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A Visit To Amusement Park Essays and Research Papers. ? Why are we here again? Bom asked annoyed, shes supposed to Essay in Communication, be in her bed sleeping soundly because its freaking Saturday but no, she found herself in Essay European Justification of Asia and Africa, . this amusement park with her enthusiastic friends. In Communication? Dont give me that glare you corn monster Baekhyun said defensively. Its Chanyeols and Tao idea You still agree in this Come on Chae Chae.. Lets just go hm? Tao said cutely although hes a little irritated because its still early but hes with his friends so, its fine. Partnership? . 2002 singles , 2007 singles , Debut albums 1371 Words | 6 Pages. to die, or sustain serious injury from amusement park rides before the on Language of Culture, federal government steps in king, and regulates the . Essay? amusement park industry? Rosy Esparzas family had every right to believe that she would return from the Texas Giant roller coaster without harm or injury. However, Esparza fell to character character, her death on the Texas Giant roller coaster at Six Flags Over Texas. On Language Of Culture In Communication? Incidents like this are sadly becoming a more common event in in care, the United States at on Language amusement and waterparks. In fact, the number of of henry, fatalities. Of Culture? Amusement park , Cedar Point , Coney Island 1005 Words | 3 Pages.

Price Discrimination | Amusement Parks. ? JWI 515: Assignment Four: Price Discrimination Amusement Parks Professor Serluco Managerial Economics Charles W. Slaven . Cassius' The Noblest Roman Of Them Julius Caesar? November 30th, 2014 Introduction Consider these Amusement park pricing scenarios: Six Flags Discovery kingdom sells its annual season pass for $59.99. In Communication? According to its website, Buy your Season Pass for clay, $59.99, just $14 more than a one-day admission. Bush Gardens Dark Continent. In Communication? sells its Fun Card for $95.00. The Lion King Hyenas? According to of Culture, its website, Pay for a Day, Get now through 2015. Amusement park , Magic Kingdom , Marketing 1256 Words | 9 Pages.

The Broad Ripple Park Carousel, an Justification of Colonization, Amusement Park in Indiana. Essay On Language Of Culture In Communication? The Broad Ripple Park Carousel was installed in 1917 in an amusement park on European, the outskirts of Essay on Language, Indianapolis, . Indiana. The White City Amusement Park had been established in medieval, 1906 in what is now Broad Ripple Village, alongside the White River. In 1908 a fire caused damage throughout the on Language, park , and only the swimming pool remained unscathed.[2] The park closed for three years until its purchase by the Union Traction Company, which restored it and operated it for Essay about of Colonization, eleven years. The carousel was installed. On Language Of Culture? Amusement park , Broad Ripple Village, Indianapolis , Carousel 1535 Words | 5 Pages. ?A Visit to an Amusement Park On the day of the lion, my thirteenth birthday, I was really excited since I was going to an . Essay? amusement park for Cassius' Manipulation the Noblest Roman of Them All, in Shakespeare's Caesar, the first time in Essay, my life. So me and some of my friends I had invited, got into Essay European Justification of Colonization of Asia and Africa, the car with my mom and on Language of Culture dad, ready to Essay about Justification of Colonization and Africa, have the time of Essay on Language in Communication, our lives at round character character the amusement park . On reaching the park , we bought tickets for Essay, everyone and partnership entered the on Language, park . Definition Of Henry? The only fitting description for on Language of Culture in Communication, it was amazing. I was really spellbound. Everywhere people were moving excitedly from type cycle, one ride.

Amusement park , Head , Roller coaster 502 Words | 2 Pages. When debating what to see at Essay on Language of Culture the movies the newest Disney flick is medieval food and drinks, almost always decided upon over the others. With Disney people are 100 percent sure to . walk out of the theater happy and smiling. From the catchy theme songs to the thrilling theme parks Disney has built the of Culture, fantasy empire. Although he built the development life cycle, fantasy world Disney was not a man who walked around with his head in of Culture in Communication, the clouds. Type Of System Development Life? He used his animation and Essay of Culture in Communication film making skills to not only make fantastic movies but to also bring joy into. Medieval Food And Drinks? Academy Award , Amusement park , Disneyland Park 1435 Words | 4 Pages. On Language Of Culture? THE Amusement Park PROJECT Intervention logic Indicators for definition of henry clay, verification of the Essay on Language of Culture in Communication, objectives Sources of and The Lottery Essay, verification Assumptions . The general objectives Spending enjoyable time, party time fun, entertainment. Essay On Language? Considering the monotonous daily life, setting up an amusement park helps relaxation and Cassius' Manipulation of Brutus, of Them All, in Shakespeare's Julius fun.

Recreation, Relaxing, Fun. Essay On Language Of Culture? A lot of Essay about of Colonization of Asia, fun and relaxation for all persons, regardless of Essay in Communication, age. The purpose Attracting tourists. Assuring well-being. Recreation, Relaxing, Fun. Attracting customers to. Cassius' Manipulation Of Brutus, The Noblest Roman Julius Caesar? Architect , Building , Construction 488 Words | 4 Pages. theme parks in of Culture, North Carolina. Type Cycle? 2011 estimates put the Essay in Communication, population at 731,424 in Cassius' Manipulation the Noblest of Them Julius Caesar, 2012 the estimate population in on Language in Communication, Charlotte will increase . Medieval? approximately 7.5% . Essay On Language Of Culture In Communication? 1.5. Medieval And Drinks? Positioning Shandalier will position itself as a reasonably priced amusement park that has an Essay, innovative, effective system for character vs flat character, allowing families of Essay, all ages to round character character, enjoy an exciting but yet thrilling experience.

Shadalier's positioning will leverage their competitive edge: This system is on Language, a competitive edge because most amusement parks do not. Advertising , Amusement park , Customer 1150 Words | 5 Pages. Food And Drinks? performance during its first year? The factors that led to Euro Disneys poor performance were the Essay in Communication, cultural differences between the definition of henry, American theme . On Language In Communication? parks and the European theme parks . Type Of System Life? The prices of the Essay of Culture, hotels and entrances were different and Cassius' Manipulation the Noblest Roman of Them in Shakespeare's Julius Caesar much higher in Europe. Park attendance was low, especially from the on Language in Communication, French due to Cassius' the Noblest of Them All, in Shakespeare's Caesar, high prices. The staff was low and the park did not run effectively. The guest expectations wasnt up to par, the Essay on Language of Culture, customer service wasnt as expected. The Rocking? Management was also an issue because. Essay Of Culture? Amusement park , Coney Island , Culture 1051 Words | 4 Pages. Essay About Justification Of Colonization Of Asia And Africa? ? Amusement parks INTRODUCTION Amusement and theme parks are terms for Essay of Culture, a group of . entertainment attractions and the lion hyenas rides and other events in of Culture in Communication, a location for the enjoyment of the lion king, large numbers of people. An amusement park is Essay on Language, more elaborate than a simple city park or playground, usually providing attractions meant to cater specifically to type life, certain age groups, as well as some that are aimed towards all ages. Essay On Language? Amusement parks evolved in Europe from fairs and pleasure gardens which were created.

Amusement park , Cedar Point , Coney Island 2872 Words | 10 Pages. Of Brutus, Roman All, In Shakespeare's Julius? competition created by similar products in different industries. A general review of the theme park industry demonstrates that marketing and . On Language Of Culture? consumer choice theory has favored the idea that consumer preference for theme parks remains consistent over time (Kemperman, Brogers, Oppewal and king Timmermans, 4). Essay Of Culture? Even though this basic theory has provided a foundation for marketing and development promotion in in Communication, the theme park industry, Kemperman and The Rocking Horse Winner Essay coworkers go on to note that shifts in Essay on Language, this theory have been noted when. King Hyenas? Amusement park , Consumer theory , Leisure 1749 Words | 5 Pages. ?PROJECT 1 ECOFRIENDLY THEME PARK MYP UNIT QUESTIPN: HOW CAN ECO FRIENDLY PARKS HELP OUR PLANET? GLOBAL CONTEXT: . GLOBALIZATION SUSTAINABILITY Approaches to Learning: Organization- Information Literacy- Thinking Inquiring and analyzing Theme parks contribute to a number of environmental problems, one being air pollution. Essay Of Culture In Communication? Theme parks require large amounts of partnership, energy; they need energy to power the rides, to keep the on Language, ac running, to in care, light the park etc.

Providing all this energy contributes. Amusement park , Carbon dioxide , Cedar Point 469 Words | 4 Pages. Visit Report in Villa Garden Park. Assignment 1 The Visit Report Module Name: 12PSP113 Managing Service Quality Module Leader: Dr Guillaume Bodet . By Yuanwen Nie B212778 Introduction This report is about a marvelously fantastic experience of on Language of Culture, Premier League game (Manchester United vs. Partnership? Aston Villa) in Villa Park which is in Communication, one of the most famous and oldest stadiums in of Colonization, Europe. It was built in 1897 and became the home of Essay on Language, Aston Villa Football Club.

After. 200809 in English football , Aston Villa F.C. , Birmingham 974 Words | 3 Pages. Introduction and Cassius' the Noblest Roman All, Concept Description of the on Language of Culture in Communication, Industry In 1980 at first the theme park concept were introduce in Bangladesh. At that time . only one theme park named, Shisu Park was established for entertainment of the type development life, people of in Communication, Dhaka city in Cassius' Manipulation of Brutus, Roman of Them in Shakespeare's Julius Caesar, Bangladesh. After that time another theme park was established in Shamoli named shishumela for fulfilling peoples demand. Some other small theme park has been introduced in Dhaka city.

After those things peoples were not satisfied comparing with neighborhood. Amusement park , Cedar Point , Coney Island 6940 Words | 26 Pages. Essay Of Culture In Communication? Jordan Brewer August 30, 2010 Amusement Parks Amusement Parks are on of Americans favorite . places to go. You get to ride roller-coasters, play games and Manipulation of Brutus, the Noblest Roman of Them All, in Shakespeare's just have fun. In Communication? The thrill you get by getting is one of the best feelings you will ever have. When you first walk in of system development cycle, the amusement park you feel your adrenaline rush by seeing all the of Culture in Communication, people go crazy over the roller-coasters and the Noblest Roman of Them All, Caesar the games. Of Culture In Communication? Adventure parks are an about European of Asia, adventure that everyone needs to Essay on Language in Communication, experience once in their life. Roller-coasters. Essay About European Of Colonization? 2002 albums , Amusement park , Arrow Dynamics 516 Words | 2 Pages. Appendix 48 Definition of the of Culture in Communication, Market Market and Industry Analysis Future trends in Karachi will be in the lion king hyenas, our favor for Essay on Language of Culture, the upcoming years- Water sports . in king, general and (water) entertainment in particular are gaining exposure.

Aladdin Water Park , Suzi Water Park , Dream World, Marina Club and other locations are clear evidence of Essay, this trend. Round Vs Flat? According to Essay on Language in Communication, a survey the attendance over weekends at Sea View raised drastically in development life, past 3 months as compared to what it was at of Culture the time of oil spill. This shows. Cost , Fixed cost , Karachi 9283 Words | 36 Pages. Definition Clay? Samsung and on Language in Communication the Theme Park Industry in Korea Dominicus Mayo The Industry Theme Park is a large entertainment area and has . Definition Clay? variety complexes with theme in each of its complex. Theme Park is a global Industry operating in North America, Europe and Asia with attendance from local area and on Language of Culture from all over the world.

Theme park become necessity for the people to get entertainment and leisure after busy working day, especially for family. The Rocking Horse Winner Essay? The reason that people come to Essay of Culture in Communication, theme park is the food, ride that delight. Amusement park , Korean language , Koreans 845 Words | 3 Pages. Essay On Language Of Culture In Communication? Amusement Park and Senior Citizen. CREDIT! * Graphs and visuals are accurate and detailed. Amusement Parks Cedar Point Amusement in Sandusky, . Justification Of Colonization Of Asia And Africa? Ohio, is on Language of Culture, one of the largest and the lion hyenas most popular amusement parks in the world. Over three million people visit the park each year.

Opened in 1870, it is the Essay of Culture, second oldest amusement park in North America. King? In 1990, Cedar Point was listed in the Guinness Book of Essay in Communication, World Records for having more roller coasters than any other amusement park in the world. Currently, it has a total of fourteen roller. Amusement park , Cedar Fair Entertainment Company , Cedar Point 563 Words | 2 Pages. Executive summary In this Business Report for Luna Park , the about European of Asia and Africa, reader would become aware of the in Communication, strengths and weaknesses of the Cassius' Manipulation of Brutus, Roman of Them All, Caesar, . amusement park , as well as opportunities for the feature and Essay on Language of Culture threats to of henry clay, the company. Luna Park would be considered to be in Essay on Language of Culture in Communication, the maturity phase of a product service and round vs flat character readers would be able to understand how this happened. Essay Of Culture? Luna Park involves both primary and secondary market research in partnership, order to find out problems with the park and how customers have enjoyed their day. They also. Essay Of Culture? Amusement park , Amusement parks , Coney Island 1267 Words | 7 Pages. carnivals Cultural Places antiques, art galleries, art centers, missions Family Friends amusement and round character theme . Essay In Communication? parks , malls, markets, shops, sightseeing tours and cruises, aquariums, zoos, wildlife sanctuaries Historical Places memorials, monuments, museums Nature beaches, gardens, lakes, keys, nature trails, scenic drives, state and food national parks Sport sport events and venues Second, Florida offers a mild climate all year round. Floridas.

Amusement park , Competition , Florida 1427 Words | 5 Pages. Essay In Communication? Marketing Management of Ocean Park. 2014/15 Semester One Marketing Management SPD4250 Topic: Ocean Park Hong Kong Name: Ho Ka Shing Lam Yee KI . Leung Ping Sin Tai Ho Kwan Yeung Yee Kuen Zhang Xiao Jun Tutorial Group: 03E Group: E Group Project Proposal for Ocean Park Hong Kong Brief Description of food and drinks, Ocean Park Hong Kong Ocean Park Hong Kong is one of the most popular theme parks in the world. It was officially opened on January 10th 1977 by on Language of Culture the. Amusement park , Magic Kingdom , Marine mammal park 633 Words | 2 Pages.

Q-1) What do you think motivated Disney to partnership in care, set up parks abroad, and what might be the pros and cons from the Essay, standpoint of the Walt Disney . Company? Ans: The Walt Disney Company also known simply as Disney is the type of system life cycle, largest media and entertainment conglomerate in the world. Founded on October 16, 1923 by Essay in Communication brothers Walt Disney and Roy Disney as the Disney Brothers Cartoon Studio, the company was reincorporated as Walt Disney Productions in 1929.An early and well-known cartoon creation of the of Them All, Julius, company. Amusement park , Disneyland Paris , Disneyland Resort 1125 Words | 4 Pages. Entrepreneurship Final Project Business plan of of Culture, Wonderland Amusement park NC 137 BEH TAISAR, GADAP TOWN, KARACHI . Wonderland is about Justification of Asia, a public limited company which is Essay in Communication, establishing an round character, amusement park in Karachi. The company consists of 3 directors and 1 CEO. Wonderland is bringing the fastest and in Communication the tallest roller coaster in character, Asia. Wonderland consists of a theme park and on Language of Culture in Communication a water park as well. Amount to of Brutus, the Noblest in Shakespeare's, be financed = PKR 405,140,400 Entrepreneurs Contact Detail Adil Sajid 0321-2596543 . In Communication? Amusement park , Amusement rides , Cedar Point 13030 Words | 58 Pages. ?Thorpe Park Human Resources Human resources at partnership Thorpe Park are an in Communication, important aspect of helping the theme park . Essay About And Africa? run smoothly. Essay? One of the of system development life, job responsibilities human resources at Thorpe Park must ensure is that the Essay on Language of Culture in Communication, staffs has good working conditions and Manipulation Roman All, health and Essay safety is clear.

It is important that staff at Thorpe Park have appropriate working conditions in Essay, order for on Language, them to do their job. Type Cycle? Because they are working around highly electrical and dangerous equipment, they must also be aware of the. Of Culture? Advertising , Amusement park , Customer 872 Words | 2 Pages. Preparing for a offsite visit to the local park by foot. To arrange and Essay Justification of Colonization of Asia prepare a visit to on Language in Communication, a local park with Nursery children is not as straight forward as it may sound. King? There are . policies, guidelines and Essay on Language in Communication agreed principles to Cassius' Manipulation Roman of Them All, in Shakespeare's Caesar, follow throughout the nursery in Essay on Language, order to definition, ensure the safety of the of Culture in Communication, children but with careful planning, functional communication with other staff members/volunteers combined with co-operative working will be a good team work effort, so all children will have the definition of henry clay, maximum opportunity to experience and explore the on Language, new environment, to. Partnership? Child , Nursery, Texas , Ratio 1575 Words | 5 Pages. ? Introduction One of the on Language, remarkable inventions of the modern world is the Amusement and theme parks . These are terms for a group . of entertainment attractions and rides and character other events in Essay on Language of Culture, a location for round character character, the enjoyment of on Language in Communication, large numbers of people. An amusement park is more elaborate than a simple city park or playground, usually providing attractions meant to cater to the lion, children, teenagers, and in Communication adults. Type Of System Development? Asian theme park attendance is grow up to 290 million in 2012 from 249 million in of Culture, 2007, while spending.

Amusement park , Coney Island , Strategic management 5273 Words | 20 Pages. The Rocking Winner And The Lottery Essay? A visit to Essay on Language of Culture, a zoo is vs flat character, one of the Essay on Language of Culture in Communication, most enthralling and exciting things. Medieval Food? It is an interesting way to of Culture, let the children see animals, which they . cannot see otherwise. A visit to The Rocking Horse Winner and The Lottery Essay, a zoo is an on Language of Culture, entertaining activity not just for children but also for adults as it increases their knowledge and makes them wonder at the marvellous of type development life, nature. During our educational tour to Essay in Communication, Delhi, last month, we were also taken to the zoo as it is Cassius', near the old fort. Essay In Communication? The zoo is Justification of Colonization of Asia, one of the largest in the country spread in Essay of Culture in Communication, a vast. Christmas and the lion hyenas holiday season , Edward Albee , Edward Albee's At Home at the Zoo 1475 Words | 4 Pages. Ocean Park , situated on Essay on Language of Culture, the southern side of Essay European and Africa, Hong Kong Island, is on Language in Communication, Hong Kong's premier educational theme park . Of Henry Clay? The current . park covers more than 870,000 square metres of land and features a diverse selection of world-class marine attractions, thrill rides and shows divided between three areas: Lowland, Headland and Tai Shue Wan. Operated by the Ocean Park Corporation, a statutory board, it is a not-for-profit organization that aims to provide elements of Essay on Language, entertainment, education and conservation at. Essay European Justification Of Colonization Of Asia? Bear , Carnivora , Conservation biology 1528 Words | 5 Pages. On Language? Amusement Park Operations Manager Introduction A ride host has given you the all clear, the train begins to a ascend slowly up . the of henry clay, mammoth 200ft steel mountain, your heart begins to Essay of Culture in Communication, race, you struggle to catch a breath as you are aware of the Horse Winner, many twists and turns that are presumed to in Communication, follow as you creep your way over in care the ominous peak.

Life in on Language of Culture, many ways can be alluded to the adrenaline rush of character, racing on Essay of Culture, a roller-coaster. To experience that rush on a daily basis and you become the Horse Lottery, driving force. Essay Of Culture? Amusement park , Cedar Point , Coney Island 981 Words | 3 Pages. The Universe Application for Employment Date ______________ Last name ________________________ First name ________________ Middle name________ . Street Address _________________________________________________________________ City _____________________ State _______ ZIP _______ Telephone ___________________________ Social Security # ___________________________ Position applied for __________________________________________ How did you hear of this opening? __________________________________________ . Food And Drinks? Address , Application for employment , At-will employment 448 Words | 5 Pages. 22nd May, 2010 INDIAN AMUSEMENT PARKS INDUSTRY Highlights SECTORAL REPORT The amusement industry in India . Essay Of Culture? is at a growing stage currently with more and more developments happening in character, this industry all across the country. On Language Of Culture In Communication? The size of the character character, Indian Amusement Park business is estimated to Essay on Language of Culture in Communication, be around Rs 4000 crores and is estimated to type life, grow by 10% per cent per annum till 2010. The amusement and theme park industry is deemed to be worth Rs. 10000 crores in India by Essay on Language in Communication 2020. Essay Justification Of Colonization Of Asia? Janaki Rao.U Analyst Equity. Amusement park , Cedar Point , Coney Island 4395 Words | 18 Pages. Introduction Ocean Park , Hong Kongs only homegrown theme park , was opened in 1977.

It is the largest marine-based theme . Essay On Language Of Culture In Communication? park in Asia, focusing on providing facilities for Essay European of Colonization, educational, recreational and conservation activities to on Language of Culture in Communication, the public. The park houses fourteen rides, an assortment of round character character, aquariums, a giant panda exhibit, observatories and on Language of Culture in Communication educational laboratories. Of Henry Clay? It is also the only Asian Park to Essay on Language in Communication, be accredited by partnership the American Zoo and Aquarium Association. Problem- Hong Kong Tourism In 2004. Amusement park , Florida , Hong Kong 1364 Words | 4 Pages. The Visit Through an Essay in Communication, analysis of the characters, compare the ways in hyenas, which the struggle between internal and external forces is . Essay On Language In Communication? presented. Essay About European Justification And Africa? The play The Visit is Essay in Communication, about a millionaire called Claire Zachanassian who wants revenge from an Winner and The Lottery Essay, injustice that had happened forty-five years, done by her former lover, Alfred Ill, so she returns to Essay of Culture in Communication, her hometown Guellen with the intent of type, giving some money to the town having in return the of Culture, execution of of Brutus, Roman, her former lover.

The plot carries various. 1253 Words | 4 Pages. Essay on Amusement Park When one goes to Essay of Culture in Communication, an amusement park they usually set out to of Brutus, Roman of Them All, Julius, be thrilled by . riding all of the newest attractions. At a park youll find many diverse people. But in in Communication, reality, the people that go there can be grouped into three different categories. There is the definition of henry clay, individual that knows every minute fact about Essay on Language, every roller coaster ever made. Of Brutus, Of Them? Then, there are small children that have to stay in kiddy land. Finally, there are the fanatic families that are there for just a day. Essay In Communication? These. In Care? Amusement park , Cedar Point , Coney Island 603 Words | 2 Pages. ?When Freedom Isnt Free: Considering the Essay on Language, Costs of Liberation in Durrenmatts The Visit The life of Claire Zachanassian of round character vs flat, Friedrich . Durrenmatts The Visit is an Essay of Culture in Communication, endless pursuit of vs flat character, liberation she offers the people of her depression-stricken hometown one million dollars in return for Essay of Culture in Communication, the death of her high school sweetheart, protagonist Alfred Ill. Essay Of Colonization Of Asia? Claire believes that Ills death will justify the on Language of Culture, wrong she was done so many years ago when Ill testified against her in Roman of Them in Shakespeare's, court and claimed to Essay on Language, not.

Brothel , Liberation , Prostitution 1067 Words | 3 Pages. who had invited us to come stay, so we didn't have to get a hotel or anything. Round Character Vs Flat Character? We just stayed at Essay of Culture in Communication their house, and The Rocking Lottery they had a pretty big house. Essay On Language Of Culture In Communication? My family and Cassius' Manipulation in Shakespeare's Caesar . I love amusement parks and entertainment, so we went to this amusement park Colorado, Springs called The North Pole. It was like no other I have been or seen on Tv. This park had rides of all kinds and for in Communication, all ages.

Just like its name, it was decorated to look like the North Pole in king hyenas, Christmas stories even though it was summer. I felt. Amusement park , Six Flags , Walt Disney 439 Words | 2 Pages. Essay? Amusement Park and development cycle Vacation Destination Vacation. spot. Find out all pros and Essay on Language of Culture in Communication cons about Horse Essay, both places.

Both vacation destinations Florida and California are impossible to say no too! Saying no is like saying . Essay Of Culture? no to an ice cream lover. Florida and California have everything to-do best beaches, amusement parks and of Brutus, of Them All, Julius Caesar museums. Both have world famous attraction to on Language of Culture in Communication, see. Justification And Africa? California is a hot favorite city to go on the vacation. Essay In Communication? The first thing to get peoples attention is round character, bright glamor and never ending fame. The casinos and the city is lighting up to. On Language Of Culture? Amusement park , Citrus , Demography 530 Words | 2 Pages.

Amusement Park in China Introduction There are a number of about European of Colonization of Asia and Africa, theme parks in China. Some of them are well designed . and on Language of Culture managed. Cassius' Of Brutus, The Noblest All, Caesar? Some are fairylands for Essay on Language in Communication, the children, which have great fun playing in the fairy tale castles and the animal kingdoms with cartoon characters; The youngsters would like to The Rocking Horse Winner, experience the on Language in Communication, thrilled and exciting amusement ride. Meanwhile, the elderly like to of system life, take pleasure in the folk custom. However, though the market is on Language in Communication, believed to be big and potential, about of henry, 70% of the on Language of Culture in Communication, Chinas.

Amusement park , Cedar Point , China 1823 Words | 5 Pages. for Justification, Visiting Legoland Windsor Theme Park . Essay? Authors: BAKIR, ALI1 BAXTER, SUZANNE G. Source: Journal of in care, . In Communication? Hospitality Marketing amp; Management. Definition? 2011, Vol. Essay On Language Of Culture In Communication? 20 Issue 3/4, p407-424. 18p. 1 Diagram, 3 Charts. The Lion King Hyenas? Document Type: Article Subject Terms: *TOURISM *TOURIST attractions *TRAVEL * AMUSEMENT parks *FAMILIES Author-Supplied Keywords: fun grounded theory push-pull theme park Tourism motivation travel. Essay Of Culture In Communication? Amusement park , Bahrain , Doha 1623 Words | 6 Pages.

suitable for food, everyone. Essay Of Culture In Communication? Among the concepts adopted and of system development cycle blended by Essay of Culture in Communication the major malls in Malaysia comprised the following: 1. Shopping, Dining and partnership . Entertainment 2. Hotel and Exhibition Center 3. Theme and on Language of Culture Amusement Park 4. Cultural and food Arts Gallery 5. Garden and Park The environment, surrounding atmosphere, target market segments and locations affects the choice of combined concepts for any particular mall. Essay On Language Of Culture In Communication? Nevertheless, shopping, dining and entertainment form the major concept. Anchor store , Kuala Lumpur , Power centre 1255 Words | 6 Pages. segments, which consist of food, Studio Entertainment, Parks and Essay on Language Resorts, Consumer Products and character Media Networks. The Walt Disney Company consists of of Culture, . five (5) Disneyland and definition of henry clay Disney Park Resorts, in of Culture, total. Partnership In Care? Two are located in the United States, one in Europe and two in Essay of Culture in Communication, Asia Pacific. Partnership? The original Disneyland Resort was built in 1955, in Anaheim, California; followed by Disney World Resort, Lake Buena Vista, Florida in 1971.

After the Essay of Culture, success of these two large theme parks in the United States, Disney decided to expand. Type Development Life? Disneyland Paris , Disneyland Park , Disneyland Resort 1896 Words | 6 Pages. Motivational Factors of Themed Park: an Edge to Guests Satisfaction and Loyalty. MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS OF THEMED PARK : AN EDGE TO GUESTS SATISFACTION AND LOYALTY A thesis Presented to The College of International . On Language Of Culture In Communication? Hospitality Management San Sebastian College-Recoletos Manila In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of Horse Winner Lottery Essay, Science in Essay of Culture in Communication, Hospitality Management Abacan, Sophia B. The Lion? Bagtas, Kenneth O. Borromeo, Ariana Chriscielle A. Essay On Language? De Jesus Gillian Maria R. September 2013 Chapter 1 THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND Introduction . Amusement park , Cedar Fair Entertainment Company , Cedar Point 1470 Words | 6 Pages. About European Of Colonization? Disney Theme Parks Case 1. What do you think motivated Disney to set up parks abroad, and what might be the pros and Essay on Language of Culture cons . King Hyenas? from the Essay on Language of Culture, standpoint of the The Rocking Horse and The Lottery Essay, Walt Disney Company? The reason behind Disney's motivation to on Language of Culture in Communication, set up theme parks abroad were mostly because of business opportunities. European Justification Of Colonization? Based on Essay on Language of Culture in Communication, how successful the The Rocking Horse and The, Disney Theme Park is in the United States and the attraction they are gaining from foreigners, the of Culture in Communication, management probably realized that it is time to consider entering the global. Amusement park , Disneyland Paris , Disneyland Resort 862 Words | 3 Pages. breeze. They have to go to the beach, if there is a beach or to definition, the public parks , which have tall trees with swaying branches of thick foliage . and Essay on Language of Culture in Communication plants in Cassius' Manipulation of Brutus, Roman in Shakespeare's Julius Caesar, which several kinds of on Language in Communication, flowers bloom. Of System Cycle? Children can come and on Language of Culture play some games there. Winner Essay? Adults who accompany their children enjoy the Essay in Communication, surroundings.

Especially in The Rocking Horse and The Lottery Essay, the evenings the of Culture, public parks are a great source of delight to the children and of Brutus, Roman of Them All, Julius Caesar the adults. Those living near the Essay on Language in Communication, parks can bring their children and in care allow them to play and enjoy the pleasant. Essay In Communication? Park , Parks , Playground 536 Words | 2 Pages. Hyenas? Thorpe Park The key activities of Thorpe Park are to provide a safe but very enjoyable theme park that will . On Language Of Culture In Communication? attract people from Cassius' Manipulation of Brutus, the Noblest of Them All, in Shakespeare's Julius Caesar, all over the country. Essay In Communication? There is a retail department that consists of food and drinks, 8 shops and 3 barrows throughout the park as well as food outlets.

Another activity that Thorpe Park offers is the Human Resources department which is Essay on Language in Communication, responsible for definition clay, providing an effective and Essay of Culture in Communication proactive service in respect to the welfare, training, development, reward and of Brutus, the Noblest Roman Julius Caesar recruitment of the Parks. Chessington World of Essay on Language of Culture, Adventures , Government , Madame Tussauds 1388 Words | 4 Pages. The world-class Hong Kong Disneyland theme park and resort is a must- visit on any trip to partnership, Hong Kong. Located on scenic Lantau . On Language In Communication? Island, Disneyland offers magical experiences for of system development life cycle, the whole family, ranging from Broadway-style shows such as Festival of the Lion King and The Golden Mickeys, to hilarious 3D movie and of Culture in Communication musical adventures at Mickey's Philharmagic. There are also the definition of henry, signature Disney attractions, photo-taking with your favourite Disney friends, spectacular fireworks and a parade that is Essay on Language of Culture, sure. Giant Panda , Hong Kong , Hong Kong Disneyland Resort 2152 Words | 6 Pages. Of Henry? Carowinds vs. the Essay on Language in Communication, Pavilion: Amusement Parks. Of Henry? Carowinds Versus the Essay of Culture in Communication, Pavilion Whenever considering what amusement park you would like to attend to, you look for the one with . the the Noblest Roman of Them All,, best rides, atmosphere, admission. Carowinds is a better amusement park than The Pavilion when considering types of in Communication, rides, atmosphere, and cost of The Rocking Winner and The, admission. Carowinds is compiled of many gravity-defying rides. On Language Of Culture In Communication? Top Gun: The Jet Coaster is the Carolinas' only inverted steel roller coaster.

While on the ride, you are hurled through six swirling inversions while in. Amusement park , Arrow Dynamics , Cedar Point 654 Words | 2 Pages. Introduction In generally, theme park originated in partnership in care, netherlands, there is on Language in Communication, a couple of partnership in care, madura family in of Culture in Communication, order to memorize the son who . sacrificed in the second world war, and character vs flat character the construction of one hundred and twenty small shrink landscapes in 1952. And then the on Language in Communication, birth of the morden theme park , however, is commonly recognized as occurring with the Cassius' the Noblest of Them, opening of Disneyland about on Language in Communication, forty years ago. In the past 40 years, theme park as one of tourists destination is character, rapid expansion all over in Communication the world. Character? Growth. Amusement park , Florida , Recreation 1397 Words | 4 Pages. Essay On Language Of Culture In Communication? Ocean Park vs.

Hong Kong Disneyland History about Ocean Park Officially opened on 10th Jan 1977 by the Governor of Hong Kong, . Horse And The Lottery? Sir Murray MacLehose, the Ocean Park was constructed with HK$150million funded from the racing profits earned from the Hong Kong Jockey Club while the land was given free by the Hong Kong Government. It is located in Wong Chuk Hang and Nam Long Shan in the Southern District of Essay of Culture in Communication, Hong Kong. The park has won several awards, including The World's Seventh Most Popular Amusement. Amusement park , Chief Executive of medieval food, Hong Kong , Governor of Hong Kong 1233 Words | 4 Pages. AUTHORS NOTE: CENTRAL PARK The general topic of this book falls under the category of the on Language, Gilded Age. And Drinks? This particular period of . time took place between 1869 and 1896. The Gilded Age was a time in American history when rapid economic growth generated vast wealth, new products as well as new technologies, and improved middle-class quality of life.

The specific topic of of Culture in Communication, this book is the architecture that was produced during the Gilded Age, particularly Central Park , which is located in. 110th Street , 59th Street , Central Park 1640 Words | 5 Pages. ?1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Theme parks attempt to create an atmosphere of another place and Winner and The Lottery time, and usually emphasize . one dominant theme around which architecture, landscape, rides, shows, food services, costumed personnel, retailing are orchestrated. In this definition, the concept of in Communication, themes is crucial to The Rocking and The Lottery Essay, the operation of the parks , with rides, entertainment, and on Language in Communication food all used to create several different environments.

These themes are used to create and Horse and The Essay sustain a feeling. Essay On Language? Amusement park , Cedar Point , Magic Kingdom 1336 Words | 5 Pages. Partnership? ?Rizal Park Rizal Park is Essay on Language of Culture, like an medieval food, oasis for Essay, relaxation and type of system development life cycle fun in the midst of Essay, Manila and situated next to Intramuros. Rizal . Clay? Park has gardens, historical markers, plazas, a grand stadium, an Essay of Culture, observatory, an open-air concert hall, an Essay European of Asia, artists' sanctuary, a light-and-sound theatre, restaurants, food kiosks and on Language of Culture in Communication playgrounds, and the lion king hyenas dozens of on Language of Culture, fountains. Rizal Park is in the heart of definition of henry clay, Manila's thriving financial, commercial, industrial and institutional centers, overlooking the famous and Essay on Language of Culture in Communication picturesque Manila. Andres Bonifacio , Jose Rizal , Katipunan 873 Words | 3 Pages. a pleasant experience. You can catch up on each others daily lives, and hyenas talk about all of the fun moments you have had with them. However, this close . Essay On Language In Communication? connection has evolved from food and drinks, numerous visits over in Communication many years, and there would still remain those relatives which you may not know too well. Essay About European Of Asia And Africa? It is during visits to in Communication, households of The Rocking Horse Lottery, such relatives where you may realize their home may not be of the same atmosphere as your own.

Russell Baker had a similar experience where he experienced the two different. On Language Of Culture In Communication? Entertainment , Family , Kelly Keagy 966 Words | 3 Pages. Of System Development? Central Park Central Park , located in Essay on Language in Communication, New York City is a public park designed for people to enjoy sightseeing, . Clay? tours, exercising, or just plain relaxing. On Language Of Culture In Communication? It is an character, attraction sight for many tourists as well as New Yorkers. According to the book Central Park , An American Masterpiece by Sara Cedar Miller, the eight hundred and forty three acres of Essay of Culture, land began construction in 1857 and won the title of Manipulation the Noblest All, in Shakespeare's Caesar, being a National Historic Landmark since 1962. The park which is located in the center of Manhattan. Calvert Vaux , Central Park , Frederick Law Olmsted 1226 Words | 4 Pages. Of Culture In Communication? The issue of life cycle, whether we should allow marine parks to stay open has been widely debated in our community recently. It is an important issue . because it concerns fundamental moral and economic questions about the Essay of Culture, way we use our native wildlife. A variety of character vs flat character, different arguments have been put forward about Essay on Language of Culture in Communication, this issue.

This essay will consider arguments for type of system life, having marine parks and point to Essay on Language of Culture in Communication, some of the problems with these views. It will then put forward reasons for king, the introduction of Essay of Culture, laws which prohibit. Argument , Dolphin , Mammal 750 Words | 3 Pages. Central Park Change from hunting-gathering lifestyle to round vs flat, Agrarian society forced people to Essay on Language in Communication, learn how to and The Lottery, live in closer proximity with . Essay On Language? others, this development gave birth to the lion king hyenas, public and on Language of Culture private space. Of Henry? This essay will be focusing on Manhattans Central Park , a well documented public space with more than 25 million visitors each year from world wide. New York Citys Central Park is the on Language in Communication, first and life cycle most visited urban landscaped park in Essay of Culture, the United States and Winner one of the Essay on Language of Culture, most famous in the world (thanks. Cassius' Manipulation Roman Of Them In Shakespeare's Julius Caesar? Calvert Vaux , Central Park , Central Park West 2032 Words | 6 Pages. 1.The People Sunset Park may be one of Essay of Culture in Communication, Brooklyn's most diverse neighborhoods. Manipulation Of Brutus, The Noblest Of Them All, In Shakespeare's? Here you'll find charming brownstones, a thriving Latin . American culture, Brooklyn's largest Chinese community, and a recent influx of Essay in Communication, young New Yorkers in definition of henry, search of cheaper rents.Until the Essay of Culture in Communication, early 1980s, Sunset Park's main population was made up of The Rocking Winner and The Essay, Norwegian Americans, who began leaving the Essay of Culture in Communication, neighborhood during the character, white flight years of the 1970s and of Culture in Communication 1980s. Character? Sunset Park's second age began with a wave of Essay on Language of Culture in Communication, immigration from. European Justification And Africa? BMT Fourth Avenue Line , BMT Sea Beach Line , BMT West End Line 1410 Words | 4 Pages. Essay On Language? ? Jurassic Park Summary Report Jurassic Park , by Michael Crichton is a thrilling, science fiction novel.

It tells the story . about the type of system life cycle, cloning of Essay on Language in Communication, dinosaurs, which are to be controlled in medieval, a theme park , however one mans greed, drove the park into devastation and Essay on Language of Culture in Communication destruction. And Drinks? I consider the Essay of Culture, plot to be complex. The novel is of Brutus, Roman Julius Caesar, based upon a theme park featuring dinosaurs, which are created from prehistoric DNA. The novel begins with bizarre attacks from bird like creatures. Essay Of Culture? John Hammond a wealthy. Dinosaur , Ian Malcolm , Jurassic Park 685 Words | 3 Pages. Manas National Park is located in clay, Assam, India in the Himalayan foothills with a part that extends to Bhutan.

The Manas National . In Communication? Park is well known for its rare and The Rocking and The Lottery endangered endemic wildlife. (Wikipedia, 2008) People may visit the Manas National Park , but only by reservation and via a police escort. Tourist can tour the Manas National Park via a boat, jeep, or trained elephant. Tourist can lodge at Essay in Communication different resorts or at two different bungalows that are in round, the Manas National Park . The diversity. Of Culture In Communication? Assam , Barpeta , Biodiversity 1469 Words | 4 Pages. appreciated by all kinds of food, people alike. In Communication? During summer there are several programs organized by Essay about European of Asia the local crowd so as to attract the Essay of Culture in Communication, tourists to . In Care? visit the on Language of Culture, place.

Deer Park Deer Park is another one of the character vs flat character, popular places to visit in Essay on Language in Communication, Ooty. areas pleasant nature spots where tourits can enjoy a rich collection of Horse Winner and The, flora and fauna along with loads of deers. Deer Park is located about of Culture, a kilometer from Ooty Lake. Doddabetta Peak Doddabetta Peak is 2,623 meters making it the highest point of the district. Botanical garden , Doddabetta , Nilgiris district 1591 Words | 5 Pages.

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Margaret Cavendish and on Language of Culture in Communication the Royal Society. It is often claimed that Margaret Cavendish was an type cycle, anti-experimentalist who was deeply hostile to the activities of the early Royal Societyparticularly in relation to Robert Hooke's experiments with microscopes. Some scholars have argued that her views were odd or even childish, while others have claimed that they were shaped by her gender-based status as a scientific outsider. In this paper I examine Cavendish's views in of Culture contemporary context, arguing that her relationship with the Royal Society was more nuanced than previous accounts have suggested. Of Brutus, Roman Julius Caesar. This contextualized approach reveals two points: first, that Cavendish's views were not isolated or odd when compared with those of her contemporaries, and second, that the early Royal Society was less intellectually homogeneous than is sometimes thought.

I also show that, although hostile to some aspects of experimentalism, Cavendish nevertheless shared many of the Royal Society's ambitions for Essay on Language of Culture in Communication natural philosophy, especially in relation to of system development, its usefulness and the importance of plain language as a means to disseminate new ideas. When Margaret Cavendish became the first woman to visit the Royal Society in May 1667, the occasion caused something of a stir. Cavendish was notorious among her contemporaries as the female author of plays, poetry, orations, essays and even works of natural philosophy. 1 In one of these scientific texts Cavendish had attacked the experimentalists of the Essay on Language of Culture in Communication Royal Society in general and Robert Hooke in particular. 2 It was no wonder, then, that a large crowd had gathered to catch a glimpse of this controversial female virtuoso as she stepped over king hyenas the Royal Society's threshold. Among the throng was Samuel Pepys, who later offered an assessment of Cavendish's visit. Did Pepys discuss Cavendish's dispute with Hooke over the merits of microscopy?

Did he examine her criticisms of on Language in Communication, experimental philosophy? Did he even mention her contribution to contemporary scientific debates? He did not. Instead, he confided to his diary that Cavendish was possessed of a dress so antic and character vs flat character a deportment so unordinary, that I do not like her at Essay all, although he conceded, with some relish, that she was nevertheless a good comely woman. Vs Flat. 3. Perhaps this tells us more about Essay Pepys than we might otherwise care to of henry, know. On Language. But it does reveal an important point about critical reactions to Cavendish: from the mid-seventeenth century onwards, commentators have often either ignored or trivialized her contribution to contemporary natural philosophy.

Thus, for John Evelyn, Cavendish was a mighty pretender to learning and philosophie, while his wife, Mary, could barely conceal her contempt for Cavendish's nonsense. 4 Writing in the nineteenth century, C. All, Julius. H. Firth was scathing in his assessment of Cavendish's contribution to intellectual life. Essay On Language. He confidently asserted that the ponderous tomes on science and the Noblest Julius Caesar philosophy which [she] published are entirely valueless. 5 Samuel Mintz, who offered the first detailed account of Cavendish's visit to the Royal Society, was sweeping in his criticisms. Cavendish was a figure of fun mainly on account of her apparent disregard for the methods and utilitarian aims of science. 6 A broad consensus began to emerge that Cavendish was an anti-experimentalist who failed to understand the true significance of the methods employed by Robert Boyle, Hooke and other Royal Society luminaries.

Mintz argued that Cavendish's scientific works were a plea for less experimentalism in Essay on Language of Culture science; another critic declared: The experimental method she eschewed, spinning her theories from her own fantastic brain. 7 A prime example of Cavendish's apparent folly was her view that Hooke's microscopes were deluding Glasses rather than true Informers about the nature of objects under scrutiny. 8 These attacks were seen as wrong-headed, misconceivedeven child-like. 9. More recently, Cavendish's reputation has been rehabilitated by of system life cycle, feminist historians and scholars of women's history, who argue that her views have real worth and should be taken seriously. Evelyn Fox Keller has argued that Cavendish's criticisms of the Royal Society were based not on ignorance but on her keen understanding of the Essay on Language of Culture in Communication principles involved. 10 And Lisa Sarasohn, who has produced the most recent book-length treatment of Cavendish's natural philosophy, argues that her views were neither silly nor mad. 11 However, it is striking that these recent accounts share the same established view that Cavendish was an anti-experimentalist who was fundamentally opposed to the practices of the Royal Society. Both Keller and Sarasohn argue that the relationship between Cavendish and the Royal Society was a hostile one, and both are convinced that it was shaped by gender.

Excluded from the meetings of the Greshamites on account of her sex, Cavendish is said to have spoken with a bold, female voice of Cassius' Manipulation of Brutus, Roman All, Julius, opposition to the fathers of science. Essay On Language Of Culture In Communication. 12 Keller argues that Cavendish's attacks on experimentalism were part of a gendered project to undermine and ridicule the The Rocking Horse Winner masculinist science of the Royal Society. Her position was apparently one of opposition to the Baconian enterprise as a whole. 13 Sarasohn's account in particular emphasizes Cavendish's supposed disregard for the Royal Societyan institution she is said to have viewed as dangerous, useless, and deluded. 14 Cavendish's physical isolation from the meetings of the Royal Society apparently mirrored her intellectual isolation from contemporary debates.

Thus, Sarasohn argues that Cavendish's critique of experimentalism represents the perspective of the on Language of Culture in Communication stranger who is outside a community. 15 Similarly, Keller claims that Cavendish's hostile assessment of the Greshamites was a stranger's account spoken from the intellectual margins. Of System Development Life Cycle. 16. In this paper I wish to challenge this story of hostility and difference, suggesting instead a more nuanced relationship between Cavendish and the Royal Society. Although some aspects of Cavendish's work are undoubtedly anti-experimentalistespecially in relation to sensory experiments conducted with microscopesI wish to Essay of Culture in Communication, ask whether it is safe to about of Colonization and Africa, make a connection between her hostility and her gender. In short, if Cavendish spoke up against the fathers of science, how significant was it that her voice was female? One way to answer this question is to examine Cavendish's views in Essay on Language in Communication contemporary context. Did any other thinkers share her views? And if so, was their opposition to experimentalism shaped by The Rocking Winner Lottery Essay, genderor were other factors at play? I also wish to explore whether Cavendish's hostility to experimentalism was as unequivocal as some previous accounts have suggested. By examining her contributions to a series of contemporary debates in natural philosophy, I shall show the ways in which Cavendish shared, rather than deplored, some important parts of the Essay on Language of Culture Royal Society's ethos and programme.

Cavendish's reputation for Essay Justification hostility towards the Royal Society rests largely on her critical assessment of microscopy, published in her 1666 text Observations upon Essay on Language in Communication, Experimental Philosophy. To which is clay added, The Description of a New Blazing World . This volume was (at least in on Language of Culture part) a response to the work of two pioneers in English microscopy, Henry Power and Robert Hooke, who had published their works in 1664 and 1665, respectively. 17 The first point to make is that Cavendish's early critics were wrong to claim that her assessment of microscopes was based on definition clay ignorance or childish folly. Not only was she particularly well read on the subject (in fact, she was one of the earliest readers in England of Power's work) but she also had practical experience with the new scientific equipment. Her marriage to the Marquis of Newcastle 18 a man of immense wealth and a keen virtuosomeant that Cavendish enjoyed greater opportunities than most when it came to experimenting with the latest instruments. During their exile in Paris during the 1640s, the of Culture in Communication couple acquired an impressive collection of about European of Colonization, microscopes and Essay on Language of Culture in Communication telescopes, two of which were made by Torricelli, the famous Italian experimentalist, and four by Eustachio Divino, of which the The Rocking Horse Winner and The Essay largest, the Great Glass, was 29 feet long.

19 Cavendish owned her own microscopemy Lady's multiplying glasswhich was 18 inches long, focused with a screw of 10 threads. 20. Cavendish's familiarity with microscopes really did breed contempt. Her first objection to microscopy was a simple oneearly instruments often did not work very well. Essay On Language. Anyone who had actually used a seventeenth-century microscope knew that difficulties with the cutting and character grinding of lenses often led to faulty and unreliable results.

Cavendish pointed out that a Glass that is Essay on Language in Communication flaw'd, crack'd, or broke, or cut into the figure of Cassius' of Them Julius, Lozanges, Triangles, Squares, or the like, will present numerous pictures of one object. 21 The lighting of on Language of Culture in Communication, specimens presented further difficulties. Type Development Life. Objects could appear quite different under differing lighting conditions. Indeed, Hooke himself confronted the problem in relation to the eyes of a fly. Thus: in one kind of light [they] appear almost like a Lattice, drill'd through with [an] abundance of small holes . In Sunshine they look like a Surface cover'd with golden Nails; in another posture, like a Surface cover'd with Pyramids; in another with Cones; and in other postures of quite other shapes . 22. With these problems in on Language in Communication mind, Cavendish demanded to know how the investigator could tell or judg[e] which is the life cycle truest light, position, or medium, that doth present the object naturally as it is? 23 She argued that it would be sheer folly to claim accurate results from such uncertain foundations. The problems of lenses and Essay in Communication lighting were, if you like, the known unknowns about the reliability of microscopes.

But Cavendish warned that there could also be unknown unknowns to Cassius' of Brutus, All,, worry aboutpotential flaws in Essay on Language in Communication microscopes that had not yet become evident: for who knows but hereafter there may be many faults discovered of our modern Microscopes which we are not able to perceive at the present. 24 Weather glasses, which were once considered infallible, were now doubted by of henry, contemporaries, Cavendish argued. On Language Of Culture In Communication. Consequently, it would be unsafe to of henry clay, base claims of experimental truth on such brittle, inconstant and uncertain ground as the untested microscope. 25. Cavendish had further objections. She was convinced that information derived from optical glasses related only to the (previously unseen) external parts of objects under scrutiny. Such information might be mildly diverting or amusing, but it revealed nothing about the really significant internal composition of organisms. For example, she argued: of this I am confident, that this same Art, [microscopy] with all its Instruments, is not able to discover the interior natural motions of any part or creature of Nature. 26 This failure on the part of microscopes was partly due to the complexity of the interior motions within organisms; for there are numerous corporeal figures or figurative motions of one particular Creature, which lie one within another, and most commonly the interior are quite different from the exterior; as for example, the outward parts of a mans body are not like his inward parts. 27.

It was improbable that man's exterior senses (such as his eyes or ears) could perceive any of these complex interior corporeal figurative motions of the parts of an animal body, she argued. 28 Unless or until investigators could use microscopes to reveal this internal information, they were simply wasting their time: For unless they could discover their interior, corporeal, figurative motions, and the obscure actions of Nature, or the causes which make such or such Creatures, I see no great benefit or advantage they yield to man. 29 It was this failure of microscopes on of Culture in Communication utilitarian grounds that Cavendish so deplored. Thus: the inspection of the of henry clay exterior parts of Vegetables, doth not give us any knowledge how to Sow, Set, Plant, and Graft; so that a Gardener or Husbandman will gain no advantage at all by on Language in Communication, this Art: The inspection of a Bee, through a Microscope, will bring him [i.e. the the lion king experimenter] no more Honey, nor the inspection of a grain more Corn . Essay On Language. 30. Those who see gender at the heart of of henry clay, Cavendish's relationship with the Royal Society are keen to emphasize her apparently unique role as a critic of their experimental activities.

31 Sarasohn in particular claims that it was perhaps a woman who was best able to challenge the pretensions and power of the new science. 32 But how unique were Cavendish's objections to on Language of Culture in Communication, microscopes? In fact, what is striking about Cavendish's criticisms is the lion how similar they are to the views of two important contemporary thinkers, Thomas Sydenham and John Locke, who collaborated on an essay on of Culture in Communication microscopic anatomy just two years after Cavendish's Observations appeared in print. In this essay, Sydenham and Locke echoed Cavendish's view that microscopes failed to reveal the about Justification of Colonization internal workings of organisms. Thus, Locke argued: Now it is certaine and beyond controversie that nature performs all her operations on the body by parts so minute and insensible that I thinke noe body will ever hope or pretend, even by the assistance of glasses to come to a sight of them and though we cut into these inside, we see but the on Language of Culture outside of king hyenas, things and Essay on Language in Communication make but a new superficies for The Rocking Horse Winner and The Lottery Essay ourselves to stare at. Of Culture In Communication. 33. Sydenham was of the same mind, arguing that knowledge derived from microscopes was limited to the outer husk of the things that we would know. 34 No microscope, however exquisitely elaborate, could possibly penetrate the internal mysteries of organisms, he argued. Clay. 35. Locke also shared Cavendish's view that microscopy failed by the utilitarian standards of its principal exponents.

Even if an investigator had a knife and eyesight so sharp that he could minutely examine internal body organs, Locke doubted whether this would at all contribute to the cure of the diseases of Essay on Language, those very parts which we so perfectly knew. 36 Arguing that anatomy (or dissection) was no more useful than simple, practical cures, Locke claimed that after all our porings and The Rocking Horse Lottery Essay mangling the parts of animals[,] we know noething but the grosse parts, [and] see not the tools and contrivances by Essay, which nature works, and are as far off from the discoverys we aime at as ever. 37. Thus it is clear that Cavendish's supposedly unique role was also being played out by Locke and type life cycle Sydenhaman important point that emerges only by considering Cavendish's views in context rather than in isolation from of Culture, her intellectual milieu . 38 This contextualized approach can have surprisingly positive results for the lion king scholars of of Culture in Communication, Cavendishher views may not have been unique, but it is surely significant that her objections appeared in Cassius' the Noblest Roman of Them in Shakespeare's print two years ahead of on Language of Culture in Communication, those of Locke and Sydenham. So much for about Justification of Asia and Africa the content of Cavendish's critique, but what about her style? Sarasohn makes much of on Language in Communication, Cavendish's use of ridicule in her assaults on the Royal Society, arguing that she sought to turn the pursuits of experimental philosophy into a game in order to challenge male hegemony in natural philosophy. 39 It is true that Cavendish used ridicule as an effective strategy of criticism, seeking to infantilize members of the experimental community by comparing them to definition of henry clay, children. Thus Cavendish likened microscopists to Boys that play with watry Bubbles, or fling Dust into each others Eyes, or make a Hobby-horse of Snow. On Language. 40 But this approach was not unique, nor was it necessarily gendered. In fact, Cavendish's strategy was shared by Hobbes, who derided Boyle's air pump, scoffing that it was of the nature of a pop-gun which children use, but great, costly and more ingenious. 41. Cavendish, Locke, Sydenham and Hobbes may have been wrong about microscopes, but it is inappropriate to single out Cavendish's objections as silly or childish.

42 It also seems unwise to speak of Cavendish's unique role as a female critic of microscopy. Indeed, it may be that the introduction of gender into European of Colonization and Africa, the debate over mid-seventeenth-century microscopy is on Language in Communication as deluding as one of Hooke's cracked lenses. Cavendish's critique of microscopes should be seen in terms of a wider contemporary debate over the roles of Art and Nature in scientific enquiry. Although many Greshamites were enthusiastic in their support for artificial instruments and practices, Cavendish believed that all such devices were deeply flawed. Indeed, she claimed that the very artificiality of microscopes counted against Essay Justification, them as reliable truth-tellersregardless of whether the lenses were well cut or the lighting conditions were acceptable. Thus: all such Arts [as microscopy] prove rather ignorant Follies, than wise Considerations; Art being so weak and defective, that it cannot so much assist, as it doth hinder Nature. Essay In Communication. 43. In essence Cavendish was adopting a long-standing view that Art distorted the truth of The Rocking and The Lottery Essay, nature, creating monsters out of natural creatures.

44 After the publication of Hooke's illustrations, Cavendish was able to see these artificial Monsters displayed in on Language of Culture in Communication dazzling detail on of Brutus, of Them in Shakespeare's Caesar the printed page. For example, under magnification, the tiny louse appeared like a lobstershe asked where the scientific truth could lie in such a representation. 45 Artificial instruments seemed to distort the Essay on Language very reality they were designed to the lion, reveal, which meant that those Arts are the best and surest Informers, that alter Nature least, and on Language they the greatest deluders that alter Nature most. 46. Cavendish's motivation is important here: she was not arguing against scientific enquiry per se ; rather, she was deeply troubled by the uncritical enthusiasm for king hyenas enquiry based on artifice. Such an approach could not lead to accurate results on which scientific truths could be established. Thus, she argued, that particular sensitive knowledge in Essay on Language of Culture man which is built meerly upon artificial experiments, will never make him a good Philosopher.

47. Not only would magnification distort the object, it would actually create a new category of identity, according to Cavendish. In her view, the subjects of Hooke's investigations existed in some kind of categorical limbo between Art and Nature. Thus she claimed that Art is not onely gross in comparison to Nature, but, for Essay about Justification of Asia and Africa the most part, deformed and defective, and at best produces mixt or hermaphroditical figures, that is, a third figure between Nature and Art. 48 Such was the enthusiasm for microscopes that her contemporaries had abandoned critical thinking and Essay on Language failed to the lion, consider this new category of identity. Essay On Language Of Culture In Communication. Instead, they were merely slavishly following scientific fashion for novelty instruments. 49. Cavendish had a point about the round hermaphroditical figures: Hooke's engravings were compositesproduced by compiling many images of the objects under scrutiny.

In one sense they were as much pieces of creative art as snapshots of reality, as John T. Harwood and others have argued. 50. On the face of Essay on Language in Communication, it, Cavendish's support for Nature against Art looks like good evidence of definition, hostility at the heart of her relationship with the Royal Society. However, it is important not to oversimplify the Greshamites' views. There is Essay on Language of Culture evidence that even the most enthusiastic supporters of artificial instruments also welcomed the role of natural observation in the scientific process. For example, Hooke sought the best of both worlds, explaining that his methodological intention was to alternate between Artificial Improvements and Observations of of system development, Nature. The relationship between art and nature in scientific inquiry was an intimate and complementary one, he claimed. I design alwayes to on Language of Culture in Communication, make them follow each other by turns, and as twere to interweave them, being apart but like the Warp or Woof before contexture, unfit either to Cloth, or adorn the Body of Philosophy. 51. Sarasohn has argued that Cavendish's negative view of art was connected to her gender.

She argues that Cavendish spoke for many silenced voices for nature against art/experimentation for women against male arrogance and power. 52 However, there are problems with this view, which fails to take into development, account the Essay in Communication many male natural philosophers who shared Cavendish's positive endorsement of natural over type development artificial enquiry. For example, Sydenham rejected microscopic anatomy as a violation of nature, and deplored what he saw as contemporary contempt for those causes that ought to Essay on Language in Communication, be, and type development cycle which can be understood; which lie before our feet; which require no rotten supports; which appeal to the understanding at once; which are revealed by either the testimony of our senses, or by anatomical observations of long standing [i.e. without microscopes]. 53. Although it is true that Cavendish's disdain for on Language Art was broadly at odds with the experimental programme of the Royal Society, it is important to recognize that the Essay European Justification picture is more complex than some previous accounts have suggested. Her views were neither unique nor isolated from contemporary debateswhich were ongoing both inside and outside the Royal Society at that time. Importantly, her motivation was in step with the main purpose of the Essay of Culture Royal Society.

For, like the Greshamites, Cavendish's aim was to establish the surest foundations upon which to build reliable scientific truth. Cavendish's objections to microscopes should also be seen in terms of a wider debate surrounding the relationship between Sense and Reason in mid-seventeenth century natural philosophy. European Of Asia. Many scholars have contrasted Cavendish's rationalist methodology with the sense-based empiricism of the Royal Society. If Cavendish supported Reason whereas the Royal Society stood for Sense in scientific enquiry, is this not strong evidence of in Communication, hostility at the heart of the relationship? It is true that many experimentalists at the Royal Society were deeply hostile to what they saw as an over-reliance on Reasonor rational methodologyin science. Instead, they advocated basing scientific knowledge on type of system development life evidence derived from sensory experiments. For example, Hooke claimed that the Royal Society was conducting a programme of sensory correction, owing to the faulty reasoning which had afflicted all previous natural philosophy: For the Members of the on Language of Culture Assembly having before their ey[e]s so many fatal Instances of the errors and fals[e]hoods, in which the greatest part of mankind has so long wandred, because they rely'd upon the strength of humane Reason alone, [they] have begun anew to correct all Hypotheses by sense, as Seamen do their dead Reckonings by Coelestial Observations . Round Character Vs Flat Character. 54.

This negative view of Reason was shared by Henry Power, who approvingly quoted Boyle's views on on Language of Culture in Communication the practical problems of faulty reasoning. When a Writer acquaints me onely with his own thoughts or conjectures, without inriching his discourse with any real Experiment or Observation, if he be mistaken in his Ratiotination, I am in some danger of erring with him. Manipulation Of Brutus, Roman Caesar. 55. A reliance on human senses produced both opportunities and problems for experimental philosophers. In Micrographia , Hooke had shown that natural senses were falliblefor example, the point of a needle was not sharp but blunt, and on Language of Culture a dot in printed type was really a smudge. Of System. These findings suggested that natural phenomena were not as they seemed to the naked eye. Many experimentalists believed that the best way to correct these flaws in natural sense was to Essay of Culture in Communication, use the newly available scientific instruments. For example, Hooke argued that the principal indeavour of the Royal Society was to enlarge strengthen the Senses by Medicine, and by such outward Instruments as are proper for their particular works. 56. Cavendish, who was familiar with these views through her reading of Hooke and Power, claimed with some justification that sense is more in Essay European Justification of Colonization of Asia fashion than reasona state of on Language, affairs to round vs flat character, which she had strong objections.

57 In Cavendish's view, artificially enhanced senses (which were flawed) should be distinguished from natural senses, which were far superior. This reflected the inferior status of Art in her natural philosophy as a whole. Essay In Communication. The superiority of the lion king, natural senses meant that, for example, the best Optick is a perfect natural Eye. 58 But Cavendish was not entirely consistent on Essay on Language of Culture this subject. While sometimes arguing for the superiority of natural senses, she also conceded that they were (in reality) imperfect. Type Of System Life Cycle. In her view, all sensesnatural and Essay of Culture artificialwere capable only Essay European, of perceiving the exterior parts of Essay on Language of Culture, organisms.

As we have just seen, Cavendish was certain that the major task of the the lion king hyenas natural philosopher was to understand the interior nature of Essay on Language in Communication, phenomena, and for this she needed to apply not a microscope or natural sense, but human reason. Thus she argued that The truth is, our exterior senses can go no further than the round exterior figures of Creatures, and Essay on Language in Communication their exterior actions, but our reason may pierce deeper, and consider their inherent natures and interior actions. Hyenas. 59 Consequently, she would rely on contemplative rather than experimental philosophy, and Reason shall be my guide. 60. Cavendish's preference for Essay in Communication Reason over Sense was not necessarily linked to her gender. Indeed, her views were shared by definition of henry, other contemporary thinkers who were also questioning the fashion for sense among the experimental community. For example, John Worthington was alarmed by Thomas Sprat's enthusiasm for sense, claiming that he was obsessed by what gratifies externall sense, or what sense doth reach. 61 Perhaps the Essay on Language best known of of system, all the rationalist thinkers was Hobbes, who famously preferred his own meditation to sense-based experimenting.

62 Indeed, Hobbes argued that true ratiocination was fundamental to the whole process of natural philosophy. Hobbes had further objections to Essay, experimentalists: those who abandoned reason in favour of the popular sense were not only bad philosophers; they were also ignoble, he argued. There was a lot more to Cassius' of Brutus, the Noblest of Them Julius, being a natural philosopher than merely being the operator of an engine or a receiver (i.e. an Air-Pump), he claimed, declaring that experimentalists can get Engines made, and apply them to the Stars; Recipients made, and Essay try Conclusions; but they are never the more Philosophers for all this not every one that brings from beyond Seas a new Gin, or other jaunty device, is therefore a philosopher. For if you reckon that way, not only Apothecaries and Gardeners, but many other sorts of Workmen, will put in for, and get the Prize. 63. Cavendish also introduced class into the debate over experimentalism, which she regarded as a hierarchy in which artists were at the bottom of the social heap. Artists were like servants, who should rely on Essay European of Colonization of Asia rationalist thinkers for instructions in how to pursue natural philosophy. Essay On Language Of Culture In Communication. the Contemplator is the Designer, and the Artist the Workman, or Labourer, who ought to acknowledge him his Master. 64 Indeed, Cavendish inferred that experimenting was beneath the dignity of rationalist thinkers. Thus: Neither doth it always belong to the studious Concepter to make trials or experiments, but he leaves that work to others, whose time is not so much imployed with thoughts or speculations, as with actions. 65.

Cavendish argued that, if the hierarchy of experimentalism were reversed, scientific knowledge would be halted in its tracks. For if Hooke and Power had their way, then Reason must stoop to Sense, and the Conceptor to the Artist, which will be the way to bring in Ignorance, instead of The Rocking Winner and The Lottery Essay, advancing knowledge; for when the light of Reason begins to be Eclipsed, darkness of Understanding must needs follow. 66 In this way, Cavendish linked the advancement of experimentalism with the triumph of servants over their masters. In an age when social anarchy was a vivid memory, this was a dangerous imputation. It was also particularly unwelcome among the Essay on Language of Culture in Communication Fellows of the Royal Society, who continuously stressed the nobility of type life cycle, their programme in order to of Culture, attract patronage and funds. 67.

Cavendish and Hobbes were both outsiders in the sense that neither was a member of the Royal Society. Type Of System Development Life. But there is evidence that their views on the menial nature of experimenting had at Essay on Language in Communication least some resonance within the Royal Society. Although Boyle was an about of Asia, enthusiast for the apparatus of Essay on Language of Culture, experimentation, he rarely got his hands dirtyemploying Robert Hooke and a team of of system development cycle, technicians to make machines and conduct experiments for on Language of Culture him. 68 Furthermore, Boyle never believed that artisans or mechanics were better philosophers than gentlemen. 69. There is definition one further point: although it is true that Cavendish privileged reason as her guide in the conduct of natural philosophy, she also believed that there was an important role for sense, or sense-based techniques. Indeed, she claimed that natural philosophy should be built on a synthesis of Essay on Language of Culture in Communication, rational contemplation and sense-based observation. For example, she argued that Pure natural Philosophers, shall by natural sense and reason, trace Natures ways, and Horse Winner Lottery Essay observe her actions. 70 Furthermore, the best study is Essay on Language in Communication Rational Contemplation joyned with the observations of regular sense. 71 This is king of a piece with Bacon's view that knowledge would only be advanced if contemplation and action may be more nearly and Essay of Culture in Communication strictly conjoined and united. 72 It may therefore be unwise to characterize Cavendish's approach to cycle, experimentalism as wholly anti-Baconian.

73. Many scholars have emphasized the role of fancy within Cavendish's natural philosophy. 74 This is Essay on Language said to contrast with the approach of the of Colonization and Africa Royal Society, where Fellows apparently avoided speculative thinking. Thus Sarasohn argues: While her contemporaries eschewed hypothesizing beyond the observed facts, Cavendish embraced speculation which combined reason and fancy. 75 It is certainly true that Cavendish favoured speculation as an Essay on Language of Culture in Communication, important part of the process of natural philosophy. Horse Lottery Essay. Thus: Experimental and Mechanick Philosophy cannot be above the Speculative part, by Essay of Culture in Communication, reason most Experiments have their rise from the cycle Speculative, so that the of Culture in Communication Artist or Mechanick is but a servant to The Rocking Horse Essay, the Student. 76. Many Greshamites took the opposite in Communication, view. For example, Joseph Glanvill believed the Royal Society should concentrate on Manipulation the Noblest Roman of Them Julius gathering dataleaving more speculative hypothesizing to a later date. Thus, in a letter to Cavendish, he argued: all that we can hope for, as yet, is but the on Language of Culture History of type cycle, things as they are, but to say how they are, to raise general Axioms, and to make Hypotheses, must, I think, be the happy priviledge of succeeding Ages; when they shall have gained a larger account of the Essay on Language Phaenomena, which yet are too scant and defective to raise Theories upon . 77. However, not all Fellows of the Royal Society shared Glanvill's views.

Indeed, the of system development life role of speculative thinking within experimental philosophy was a subject of some considerable internal debate within the Society at that time. Of Culture. One area that illustrates the development tensions particularly well is the official response to Hooke's Micrographia , which appeared under the Society's imprimatur in 1665. Despite being designed as a manifesto for Essay of Culture in Communication observational experimenting, Hooke's text sometimes strayed beyond empirical description and ventured into more speculative territory, as Michael Hunter has shown. 78 For example, when discussing lunar gravitation, Hooke rejected Cartesian explanations and Essay about European Justification of Colonization and Africa argued that some other principle must be thought of, that will agree with all the Essay on Language secundary as well as the definition clay primary Planets. He admitted, this, I confess, is but a probability, and not a demonstration. 79 This tendency in Hooke drew a sharply worded instruction from the Society: That Mr Hooke give notice in the dedication of Essay on Language of Culture, that work to the society, that though they have licensed it, yet they own no theory, nor will be thought to do so: and round character character that the several hypotheses and theories laid down by him therein, are not delivered as certainties, but as conjectures; and that he intends not at all to obtrude or expose them to Essay of Culture, the world as the opinion of the society. 80. In his response, Hooke made it clear that his own methods differed from those adopted by the Society. King Hyenas. While acknowledging the excellence of its rules against hypothesizing, Hooke conceded that this was exactly what he had sometimes done in Micrographia . Thus: I may seem to condemn my own course in this treatise, in which there may perhaps be some expressions, which may seem more positive than your prescriptions will permit. 81.

Thus is it clear that commitment to of Culture, the observed facts stripped of character, hypotheses was not as uniform within the Royal Society as Sarasohn has suggested. When it came to speculative theorizing within natural philosophy, Cavendish and Hooke shared some important common ground. So far I have explored Cavendish's hostility to on Language of Culture in Communication, aspects of experimental philosophy. Her suspicion of microscopes, her mistrust of Art and definition her preference for Essay of Culture in Communication Reason over Sense as a methodological principle seemed to be at odds with the programme favoured by of system development, many (if not all) Fellows of the Royal Society. Essay. However, there are some important positive endorsements of definition, experimentalism to be found within Cavendish's works, and it is to these that I now turn. Cavendish's support for experimentalism. For an Essay on Language in Communication, alleged anti-Baconian Cavendish was in fact remarkably at ease with Francis Bacon's advice (so central to the Royal Society's ethos) that natural philosophy should be useful for the relief of man's estate. 82 For example, Cavendish argued that natural philosophers should investigate nature so that we [shall] know how to Increase our Breed of Animals, and our Stores of of system life, Vegetables, and to find out the Minerals for our Use. On Language Of Culture In Communication. Their role should be for the Profitable Increase for Mena Baconian aim if ever there was one.

83. These views were indistinguishable from those of many members of the Royal Society. Indeed, Boyle used similar terms to argue that I shall not dare to think my self a true naturalist till my skill can make my garden yield better herbs and flowers, or my orchard better fruit, or my field better corn, or my dairy better cheese, then theirs that are strangers to physiology. 84. To achieve useful knowledge, natural philosophers must have a hands-on experimental training, Cavendish argued. They should have Experience by Practice, and Judgement by Observation. Of Brutus, The Noblest Of Them All, Julius Caesar. 85 Elsewhere, Cavendish made the rather Baconian point that certainly experiments are very beneficial to man. 86. There were other important areas of agreement between Cavendish and the Royal Society.

Many Greshamites were committed to expressing new ideas in natural philosophy in plain English to assist in their dissemination. For example, William Petty disclosed that tis the Profession of the [Royal] Society, to make Mysterious things plain; to explode and disuse all insignificant and puzzling words'. Essay Of Culture. 87. Cavendish shared this view. Cassius' Of Brutus, The Noblest Roman Julius Caesar. Her own works (all of which were written in English rather than Latin) would be widely understood because they were Plain and Vulgarly Express'd, as having not so much learning as to Puzle the Reader with Logistical, Metaphysical, Mathematical, or the like terms. Therefore, the Truth, or at least the Probability thereof, might not be Lost in the Labyrinth of Essay of Culture in Communication, Sophistry, produced from the Corruption of vs flat character, Logick and the Mixture of Essay on Language, several Languages. 88.

Cavendish and Boyle were united in their condemnation of the iatrochemist Johannes Baptista van Helmont for of Brutus, Roman of Them Julius Caesar his use of unnecessarily complex language, as Stephen Clucas has shown. 89 Thus Cavendish complained that Van Helmont had such strange terms and Essay on Language of Culture unusual expressions as may puzle any body to apprehend the sense and meaning of them. 90 Similarly, Boyle deplored the dark or empty Words used in Helmontian chemistry. 91 Cavendish praised Boyle for his clarity of expression, for he doth neither puzle Nature, nor darken truth with hard words and compounded languages, or nice distinctions. Clay. 92. Cavendish also shared the probabilistic approach favoured by many within the Royal Society. 93 Thus she argued that her aim was to find out a Truth, at Essay on Language of Culture least a Probability in round vs flat character Natural Philosophy. 94 This approach was similar to that of of Culture in Communication, Boyle, who claimed that his works were no more than a heap of bare Probabilities. Of System Life. 95 Walter Charleton similarly described his scientific enquiries as at most but ingenious Conjecture and in the latitude of Probability only.

96 In line with this approach, Cavendish was a committed anti-dogmatist. Unlike some philosophers who insisted that their works were true (could she have been thinking, perhaps, of Descartes?), Cavendish argued that her works were opinions rather than dogmatic truth-claims. Thus, for example, I will not declare my Opinions for an infallible Truth. 97 Cavendish shared her anti-dogmatism with many Fellows. For example, Boyle argued that his work pretends not to Dogmatize , but only to make an Enquiry . 98 And Glanvill composed an entire work against The Vanity of Dogmatizing . 99. One of the Essay on Language of Culture in Communication most appealing aspects of round character vs flat character, probabilism was that it allowed freedom of discussion among natural philosophers. Opinions were not right or wrong they were merely more or less probable. Cavendish took the liberty to declare my own opinions as other Philosophers do because Opinion is on Language free, and may pass without a pass-port. 100 Indeed, she invited her contemporaries to contradict her opinionsas long as theirs were more rational and probable. 101 Cavendish was not alone in adopting this position. Glanvill (who was by no means free of dogmatizing tendencies, especially when it came to his belief in witches) nevertheless claimed in a letter to Cavendish that the liberty of Arguings was a cause close to his heart. 102.

Thus it is clear that Cavendish shared some important aspects of the Cassius' the Noblest All, in Shakespeare's Caesar early Royal Society's programme: her commitment to in Communication, plain English, her desire for discursive liberty free from character character, dogmatism, and her Baconian emphasis on the usefulness of natural philosophy were all views with which many Fellows concurred. Rather than regarding the in Communication early Royal Society as dangerous, deluded and useless, it now seems that Cavendish was in fact remarkably at ease with many of its aims and ambitions. In this paper we have seen the ways in which Cavendish's relationship with the early Royal Society was more nuanced than previously thought. Although opposed to some aspects of character, experimentalism, she nevertheless supported some important aspects of the Society's programme. It is of Culture also clear that Cavendish's objections to experimentalism were neither unique nor isolated from contemporary debates. Vs Flat. When seen in of Culture in Communication the context of round character vs flat, her intellectual milieu , Cavendish's views emerge as a coherent response to in Communication, some of the most pressing intellectual challenges of her day. It is only by examining the connections between her views and those of other mid-seventeenth-century natural philosophers that we can begin to properly assess Cavendish's contribution to contemporary thought.

In doing so, we can better understand the complexities of these ongoing debates over of system development life cycle the nature and role of experimentalism in on Language of Culture natural philosophy. I would like to thank the definition of henry clay two anonymous reviewers whose helpful comments have immeasurably improved this article. ? 1 The few women who published in on Language in Communication the mid seventeenth century tended to produce religious works or, occasionally, poetry. Volumes of natural philosophy by women were rare. See Patricia Crawford, Women's published writings 16001700, in Women in English society 1500 1800 (ed. Mary Prior), pp.

211282 (Methuen, London, 1985). For a full bibliography of Cavendish's published works, see K. Of Brutus, Of Them Julius Caesar. Whitaker, Mad Madge: Margaret Cavendish, Duchess of Essay of Culture in Communication, Newcastle, Royalist, writer and romantic (Chatto Windus, London, 2003), pp. Of Henry Clay. 368369. I have retained original spellings in quotations, except in on Language in Communication the case of then, which becomes than, and knowledg, which becomes knowledge. ? 2 M. Cavendish, Observations upon Experimental Philosophy . Manipulation Roman All, Julius. To which is added, The Description of a New Blazing World (A. Maxwell, London, 1666) (hereafter OEP and NBW , respectively). On Language Of Culture In Communication. These volumes were bound and The Rocking Lottery published together but paginated separately. I am using the terms science and Essay scientific here as useful shorthands in place of the more cumbersome (but historically accurate) natural philosophy and natural philosophical. Natural philosophy in the mid seventeenth century encompassed the Horse Winner Essay sciences (physics, biology and on Language chemistry) as well as mathematics and metaphysics. ? 3 The Diary of Samuel Pepys, A new and definition complete transcription edited by Robert Latham and William Matthews (London: G. Essay Of Culture In Communication. Bell Sons, 197083), vol. The Lion King Hyenas. 8, pp.

243244. Of Culture. For an account of this visit and the experiments that Cavendish was shown, see Whitaker, op. cit . (note 1), pp. 302304. ? 4 The Diary of John Evelyn, Now first printed in full from the manuscripts belonging to Mr. John Evelyn (ed. Of System Development Life. E. S. de Beer) (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1955), vol. 3, pp. 482483; The Diary and Correspondence of John Evelyn (ed. W. Bray) (George Routledge Sons, London, 1906), vol. 4, pp. In Communication. 89.

? 5 The Life of William Cavendish, Duke of Newcastle, to round character, which is in Communication added the True Relation of my Birth, Breeding and Life, by Margaret, Duchess of Newcastle (ed. C. H. Firth) (J. C. The Lion King Hyenas. Nimmo, London, 1886), p. xxxiv. ? 6 S. Mintz, The Duchess of Newcastle's visit to the Royal Society, J. In Communication. Engl. Germanic Philol.

51 , 168176 (1952). The Royal Society moved from Gresham College to Arundel House in The Strand after the Great Fire of 1666, and returned to its former site in 1673. ? 7 Ibid. , p. 168; F. Bickley, The Cavendish family (Constable, London, 1911), p. 125. ? 8 OEP , sig. b1v; OEP , p. 90 wrongly paginated as 86. ? 9 Mintz, op. cit . (note 6), p. 176.

? 10 Evelyn Fox Keller, Producing petty gods: Margaret Cavendish's critique of experimental science, Engl. Lit. Hist. 64 , 447471 (1997). ? 11 Lisa T. Sarasohn, The natural philosophy of Margaret Cavendish: reason and fancy during the round character Scientific Revolution (Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD, 2010). ? 12 Keller, op. cit . (note 10), p. 447.

I use the term Greshamites to mean Fellows of the on Language of Culture Royal Society. Character. See note 6. ? 14 Sarasohn, op. cit . (note 11), p. 1. ? 16 Keller, op. Essay On Language Of Culture In Communication. cit . Type Of System Life. (note 10), p. 450. ? 17 Henry Power, Experimental Philosophy, in Three Books: Containing New Experiments Microscopical, Mercurial, Magnetical (London, 1664); Robert Hooke, Micrographia, or Some Physiological Descriptions of Minute Bodies made By Magnifying Glasses (hereafter Micrographia ) (Jo. Martyn Ja. Allestry, London, 1665). Essay On Language Of Culture In Communication. A significant part of Cavendish's 1666 text was devoted to her theory of character, perception. ? 18 William Cavendish, Earl, Marquis, and Essay on Language eventually Duke of character, Newcastle. Both William and Margaret were Royalists who fled from England during the 1640s, met in Paris and married in Essay on Language of Culture 1645. ? 19 Noel Malcolm, Aspects of The Rocking, Hobbes (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 2002), p. 320. ? 20 Whitaker, op. cit. (note 1), p. 103. ? 21 OEP , p. 8. On the debates prompted by the development of microscopes in the seventeenth century, see Catherine Wilson, The invisible world: early modern philosophy and the invention of the microscope (Princeton University Press, 1995).

? 22 Micrographia , sig. f2v. ? 25 OEP , p. 90 wrongly paginated as 86. ? 27 Further Observations (hereafter FO ), published in OEP but paginated separately, p. 54. ? 31 Sarasohn, op. cit . (note 11), p. 33. ? 33 K. Essay On Language In Communication. Dewhurst, Locke and Sydenham on the teaching of type cycle, anatomy, Med.

Hist. In Communication. 2 , 112 (1958) reprints the original text of Locke's Anatomie, a medical tract written in collaboration with Thomas Sydenham in 1668. I am grateful to John Henry for this reference. ? 34 The Works of Thomas Sydenham (transl. ed. R. G. Latham) (Sydenham Society, London, 184850), vol. 2, p. 171. Definition Clay. Sydenham's objections were partly based on his view that God had shaped man's faculties to observe only the outer superficies of bodies and to attempt to search beyond this was consequently sinful. On Language In Communication. See David E. Wolfe, Sydenham and Locke on the limits of anatomy, Bull. Hist. Med. 35 , 193220 (1961), at p. 210.

? 35 Latham, op. cit . Horse Winner And The Lottery. (note 34), p. On Language Of Culture In Communication. 171. ? 36 Dewhurst, op. cit . (note 33), p. 4. ? 38 See, for example, E. Wilkins, The natural philosophy of Margaret Cavendish, Duchess of Newcastle, in contemporary context (PhD thesis, University College London, 2013). ? 39 Sarasohn, op. cit . (note 11), p. Type Of System Cycle. 33. ? 40 OEP , p. 11. The referencesas Cavendish helpfully lists in the marginaliaare to those who play with glass tubes, atoms and exterior figures. ? 41 Steven Shapin and on Language of Culture Simon Schaffer, Leviathan and of system development the air pump, Hobbes, Boyle , and the experimental life (hereafter LAP ) (Princeton University Press, 1985), p. 307. Hobbes had serious reservations about the limitations of microscopes, arguing that there were creatures so small as that no microscope can make them visible. The English Works of Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury; now first collected and edited by Essay on Language of Culture, Sir William Molesworth (John Bohn, London, 183945), vol. 1, p. 446. ? 42 On the dangers of definition of henry, handling rejected knowledge see LAP , pp. 1113.

? 43 M. Cavendish, Grounds of Philosophy (A. Maxwell, London, 1668), pp. 294295. ? 44 M. Essay On Language Of Culture In Communication. Cavendish, Philosophical Letters (hereafter Letters ) (London, 1664), p. Of System Development Cycle. 283. Debates over art and nature can be traced back to Essay on Language of Culture, antiquity; they took a new turn in the mid seventeenth century with the cycle development of new instruments (such as microscopes) and techniques (such as distillation). See H. Floris Cohen, The scientific revolution: a historiographical inquiry (University of Chicago Press, 1994); William R. Newman, Promethean ambitions: alchemy and the quest to in Communication, perfect nature (University of Chicago Press, 2004). ? 49 OEP , p. 91 wrongly paginated as 87, p. 92.

Miniature microscopes were worn as bracelet charms at this time. See Marjorie Hope Nicolson and David Stuart Rodes (eds), Shadwell: the virtuoso (Edward Arnold, London, 1966), p. xx. ? 50 J. T. Harwood, Rhetoric and graphics in Micrographia in Robert Hooke: New Studies (ed. Michael Hunter and Simon Schaffer), pp. 119147 (Boydell, Woodbridge, 1989), at p. 145; Meghan C. Doherty, Discovering the true form: Hooke's Micrographia and the visual vocabulary of king hyenas, engraved portraits, Notes Rec. R. Soc. 66 , 211234 (2012). On Hooke's use of the compound microscope, and Essay of Culture the distortions this caused, see Brian J. Cassius' All, In Shakespeare's Julius Caesar. Ford, Images of science: a history of scientific illustration (The British Library, London, 1992), pp. 174175 and 182183. ? 51 R. Essay On Language Of Culture In Communication. Hooke, preface to character, An Attempt for the Explication of the Phaenomena , quoted in Jim Bennett, Michael Cooper, Michael Hunter and Lisa Jardine (eds) London's Leonardo: the life and work of Robert Hooke (Oxford University Press, 2003), p. 85. ? 52 Sarasohn, op. cit . (note 11), pp.

1213. ? 53 Latham, op cit . On Language. (note 34), vol. 1, p. 20. Sydenham differentiated between longstanding basic anatomyknowledge of the structure of the kidneys, the skeleton, and so onand more speculative knowledge derived from microscopic anatomization. ? 54 Micrographia , sig. g1r. ? 55 H. Power, op. cit. (note 17), sig. c3vc4v (quoting Boyle's Proemial Essay , 1661). ? 56 Micrographia , sig. g1r. ? 57 OEP , p. 91 wrongly paginated as 87. ? 60 OEP , p. 91 wrongly paginated as 87. ? 61 R. C. Manipulation Of Brutus, Of Them Caesar. Christie (ed.), The diary and correspondence of John Worthington (Manchester: The Chetham Society, 1886), vol.

2, pt 2, p. 265. Spinoza's similarly negative assessment of sense-experience is summarized in R. Manning, Spinoza's physical theory, in The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy , Spring 2012 edn (ed. Edward N. Zalta) ( ? 62 T. Of Culture. Hobbes, Leviathan, or The Matter, Forme Power of a Common-Wealth Ecclesiasticall and Civill (ed. C. King Hyenas. B. Macpherson) (Penguin, Harmondsworth, 1968), p. 106. ? 63 T. Hobbes, Considerations upon the Reputation, Loyalty, Manners Religion of Thomas Hobbes of Malmsbury, Written by himself, by way of Essay, Letter to a Learned Person [John Wallis] (London, 1680), pp. 53 and 55. ? 64 Letters , p. 502. By artists Cavendish means those people who make or use artificial instruments. ? 67 Micrographia , sig.

A1v; Glanvill, Scepsis Scientifica , sig. a3v (London, 1665). See also Michael Hunter, The Royal Society and its Fellows 16601700: the morphology of an the lion king hyenas, early scientific institution (British Society for the History of on Language of Culture, Science, Chalfont St Giles, 1982), esp. pp. 9 and 25. ? 68 Steven Shapin, The invisible technician, Am. Scient. 77 , 554563 (1989). ? 69 LAP , p. 131. See also Shapin, op. cit. (note 68), p. 557, who argues that very few of Boyle's experiments involved the laying of king hyenas, his hands upon experimental apparatus or materials. Instead, a very substantial proportion of his work was done by paid assistants who were invisible to Boyle and remain unchronicled in the historical record. ? 72 Sidney Warhaft (ed.), Francis Bacon: a selection of his works (Macmillan, London, 1965), p. 235. ? 73 Keller, op. cit . (note 10), p. 452. ? 74 Sylvia Bowerbank, The spider's delight: Margaret Cavendish and the female imagination, Eng.

Lit. Renaiss. 14 , 392408 (1984); Sarasohn, op. Essay Of Culture In Communication. cit . (note 11). ? 75 Sarasohn, op. cit . (note 11), p. About Justification Of Colonization Of Asia. 196. ? 77 Glanvill to Cavendish [13 October 1667], in Letters and Poems in honour of the of Culture in Communication Incomparable Princess, Margaret, Dutchess of Essay about of Asia, Newcastle (hereafter LP ) (Thomas Newcombe, London, 1676), pp. 2425.

Glanvill's own contribution to this enterprise was a history of mining in the Mendips. ? 78 M. Hunter, Hooke the natural philosopher, in Bennett et al. (eds), op. cit. (note 51), pp. 130131. ? 79 Micrographia , p. In Communication. 246. ? 80 T. Birch, The History of the Royal Society of London , for the lion king Improving of Natural Knowledge, from its First Rise (London, 175657), vol. 1, p. 491. ? 82 Bacon argued that the purpose of natural philosophy was for the of Culture glory of the Lottery Essay Creator and the relief of man's estate. See Warhaft, op. Essay Of Culture In Communication. cit . (note 72), p. 235. ? 83 Orations of Divers Sorts, Accommodated to Divers Places (hereafter Orations ) (London, 1662), pp. Vs Flat. 244245. In this volume Cavendish often presents two opposing sides to a single issue, arguing contradictory positions with equal conviction.

In this case there is no counter-oration. ? 84 T. Birch (ed.), The Works of the Honourable Robert Boyle (London, 1772), vol. 2, p. 64. ? 86 Letters , p. 496. Essay On Language In Communication. Cavendish was not prepared to convert her positive endorsement of experimentalism into financial support. Vs Flat. When the Fellows appealed to her for a donation in Essay of Culture in Communication 1668, she declined to help. See M. Hunter, Establishing the new science: the experience of the early Royal Society (Boydell Press, Woodbridge, 1989), p. Of Henry Clay. 167. ? 87 W. Petty, The Discourse made before the Royal Society Concerning the Use of Duplicate Proportion , sig. A5v (London, 1674).

? 88 M. Essay. Cavendish, Philosophical and Physical Opinions (William Wilson, London, 1663), sig. b4r4v. Cavendish was making a virtue of necessity: she was ignorant of both Latin and of Colonization of Asia Greek. ? 89 S. Clucas, Margaret Cavendish's materialist critique of Van Helmontian chymistry, Ambix 58 , pp. 45 (2011). ? 91 R. Boyle, The sceptical chymist (Henry Hall for R. Davis and B. Took, Oxford, 1680), pp. 210. ? 92 Letters , p. Essay On Language Of Culture In Communication. 496. Nice is used to mean precise, in a mean way. ? 93 B. Shapiro, Probability and certainty in seventeenth-century England: a study of the the lion relationships between natural science, religion, history, law and literature (Princeton University Press, 1983), p. 4. ? 95 R. On Language Of Culture. Boyle, A Free Enquiry Into the Vulgarly Received Notion of Nature (hereafter VN ) (ed. Edward B. Davis and Michael Hunter) (Cambridge University Press, 1996), p. 6. Much of this work was written in the 1660s but was not published until 1686.

? 96 W. Charleton, Physiologia Epicuro-Gassendo-Charltoniana (T. Newcomb for Thomas Heath, London, 1654), pp. 6 and 128. ? 97 Letters , p. Of System Development Life Cycle. 17. Cavendish also argued against extreme scepticism.

See M. Cavendish, The Worlds Olio (J. Martin J. Allestrye, London, 1655), p. 4. ? 99 Glanvill, The Vanity of Dogmatizing (London, 1661).

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8 Amazing Examples of Business Owners Responding to Reviews. On Language! Online reviews on sites like Yelp, TripAdvisor, Facebook, and Google give people a way to share their customer experiences not only Winner and The Essay, with businesses but with fellow consumers, too. And consumers rely on these reviews in order to discover businesses and Essay, brands that provide the best customer experience. The Rocking And The Lottery! Thats why monitoring and in Communication, responding to reviews is an important part of managing customer feedback and protecting your brand reputation. If you arent doing this yet, take the time to Manipulation Roman All, in Shakespeare's Julius Caesar respond to on Language in Communication and communicate with your happy and king hyenas, unhappy customers on all the review sites and feedback channels where they may be talking. ReviewTrackers found that 52 percent of customers expect to hear back from brands within 7 days of writing an online review, particularly one thats negative or critical. Essay Of Culture! 1 in 4 customers are more demanding, expecting a review response within 3 days, while 21 percent expect brands to have a response time of 24 hours or less. 78 percent of consumers say that seeing management respond to online reviews makes them believe that the business cares more about them.

Need inspiration for navigating the (sometimes treacherous) waters of online customer reviews and feedback? Download the of henry clay Templates: Respond to Reviews. And discover how successful companies use ReviewTrackers to respond to customer reviews. Download the Excel document after filling out the form below. 8 Amazing Responses to Online Customer Reviews. 1. Resolve issues and offer a solution. JetBlue Airways Twitter account serves as one of the companys main customer service channels. Essay Of Culture! When a customer named Esai Velez complained (politely) about his backseat TV not working, JetBlue responded within minutes . 2. Reinforce positives in the customer experience. Yelper Cassandra I. had good things to vs flat character say about her amazing experience at the Kreme de la Kreme Nail Lounge in Long Beach. But for Essay on Language of Culture in Communication, her, the about European Justification of Asia and Africa nail salons services were a little bit too pricey: hence, the Essay 3-star rating.

The salons manager responded by thanking Cassandra for the positive feedback. She also explained why Kreme de la Kreme was more expensive than the competition. King Hyenas! Note the subtle, effective way her response turns the negative into a positive: 3. Recognize the staff and Essay, share customer success to round character vs flat the team. A positive review is on Language, obviously great for your brand reputation. But its also a great booster of employee morale.

Check out of henry clay, how Hard Rock Cafe Hollywoods short, simple response to this Yelp review painted a picture of a happy team of employees committed to customer success: Always say thank you to customers who leave positive reviews. When you write back, though, dont be lazy. Personalize your response and show genuine appreciation for Essay, customer feedback. We love this amazing review response by Jessica Lavin of Hotel Monaco in Philadelphia. She even managed to pay hotel guests a sweet compliment. One of the guests at the Stamford Plaza in Brisbane posted a negative TripAdvisor review of the hotel, citing noisy rooms and impolite staff. Manager Philippe wrote a very professional and Cassius' Manipulation the Noblest Roman in Shakespeare's Julius, thoughtful response to the review, apologizing for the guests experience and on Language of Culture in Communication, providing reassurance that the business was already working on improvements. Sometimes, a customer will raise tough issues in their review. Tackle these without losing your cool or sounding like youve been wrongfully accused (even if it were indeed the case). Kareo CEO Dan Rodrigues understands the value of reviews and definition clay, feedback left by his employees and he responds to reviews on Glassdoor with amazing thoughtfulness. Heres an of Culture in Communication, example of his responses:

Veterinary medicine and care is a tough industry. Emotions run high and in times of emergency and crisis, pet parents can be extremely vocal and round, opinionated which can then easily translate into what they write in online reviews. For example: there will always be people who are going to be convinced that their vets are just in it for the money and dont really care about the welfare of their animals. In response to one such review, Forest Grove Veterinary Clinic posted a classy response that highlighted the Essay on Language in Communication companys values while also directly addressing the customers experience. Horse Winner Essay! 8. In special cases, fight back and protect your brand reputation. Once in a while, an of Culture in Communication, angry and unreasonable customer will Yelp your business or even issue legal threats simply in order to of system development life cycle get what they want. How you should respond will depend on a case-by-case basis although we do recommend that you dont do anything that stirs the pot or causes bigger controversies. If the review violates the review sites content guidelines, flag it or send a report.

Act in order to protect your brand reputation, instead of inflicting further damage on it. This last example isnt necessarily what we would tell other business owners to do, but its still pretty amazing how this restaurant in Kansas City responded to a nasty Yelp review: Do you have more examples of amazing responses to online customer reviews? Feel free to share them in the comments section below. On Language In Communication! Migs is the Content Manager for ReviewTrackers. He's a creative writer who has helped numerous companies communicate more effectively online, and he loves sharing his local marketing knowledge to help brands and business succeed. Thanks! Great examples.

After reading Voltaire#8217;s response, I want to visit this restaurant! I think the reviewer may have inadvertently provided a reason to visit. Id would definitely go to NYC to visit Voltaire#8230;. Type Development Life Cycle! my opinion, i felt that review just got them more customers#8230; #8220;including me#8221;. Subscribe today to of Culture get one email a month with a new, data-rich report about the consumer experience. The Lion! Get started with our Customer Experience Management Certification.

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essay of ethnography WRITING AN ETHNOGRAPHY. 1. To understand the nature of ethnographic writing as part of the translation process. 2. To identify different levels of ethnographic writing. 4. To write an ethnography. Every ethnographer probably begins the in Communication task of writing a cultural description with the feeling it is too early to start. Doing ethnography always leads to a profound awareness that a particular cultural meaning system is almost inexhaustibly rich. Of System Cycle! You know a great deal about a cultural scene but you now realize how much more there is to know. It is well to Essay on Language of Culture recognize that what you write is true of every ethnographic description: it is partial, incomplete, and Roman of Them All, Caesar, will always stand in Essay on Language of Culture, need of revision. Most ethnographers would do well to set aside the feelings that writing is premature and begin the task sooner rather than later. In the process of writing one discovers a hidden store of knowledge gained during the research process.

As most professional writers will affirm, the only way to learn to write is to hyenas write. In the of Culture same way that learning to swim cannot occur during classroom lectures on swimming, discussion of principles and strategies to follow in writing do not take one very far in learning to write. It is best to observe other swimmers, get in the water yourself and paddle around, and then have an experienced swimmer point out ways to improve your breathing and stroke. One of the best ways to learn to write an ethnography is to read other ethnographies. Select those that communicate to you the meaning of the lion another culture. Those written in a way that brings that culture to life, making you feel you understand the people and their way of life. If you read well-written ethnographies during the process of writing, your own writing will improve spontaneously. Every ethnographer can identify books and articles that are well-written cultural descriptions.

In the past eight years, my colleague David McCurdy and I have scoured the professional literature in search of of Culture in Communication brief examples of ethnographic writing of the hyenas highest caliber. Our standard has been to identify writing that translates the meanings of an Essay on Language of Culture in Communication, alien culture so well that someone unfamiliar with ethnography grasps those meanings. These selections of ethnographic writing have been collected in three successive editions of Conformity and Conflict: Readings in Cultural Anthropology (1971, 1974. 1977). For sheer readability, two of the best longer ethnographies are Elliot Liehows urban ethnography, Tallys Corner (1967), and Colin Turnbulls study of the Pygmies, The Forest People (1962). In this step I want to examine briefly the nature of ethnographic writing as part of the translation process.

Then I want to round character character discuss the principles of the Essay in Communication D.R.S. Method as applied to writing an ethnography. In the process I will give some specific suggestions on writing, but always keep in mind that the way to learn to write an ethnography is to write an ethnography. THE TRANSLATION PROCESS. A translation discovers the of Brutus, the Noblest Roman of Them All, in Shakespeare's Julius meanings in one culture and communicates them in such a way that people with another cultural tradition can understand them. The ethnographer as translator has a dual task. For one, you must make sense out of the cultural patterns you observe, decoding the messages in cultural behavior, artifacts, and of Culture in Communication, knowledge. The more fully you apprehend and digest the cultural meaning system operating in the social situation you study, the more effective your final translation. Your second task is to communicate the cultural meanings you have discovered to readers who are unfamiliar with that culture or cultural scene.

This means that every ethnographer must develop the skills of communicating in written form. It requires that you take into consideration our audience as well as our informants. In a real sense, a truly effective translation requires an of Brutus, the Noblest in Shakespeare's Caesar, intimate knowledge of two cultures: the one described and the one tacitly held by the audience who will read the description. Many highly skilled ethnographers fail to finish the work of on Language of Culture ethnographic translation. Manipulation Of Brutus, The Noblest Roman Of Them In Shakespeare's Julius Caesar! They give months of time to the intensive study of another culture, analyzing in great detail the meanings encoded in that culture. Then, without taking time to learn the Essay on Language skills of written communication, without understanding their audience, without even feeling the importance of about Justification of Colonization of Asia communicating in a way that brings the culture to life, they write an ethnography. Their audience becomes a very small group of other ethnographers, who, by virtue of their interest in the culture, are willing to wade through the vague and general discussions, examine the taxonomies, paradigms, and other tables or charts, and glean an understanding of the people and their way of life. The ethnographic literature is plagued by Essay of Culture, half-translations that cannot be used as guides to another way of life. In discussing the steps in writing an ethnographic description I will make numerous suggestions for creating a full translation, one that communicates the cultural meanings you have discovered.

However, one fundamental cause of inadequate cultural translations lies in the failure to understand and use different levels of writing. During the writing of any ethnographic description, the Essay about European of Asia and Africa ethnographer must keep these various levels in mind and consciously use them to increase the communicative power of the translation. Levels of Ethnographic Writing. Every ethnographer deals with the most specific, concrete, human events as well as the most general. In our fieldnotes we identify an Essay, infant with a specific name, held by a specific mother, nursing at Essay about Justification of Colonization of Asia and Africa that mothers breast, at a specific time and in a specific place. In those same fieldnotes we will make observations about human love, nurturance, and the universal relationship of mothers and children. On Language Of Culture! In the final written ethnography, the range of levels is enormous.

More than anything else, the way these levels are used will determine the communicative value of an ethnographic translation. Kenneth Read, in his beautifully written ethnography of the Gahuku peoples of Highland New Guinea, The High Valley (1965), suggests the underlying cause of partial translations in ethnography: Why, then, is so much anthropological writing so antiseptic, so devoid of anything that brings a people to king life? There they are, pinned like butterflies in a glass case, with the Essay of Culture in Communication difference, however, that we often cannot tell what color these specimens are, and we are never shown them in flight, never see them soar or die except in generalities. The reason for this lies in the aims of anthropology, whose concern with the particular is incidental to an understanding of the and The Essay general (1965:ix). In anthropology, as in all social sciences, the concern with the particular is incidental to an understanding of the on Language of Culture in Communication general.

But when this principle is transported wholesale into doing ethnography, it creates a travesty of the translation process. When an ethnographer studies another culture, the only place to life begin is with the particular, the concrete, specific events of everyday life. Then, through the research process described in this book, the in Communication ethnographer moves to more and development life, more general statements about the culture. Essay Of Culture! With the discovery of more general categories and cultural themes, the ethnographer begins to make comparisons with other cultures and make even more general statements about the culture studied. And all too frequently, it is primarily this kind of analysis and character, understanding that finds its way into the ethnographic description.

In writing an ethnography, as a translation in the full sense, the on Language in Communication concern with the general is incidental to an understanding of the particular. In order for a reader to see the lives of the people we study, we must show them through particulars, not merely talk about them in generalities. There are at least six different levels that can be identified in type development life cycle, ethnographic writing as we move from the on Language of Culture general to the particular. Lets examine each of these different kinds of translation statements. Level One: Universal Statements. These include all statements about human beings, their behavior, culture. or environmental situation. They are all-encompassing statements. Although the beginning ethnographer may often feel incompetent to make any universal statements, all of and Africa us know things that occur universally and can include them in our ethnographies. Most cultural descriptions include universal statements.

A study of air traffic controllers, for example. Of Culture! might assert, In all societies, people manage the movement of their bodies through space in such a way that they do not constantly collide with other human beings. Such a statement is relevant to controlling the movement of vehicles in type of system life, which humans move about Essay on Language in Communication as well. A study of clerks who record burglaries in Horse and The, the police department might assert the of Culture in Communication following universal statement: in all human societies, some people keep records of one sort or another about their affairs. For each of the six levels of of henry abstraction that appear in ethnographic writing, I want to give an example from The Cocktail Waitress: Womans Work in a Mans World (Spradley and Mann 1975). This will clarify the nature of the Essay on Language of Culture various levels by showing their expression in a single work. The following universal statement is one among several: Every society takes the biological differences between female and male to create a special kind of reality: feminine and masculine identities (1975:145). In the context of a specific bar in a specific city, we made an assertion about a universal feature of Cassius' the Noblest Roman Caesar human experience. Level Two: Cross-Cultural Descriptive Statements. The second level of abstraction includes statements about two or more societies, assertions that are true for some societies but not necessarily for all societies. Consider the following statement from The Cocktail Waitress: When anthropologists began studying small, non-Western societies they found that people participated in a single web of life. . . . [W]hen we turn to complex societies such as our own, the number of cultural perspectives for any situation increases radically (1975: 8, 9). This statement says something about Essay two very large classes of human societiesthe small, non-Western ones and the complex ones.

Such a descriptive statement helps to convey an understanding of even the most specific place such as Bradys Bar. Cross-cultural descriptive statements help place a cultural scene in the broader picture of round character human cultures, something every ethnographer is concerned about doing. These kinds of in Communication statements say to character the reader, This cultural scene is Essay in Communication not merely one little interesting group of people; it is a part of the human species in a particular way. It is like many other cultural scenes, but it is also different from many others. By means of contrast you have conveyed an important dimension of the culture. Level Three: General Statements about a Society or Cultural Group. This kind of statement appears to be specific, but in fact remains quite general. The Kwakiutl live in of henry clay, villages along coastal bays is a general statement about a cultural group. The Pygmies live in the forest and play musical instruments is another general statement. Essay On Language Of Culture In Communication! We can make such statements about complex societies also: American culture is based on the value of definition materialism. Or we can make such statements about recurrent cultural scenes, or groups of people who have learned similar cultural scenes: Air traffic controllers work under great stress; Police departments must gather, classify, and record a great deal of important information.

In our study of Bradys Bar, we included statements at this level; they did not refer exclusively to Bradys Bar, but to all the institutions of Essay in Communication which Bradys was one example: Bars, in general, are places of employment for Horse Winner Lottery Essay hundreds of thousands of on Language of Culture women, almost always as cocktail waitresses. Their role in bars tends to be an extension of their role at homeserving the needs of men. . . . Like most institutions of American society, men hold sway at of Brutus, Roman of Them All, Caesar the center of social importance (1975: 145). Level Four: General Statements about a Specific Cultural Scene. When we move down one level of abstraction, we can note many statements about a particular culture or cultural scene, Most ethnographies are filled with statements at this level. In Communication! The Fort Rupert Kwakiutl engage in seine fishing. The air traffic controllers at the Minneapolis International Airport work one of three shifts. Participant observation provides many statements at this level. We can say things like, The waitresses at king hyenas Bradys get hassled by Essay of Culture, customers or Tramps arent really tramps unless they make the bucket, These are descriptive statements about Essay about European Justification of Colonization and Africa a particular scene or group, but even so, they are still general in nature. Moreover, even when expressed by an informant and used in an ethnography as a quotation from an informant, they represent an abstraction. Every culture is filled with these low-level abstractions that must find their way into any ethnographic description. Here is an example from Bradys Bar: At one level, Bradys Bar is primarily a place of business.

At another level, Bradys Bar is a place where men can come to play out exaggerated masculine roles, acting out their fantasies of sexual prowess, and reaffirming their own male identities, Bradys Bar is a mens ceremonial center (1975: 130-31). This level of ethnographic writing contains many of the themes the ethnographer wants to Essay on Language of Culture in Communication present to the reader. Thus, the theme of males expressing their identities in many different waysin the way space is organized, the way drinks are ordered, and character vs flat, the likeis described in statements at this level. Sometimes one can encapsulate general statements at Level Four in a quotation from an informant: they still remain statements of a very general nature. Making use of an informant quotation helps provide a sense of immediacy and gives the reader a closer acquaintance with the culture, but we must move to even more specific levels. Level Five: Specific Statements about a Cultural Domain. At this level, the ethnographer begins to make use of all the different terms in one or more cultural domains. We are now dealing with a class of events, objects, or activities as you have discovered them in the cultural scene.

For example, here is an ethnographic statement at this level from my research on the factory that makes tannery equipment: One of the most important jobs that men do is to make drums. A drum can be small, such as a barrel, or more than thirty feet across. There are many stages in making a drum, including making heads, making pins, making cross pieces, making staves, making doors, and making door frames. The entire process of making a drum can take as long as a week and involve the on Language in Communication work of several men. Descriptive statements at this level can make reference to taxonomies and paradigms that encapsulate a great deal of information. However, these representations in themselves seldom communicate more than a skeleton of relationships to the reader. In order to translate these into a description that will be understood, a great deal of narrative description at this level and Manipulation of Brutus, Roman in Shakespeare's Julius Caesar, the next more specific level is required.

Here is a brief example of a specific statement about the domain, asking for a drink, which makes up part of the culture of cocktail waitresses. One frequent way that men ask for a drink is Essay of Culture in Communication not to ask for a drink at all. In the situation where it is appropriate to ask for a drink, they ask instead for the waitress. This may be done in the form of teasing, hustling, hassling, or some other speech act (1975:132). Level Six: Specific Incident Statements. In one sense, Levels One through Five all contrast sharply with Level Six, which takes the reader immediately to Essay Justification of Asia and Africa the actual level of behavior and objects, to the level of perceiving these things. Consider an example from Bradys Bar at this level, closely related to all the examples given at the other five levels of abstraction: Sandy is working the upper section on Friday night. Essay! She walks up to the corner table where there is a group of five she has never seen before: four guys and a girl who are loud and boisterous.

She steps up to the table and Essay European Justification of Colonization and Africa, asks, Are you ready to order now? One of the males grabs her by the waist and jerks her towards him. Essay On Language In Communication! I already know what I want! Ill take you, he says as he smiles innocently up at her (1975:132). As a reader, you immediately begin to see things happening, perhaps feel things the actors in this situation feel. Instead of merely being told what people know, how they generate behavior from this knowledge, and of henry, how they interpret things, you have been shown this cultural knowledge in action. A good ethnographic translation shows; a poor one only tells. Perhaps another example of the six levels in on Language in Communication, ethnographic writing will clarify the effect on the reader. Drawing from my research among tramps, the following statements all describe a single aspect of their experience: begging, borrowing, panhandling, lending, and otherwise exchanging things. LEVEL ONE: Reciprocity among human beings is balanced where two people give to each other over time, each giving and each receiving. Such reciprocity occurs in Horse Winner and The Lottery Essay, all societies.

LEVEL TWO: Tramps, like those who live in of Culture in Communication, tribal villages, depend on one another in time of need. They expect others to reciprocate. A Kwakiutl Indian will give in a potlatch and later receive gifts at someone elses potlatch. Hyenas! A tramp will give to another tramp and also beg from another tramp. LEVEL THREE: Tramps engage in much more reciprocal exchange than do other members of the larger society. This kind of exchange takes many forms. LEVEL FOUR: A tramp in the Seattle City Jail will exchange goods and services with other tramps. If he is a trusty in the jail, he might exchange a service for on Language money with someone in lockup. LEVEL FIVE: (Informants statement) Yes, a tramp will beg from other tramps. About Of Asia And Africa! If youre panhandling you can expect another tramp to give you money or a cigarette if he has it.

You realize that sometime he will need something and Essay of Culture in Communication, then it will be your turn. LEVEL SIX: It was a dull Tuesday afternoon and a slight mist of rain was blowing gently in from the Puget Sound. Joe had become a kickout an hour earlier; several minutes ago he walked off the elevator on the first floor of the Public Safety Building and type of system development life, found his way to the street. Pulling the collar of his worn tweed jacket up around his neck, he hunched his shoulders slightly and headed downtown, wondering where he would find money for a drink or even a cigarette. Essay On Language Of Culture! He might have to round character vs flat character make a flop under the bridge on Washington Street tonight to stay out of the rain. Essay! He saw a man approaching him as he headed slowly down James Street, obviously another tramp. Round Vs Flat Character! Looked like a home guard tramp, but he couldnt tell for sure. Can you spare a quarter for a jug? he asked. I just got a kickout. No, Im flat on my ass myself, the other man said, but how about a smoke, all I got are Bull Durhams. After taking a light too, Joe started on Essay of Culture in Communication down James Street looking for a tourist or businessman to panhandle. Ethnographic writing includes statements at all six levels on the continuum from the general to type life cycle the particular. Effective writing, that which serves to communicate the meanings of a culture to the reader, is achieved by making all these statements, but doing so in a certain proportion. Professional journals, in which the author writes primarily for colleagues, tend to consist of statements at Levels One and Two; that is, the description is made in general terms, the author avoiding specific incidents. Those outside a narrow professional group often find these articles dense, dull, antiseptic, and inadequate translations.

Some ethnographic writings, whether articles, papers, or books, adopt a formal style using Levels Three and Four. Most dissertations and theses are written at on Language in Communication these middle levels of abstraction, although they may contain a great deal of character information also at Level Five. They tend to present the bare bones, the Essay on Language of Culture skeleton of knowledge, without the Manipulation the Noblest of Them All, in Shakespeare's Caesar flesh of Essay of Culture in Communication examples and specific incident statements of Cassius' Manipulation of Brutus, Roman of Them All, in Shakespeare's Julius Caesar Level Six. At the other extreme, some ethnographic novels and of Culture in Communication, personal accounts consist entirely of the lion king statements at Level Six, with, perhaps, a few statements from Essay of Culture, Level Five thrown in character vs flat, now and then. This kind of on Language writing holds the readers attention hut may fail to communicate the overall structure of a culture or the nature of ethnography. It should be clear that mixing the various levels in the desirable proportion depends on the goals of the Horse and The Lottery Essay ethnographer. In You Owe Yourself a Drunk: An Ethnography of on Language Urban Nomads (1970), 1 made a great deal of use of Levels Three through Six, ranging back and forth among statements about tramps generally, to type specific incidents.

Many of the Essay in Communication incidents were contained in quotations from informants. In The Cocktail Waitress (Spradley and Mann 1975), we sought to communicate to a wider audience and included many more statements at Level Six, the most specific level. We also tried to relate the culture of Bradys Bar to the universal level of writing more frequently. In retrospect, we tended to scale down the middle level of generalizations. In Deaf Like Me (Spradley and vs flat character, Spradley 1978), an in-depth study of a family coping with a deaf child, we moved almost entirely to the most concrete level in in Communication, order to communicate with the widest possible audience. Although much of the data were gathered by definition, ethnographic interviewing and other ethnographic techniques, we recounted specific incidents in order to Essay of Culture in Communication communicate more effectively to the reader. We sought to show what the culture of families was like, how they coped with a deaf child, what strategies they used, and the consequences for communication.

Although statements appear in this study at all the Horse Lottery Essay other levels of generalization, they are woven into the particular so thoroughly that they do not stand out. We attempted to communicate more general statements through the use of particular statements. Each ethnographer will have to determine his or her intended audience. I believe that ethnographic research holds important values for all people and that ethnographers should write for those outside the academic world. I urge students and others to use the middle levels of Essay in Communication generalizations sparingly. Emphasize the Winner Lottery Essay most general and the most specific. In ethnographic writing, the concern with the in Communication general is incidental to an understanding of the particular for an important reason. And The! It is because generalities are best communicated through particulars. And the second half of all translation involves communicating to outsiders the meanings of a culture.

STEPS IN WRITING AN ETHNOGRAPHY. Like doing ethnographic research, writing an ethnography can appear to be a formidable task if seen as a single task. All too often, the beginning ethnographer conceives the writing as simply writing. On Language Of Culture! You sit down with blank paper and all your fieldnotes and begin writing the ethnography. When it is completed it will require some revision and editing, hut the work is king largely one long, arduous task. Underlying the D.R.S. Method of research is the assumption that breaking a large task into smaller ones and placing these in sequence will simplify the work and improve ones performance. This assumption applies equally to writing.

However, because each of on Language of Culture us has developed patterns of king writing from years of experience, it is in Communication far more difficult to create a series of Horse Winner Lottery steps that have wide applicability. The following steps must be considered as suggestions only. Readers will want to create their own series of steps to organize writing in a manner that best fits patterns developed through past experience. However, the underlying premise, that it is valuable to divide up the on Language in Communication writing of an of system development life cycle, ethnography into tasks, does have wide applicability. Step One: Select an audience. Because the audience will influence every aspect of your ethnography, selecting an audience is one of the first things to Essay be done. All writing is an of system development, act of communication between human beings and in that sense it is on Language similar to talking. When speaking to someone, there are innumerable cues that remind us that our audience is present. The writer needs to select an audience, identify it clearly, and then keep in mind throughout the writing who that audience is.

When writing for a specific journal or magazine, the ethnographer must carefully scrutinize past issues of the journal to character discover the on Language of Culture in Communication style of writing. You are, in development life, fact, discovering the audience that such a journal is written for. If one intends to write a book-length ethnography, then the audience may be scholars in the field, students, the Essay of Culture in Communication general public, or some other group. The best advice I have ever received for selecting an audience came from Manipulation of Brutus, Roman All, in Shakespeare's Julius Caesar, Marshall Townsend, the of Culture editor at the University of Arizona Press: A basic concept we stress at the Noblest Roman Julius Caesar the University of Arizona Press is that of the target reader. What we urge YOU as an of Culture in Communication, author to do is to pick out a target reader and write in Winner and The Essay, book form for only one reader. Pick out some real person whom you know, then set down your materials so this person wilt understand what you are saying. When you have a target reader, you effect a single level of presentation. rather than trying to provide information to everyone from those who have their doctorates to students in high school who want to delve into the subject just a bit. Choose your level of on Language communication and type of system development cycle, stay with itby addressing yourself in your writing to only this one person.

We believe you will find this concept a highly workable one. When you as an of Culture in Communication, author write successfully for one, we as a publisher may he able to take your book and sell thousands of copies because each person feels this was meant for me. On the other hand, if you try to write for thousands, and embrace all of their varied interests and viewpoints, we may not he able to sell a single copy. Stick to your one-level approach, and we as publishers will take care of character vs flat informing readers at all levels of interest and of understanding how the hook will fit Into their realm. Step Two: Select a thesis. In order to communicate with your audience, you need to have something to say.

All too often, ethnographic descriptions appear to be like meandering conversations without a destination. In Communication! Although of interest to The Rocking Winner the ethnographer and a few colleagues, such writing will not hold the attention of many more. A thesis is the central message, the point you want to make. There are several sources for finding a thesis. First, the major themes you have discovered in ethnographic research represent possible theses. Of Culture! For example, a major theme in the culture of round vs flat character tramps was that being in jail affected ones identity, even made a man want to go out and of Culture, get drunk. Round Character Vs Flat! In jail a man learned to hustle, and this reinforced his identity as a tramp trying to make it on the street. This theme became the thesis of the ethnography: that jailing drunks, rather than being therapeutic, actually played an important role in creating the identity of tramp. This thesis was summed up in the title of the ethnography, which came from an Essay in Communication, informant who said, After thirty days in jail, you owe yourself a drunk!

Second, a thesis for your ethnography may come from the overall goals of ethnography. You may, for example, state your thesis in the following way: To most people, a bar is a place to drink. Type Development Life! But to the cocktail waitress, it is much more complex. It is a world of varied cultural meaning that she learns in order to carry out her work and cope with difficulties. In this paper I want to show just how complex the cultural knowledge of the cocktail waitress is, in contrast to the casual impressions of the Essay on Language outsider. Your thesis can simply be to show that cultural meaning systems are much more complex than we usually think. Another way to definition clay formulate this type of thesis is in Essay on Language of Culture, terms of a set of recipes for Cassius' Roman of Them All, in Shakespeare's Julius Caesar behavior. Culture can be viewed as a set of instructions for Essay of Culture in Communication carrying out vs flat character lifes ordinary activities.

Your thesis would be to show the of Culture reader the recipe for Horse Essay being a tramp, a cocktail waitress, or some other kind of person. Frake in a series of Essay of Culture in Communication articles, has made effective use of this kind of thesis. For example, he has written on How to ask for a drink (1964c) and How to enter a house among the character character Yakan in in Communication, the Philippines (1975). Still another way to formulate this type of thesis is to show the tacit rules for of Them All, behavior. Essay On Language Of Culture In Communication! This thesis argues that much goes on in social life that we do not see, that there are tacit rules of clay behavior that people have learned but seldom discuss. The point of Essay of Culture your paper is to make those tacit rules explicit.

Third, a thesis may come from the literature of the social sciences. Type Development Cycle! In one paper on Essay in Communication tramps I reviewed the literature on the concept of Cassius' Manipulation Roman of Them All, Caesar reciprocity. Then, I formulated a thesis that linked the patterns of Essay on Language of Culture in Communication reciprocity among tramps to these more general concepts (Spradley 1968). When a thesis has been selected, it is definition useful to state it briefly, perhaps in a single sentence, and Essay on Language, place it before you as a constant reminder as you write. This will help organize your paper and integrate it around a single major idea. It will also help the reader to grasp the meanings of the culture ma way that a simple listing of domains and their meanings will not. Step Three: Make a list of topics and create an the lion, outline.

Any ethnography will necessarily deal with only Essay on Language of Culture selected aspects of vs flat character a culture. Furthermore, you will use only of Culture in Communication part of the material you have collected. King! This step involves reviewing your fieldnotes and the cultural inventory you made and listing topics you think should be included in Essay of Culture, the final description. Some of these topics will be things like introduction and conclusion. Once listed, you can then make an outline based around your thesis. Type Of System! This will divide up your actual writing into sections, each of which can be done as a separate unit. If you have been writing short descriptive pieces throughout the project (See Appendix B), many or all of these may fit into the outline. Step Four: Write a rough draft of each section. . A rough draft is intended to be rough, unfinished, unpolished.

One of the great roadblocks for many writers is the desire to revise each sentence as it goes down on paper. Constant revision not only slows the entire writing process but also takes away from the free flow of communication. Constant revision seldom occurs in speaking; we may now and then restate something, but usually we talk without revising. Write as you talk is an excellent rule to follow in composing a rough draft of each section. Step Five: Revise the outline and of Culture in Communication, create sub/heads.

Almost always the outline from which one writes becomes changed in the process of writing. Once a rough draft is the lion hyenas completed for each section, it is a good idea to make a new outline, rearranging sections as appropriate. You may want to use subheads to give your reader a clue to the structure of the paper and also to act as transitions from one part to another. Native folk terms can often be used as subheads in an ethnography, helping to create a view that reflects the cultural knowledge of your informants. Step Six: Edit the rough draft.

At this point in on Language in Communication, the writing you will have a rough draft of your paper, a fairly clear outline, and a number of subheadings you want to use throughout the round vs flat paper. Of Culture In Communication! Now it is definition of henry clay time to go over it with an on Language of Culture, eye to improving the about European of Asia details of writing. On Language In Communication! Work through each section and at the same time keep the entire description in mind. Make changes directly on Horse Winner and The Lottery Essay the pages you had previously written. When you want to add a paragraph or sentence, write them on the back of the page or on a separate piece of paper with instructions as to where they will appear. At this stage, it is often useful to ask a friend to read over the manuscript and make general comments. An outside perspective is especially useful for making improvements that will enhance the of Culture in Communication communicative power of the of Them All, in Shakespeare's Julius description. Step Seven: Write the introduction and conclusion . By now the description has taken on of Culture in Communication substantial form and you can write these two parts of the paper in a more effective manner. Some writers find that they write better if they write a rough introduction at the start of the writing but save the character vs flat conclusion until the end.

In either case, now is the time to review both the introduction and conclusion and on Language in Communication, revise them to about Justification of Colonization of Asia fit the paper. Step Eight: Reread your manuscript for examples . Examples involve writing at the lowest level of abstraction. Because of their importance in in Communication, communication, a special reading of the paper to Horse and The Lottery see if you have used enough examples is highly desirable. Look for places where general statements have made your writing too dense and see if you can insert a brief or extended example at those places. Step Nine: Write the final draft . In some cases this will merely involve typing the paper or turning it over to someone else to type. In other cases. you will need to go carefully over the manuscript again, making the final editorial changes. Using steps such as this means you have been over on Language in Communication the entire manuscript numerous times during the course of writing. Instead of a single, first-draft-as-final-draft, your paper has gone through a series of developmental stages. In this chapter we have discussed ethnographic writing as a part of the translation process. Of Henry Clay! Writing is a skill learned slowly and one that shows great variation from one person to another.

The suggestions in this chapter are offered only as general guidelines, not as hard-and-fast rules that every writer should try to follow.

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Essay Form and Structure: How to Write an Essay. Do you have an on Language essay to write and the lion king, do not know where or how to begin? Before you get started, there are a few things you must know about writing an essay. Forming and structuring an essay are necessary for of Culture a well developed essay. Here are the steps to do this. 2. Narrow the subject into Horse Winner Lottery, a workable topic. Subject vs. Topic. For example you could have a broad subject such as politics or dogs. The topic has a narrow focus within the subject, such as the cost of running a campaign or the training of a police dog. Of Culture? You will need to find a subject.

3. You can find a subject in The Rocking Lottery Essay, many ways. You can do so by, Freewriting (brainstorming) Looking in a dictionary Reading a Newspaper or magazine Looking in a journal or notebook Searching the Essay on Language internet. 4. When choosing a topic think about the impact you will have on the reader and allow yourself time for of henry consideration. It should have an Essay on Language of Culture impact on the reader by being informative, entertaining, influential, emotional, or interesting. The Lion King? Youll want to know about the Essay of Culture topic. That means that youll have to do research and read about the topic. You will want to and The Lottery shape the topic to the appropriate length for your essay. 6. Narrowing a Topic . Some ways to narrow a topic are by: Freewriting Making a list Examine subject from different angles Clustering.

7. Once youve narrowed your Topic, youll want to establish a purpose for your essay. A few of the purposes are: To express feelings or ideas with the reader and/or relate experiences. To inform the reader of something To persuade the reader to think or act a certain way. You may want to think about entertaining the reader. 8. Next you want to think about developing your topic . You can do the following: Freewriting List Write. Jot down everything you know about the topic in a short list. Questions.

Ask yourself questions, and answer those questions. Cluster. Start with the essential ideas and Essay on Language of Culture in Communication, then connect ideas in a cluster. Write a letter to yourself or someone else explaining exactly what you know about clay, a particular idea or topic. Keep a journal. Jot down things during the day that pertain to Essay in Communication your topic as your thinking about developing your essay.

Collaborate. Round Character Vs Flat? Talk with other people about your topic see if they know anything that you may want to use in your essay. The thesis tells what an Essay of Culture in Communication essay is going to be about. It is a brief opinion on a limited subject, and it usually appears at the end of the introduction . The purpose of the Thesis Statement is to let the readers know the writers topic, and what opinion the the Noblest of Them Julius writer has about the topic. It provides focus for of Culture the essay; it gives the reader an idea of what youre going to type of system cycle be discussing in the essay. It guides the reader; it tells the reader exactly how you are going to be developing this particular topic. It presents the main idea of the essay. You should always begin your writing with a working thesis statement. This helps you to organize our ideas and of Culture, set u the character structure of the Essay on Language essay.

Once your have your thesis, you may want to start with an essay map. The essay map breaks the thesis down into parts to be discussed in the body. The e ssay map is generally one or two sentences that follow the thesis statement. The essay must be grammatically parallel. 5. The thesis must express an attitude or opinion towards topic. For example, this is a poor thesis statement: --There are many differences between a Lexus and a Lincoln. A better thesis statement includes the the lion king Essay Map that precedes the thesis statement. Of Culture? For example, this thesis statement is brief and specific: --Its aerodynamic design, its V-6 engine, and its luxury appointments make the Lexus a mechanically and aesthetically superior car than the Lincoln. --Apartment living is preferable to dorm living because its cheaper, quieter, and more luxurious.

Tip: Have your essay explain exactly why apartment living is preferable to definition of henry clay dorm living. 7. A Good Thesis Statement avoids: Broad statements will lead to vague and undeveloped essays Factual statements deal on in Communication facts, theres nothing to explain or develop as when you have a specific opinion on a brief subject. Announcements. Avoid b road statements. A thesis that is too broad will cause the definition clay writer to present a superficial discussion that will never get beyond the obvious. For example : -- The role in women in Essay of Culture in Communication, state politics has changed drastically the Cassius' Manipulation of Brutus, Roman in Shakespeare's Julius Caesar last ten years.

Improved Thesis. Be specific and concise. For example: -- The leadership role of women in state politics has changed drastically in the past ten years. Factual statements leave the writer with nothing to say, with no way to develop it. For example, a poor statement: -- The water department is Essay, considering a rate increase.

Better statement would be: -- The water departments proposed rate increase is not needed. --I will explain why our board of education should consider magnet schools. --This essay will describe the definition of henry best way to Essay on Language choose a major. --Our board of education should consider magnet schools. --Students who are unsure of how to round character choose a major should follow my advice. --It is interesting to consider the various meanings of love.

--We apply the work love to a broad spectrum of emotions. 12. Evaluating Thesis Statement. Determine whether these thesis statements are broad, factual, announcements, or vague, and Essay in Communication, then think about re-writing them. -- I think Men in Black is a really interesting movie that everyone would enjoy. This is type of system development life cycle, a vague statement.

-- My essay will tell you how to apply for a college loan with the least amount of trouble. This is an on Language of Culture in Communication announcement . -- Having a close friend to talk to is very important. This is clay, a broad statement. Catch the readers attention Lead into Essay, the topic Present your thesis (main idea) Providing background information on your thesis statement, some ways to do that is by: Tell a relevant story Explain why topic is important to your reader Present interesting images or use description that will keep readers interested. Present an exciting problem or raise a provocative question.

Present an opposing viewpoint. Body paragraphs will have two parts; topic sentence and supporting details . Develop by examples, contrast, definition, classification Body paragraphs must relate to thesis. It must present facts and details to validate thesis. It will also present detail that supports, explains, etcthe idea given in king, your thesis. It will present the material to convince your reader of the validity of your thesis. On Language In Communication? This is important because the development body paragraphs are the core of the essay. Essay? A good, solid, developed body paragraph explains and develops your thesis statement. The topic sentence provides focus by presenting the point the body paragraph will deal with, and usuallly appears at the beginning of the paragraph . This point will be something to support the thesis. Of Colonization? It is important to develop each of your topic sentences with enough detail.

Supporting details involve all the information that explains the idea presented in the topic sentence. Of Culture? These details can be developed through description, narration, illustration, process analysis [explains step-by-step how something is done], comparison or contrast definition [to compare in order to show unlikeness or differences], classification, etc. Avoid one or two sentence paragraphs. These are seen in business writing; however in academic essays an round vs flat character average length body paragraph ranges from 7-12 sentences, you want to have fully developed body paragraphs. Avoid ending a paragraph with a new idea. Avoid repeating the same idea in different ways. Avoid including more than one idea in a body paragraph. 7. Conclusion (asides from your body paragraph, you will also have a conclusion) This is the last paragraph of your essay. It leaves the reader with an overall reaction.

It summarizes the main ideas of the essay. On Language Of Culture In Communication? Gives the Manipulation of Brutus, reader something to think about. It looks back or looks ahead. On Language Of Culture In Communication? Youll want to of system life move the in Communication reader to action. The conclusion influences the readers final impression. The same care that goes into the introduction should also go into the conclusion. It is the last impression the reader has of your essay. Avoid a conclusion that is out of proportion to the rest of your essay. Cassius' Manipulation Roman All, Julius? The conclusion paragraph should be the same approximate length of your body paragraph.

Avoid a conclusion that is not suited to your audience, purpose, or thesis. Avoid expressions like in conclusion, in summary, to summarize, and in closing. These are completely unnecessary for the conclusion. Once you have your thesis statement, youre ready to start Planning the Essay . You are going to Outline and in Communication, Draft your paper. Outlining helps organize ideas before drafting. Outlines can be detailed or sketchy, formal or scratch. Long writing such as thesis paper length requires detail, while brief pieces such as an in-class essay can be sketchy. The formal outline is the most detailed and structured outline. Essay About European Justification? It allows you to plot main points and major supporting details. Generally is written in in Communication, full complete sentences. Main ideas are designated with Roman numerals. Supporting details are designated by capital letters.

Points to develop further are designated by Arabic numbers. Theses are generally done not with complete sentences but with fragments. Writers who prefer only round character, main points in outline will use the scratch outline. Writers who prefer not to use much detail will use the scratch outline. Writers who prefer developing ideas as they draft, will use the scratch outline. This is for writers who find a more detailed outline constraining and of Culture, prefer to Cassius' Manipulation the Noblest of Them in Shakespeare's Caesar have this outline. It begins with an Essay in Communication idea in the center of the trunk of the tree, and the branches will be focused off the trunk so one can see the relationships between the main idea and the sub ideas. Write the central idea; Main points= First branches. Add additional branches as sub points.

Once you have your outline, youre now ready to start your draft. The first draft of your essay is the lion king hyenas, referred to as a rough draft. It Forms a base that can be shaped into the final product. Essay Of Culture In Communication? If you decide to use the character detailed formal outline, youll require less time in organization when drafting as compared to sketchy outlines. If you get stuck into writing the draft, skip the troublesome section and move. If trouble arises, skip the introduction and Essay, go back to it later.

The important thing is to complete the draft of the essay. Select an idea you are comfortable with and king hyenas, start with that topic. You may reshape your topic to something easier to write about. If you get stuck, leave your work for a while, and come back to your essay draft later with a fresh perspective. Easy Ways to Write a Thesis Statement. by Virginia Kearney 16. How To Write A Successful History Essay For Highschoolers. How to Write the Introduction of an Essay. by wayseeker 18.

by Nadia Archuleta 4. How to Write a Visual Analysis Paper. by Virginia Kearney 16. How to Write a Summary, Analysis, and Response Essay Paper With Examples. by Virginia Kearney 56. 100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays.

by Virginia Kearney 42. Evi Lopez 5 years ago from Sunny Florida. Ahh, a philosophy major? I enjoyed my one philosophy class back in the school days. I participated in a few debates myself. My most famous one was the right to bear arms. The structure of an essay is basically the same: outline, topic, thesis statement, intro, body, and on Language of Culture in Communication, conclusion. To meet the writing intensive prereqs at Justification of Colonization of Asia, my college, this is how it was taught. The different types of essays varied.

There is the argumentative essay, persuasive essay, narrative essay, informative essay, etc., and each had their own requirements. I remember now that it was during these long sleepless, researching and essay writing nights that I discovered I liked writing. I wish you the best in your philosophy paper and Essay on Language of Culture, would like to Manipulation of Them All, read it if and when you post it. PhiMaths ATB 5 years ago from Charlotte, NC, USA. I studied philosophy, and their was often discussion about the disagreements between how english students are taught to write as compared to philosophy students, including everything from word choice to referencing convention. I am working on Essay an article about writing philosophy paper, and hope to have it up in king, the next few days.

Evi Lopez 5 years ago from Sunny Florida. Thanks for your visit. Essay Of Culture? This came from notes taken from one of my English classes at College, a requirement I needed for my Associates degree. It helped me greatly in all my essay writing, which earned me all A's :) PhiMaths ATB 5 years ago from round vs flat character, Charlotte, NC, USA. Some good advice though some of these points tend to vary quite a bit from of Culture in Communication, field to field. Manipulation Of Brutus, The Noblest All, In Shakespeare's? I can't say that I write this way at all, though my method is not standard. A good start for anyone with little experience. Evi Lopez 5 years ago from Sunny Florida. Thank you for the compliment.

Glad you stopped by. htodd 5 years ago from United States. That is great post. That is on Language, nice article on clay how to write an essay. Evi Lopez 6 years ago from Sunny Florida.

Thank you for your visit and Essay on Language of Culture, comment. Brenda Barnes 6 years ago from America-Broken But Still Beautiful. What a great tutorial. Very well done indeed Faithful Daughter. Evi Lopez 6 years ago from Sunny Florida. I am glad to hear that this has helped you. Cassius' Manipulation The Noblest Of Them All, In Shakespeare's Julius? Thank you for your comment.

This is Essay on Language in Communication, a very helpful hub. I am currently working on Essay European and Africa my Bachelor's degree and I have to write a thesis statement on on Language of Culture a paper that is definition of henry, due at the end of the session. I have been trying to figure out what and how to write my thesis and this hub has proved to be extremely helpful. Thank you. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners.

HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. Of Culture? HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners.