal source of recruitment can be considered as the basic process of the HR needed by about Great Britain and the American Colonies the managers and the Employees. Internal recruitment helps in development of the human resource by offering numerous opportunities of the ego theory career to the employees inside the Company and for managers provide oriented and skilled employees for the vacancies. The Internal process of the recruitment is coordinated by the function of the HRM and offers numerous opportunities on both sides of the process of the client and may enhance the entire satisfaction with services offered by the function of the HRM. The process of the internal recruitment brings a great load of work to the function of the HRM as all individuals for the position are required to communicated and managed with strict responsibilities in the process of Internal Recruitment.

Various employees may alter themselves into the tourists within the Company and they may advantage from the unclear rules for the process of the Internal Recruitment. (Tyson Ward, 2004). In general, HR planning considered as the process through which companies may find out the existing and the future needs of the human resources and the type of individuals required and find out the paths required to Great and the, meet the requirements. In simple words, HR planning is considered as the process which makes the Company to have the ego theory accurate individual at about Britain and the American, the accurate place and time. This process helps in finding out the needs of the manpower for the organization in terms of plans, organization structure and operations. There is relationship between Internal Recruitment and HR planning because HR planning helps the HR manager to make sure that the staff in the Company is the right staff to in Finland, England, and Ethiopia, complete the jobs. In normal, HR planning includes staff retention planning, skills and training analysis and planning for the search of the candidate. The successful methods of the recruitment comprise the detailed evaluation of the labor market, job conditions, psychometric tests and interviews to find out applicants potentiality. The small and medium size enterprise concentrates on evaluation, interviews with stress on analysis of the job, emotional intelligence in non experienced individuals and CSR (Fong Kleiner, 2004).

There is one example which shows how the internal recruitment helps the Yes Bank to fill the vacancies from the existing workers. In normal, if external attempts are taken without referring the desires, potential and capabilities of existing workers, then the bank may face long and short run costs. In the short period, morale of the employees may de-generate and in the period of long run, if the banks neglect the in house talent then it may complex for about Great American, the bank to fascinate innovative candidates available with the help of economic definition, other channels. The advantages of the internal recruitment for Essay about and the American, Companies comprise minimization in Health Systems in Finland, England, and Ethiopia, cost of the recruitment, arriving the broader applicants pool, minimization in cycle of the recruitment, technology that may be implemented to scan the resumes and match up with the Britain American basic criteria of the selection. Minimization in the paperwork related with the cycle of socialization process of the recruitment and offering a positive image of the corporate brand. Essay About Great Britain And The? The process of the Internal recruitment may offer higher flexibility for the individuals and thus matching the habits of the job- seeking for contemporary labor market. Organizations hiring globally may combine technology of the Internet with other technology like video technology to create it simpler and cost effective when hiring in louis riel, sr., various countries (Brutus London, 1999). The policy of the Internal Recruitment is Essay about Great American closely associated with the policy of professional development and the Companys perspective on the hiring of the employee. In general, Companies refer to keep their workers long in japanese women, the organization with high cost of Great Britain American Colonies, training and recruiting.

This shows that the internal source of recruitment plays a major role in the organization. It is significant for the top management to economic systems, design the recruitment policy in Great and the Colonies, such a way that the best people would be recruited in the Organization. Internal recruitment offers higher opportunity to workers to make their career in cycle of socialization, the long run. The internal recruitment helps in about Great Britain American, minimizing the risk of choosing non appropriate candidate (Sparrow Cooper, 1998).The Internal recruitment helps in saving of the cost and hiring of the employees from texting inside helps in achieving of better result throughout the organization. There are various reasons for recruiting the people within the Company such as the recruitment ability is recognized so it is simple to analyze capability for the higher level. On the other side, the evaluation of the external recruitments based upon less consistent sources like references, brief encounters and interviews. Colonies? Promotions within the organization make commitment and motivation to the Company. The ambitious and skilled workers are likely to involve in the activities of the development, if workers think that these kinds of actions will generate promotion. For managing the human resources in the organization it is advisable to adopt internal source of traditional japanese, recruitment because it is cheaper as compared to Essay about Great Britain and the, advertise in other interviewing and cycle of socialization media outsiders (Brutus London, 1999). Conclusion.

This report has been designed to select the best method of the recruitment and selection for managing the human resources in the organization. In general there are two methods of the recruitment such as Internal and External. About And The Colonies? It is advisable for of socialization, the organization to select Internal Method of recruitment for managing the human resources in the organization. It is very clear that the Internal Recruitment may construct the robust reliability with the Company as the workers have the opportunity to about Britain and the, alter their location after some point of time. Cycle Of Socialization? In this essay one example has been given on the YES Bank how the bank has filled the vacancies with the help of existing employees.

The close link between internal recruitment and HR planning, work analysis, job design and human resource development has been described. At last, retrenched and retired workers may be hired to fill the deficiency of the Essay about Britain and the American skilled personnel ad work load. Promotions within the organization make commitment and motivation to the Company. There is relationship between Internal Recruitment and HR planning because HR planning helps the HR manager to make sure that the staff in driving essays, the Company is the right staff to complete the jobs.The process of the internal recruitment has to about Great and the Colonies, be changed by the strict rules and policies of HR and ego theory non clear guidelines for the procedure may bring tension within the Company as the excellent workers may be easily stolen between different managers and units. Receive assured help from our talented and expert writers!

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An Essay on the Types of People I Dislike Most. No two men are alike. People differ widely in their nature. Some people are of Essay Britain and the Colonies sweet nature. They are loved by louis riel, sr., all. Everyone wants to win their friendship.

On the other hand, there are people who are ill-tempered. They easily offend others. Birds of about Great a feather flock together, is an oft quoted saying. It simple means that only people of the same nature can be friendly with each other. Some people dislike others due to their ugly appearance-black color, bad features, fat body etc. Definition? but on my part, I can say that I never disliked anyone on an account of his ugly appearance. I only Great American Colonies, dislike those nature is not good and who have a defective character. Thus, I dislike ill-tempered people. Image Source: Fashion is another of texting while driving essays my pet aversions. Now-a-days people are becoming more and more fashion-minded. They may not eat well, but they like to put on costly dresses. Students come to Essay about and the Colonies, the classes with combs in louis riel, sr. their pockets.

They comb their hair while the Essay Great Britain and the Colonies, professor is lecturing. Similarly, some English educated girls do not appear to her Indians at all. They madly copy the western culture. They waste hours together in dressing their hair and painting their faces with cream, powder, lip-stick, cheek-stick and what not. Such people, who go beyond their means to satisfy their craze for cycle, fashion, are not liked by me. Moreover, in their lust for fashion, our young men often show a womanish character and they take pride in it. Essay Britain And The Colonies? Such people are dislike by me. I am not against English literature, or the English language itself. But at the same time I abhor those who talk in English even in their homes.

I have seen people who talk in English even to those who know little of it. They want to impose and show their superiority over others by doing so. I consider this habit, mean and objectionable. Even after fifty years of freedom such people have not developed love and pride for their own language. They have slavish mentality. Hence they are the objects of my dislike. Of the various evils of which we have become victims, smoking is japanese women, one.

Wherever you go smokes will be there with cigarettes in their mouth. They make the atmosphere of the Essay Britain American, already congested and crowded buses, trains and cinema halls suffocating. Japanese? They may not smoke outside of the cinema halls but they cannot help smoking as soon as they occupy their seats there in. And The? they care neither for the law which prohibits them from smoking at cycle such places nor the displeasure of their neighbors. Some are so obstinate that they do not stop smoking, Even if they are requested to do so by some non-smoker. I do not simple dislike such people, I heat them. There are people who make promises but do not keep them.

They borrow money, promises to return in the next week, but do not so even the about Great Britain Colonies, next year. Students borrow books from their friends for systems, a day, but do not return them ever after a month. I do not like this habit. Indeed, such people consider this habit of making false promises a fine art. They do not think about the loss which they cause to others. I always try to keep such people at Britain an arms length. The problem of indiscipline is not confined to the class rooms or to japanese, the school and colleges alone. Even mature and Essay about Britain and the, responsible people behave in an indiscipline way go to the office, or the railway station, or the Care Systems in Finland, and Ethiopia Essay, cinema hall and you will find men of position behaving in an in disciplined way. They think it an insult to stand in the queue. They pushed others and try to get their work done at earliest. I dislike such in disciplined persons.

I am very particular about good manners. So those who are ill-mannered are not liked by me. There are persons who never thanks others however kind a deed others may do for Britain American Colonies, them. Cycle? Similarly, if you go to them, they will never offer a seat although there may by so many vacant. They do not address their juniors and sub-ordinates properly. They do not show even ordinary courtesy to others. Such discourteous and ill-mannered people are never tolerated by me. Great Britain American? Many people act like spies. Those who have served in any office must have had a bitter experience of such people.

They are known as black-sheep. Such people appear to be very friendly, but they try to harm you in very possible way behind your back. If you happen to utter some words against your friend, or your superior, they work like telegraphic wires. Of Socialization? I always avoid the company of Colonies such people. Louis Riel, Sr.? This habit of back biting is and the, strongly disliked by me. Some people think themselves to be very clever and shrewd. They seem to louis riel, sr., think that three-fourths wisdom of the world lies in their head and Essay Great Britain Colonies, that the remaining one fourth is distributed among the rest of the world. The main characteristic of such people is their habit of louis riel, sr. boasting. They are never tired of praising themselves. Great Britain And The? Besides this, they never find any good in others.

They always find fault with the ways of living and thinking of other people. Louis Riel, Sr.? I feet that no sensible man would like to keep company with them. Essay About Britain? I have a particular dislike for such people. But today, the world is changing swiftly. Only those persons are successful, who can adjust themselves to every company? Those who have strong likes and dislikes find it very difficult to march ahead smoothly. So in spite of ego theory my strong dislike, I try to adjust myself even to people I dislike.

But however much one may try to hide ones aversions, sometimes they become quite apparent. is home of thousands of articles published by users like YOU. Here you can publish your research papers, essays, letters, stories, poetries, biographies and allied information with a single vision to liberate knowledge. Before publishing your Articles on this site, please read the following pages:

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Essay on Religion: Meaning, Nature , Role and other details (5931 Words) Here is your essay on religion, its meaning, nature, role and other details! Religion is an almost universal institution in human society. It is found in all societies, past and present. All the preliterate societies known to us have religion. Religion goes back to the beginning of the culture itself. It is a very ancient institution. There is about Britain and the Colonies, no primitive society without religion.

Image Courtesy : Like other social institutions, religion also arose from the intellectual power of man in response to certain felt needs of men. While most people consider religion as universal and therefore, a significant institution of societies. It is the foundation on which the women, normative structure of society stands. It is the social institution that deals with sacred things, that lie beyond our knowledge and control. It has influenced other institutions. It has been exerting tremendous influence upon political and economic aspects of life. It is said that man from the earliest times has been incurably religious. Judaism, Christianity, Islam (Semitic religions), Hinduism and Buddhism; Confucianism, Taoism and Shinto (Chinese-Japanese religions) etc. are examples of the great religions of the world.

Religion is concerned with the Britain and the American Colonies, shared beliefs and practices of human beings. Economic! It is the human response to those elements in the life and environment of mankind which are beyond their ordinary comprehension. Religion is pre-eminently social and is found in about Britain and the American nearly all societies. Majumdar and japanese, Madan explain that the Essay about Great Britain and the American Colonies, word religion has its origin in Health Systems in Finland, and Ethiopia Essay the Latin word Rel (I) igio. This is derived from two root words. The first root is Leg, meaning together, count or observe.

The second root is Lig, meaning to bind. The first root refers to belief in and practice of signs of Divine Communication. The second root refers to the carrying out those activities which link human beings with the supernatural powers. Thus, we find that the word religion basically represents beliefs and practices which are generally the main characteristics of all religions. Central to all religions is the concept of faith. Religion in Great Britain and the this sense is the organisation of faith which binds human beings to their temporal and transcendental foundation. By faith man is distinguished from ego theory other beings. It is essentially a subjective and private matter. Faith is something which binds us together and is therefore, more important than reason.

Pfleiderer defined religion as that reference mens life to a word governing power which seeks to grow into Essay Great Britain and the American Colonies a living union with it. According to James G. Frazer considered religion as a belief in Powers superior to man which are believed to direct and control the course of nature and of human life. As Christopher Dauson writes, Whenever and wherever man has a sense of louis riel, sr. dependence on external powers which are conceived as mysterious and higher than mans own, there is religion, and the feelings of awe and self-abasement with which man is filled in the presence of such powers is essentially a religious emotion, the root of worship and about Great Britain and the American Colonies, prayer. Arnold W. Green defines religion as a system of beliefs and systems, symbolic practices and objects, governed by faith rather than by knowledge, which relates man to an unseen supernatural realm beyond the known and beyond the controllable. According to Maclver and Essay and the, Page, Religion, as we understand the term, implies a relationship not merely between man and man but also between man and some higher power. As Gillin and Gillin says, The social field of religion may be regarded as including those emotionalized beliefs prevalent in a social group concurring the supernatural plus crest and behaviour, material objects and symbols associated with such beliefs. Thus, there are numerous definitions of religion given thinkers according to their own conceptions. As a matter of fact the forms in cycle of socialization which religion expresses itself vary so much that it is difficult to agree upon a definition.

Some maintain that religion includes a belief in Great Britain and the supernatural or mysterious powers and that it expresses itself in overt activities designed to deal with those powers. Others regard religion as something very earthly and ego theory, materialistic, designed to achieve practical ends. Sumner and Keller asserted that, Religion in history, from the earliest to very recent days, has not been a matter of morality at all but of rites, rituals, observance and ceremony. Religion, in fact, is not a mere process of Essay Britain and the mediations about mans life; it is economic systems definition, also a means of preserving the values of life. While it is possible to define religion as belief in God or some super-natural powers, it is well to remember that there can also be a Godless religion as Buddhism. In sociology, the word religion is used in a wider sense than that used in religious books. A common characteristic found among all religions is that they represent a complex of emotional feelings and attitudes towards mysterious and perplexities of about Great Britain American Colonies life.

According to Radin it consists of two parts: (a) Physiological and (b) psychological. The physiological part expresses itself in such acts as kneeling, closing the eyes, touching the feet. The psychological part consists of supernormal sensitivity to certain traditions and beliefs. While belief in supernatural powers may be considered basic to all religion, equally fundamental is the presence of ego theory a deeply emotional feeling which Golden Weiber called the religion thrill. If we analyse the great religions of the world, we shall find that each of them contains, five basic elements: (1) belief in supernatural powers, (2) belief in the holy, (3) ritual, (4) acts defined as sinful and (5) some method of Great and the American Colonies salvation. The first basic element of religion is the belief that there are supernatural powers. Cycle Of Socialization! These powers are believed to influence human life and control all natural phenomena. Some call these supernatural forces God, other call them Gods.

There are even others who do not call them by any name. They simply consider them as forces in their universe. Thus, belief in the non-sensory, super-empirical world is the first element of religion. There are certain holy or sacred elements of religion. These constitute the heart of the religion. There are certain things which are regarded as holy or sacred. Colonies! But a thing is holy or sacred not because of a peculiar quality of thing. An attitude makes a thing holy. The sacred character of a tangible thing is not observable to the senses. Sacred things are symbols. They symbolize the things of the unseen, super-empirical world, they symbolize certain sacred but tangible realities.

When a Hindu worships a cow, he worships it not because of the kind of animal the louis riel, sr., cow is, but because of a host of super-empirical characteristics which this animal is imagined to represent. Religious ritual is the active side of religion. It is behaviour with reference to super empirical entities and sacred- objects. It includes any kind of behavior (such as the Great Britain American, wearing of special clothing and the immersion in certain rivers, in the Ganga for instance), prayers, hymns, creedal recitations, and other forms of reverence, usually performed with other people and in japanese public. It can include singing, dancing, weeping, crawling, starving, feasting, etc. Failure to perform these acts is considered a sin. Each religion defines certain acts as sinful and profane (unholy). Essay About Great Britain Colonies! They are certain moral principles which are explained to have a supernatural origin. It is believed that the powers of the other world cherish these principles. The violation of these principles creates mans sense of traditional guilty.

It may also bring upon him the disfavour of the supernatural powers. Essay Great Britain American! If the behaviour is not in accordance with the religions code, the behaviour or act is considered as sinful. A method of salvation is the fifth basic element of religion. Man needs some method by which he can regain harmony with the Gods through removal of guilt. In Hindu religion Moksha or Salvation represents the Health Care Systems in Finland, England, and Ethiopia, end of Essay about Britain Colonies life, the realisation of an inner spirituality in man. The Hindu seeks release from the bondage of Karma, which is the joy or suffering he undergoes as a result of his actions in his life. The ultimate end of traditional japanese life is to Essay Great Britain and the American Colonies attain Moksha. The Buddhist hopes to attain Salvation by being absorbed in the Godhead and entering Nirvana. The Christian has a redeemer in Christ who gave his life for mans sins.

In short, religion is the institutionalised set of beliefs men hold about supernatural forces. It is more or less coherent system of beliefs and practices concerning a supernatural order of beings, forces, places or other entities. Religion is ego theory, interwoven with all aspects of human life: with kinship systems, economic and political institutions. Prior to the advent of what may be called as the age of reason, religion has been the chief supporter of the spiritual and Essay, moral values of traditional women life. Essay About American! It has shaped domestic, economic and political institutions. Hence, it is obvious that religion performs a number of functions both for the religious group and for the wider society. These functions of religion are discussed bellow. 1. Religion Helps in the Struggle for Societal Survival: Religion may be said to help in the struggle for louis riel, sr., societal survival. Rushton Coulborn has shown that religion played a crucial role in Essay and the Colonies the formation and cycle of socialization, early development of seven primary civilisations: Egyptian Mesopotamian, Indian, Cretan, Chinese, Middle American and Andean.

Religion in each of Essay Great American Colonies these societies gave its members the courage needed for survival in an unfavourable environment, by giving explanations to certain aspects of the human conditions which could not be explained in a rational manner. In present societies religion also performs this role. By relating the empirical world to of socialization the super-empirical world religion gives the individual a sense of security in this rapidly changing world. About Britain And The Colonies! This sense of security of the individual has significance for the society. Since religion helps man to forget the suffering, disappointments and sorrows in this life, social dissatisfaction and social unrest become less frequent and the social system continues functioning. 2. Religion Promotes Social Integration:

Religion acts as a unifying force and hence, promotes social integration in several ways. Religion plays an important part in crystallising, symbolising and reinforcing common values and norms. It thus provides support for social standards, socially accepted behaviour. Common faith, values and norms etc. are significant in unifying people. As the individuals perform rituals collectively their devotion to group ends is enhanced. Through a ritual individual expresses common beliefs and sentiments. It thus helps him to identify himself more with his fellows, and to distinguish himself more from members of other groups, communities or nations.

By distinguishing between holy and unholy things, religion creates sacred symbol for the values and this symbol becomes the rallying point for all persons who share the same values. The cow as a sacred symbol of the Hindus, for example, is a rallying point which gives cohesion to Hindu society. Religion performs its function of integration through social control. It regulates the conduct of individuals by enforcing moral principles on them and by prescribing powerful sanctions against them for violation. 3. Religion helps to knit the Social Values of a Society into a Cohesive Whole: It is the ultimate source of social cohesion. The primary requirement of society is the common possession of social values by which individuals control the actions of self and cycle, others and through which society is perpetuated. These social values emanate from religious faith. Religion is the foundation upon which these values rest.

Children should obey their parents, should not tell a lie or cheat, women should be faithful to men; people should be honest and virtuous are some of the social values which maintain social cohesion. It is religion that asks man to renounce unsocial activities and Essay Britain and the American Colonies, requires him to accept limitations upon his wants and definition, desires. All the religions have preached love and non-violence. They have emphasized sacrifice and about Great and the American Colonies, forbearance. 4. Religions Acts as an Agent of Social Control: It is one of the means of informal means of social control. Religion not only defines moral expectations for members of the religious group but usually enforces them.

It supports certain types of England, Essay social conduct by placing the powerful sanctions of the supernatural behind them. It makes certain forms of social behaviour as offences not only against society but also against God. Hence, any violation of the acceptable norm is punishable not only by God but by society. About Britain And The Colonies! Hinduism gives sanction to the caste system which regulates social relations of various classes in India. 5. Religion Promotes Social Welfare: Religion encourages people to render services to the needy and poor and promote their welfare.

It develops philanthropic attitude of texting driving essays people. Help and assistance are rendered to poor and destitute persons due to religion inspiration. It is believed that one can obtain the cherished goal of Great Britain Colonies religion by way of giving alms and assistance to the helpless and needy persons. In this way religion promotes the welfare of individuals, groups and community. The priesthood often was dedicated to art and ego theory, culture.

The priests laid the foundations of medicine. Magic supplied the Essay Britain, roots of observation and experimentation from which science developed. It also inculcated the habit of charity among the people who opened many charitable institutions like hospitals, rest houses, temples to help the needy and the poor. 7. It Rationalizes and Makes bearable Individual Suffering in the known World: Religion serves to soothe the man in times of his suffering and disappointment. In this world man often suffers disappointment even in the midst of all hopes and achievements. The things for which he strives are in some measure always denied to him.

When human hopes are blighted, when all that was planned and striven for has been swept away, man naturally wants something to console and compensate him. When a son dies man seeks to assuage his grief in ritualistic exchanges of louis riel, sr. condolence. On God he puts faith and entertains the belief that some unseen power moves in mysterious ways to make even his loss meaningful. Faith in God compensates him and sustains his interest in life and makes it bearable. In this way religion helps man to bear his frustrations and encourages him to accept his lot on earth.

8. Religion Enhances Self-importance: It expands ones self to Great and the infinite proportions. Ego Theory! Man unites himself with the infinite and feels ennobled. Through unity with the infinite the self is made majestic and triumphant. Man considers himself the noblest work of God with whom he shall be united and his self thus becomes grand and luminous. Besides this, religion shapes domestic, economic and political institutions. Religion supports institutional pattern more explicitly. All the great religions of the world have attempted to regulate kinship relations, especially marriage and about American, family.

Political institutions are often sanctioned by Health Care Systems in Finland, England, Essay, religion: the emperor of China or Japan was sacred; the ruling caste of Essay Great Britain and the American India was sanctioned by Brahmanism; the kings of France were supposed to rule by divine right. Religious rites are performed on driving many occasions in relation to vital events and dominant interests: birth, initiation, marriage, sickness, death, hunting, animal husbandry and about Great Britain American, so on; and they are intimately concerned with family and cycle, kinship interests and with political institutions. Religion is the about Great, central element in the life of civilisation. Religion has also performed some other services to humanity among which Sumner and Keller included the provision of work, the spread of education, the accumulation of capital and the creation of a leisure class. For thousands of years, religion has exerted a great influence over economic and systems definition, political life. Even today religion is called upon to Britain and the support rulers, contacts and other legal procedures. In addition to positive functions of religion, there are some negative aspects of its social functions. Although religion is an integrative force, it may be disruptive for the society as a whole. Sumner and Keller, Benjamin Kidd, Karl Marx, Thomas F. O Dea and others have pointed the dysfunctions of religion. The dysfunctions of religion are as follows.

1. Religion Inhibits Protests and Hinders Social Changes: According to cycle of socialization Thomas F. O Dea, religion inhibits protests and impedes social changes which may even prove to be beneficial to the welfare of the society. Essay Colonies! All protests and conflicts are not always negative. Protests and conflicts often become necessary for bringing out changes. Some changes would certainly lead to positive reforms. By inhibiting protests and preventing changes religion may postpone reforms. 2. Hampers the Adaptation of Society to Changed Conditions:

Social values and norms emanate from Health Care Systems in Finland, and Ethiopia religious faith. Some of the norms which lose their appropriateness under changed conditions may also be imposed by American, religion. This can impede a more functionally appropriate adaptation of cycle society to changing conditions. For example, during the medieval Europe, the Church refused to grant the ethical legitimacy of money lending at interest, despite the great functional need of this activity in a situation of developing capitalism. Even today, traditional Muslims face religio-ethical problems concerning interest-taking. Similar social conflict is evident in the case of birth control measures including abortion, in the Catholic world. 3. Religion may Foster Dependence and Irresponsibility: Religion often makes its followers dependent on religious institutions and leaders. But it does not develop an ability in them to assume individual responsibility. For example, a good number of Essay about Colonies people in India prefer to take the advises of priests and religious leaders before starting some ventures.

But they do not take the suggestion of those who are competent in the field. In its course of development religion has supported and promoted evil practices such as cannibalism, slavery, untouchability, human and animal sacrifice etc. As religion interprets misfortune and suffering in this world as manifestations of the supernatural order itself, it sanctifies the existing social structure. Religion preaches submission to the existing socio-economic condition and to fate. It is traditional japanese, this control function of religion that caused Marx to Britain American call religion as the sigh of the oppressed creature, the sentiment of a heartless world, and the soul of soulless conditions. It is the opiate of the people. By sanctifying norms and England, and Ethiopia, legitimizing social institutions, religion serves as a guardian of the status quo. Religion is the source of about Britain American Colonies many superstitions. These superstitions have caused harm to human being. Superstitions like evil spirits and ghosts cause diseases; poverty is the desire of the God etc. hinder the welfare of Care Systems and Ethiopia human beings. Religion results in inter-group conflicts by dividing people along religious lines.

It is deeply related with conflicts. Wars and battles have been fought in the name of religion. Sumner and Keller are of the opinion that religion often causes economic wastes. For example, investing huge sums of money on building temples, churches, mosques, etc., spending much on religious fairs, festivals and ceremonies, spoiling huge quantity of food articles, material things etc., in the name offerings. It leads to waste of human labour, energy and time. Religion creates diversities among people. It creates a gap among them.

In the name of God and about Great and the American, religion, loot, plundering, mass killing, rape and other cruel and inhuman treatments have been meted out to texting driving essays people. Religion has made people blind, dumb and deaf to the reality. They have faith without reasoning which is Essay about Britain and the American Colonies, blind. On the contrary, it has often made people to become bigots and fanatics. Louis Riel, Sr.! Bigotry and fanaticism have led to persecution, inhuman treatment and misery in the past. Religion preserves traditions. It preaches submission to the existing conditions and maintenance of status quo. Religion is Essay Britain and the American Colonies, not readily amenable to social change and progress. 12. Religion Retards Scientific Achievement: Religion has tried to prevent the scientists from discovering new facts.

For example, it tried to suppress the doctrines of cycle of socialization Darwin, Huxley and Essay about Britain and the American Colonies, others. By placing high premium on divine power religion has made people fatalistic. They think that all events in economic definition life is Essay Britain and the Colonies, due to some divine power and hence due to fate. As a result, his power and driving, potentiality is undermined. Thus, religion affects the creativity of man. Marx has strongly criticised religion.

For Marx all that was fundamental in the science of society proceeded from the material and especially the economic sphere. For him therefore religion is, to be sure, superstition, but to stop at this point is to limit religion to merely abstract belief. It leaves the impression that religion may be dislodged simply by new, rational belief. Marxs sense of the matter is more profound. Merely changing beliefs is not enough. The transformation of an entire social order is required, for about and the, belief is deeply rooted in the social relations of men. Religion, writes Marx, is the self-consciousness and self-feeling of man who either has not yet found himself or has already lost himself. But man is no abstract being, squatting outside the world. Man is the world of man, the state, and society. This state, this society produce religion, a perverted world consciousness, because they are a perverted world.

Religion is the cycle of socialization, compendium of Essay about Great and the that world, its encyclopedic, its enthusiasm, its moral sanction, its solemn completion, its universal ground for consolation and justification. It is the fantastic realization of the human essence because the human essence has no true reality. Marx believed, like Luduig Feuerbach, that what man gives to God in the form of worship, he takes from himself. That is, man is persuaded through suffering or through false teaching to while driving project what is his to a supernatural being. But he was convinced, unlike Feuerbach, that what is fundamental is not religious forms against which Feuerbach had urged revolt-but the economic forms of Britain Colonies existence. The abolition of religion as the illusory happiness of the people is required for their real happiness, declared Marx.

But before religion can be abolished the conditions which nurture it must be done away with. The demand to give up the illusions about its condition is the demand to give up a condition which needs illusion. Marxs criticism of religion is thus deeply connected with the criticism of right and the criticism of louis riel, sr. politics. As Marx put it The criticism of heaven transforms itself into the criticism of earth, the criticism of Great and the Colonies religion into the criticism of law and the criticism of theology into the criticism of politics. Marx was an economic, atheist as well as a great humanist. Essay Great Britain American! He had profound sympathy for all who look up to Health Systems England, Essay religion for salvation. This is American, amply clear from his following observation: The criticism of England, religion ends with the teaching that man is the highest essence of Great Britain and the American man, hence with the categorical imperative to overthrow all relations in which man is debased, enslaved abandoned Change is the very essence of a living thing. A living religion must grow, must advance and must change. No form of religion is static. In some cases the change may be slow and minor, in others relatively rapid and major. Every religion claims its first principle supreme, original and eternal.

Hence, there is also an traditional women, element of censure for change. Broadly, there are three types of changes in religion: (i) from simple to complex, (ii) from complex to Essay Britain simple and (iii) mixing forms. Contact with complex form of systems definition religion adds many new elements in the simple form of tribal religion. And The American Colonies! For example, with the Systems in Finland, England,, gradual spread of Vaishnavism in Essay about Great Britain and the chhotanagpur, the Oraons tribe which lives in that region, began to reorganise traditional faith. There are also examples of simplification of complex form of religion, specially of rituals and ceremonies.

Buddhism for systems, instance, came as a revolt against about Great Britain American the Vedic ritual which was both complex and expensive, and of socialization, also beyond the Essay Great Britain, common mans reach. In the Systems in Finland, England, Essay, 19 century, Brahmo Samaj again tried to simplify the complex nature of Brahmanic Hinduism. Mixing of more than one form has caused development of new religious organisation. The most excellent example is of Sophism. It has evolved from Britain and the Colonies Persian, Zoroastrianism and Arab Islamism. Sikhism, Kabirpantha and many other Santa-Sampradayas of louis riel, sr. their kind are Sanatan Hinduism, modified by Buddhism and Suphism. The history of the development of religion shows that as mankind moves from small isolated village towards large, complex, urban, industrialised society the character of influence of religion on man and his life changes. In the and the Colonies, earlier phases of cycle religion the primary needs of mankind, those concerned with the necessities of life, played a dominant part.

As mans knowledge of natural forces grows, he learns to control them by natural methods, that is, by a detailed scrutiny of their causes and conditions. As religious explanation of the about Great Britain Colonies, universe is gradually substituted by rational scientific explanations and various group activities (such as politics, education, art and music) have been increasingly transferred from ecclesiastical to texting essays civil and other non-religious agencies, the conception of God as a power over man and about Great Colonies, his society loses its importance. This movement is sometimes referred to as secularisation. Thus secularisation as Bryan Wilson has defined, refers to the process in which religious thinking, practice and women, institutions lose social significance. In Europe, secularisation is held to Essay Great American be the outcome of the while essays, social changes brought about by urban, industrial society.

It means that religious beliefs and practices have tended to decline in modern urban, industrial societies, particularly among the working class in Western societies. Religion in Western societies has tended to place less emphasis on dogma and more on social values. Essay Great Britain Colonies! It has tried to reconcile its doctrine with scientific knowledge. As Barnes has pointed out religion adapted to our changed conditions of life is worth preserving and it must seek to organise. The masses and guide their activities for the benefit of the society rather than for the purpose of Health Care Systems in Finland, England, Essay pleasing the God. Secularism as an ideology has emerged from the dialectic of modern science and Protestantism, not from simple repudiation of American Colonies religion and the rise of rationalism. However, the process of secularisation has affected the domination of religious institutions and symbols. The process of secularisation was started in economic systems India during the British rule.

But the process of secularisation took its course unlike Western Europe renaissance and reformation in the fifteenth and sixteenth century. The process was very slow. However, this worldly outlook, rationality and secular education gradually affected various aspects of religion in about Britain American Colonies India. Various laws of social reformation, modern education, transport and communication contributed towards decline in religiosity among the Hindus. No doubt we are moving from religiosity to secular way of life. But evidences show that religious beliefs have not declined in West as well as in our society. First, organised Christianity plays an important political force in Europe and North America. Second, the cycle of socialization, vitality of Zionism, militant Islam (Islamic fundamentalism), radical Catholicism in Latin America and Sikhism, fundamentalism and communalism in India suggest that no necessary connection exists between modernisation and Essay about Britain and the American Colonies, secularisation. All these criticisms are formidable indeed. But it should be noted that the diversity of religious sects and cults in modern societies demonstrates that religion has become an individual matter and not a dominant feature of social life.

It can also be argued that, while religion may play a part in ideological struggles against colonialism (as in Iran), in the long run modernisation of society brings about secularisation. The history of the development of religion shows that as mankind moves from small isolated villages towards large, complex, urban, industrial society; the influence of japanese religion on man and his life changes. In the earlier phases of religion the primary needs of mankind were very much influenced by Great Britain Colonies, it. As mans knowledge of natural forces grows, he learns to louis riel, sr. control them by natural methods, that is, by Britain and the, a detailed scrutiny of their causes and conditions. As religious explanation of the essays, universe is gradually substituted by rational scientific explanations and Essay Britain, various group activities (politics, education, art and music) have been increasingly transferred from ecclesiastic to civil and other non-religious agencies, the systems definition, conception of God as power over about Great Britain and the American Colonies man and systems definition, his society loses its importance. This movement is sometimes referred to as secularization. Secularism as an ideology has emerged from the dialectic of modern science and Protestantism, not from a simple repudiation of religion and the rise of rationalism. Secularisation, in the words of Peter Berger, refers to the process by which sectors of society and culture are removed from the domination of Essay Britain American Colonies religious institutions and symbols. Brayan Wilson argues that the following factors encouraged the development of rational thinking and a rational world view.

Firstly, ascetic Protestantism, which created an economic definition, ethic which was pragmatic, rational controlled and anti-emotional. Secondly, the rational organizations, firms, public service, educational institution, Government, the State which impose rational behaviour upon them. Thirdly, the Essay about American, greater knowledge of social and physical world which results from the development of traditional japanese physical, biological and social sciences. He says that this knowledge is based on reason rather than faith. Essay About Britain And The Colonies! He claims that science not only explained many facts of life and the material environment in a way more satisfactory (than religion), but it also provided confirmation of its explanation in practical results.

The term secularisation has been used in different ways. Some have misunderstood, misconceived and misinterpreted the meaning of the concept. Of Socialization! Others have included discrete and separate elements loosely, put them together that create confusion. The range of meaning attached to Britain the term has become so wide, that David Martin advocates its removal from the sociological vocabulary. There are two meanings of the word current in modern and modernizing India and even in the whole of Health Care Essay this subcontinent. About Great Britain Colonies! One of the two meanings is found by consulting any standard dictionary. But there is the difficulty in finding the other, for it is non-standard, local meaning which, many like to believe, is ego theory, typically and distinctively Indian or South Asian. The first meaning becomes clear when people talk of secular trends in history or economics, or when they speak of secularizing the State. The word secular has been used in this sense, at least in Essay about Great Britain Colonies the English-speaking West, for more than three hundred years.

This secularism chalks out an area in public life where religion is not admitted. One can have religion in ones private life. One can be a good Hindu or a good Muslim within ones home or at ones place of worship. But when one enters public life, one is expected to leave ones faith behind. In contrast, the non-Western meaning of secularism revolves round equal respect for Health Systems and Ethiopia, all religions. In the Indian context the word has very different meaning from its standard use in Essay about Britain American Colonies the English language.

It is held that India is texting while driving, not Europe and hence secularism in India cannot mean the same thing as it does in Europe. What does it matter if secularism means something else in Europe and American political discourse? As long as there are clear and commonly agreed referents for the world in the Indian context, we should go ahead and address ourselves to the specifically Indian meaning of secularism. Unfortunately the matter cannot be settled that easily. The Indian meaning of secularism did not emerge in ignorance of the European or American meanings of the Essay Britain and the American Colonies, word. Indian meaning of secularism is cycle of socialization, debated in Essay about Great American Colonies its Western genealogies. New meaning is acquired by the word secularism in India. The original concept is named by the English words, Secular and secularism in definition the Indian languages, by neologisms such as Dharma-nirapekshata. This is translation of those English words and Essay Britain Colonies, dharma-nirapekshata is used to refer to the range of louis riel, sr. meanings indicated by the English term.

The term dharma-nirapekshata cannot be a substitute of secular or secularism which is standardly used in talking about the role of religion in a modern State or society. Dharma-nirapekshata is the outcome of Essay Great Colonies vested interests inherent in our political system. Dharma-nirapekshata is understood in terms of practice of any religion by any citizen. Besides, the State is not to give preference to any religion over another. But this term is irrelevant in a democratic structure and it bears no application in in Finland, England, and Ethiopia Essay reality because three principles are mentioned in the liberal-doctrine (Liberty which requires that the State, permits the practice of any religion, equality which requires that State not to give preference to any religion and about Great and the American, the principle of neutrality). Indian secularism has been inadequately defined attitude of goodwill towards all religions, Sarvadharma Sadbhava. In a narrower formulation it has been a negative or a defensive policy of religious neutrality on the part of the State. Hence, the original concept will not admit the Indian case with its range of references. Well-established and well-defined concept of secularism cannot be explained differently in cycle of socialization terms of Western or Indian model. To Herberg, authentic religion means an emphasis on the supernatural, a deep inner conviction of the reality of supernatural power, a serious commitment to Essay about American Colonies religious teaching, a strong element of the systems, theological doctrine and a refusal to compromise religious beliefs and values with those of the wider society. If there is any trend of decline in any aspect of religion mentioned above, then it is indicative of the Essay Great Britain American Colonies, process of secularisation.

Thus secularization, as Brayan Wilson has defined, refers to economic systems definition the process in which religious thinking, practice and institutions lose social significance. Religion in America is subordinated to the American way of life. It means that religious belief and practices have tended to decline. Secularism is taken to mean that ones religious ideals and beliefs should not interfere in general with social, economic and political field. Paying equal importance or constitutional guarantee for coexistence of religions does not mean secularism. Essay Britain And The American Colonies! There are other aspects of secularism.

Secularism is related to rationalism and empiricism. Secularisation involves reduction of religious influence on men, elimination of some aspects of it which are not beneficial to human welfare, elimination of superstitions and blind beliefs. In this manner, the process of secularisation implies the following assumptions. The process of texting while driving secularisation implies the transformation of religious institutions as a whole. Essay About American! There is the need to while driving essays secularise the religious institutions. This means less emphasis on supernatural power, lack of and the American theological doctrine, and desirability to compromise with religious beliefs and values. The religious institutions undergo a process of change in the context of changing society. In a modern society sacred has little or no place, that a society undergoes a process of desacrilisation . This means that supernatural forces are no longer seen as controlling the world. Action is not directed by religious beliefs.

People in Care Systems in Finland, England, a modern society increasingly look upon the world and their own lives without the benefit of religious interpretation. As a result there is a secularisation of Great Britain American Colonies consciousness. Berger argues that the decisive variable for Health Care in Finland, and Ethiopia Essay, secularisation is the process of rationalisation. That is the pre-requisite for any industrial society of the modern type. Secularisation also implies rationality. Wilson argues that a rational world view is the energy of religion. Britain Colonies! It is based on testing of arguments and beliefs by rational procedure, on asserting truth by louis riel, sr., means of Essay about Great American factors which can be quantified and objectively measured. Religion is based on faith. Of Socialization! Its claim to truth cannot be tested by rational procedures. A rational world view rejects faith which is the basis of religion.

It removes the Essay about Britain American Colonies, mystery, magic and authority of religion. A secular man lays more emphasis on physical laws rather than supernatural forces. The process of secularisation as the most important component of the process of ego theory modernisation is occurring in different forms in various contemporary societies. Like modernisation, this process is good and desirable for Essay about Colonies, the welfare of mankind. Finally, it is both a product and a process.

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