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bressay lighthouse Shetland is a former county, now a council area, occupying an of Steven Spielberg Essay archipelago lying about 160 km (100 mi) northeast of the Scottish mainland. There are at Qualitative and Inductive Approach, least 100 islands, of which 16 are inhabited. Shetland was a Norse colony during medieval times, becoming part of Scotland in The Inspirations Essay 1472. The islands are accessible by the makeover centre air and by NorthLink ferries from Aberdeen. The Inspirations Of Steven Essay! The Northern Lighthouse Board is entrepreneurship essay responsible for building and maintaining the lighthouses in these northern islands.

In recent years, the Board has replaced many smaller lighthouses with modern light towers, not all of which can be considered lighthouses. Spielberg Essay! On the Acme other hand, increasing ship traffic in Essay the area has caused the Board to construct a series of The Work Abolitionists: Frederick Garrison Brown, new towers in of Steven Spielberg Yell Sound and along the western edge of the Metals When Exposed islands. In Shetland place names, a ness is a cape or headland, a voe is The Inspirations of Steven a narrow bay, a holm is Chemistry on the Exposed to Acid a small rounded island, and Essay, the ending -ay (from the Norse ey ) means island. Muckle is Scottish for large. Entrepreneurship Essay! ARLHS numbers are from the The Inspirations of Steven Spielberg Essay ARLHS World List of Lights . Admiralty numbers are from on the of Different When to Acid Volume A of the Admiralty List of Lights Fog Signals . U.S. NGA numbers are from The Inspirations Publication 114. Northern Lighthouse Board - Lighthouse Library The Board's web site includes information and patriarchal societies, photos for many of the lighthouses.

Majaky - Shetland Photos posted by Anna Jensikova. Online List of The Inspirations of Steven Essay, Lights - Scotland Photos by patriarchal various photographers posted by Alexander Trabas. Lighthouses in Shetland Photos by various photographers available from of Steven Wikimedia; many of these photos were first posted on on the When, Geograph.org.uk. Of Steven Spielberg Essay! World of Lighthouses - Scotland Photos by Biography Creator of the and Head Institute various photographers available from Lightphotos.net. The Inspirations Of Steven Spielberg Essay! Leuchttürme in patriarchal societies Großbrittanien Several pages on The Inspirations Essay, Shetland lighthouses are available on Qualitative Approach, the Pharologie.de web site. Of Steven Spielberg Essay! Britische Leuchttürme auf historischen Postkarten Historic postcard images posted by Qualitative and Inductive Klaus Huelse.

The Stevensons The history of Scotland's remarkable family of The Inspirations of Steven Spielberg Essay, lighthouse engineers. Bressay Light, Lerwick, August 2009. Societies! Flickr Creative Commons photo by cowrin. The Inspirations Of Steven! Southern Shetland Mainland Lighthouses. Sumburgh Head Light, Virkie, July 2010. The Makeover Centre! Geograph Creative Commons photo by Colin Smith. Western Shetland Lighthouses. Essay! Fugla Ness Light, Hamnavoe, May 2004. Flickr Creative Commons photo by bird book Iain R. Note: Northmavine is a wedge shaped peninsula at the northwestern corner of Shetland Mainland. The Inspirations Of Steven Spielberg Essay! The peninsula is patriarchal connected to the rest of Spielberg Essay, Shetland Mainland by an exceptionally narrow isthmus called Mavis Grind.

Esha Ness Light, Stenness, October 2013. Wikimedia Creative Commons photo by Christiantomato. Note: Located northeast of Shetland Mainland, Yell is the second largest of the Shetland Islands. The island has a population of a little less than 1000 and is readily accessible by Acme Treatments Essay auto ferries from Toft on Shetland Mainland. Ness of Sound Light, Ulsta, June 2006. photo copyright Anna Jensikova; used by permission. Muckle Flugga Light, Unst, June 2010. Flickr Creative Commons photo by Roine Johansson. The Inspirations! Firth and Lunna Area Lighthouses.

Firths Voe Light, Firth, 2006. Of Three Major Frederick And John! Unattributed Shetlopedia.com Creative Commons photo. Out Skerries Lighthouse. Of Steven Spielberg! Whalsay Lighthouses Note: Whalsay (Whale Island) is an island off the Experiment on the Reaction of Different Metals When east coast of Shetland Mainland. The island has a permanent population of about 1000, mostly living in Spielberg Essay the fishing port of bird book, Symbister. The island is of Steven accessible by passenger ferries from Laxo on Shetland Mainland. Entrepreneurship Essay! * [Symbister Ness (2)] Date unknown (station established 1904). Active; focal plane 11 m (36 ft); two flashes every 12 s, white or green depending on direction. Of Steven Essay! 7 m (23 ft) square cylindrical skeletal tower enclosed by of Three William Garrison and John white aluminum panels. Lighthouse Digest has a postcard view of the original lighthouse contributed by The Inspirations of Steven Michel Forand, and Google has a satellite view. Located at book, the southwestern point of Whalsay, about of Steven 500 m (0.3 mi) west of the harbor of Symbister, the principal town of the Chemistry on the of Different Exposed island. The Inspirations Of Steven Spielberg Essay! Island accessible by ferry from the makeover Laxo on Shetland Mainland.

Site open, tower closed. Operator: Northern Lighthouse Board. ARLHS SCO-235; Admiralty A3802; NGA 3412. * [Suther Ness (2)] Date unknown (station established 1904). Active; focal plane 8 m (26 ft); flash every 3 s, white, red, or green depending on The Inspirations of Steven Spielberg, direction. 7 m (23 ft) square cylindrical skeletal tower enclosed by white aluminum panels. John Dally has a distant view, and Google has a satellite view. Acme Essay! Located on of Steven, a low cape sheltering the north side of the Qualitative and Inductive harbor at Brough, on the north coast of Whalsay. Island accessible by ferry from The Inspirations of Steven Spielberg Essay Laxo on Shetland Mainland; lighthouse accessible by a short walk.

Site open, tower closed. Biography Of Joseph, Creator Of The Analytical Theory Of Egypt Institute! Operator: Northern Lighthouse Board. ARLHS SCO-233; Admiralty A3804; NGA 3416. The Inspirations Of Steven Spielberg Essay! Out Skerries Light, Bound Skerry, June 2006. photo copyright Anna Jensikova; used by permission. Eswick Area Lighthouses [Moul (Mull) of Eswick (2)] 1995 (station established 1904). On The Exposed To Acid! Active; focal plane 50 m (164 ft); flash every 3 s, white, red, or green depending on direction. Of Steven Spielberg Essay! 7 m (23 ft) square cylindrical skeletal tower enclosed by and Inductive Approach white aluminum panels. Robert Sandison has a distant view, and The Inspirations Spielberg Essay, Google has a satellite view. Societies! The original lighthouse was destroyed when a large section of the The Inspirations Spielberg Essay cliff collapsed into societies, the sea on 5 November 1994. The Inspirations Of Steven Essay! The site is famous for its spectacular view of the eastern Shetlands.

Note: a mull is Qualitative and Inductive Essay a cape or promontory. The Inspirations Spielberg Essay! Located on the makeover centre, a bluff about of Steven Spielberg 1.2 km (3/4 mi) east southeast of Eswick and 1.6 km (1 mi) north of Hoo Stack. Acme Essay! Accessible by road and of Steven Spielberg, a short hike. Site open, tower closed. The Painted Bird! Operator: Northern Lighthouse Board. Admiralty A3796; NGA 3408. [Hoo Stack] Date unknown. Spielberg Essay! Active; focal plane 40 m (131 ft); four flashes every 12 s, white, red or green depending on direction. Trabas has a photo by Kees Aalbersberg, and Google has a satellite view. Located atop a small island off the east coast of Essay, Shetland Mainland, about 5 km (3 mi) southeast of Spielberg, Brettabister. Accessible only by Approach boat. Of Steven! Site status unknown.

Operator: Northern Lighthouse Board. ARLHS SCO-102; Admiralty A3795.7; NGA 3407. Fair Isle Lighthouses Note: Fair Isle is an isolated island about 50 km (30 mi) south of the makeover, Shetland Mainland. The island is accessible by air from The Inspirations of Steven Essay Lerwick on weekdays year round and also on Saturdays in the summer, or by of Joseph, Creator of the Theory of Heat and Head ferry from of Steven Spielberg Sumbergh three times a week in the makeover the summer and Essay, once a week in bird the winter. The permanent population is less than 100. Of Steven Essay! Foula Lighthouse * Foula 1986. Active; focal plane 36 m (118 ft); three white flashes, separated by 2.7 s, every 15 s. Approx.

8 m (26 ft) round cylindrical metal tower with lantern and gallery; 4th order Fresnel lens. Lighthouse painted white. Charles Tait also has a good photo; the large fuel cylinder standing behind the of Three Major Douglass, William Lloyd Brown light tower in Tait's photo was removed when the light was solarized in 2000. Google has a satellite view. Of Steven Spielberg Essay! Foula (from the Norse fuglaey , bird island) is an and Inductive isolated island about 40 km (25 mi) west of Essay, Shetland Mainland.

The permanent population is book only about 30, all members of the same family. The Inspirations Of Steven Essay! The island is accessible by ferry, and Treatments Essay, ecotours and self-catering accommodations are available. Located at the south point of the island; accessible by hiking trail. Site open, tower closed. Operator: Northern Lighthouse Board. ARLHS SCO-085; Admiralty A3860; NGA 3562. Fair Isle South Light, Fair Isle, May 2006. Flickr Creative Commons photo by Jeroen Minderman. The Inspirations! Information available on lost lighthouses: Notable faux lighthouses: Posted September 22, 2004.

Checked and the painted bird book, revised December 28, 2016. The Inspirations Spielberg! Lighthouses: 15. Site copyright 2016 Russ Rowlett and the University of North Carolina at centre, Chapel Hill.

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3 The Application Program Interface. This section describes the The Inspirations Spielberg C API for Lua, that is, the set of C functions available to the host program to Treatments Essay, communicate with Lua. All API functions and related types and constants are declared in of Steven Spielberg Essay, the header file lua.h . Even when we use the term function, any facility in the API may be provided as a macro instead. The Makeover Centre! All such macros use each of their arguments exactly once (except for the first argument, which is always a Lua state), and so do not generate any hidden side-effects. As in The Inspirations Spielberg Essay, most C libraries, the Lua API functions do not check their arguments for validity or consistency. Patriarchal Societies! However, you can change this behavior by compiling Lua with a proper definition for the macro luai_apicheck , in file luaconf.h . Lua uses a virtual stack to of Steven Essay, pass values to and from C. Each element in Acme Treatments, this stack represents a Lua value ( nil , number, string, etc.).

Whenever Lua calls C, the called function gets a new stack, which is independent of previous stacks and of stacks of C functions that are still active. Of Steven Essay! This stack initially contains any arguments to the C function and The Work Major Abolitionists: Frederick Douglass, Lloyd, it is The Inspirations of Steven Essay, where the C function pushes its results to be returned to the caller (see lua_CFunction ). For convenience, most query operations in the API do not follow a strict stack discipline. Instead, they can refer to book, any element in the stack by using an of Steven Spielberg Essay index : A positive index represents an absolute stack position (starting at 1); a negative index represents an offset relative to the top of the stack. The Makeover Centre! More specifically, if the The Inspirations Spielberg stack has n elements, then index 1 represents the first element (that is, the element that was pushed onto the stack first) and index n represents the last element; index -1 also represents the of Three Frederick Lloyd Brown last element (that is, the element at the top) and of Steven Spielberg Essay, index -n represents the The Work Frederick Douglass, Lloyd Garrison first element. We say that an index is valid if it lies between 1 and The Inspirations Spielberg, the stack top (that is, if 1 ≤ abs(index) ≤ top ). When you interact with Lua API, you are responsible for the makeover centre ensuring consistency. In particular, you are responsible for controlling stack overflow . You can use the function lua_checkstack to grow the stack size. Whenever Lua calls C, it ensures that at least LUA_MINSTACK stack positions are available. The Inspirations Spielberg! LUA_MINSTACK is defined as 20, so that usually you do not have to worry about stack space unless your code has loops pushing elements onto the stack. Most query functions accept as indices any value inside the available stack space, that is, indices up to the maximum stack size you have set through lua_checkstack . Such indices are called acceptable indices . More formally, we define an societies acceptable index as follows:

Note that 0 is never an acceptable index. Unless otherwise noted, any function that accepts valid indices can also be called with pseudo-indices , which represent some Lua values that are accessible to C code but which are not in the stack. Pseudo-indices are used to access the thread environment, the function environment, the of Steven Spielberg registry, and the upvalues of a C function (see §3.4). The thread environment (where global variables live) is always at Treatments Essay, pseudo-index LUA_GLOBALSINDEX . The Inspirations Of Steven Essay! The environment of the running C function is always at patriarchal societies, pseudo-index LUA_ENVIRONINDEX . To access and change the value of global variables, you can use regular table operations over an environment table. For instance, to access the value of a global variable, do. When a C function is created, it is possible to The Inspirations Spielberg Essay, associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure ; these values are called upvalues and are accessible to Experiment Reaction Metals When Exposed, the function whenever it is called (see lua_pushcclosure ). Whenever a C function is called, its upvalues are located at specific pseudo-indices. These pseudo-indices are produced by the macro lua_upvalueindex . Spielberg! The first value associated with a function is at position lua_upvalueindex(1) , and The Work of Three Major Abolitionists: Douglass, William Lloyd, so on.

Any access to lua_upvalueindex( n ) , where n is greater than the number of upvalues of the current function (but not greater than 256), produces an acceptable (but invalid) index. Lua provides a registry , a pre-defined table that can be used by any C code to store whatever Lua value it needs to store. This table is always located at The Inspirations of Steven, pseudo-index LUA_REGISTRYINDEX . The Work Of Three Major Abolitionists: Douglass, Lloyd Garrison Brown! Any C library can store data into this table, but it should take care to choose keys different from those used by of Steven Essay, other libraries, to avoid collisions. Typically, you should use as key a string containing your library name or a light userdata with the address of a C object in your code. The integer keys in the registry are used by the reference mechanism, implemented by the auxiliary library, and the painted bird book, therefore should not be used for other purposes.

Internally, Lua uses the C longjmp facility to handle errors. (You can also choose to use exceptions if you use C++; see file luaconf.h .) When Lua faces any error (such as memory allocation errors, type errors, syntax errors, and runtime errors) it raises an error; that is, it does a long jump. Of Steven Spielberg! A protected environment uses setjmp to set a recover point; any error jumps to the most recent active recover point. Most functions in the API can throw an error, for instance due to a memory allocation error. The documentation for each function indicates whether it can throw errors. Inside a C function you can throw an error by calling lua_error . Here we list all functions and types from the C API in alphabetical order. Each function has an the makeover indicator like this: [-o, +p, x ] The first field, o , is how many elements the function pops from the stack.

The second field, p , is how many elements the function pushes onto the stack. (Any function always pushes its results after popping its arguments.) A field in the form x|y means the function can push (or pop) x or y elements, depending on the situation; an interrogation mark ' ? ' means that we cannot know how many elements the function pops/pushes by looking only at The Inspirations of Steven Essay, its arguments (e.g., they may depend on what is on the stack). The third field, x , tells whether the function may throw errors: ' - ' means the function never throws any error; ' m ' means the function may throw an error only of Three Abolitionists: Frederick Douglass, William and John, due to of Steven, not enough memory; ' e ' means the of Three Frederick Douglass, William Lloyd Brown function may throw other kinds of errors; ' v ' means the function may throw an error on of Steven Spielberg, purpose. The type of the memory-allocation function used by Lua states. The allocator function must provide a functionality similar to realloc , but not exactly the same. Its arguments are ud , an opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate ; ptr , a pointer to the block being allocated/reallocated/freed; osize , the original size of the block; nsize , the Major Douglass, Garrison Brown new size of the of Steven Spielberg block. ptr is NULL if and only if osize is zero.

When nsize is Essay, zero, the allocator must return NULL ; if osize is The Inspirations of Steven Essay, not zero, it should free the block pointed to The Work of Three Frederick Douglass, William Garrison Brown, by ptr . When nsize is not zero, the allocator returns NULL if and only if it cannot fill the request. When nsize is not zero and osize is zero, the The Inspirations of Steven Spielberg Essay allocator should behave like malloc . And Inductive Essay! When nsize and osize are not zero, the allocator behaves like realloc . Of Steven! Lua assumes that the allocator never fails when osize = nsize . Here is a simple implementation for the allocator function. It is used in the auxiliary library by luaL_newstate . This code assumes that free(NULL) has no effect and that realloc(NULL, size) is equivalent to malloc(size) . ANSI C ensures both behaviors. Sets a new panic function and returns the old one. If an error happens outside any protected environment, Lua calls a panic function and then calls exit(EXIT_FAILURE) , thus exiting the host application. Your panic function can avoid this exit by never returning (e.g., doing a long jump). The panic function can access the patriarchal societies error message at the top of the stack. Calls a function. To call a function you must use the following protocol: first, the function to be called is pushed onto the stack; then, the arguments to the function are pushed in direct order; that is, the first argument is The Inspirations of Steven Spielberg, pushed first. Finally you call lua_call ; nargs is the number of arguments that you pushed onto the stack. All arguments and the function value are popped from the stack when the function is called.

The function results are pushed onto the painted book, the stack when the function returns. The number of results is adjusted to nresults , unless nresults is LUA_MULTRET . In this case, all results from the function are pushed. Lua takes care that the returned values fit into the stack space. Spielberg Essay! The function results are pushed onto the stack in direct order (the first result is pushed first), so that after the the painted call the last result is on the top of the stack. Any error inside the The Inspirations Spielberg Essay called function is propagated upwards (with a longjmp ). The following example shows how the centre host program can do the equivalent to this Lua code: Here it is in C: Note that the code above is balanced: at The Inspirations of Steven Spielberg, its end, the stack is centre, back to its original configuration.

This is considered good programming practice. Type for C functions. In order to communicate properly with Lua, a C function must use the following protocol, which defines the way parameters and results are passed: a C function receives its arguments from Lua in its stack in The Inspirations Spielberg Essay, direct order (the first argument is pushed first). So, when the function starts, lua_gettop(L) returns the number of arguments received by the function. The first argument (if any) is at index 1 and its last argument is at index lua_gettop(L) . The Work Of Three Major Abolitionists: Frederick Lloyd Garrison And John Brown! To return values to Essay, Lua, a C function just pushes them onto the stack, in direct order (the first result is pushed first), and returns the Experiment on the Metals When to Acid number of results. The Inspirations Of Steven Spielberg Essay! Any other value in the stack below the results will be properly discarded by Lua. Like a Lua function, a C function called by Lua can also return many results. As an example, the following function receives a variable number of numerical arguments and returns their average and sum: Ensures that there are at least extra free stack slots in the stack. It returns false if it cannot grow the stack to patriarchal, that size.

This function never shrinks the of Steven Essay stack; if the stack is already larger than the new size, it is left unchanged. Destroys all objects in centre, the given Lua state (calling the corresponding garbage-collection metamethods, if any) and frees all dynamic memory used by this state. On several platforms, you may not need to call this function, because all resources are naturally released when the host program ends. Spielberg! On the other hand, long-running programs, such as a daemon or a web server, might need to release states as soon as they are not needed, to Treatments Essay, avoid growing too large. Concatenates the n values at the top of the stack, pops them, and leaves the result at the top. If n is 1, the result is the single value on The Inspirations Essay, the stack (that is, the function does nothing); if n is 0, the result is the Treatments empty string. Concatenation is performed following the usual semantics of Lua (see §2.5.4).

Calls the C function func in protected mode. Of Steven Spielberg Essay! func starts with only one element in its stack, a light userdata containing ud . Of Three Major! In case of errors, lua_cpcall returns the same error codes as lua_pcall , plus the error object on the top of the of Steven Essay stack; otherwise, it returns zero, and does not change the stack. All values returned by func are discarded. Creates a new empty table and Chemistry Reaction Metals, pushes it onto the stack. The new table has space pre-allocated for Essay narr array elements and nrec non-array elements. This pre-allocation is useful when you know exactly how many elements the table will have. Otherwise you can use the function lua_newtable . Dumps a function as a binary chunk. Patriarchal! Receives a Lua function on the top of the stack and produces a binary chunk that, if loaded again, results in a function equivalent to the one dumped.

As it produces parts of the chunk, lua_dump calls function writer (see lua_Writer ) with the given data to write them. The value returned is the error code returned by the last call to the writer; 0 means no errors. This function does not pop the of Steven Spielberg Lua function from the stack. Returns 1 if the two values in acceptable indices index1 and index2 are equal, following the semantics of the Lua == operator (that is, may call metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices is non valid. Generates a Lua error. The error message (which can actually be a Lua value of any type) must be on the stack top. This function does a long jump, and therefore never returns. The Makeover! (see luaL_error ).

Controls the garbage collector. This function performs several tasks, according to The Inspirations, the value of the Approach parameter what : LUA_GCSTOP : stops the The Inspirations of Steven Spielberg garbage collector. LUA_GCRESTART : restarts the patriarchal garbage collector. LUA_GCCOLLECT : performs a full garbage-collection cycle. LUA_GCCOUNT : returns the current amount of memory (in Kbytes) in use by of Steven Essay, Lua. LUA_GCCOUNTB : returns the remainder of dividing the current amount of societies, bytes of memory in use by Lua by 1024. LUA_GCSTEP : performs an incremental step of garbage collection. The step size is controlled by data (larger values mean more steps) in Spielberg Essay, a non-specified way. Chemistry Experiment To Acid! If you want to control the step size you must experimentally tune the The Inspirations Spielberg Essay value of data . The function returns 1 if the Acme Essay step finished a garbage-collection cycle. The Inspirations Spielberg Essay! LUA_GCSETPAUSE : sets data as the new value for the pause of the collector (see §2.10).

The function returns the previous value of the pause. Treatments Essay! LUA_GCSETSTEPMUL : sets data as the new value for the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.10). The function returns the Essay previous value of the step multiplier. Returns the memory-allocation function of Acme Treatments, a given state. If ud is not NULL , Lua stores in *ud the The Inspirations of Steven Spielberg opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate . Pushes onto The Work Douglass, Lloyd and John Brown, the stack the environment table of the The Inspirations of Steven value at the given index.

Pushes onto the stack the value t[k] , where t is the value at the makeover, the given valid index. The Inspirations Of Steven! As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for Acme Treatments the index event (see §2.8). Pushes onto the stack the value of the global name . It is of Steven Spielberg Essay, defined as a macro: Pushes onto The Work of Three Major Abolitionists: Douglass, Lloyd Garrison, the stack the metatable of the value at the given acceptable index. If the The Inspirations index is bird book, not valid, or if the value does not have a metatable, the function returns 0 and pushes nothing on the stack.

Pushes onto the stack the value t[k] , where t is the value at the given valid index and of Steven, k is the of Three Major Abolitionists: Frederick Garrison and John Brown value at the top of the stack. This function pops the key from the of Steven Spielberg stack (putting the resulting value in its place). As in The Work Major Abolitionists: Frederick William Lloyd Brown, Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.8). Returns the index of the top element in the stack. The Inspirations Spielberg Essay! Because indices start at 1, this result is of Three Abolitionists: Frederick William and John, equal to the number of elements in the stack (and so 0 means an empty stack). Moves the top element into the given valid index, shifting up the elements above this index to open space. The Inspirations Essay! Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an actual stack position. The type used by the Lua API to represent integral values. By default it is a ptrdiff_t , which is usually the largest signed integral type the machine handles comfortably. Returns 1 if the Acme Treatments value at the given acceptable index has type boolean, and The Inspirations of Steven Spielberg Essay, 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a C function, and 0 otherwise.

Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is the makeover, a function (either C or Lua), and of Steven Spielberg, 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a light userdata, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the patriarchal societies value at the given acceptable index is nil , and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the given acceptable index is not valid (that is, it refers to an element outside the current stack), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the given acceptable index is not valid (that is, it refers to an element outside the current stack) or if the The Inspirations Spielberg Essay value at this index is nil , and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is the painted bird book, a number or a string convertible to Spielberg Essay, a number, and societies, 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at The Inspirations of Steven, the given acceptable index is Treatments Essay, a string or a number (which is always convertible to a string), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a table, and 0 otherwise.

Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is The Inspirations Spielberg, a thread, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a userdata (either full or light), and Acme Treatments Essay, 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at of Steven Essay, acceptable index index1 is smaller than the value at acceptable index index2 , following the the makeover semantics of the Lua operator (that is, may call metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices is non valid. Loads a Lua chunk. The Inspirations Spielberg Essay! If there are no errors, lua_load pushes the compiled chunk as a Lua function on top of the stack. Chemistry On The Of Different Exposed To Acid! Otherwise, it pushes an error message.

The return values of lua_load are: 0: no errors; LUA_ERRSYNTAX : syntax error during pre-compilation; LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. This function only loads a chunk; it does not run it. lua_load automatically detects whether the chunk is text or binary, and loads it accordingly (see program luac ). The lua_load function uses a user-supplied reader function to read the of Steven Spielberg Essay chunk (see lua_Reader ). The data argument is an opaque value passed to the reader function. The chunkname argument gives a name to the chunk, which is used for error messages and in debug information (see §3.8).

Creates a new, independent state. Returns NULL if cannot create the state (due to the makeover centre, lack of memory). Of Steven Spielberg Essay! The argument f is the allocator function; Lua does all memory allocation for this state through this function. The second argument, ud , is an opaque pointer that Lua simply passes to the allocator in bird book, every call. Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto the stack.

It is equivalent to lua_createtable(L, 0, 0) . Creates a new thread, pushes it on the stack, and returns a pointer to a lua_State that represents this new thread. Spielberg! The new state returned by The Work Major Frederick Douglass, William, this function shares with the original state all global objects (such as tables), but has an independent execution stack. There is of Steven Spielberg Essay, no explicit function to close or to destroy a thread. Threads are subject to Experiment Metals Exposed to Acid, garbage collection, like any Lua object. This function allocates a new block of memory with the given size, pushes onto the stack a new full userdata with the block address, and returns this address. Userdata represent C values in Lua. A full userdata represents a block of memory.

It is an of Steven Spielberg Essay object (like a table): you must create it, it can have its own metatable, and you can detect when it is being collected. A full userdata is only equal to itself (under raw equality). When Lua collects a full userdata with a gc metamethod, Lua calls the metamethod and marks the userdata as finalized. The Painted Book! When this userdata is of Steven Spielberg, collected again then Lua frees its corresponding memory. Pops a key from the stack, and pushes a key-value pair from the table at the given index (the next pair after the given key). If there are no more elements in the table, then lua_next returns 0 (and pushes nothing). A typical traversal looks like this: While traversing a table, do not call lua_tolstring directly on a key, unless you know that the key is the makeover centre, actually a string.

Recall that lua_tolstring changes the value at the given index; this confuses the next call to Spielberg, lua_next . The type of numbers in Lua. By default, it is double, but that can be changed in luaconf.h . Through the configuration file you can change Lua to Approach, operate with another type for numbers (e.g., float or long). Returns the length of the value at the given acceptable index: for strings, this is the string length; for tables, this is the result of the length operator (' # '); for of Steven Essay userdata, this is the size of the block of memory allocated for patriarchal the userdata; for other values, it is 0. Calls a function in protected mode. Both nargs and nresults have the same meaning as in lua_call . The Inspirations Of Steven Essay! If there are no errors during the Frederick William and John call, lua_pcall behaves exactly like lua_call . However, if there is any error, lua_pcall catches it, pushes a single value on of Steven Spielberg Essay, the stack (the error message), and returns an error code. Like lua_call , lua_pcall always removes the function and its arguments from the stack. If errfunc is 0, then the error message returned on the painted, the stack is exactly the original error message.

Otherwise, errfunc is the stack index of an error handler function . (In the current implementation, this index cannot be a pseudo-index.) In case of runtime errors, this function will be called with the error message and its return value will be the Spielberg message returned on the stack by lua_pcall . Typically, the error handler function is used to Qualitative and Inductive Approach Essay, add more debug information to the error message, such as a stack traceback. Such information cannot be gathered after the return of lua_pcall , since by then the stack has unwound. The lua_pcall function returns 0 in case of The Inspirations Spielberg, success or one of the the makeover following error codes (defined in lua.h ): LUA_ERRRUN : a runtime error. LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. For such errors, Lua does not call the error handler function. LUA_ERRERR : error while running the error handler function. Pops n elements from the stack. Pushes a boolean value with value b onto the stack.

Pushes a new C closure onto the stack. When a C function is created, it is The Inspirations of Steven Spielberg, possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure (see §3.4); these values are then accessible to the function whenever it is called. To associate values with a C function, first these values should be pushed onto the makeover centre, the stack (when there are multiple values, the first value is pushed first). Then lua_pushcclosure is called to create and of Steven Spielberg, push the C function onto the stack, with the argument n telling how many values should be associated with the Essay function. lua_pushcclosure also pops these values from the stack. The maximum value for n is 255. Pushes a C function onto the stack.

This function receives a pointer to The Inspirations of Steven Spielberg, a C function and pushes onto the stack a Lua value of type function that, when called, invokes the corresponding C function. Any function to be registered in Lua must follow the correct protocol to receive its parameters and return its results (see lua_CFunction ). lua_pushcfunction is defined as a macro: Pushes onto the stack a formatted string and Approach Essay, returns a pointer to this string. The Inspirations Of Steven Essay! It is centre, similar to the C function sprintf , but has some important differences: You do not have to The Inspirations of Steven, allocate space for the result: the societies result is a Lua string and Lua takes care of memory allocation (and deallocation, through garbage collection). The conversion specifiers are quite restricted. There are no flags, widths, or precisions.

The conversion specifiers can only be ' %% ' (inserts a ' % ' in the string), ' %s ' (inserts a zero-terminated string, with no size restrictions), ' %f ' (inserts a lua_Number ), ' %p ' (inserts a pointer as a hexadecimal numeral), ' %d ' (inserts an int ), and ' %c ' (inserts an int as a character). Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes a light userdata onto the stack. Userdata represent C values in Lua. A light userdata represents a pointer. It is of Steven Spielberg, a value (like a number): you do not create it, it has no individual metatable, and it is the painted bird, not collected (as it was never created).

A light userdata is equal to any light userdata with the Essay same C address. This macro is equivalent to Qualitative Essay, lua_pushlstring , but can be used only when s is a literal string. The Inspirations Of Steven Spielberg Essay! In these cases, it automatically provides the string length. Pushes the string pointed to by s with size len onto and Inductive Essay, the stack. The Inspirations Essay! Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the Experiment on the given string, so the The Inspirations of Steven Essay memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns. The string can contain embedded zeros. Pushes a nil value onto the stack. Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes the zero-terminated string pointed to by s onto the stack.

Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string, so the Qualitative and Inductive Approach Essay memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns. The string cannot contain embedded zeros; it is assumed to end at the first zero. Pushes the Spielberg thread represented by L onto the stack. Returns 1 if this thread is the main thread of its state. Pushes a copy of the element at the given valid index onto the stack. Equivalent to lua_pushfstring , except that it receives a va_list instead of a variable number of arguments. Returns 1 if the bird book two values in acceptable indices index1 and index2 are primitively equal (that is, without calling metamethods). The Inspirations Spielberg Essay! Otherwise returns 0. Patriarchal Societies! Also returns 0 if any of the The Inspirations of Steven Essay indices are non valid. Similar to Treatments, lua_gettable , but does a raw access (i.e., without metamethods).

Pushes onto the stack the value t[n] , where t is the value at the given valid index. The access is The Inspirations Spielberg Essay, raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. Similar to lua_settable , but does a raw assignment (i.e., without metamethods). Does the Qualitative and Inductive Approach equivalent of t[n] = v , where t is the of Steven Essay value at the given valid index and v is the value at the top of the stack. This function pops the value from the stack. The assignment is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. The reader function used by lua_load . Every time it needs another piece of the chunk, lua_load calls the reader, passing along its data parameter. The reader must return a pointer to a block of memory with a new piece of the chunk and set size to the painted bird, the block size. The block must exist until the Essay reader function is called again. To signal the end of the chunk, the reader must return NULL or set size to zero. Centre! The reader function may return pieces of any size greater than zero.

Sets the C function f as the new value of global name . It is defined as a macro: Removes the of Steven Spielberg element at the given valid index, shifting down the elements above this index to fill the gap. Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an the makeover actual stack position. Moves the top element into the given position (and pops it), without shifting any element (therefore replacing the value at the given position). Starts and resumes a coroutine in a given thread.

To start a coroutine, you first create a new thread (see lua_newthread ); then you push onto its stack the Spielberg main function plus any arguments; then you call lua_resume , with narg being the number of arguments. This call returns when the coroutine suspends or finishes its execution. When it returns, the stack contains all values passed to lua_yield , or all values returned by the body function. lua_resume returns LUA_YIELD if the coroutine yields, 0 if the coroutine finishes its execution without errors, or an error code in case of errors (see lua_pcall ). In case of errors, the The Work of Three Major Garrison and John stack is not unwound, so you can use the debug API over it. The error message is on the top of the stack. Essay! To restart a coroutine, you put on its stack only the values to be passed as results from yield , and bird, then call lua_resume . Changes the allocator function of a given state to f with user data ud . Pops a table from the stack and sets it as the new environment for the value at the given index. If the value at the given index is neither a function nor a thread nor a userdata, lua_setfenv returns 0. Otherwise it returns 1. Does the equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index and v is the value at the top of the stack. This function pops the value from the stack. As in The Inspirations Spielberg Essay, Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the newindex event (see §2.8). Pops a value from the stack and sets it as the new value of global name . It is defined as a macro:

Pops a table from the stack and sets it as the of Three Major Abolitionists: Douglass, William Lloyd and John Brown new metatable for the value at the given acceptable index. Does the equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the Essay value at the given valid index, v is the value at the top of the stack, and k is the value just below the top. This function pops both the to Acid key and the value from the stack. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the newindex event (see §2.8). Accepts any acceptable index, or 0, and sets the The Inspirations of Steven stack top to book, this index. If the new top is The Inspirations Essay, larger than the old one, then the new elements are filled with nil . If index is 0, then all stack elements are removed. Opaque structure that keeps the Frederick William Lloyd and John whole state of a Lua interpreter. The Lua library is fully reentrant: it has no global variables. All information about a state is kept in this structure.

A pointer to this state must be passed as the first argument to of Steven Essay, every function in the library, except to lua_newstate , which creates a Lua state from the makeover, scratch. Returns the status of the The Inspirations thread L . The status can be 0 for a normal thread, an error code if the thread finished its execution with an error, or LUA_YIELD if the thread is suspended. Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to a C boolean value (0 or 1). Like all tests in Chemistry Experiment on the Reaction When Exposed, Lua, lua_toboolean returns 1 for any Lua value different from The Inspirations Spielberg Essay, false and nil ; otherwise it returns 0. It also returns 0 when called with a non-valid index. The Work Of Three Abolitionists: William Lloyd! (If you want to accept only actual boolean values, use lua_isboolean to test the value's type.) Converts a value at the given acceptable index to a C function. That value must be a C function; otherwise, returns NULL . Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to the signed integral type lua_Integer . The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tointeger returns 0. If the The Inspirations Essay number is not an integer, it is truncated in some non-specified way. Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to a C string. If len is not NULL , it also sets *len with the string length.

The Lua value must be a string or a number; otherwise, the function returns NULL . If the value is a number, then lua_tolstring also changes the centre actual value in the stack to a string . (This change confuses lua_next when lua_tolstring is applied to keys during a table traversal.) lua_tolstring returns a fully aligned pointer to a string inside the Lua state. This string always has a zero (' 0 ') after its last character (as in The Inspirations of Steven, C), but can contain other zeros in its body. Because Lua has garbage collection, there is no guarantee that the pointer returned by societies, lua_tolstring will be valid after the corresponding value is removed from the stack. Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to the C type lua_Number (see lua_Number ). The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tonumber returns 0. Converts the value at the given acceptable index to a generic C pointer ( void* ). The value can be a userdata, a table, a thread, or a function; otherwise, lua_topointer returns NULL . Different objects will give different pointers. There is no way to convert the pointer back to its original value. Typically this function is The Inspirations Essay, used only for debug information.

Equivalent to lua_tolstring with len equal to Acme, NULL . Converts the value at the given acceptable index to a Lua thread (represented as lua_State* ). This value must be a thread; otherwise, the function returns NULL . If the value at The Inspirations of Steven Spielberg Essay, the given acceptable index is a full userdata, returns its block address. If the value is a light userdata, returns its pointer. Otherwise, returns NULL . Returns the type of the value in the given acceptable index, or LUA_TNONE for a non-valid index (that is, an index to an empty stack position). The types returned by lua_type are coded by the following constants defined in lua.h : LUA_TNIL , LUA_TNUMBER , LUA_TBOOLEAN , LUA_TSTRING , LUA_TTABLE , LUA_TFUNCTION , LUA_TUSERDATA , LUA_TTHREAD , and LUA_TLIGHTUSERDATA . Returns the name of the type encoded by the value tp , which must be one the values returned by lua_type . The type of the writer function used by lua_dump . Every time it produces another piece of chunk, lua_dump calls the writer, passing along the buffer to Acme Treatments, be written ( p ), its size ( sz ), and the data parameter supplied to lua_dump . The writer returns an error code: 0 means no errors; any other value means an error and stops lua_dump from calling the of Steven Spielberg writer again. Exchange values between different threads of the same global state. This function pops n values from the stack from the makeover centre, , and pushes them onto the stack to . Yields a coroutine. This function should only be called as the return expression of a C function, as follows:

When a C function calls lua_yield in that way, the running coroutine suspends its execution, and the call to lua_resume that started this coroutine returns. Of Steven Essay! The parameter nresults is the number of values from the Acme Essay stack that are passed as results to lua_resume . Lua has no built-in debugging facilities. Instead, it offers a special interface by of Steven Spielberg Essay, means of functions and hooks . This interface allows the The Work of Three Abolitionists: Frederick Lloyd Garrison construction of different kinds of debuggers, profilers, and other tools that need inside information from the The Inspirations of Steven Essay interpreter. A structure used to carry different pieces of information about an active function. lua_getstack fills only the private part of this structure, for later use. To fill the other fields of lua_Debug with useful information, call lua_getinfo . The fields of lua_Debug have the book following meaning: source : If the The Inspirations function was defined in a string, then source is that string. Patriarchal Societies! If the function was defined in a file, then source starts with a ' @ ' followed by the file name. short_src : a printable version of source , to be used in The Inspirations of Steven Spielberg, error messages. linedefined : the line number where the definition of the function starts. lastlinedefined : the line number where the Treatments definition of the function ends. what : the The Inspirations of Steven Spielberg Essay string Lua if the function is a Lua function, C if it is a C function, main if it is the main part of Chemistry on the Reaction of Different Metals, a chunk, and tail if it was a function that did a tail call. In the latter case, Lua has no other information about the function. currentline : the of Steven Spielberg current line where the given function is executing. When no line information is available, currentline is set to -1. name : a reasonable name for and Inductive Approach the given function. The Inspirations Spielberg! Because functions in Lua are first-class values, they do not have a fixed name: some functions can be the value of multiple global variables, while others can be stored only in a table field. Bird! The lua_getinfo function checks how the function was called to of Steven, find a suitable name. If it cannot find a name, then name is set to NULL . namewhat : explains the name field.

The value of namewhat can be global , local , method , field , upvalue , or (the empty string), according to how the function was called. (Lua uses the empty string when no other option seems to apply.) nups : the number of upvalues of the function. Returns the current hook function. Returns the current hook count. Returns the current hook mask. Returns information about a specific function or function invocation. To get information about book, a function invocation, the parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). To get information about a function you push it onto the stack and start the what string with the character ' '. (In that case, lua_getinfo pops the function in of Steven, the top of the stack.) For instance, to know in which line a function f was defined, you can write the book following code: Each character in the string what selects some fields of the structure ar to of Steven Essay, be filled or a value to be pushed on patriarchal, the stack: ' n ': fills in the field name and namewhat ; ' S ': fills in The Inspirations Spielberg, the fields source , short_src , linedefined , lastlinedefined , and The Work Abolitionists: Frederick William Lloyd Brown, what ; ' l ': fills in the field currentline ; ' u ': fills in the field nups ; ' f ': pushes onto the stack the function that is running at the given level; ' L ': pushes onto the stack a table whose indices are the numbers of the The Inspirations of Steven Spielberg Essay lines that are valid on the function. (A valid line is the makeover centre, a line with some associated code, that is, a line where you can put a break point. Non-valid lines include empty lines and comments.) This function returns 0 on error (for instance, an invalid option in what ).

Gets information about a local variable of a given activation record. The parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). The index n selects which local variable to inspect (1 is the The Inspirations Spielberg Essay first parameter or active local variable, and so on, until the last active local variable). Chemistry Of Different Exposed To Acid! lua_getlocal pushes the variable's value onto the stack and The Inspirations Spielberg, returns its name. Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and C function locals). Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the The Work of Three Major Abolitionists: William Lloyd Garrison Brown index is greater than the number of active local variables. Get information about the interpreter runtime stack. This function fills parts of a lua_Debug structure with an identification of the activation record of the function executing at a given level. Level 0 is the current running function, whereas level n+1 is the function that has called level n . When there are no errors, lua_getstack returns 1; when called with a level greater than the stack depth, it returns 0.

Gets information about a closure's upvalue. Of Steven! (For Lua functions, upvalues are the external local variables that the and Inductive Approach Essay function uses, and that are consequently included in its closure.) lua_getupvalue gets the Spielberg index n of an upvalue, pushes the upvalue's value onto the stack, and returns its name. funcindex points to the closure in the stack. (Upvalues have no particular order, as they are active through the whole function. So, they are numbered in an arbitrary order.) Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is greater than the Douglass, William Lloyd number of upvalues. For C functions, this function uses the empty string as a name for all upvalues. Type for debugging hook functions. Whenever a hook is called, its ar argument has its field event set to the specific event that triggered the Essay hook. Lua identifies these events with the societies following constants: LUA_HOOKCALL , LUA_HOOKRET , LUA_HOOKTAILRET , LUA_HOOKLINE , and LUA_HOOKCOUNT . Moreover, for line events, the field currentline is also set. The Inspirations Of Steven Spielberg! To get the value of patriarchal, any other field in ar , the Spielberg Essay hook must call lua_getinfo . For return events, event can be LUA_HOOKRET , the normal value, or LUA_HOOKTAILRET . In the latter case, Lua is simulating a return from a function that did a tail call; in this case, it is useless to on the Reaction of Different Metals When Exposed to Acid, call lua_getinfo . While Lua is running a hook, it disables other calls to hooks. Therefore, if a hook calls back Lua to execute a function or a chunk, this execution occurs without any calls to hooks. Sets the debugging hook function.

Argument f is the hook function. Spielberg! mask specifies on Treatments, which events the hook will be called: it is formed by a bitwise or of the constants LUA_MASKCALL , LUA_MASKRET , LUA_MASKLINE , and LUA_MASKCOUNT . The count argument is only meaningful when the mask includes LUA_MASKCOUNT . For each event, the hook is The Inspirations of Steven, called as explained below: The call hook: is called when the interpreter calls a function. The hook is called just after Lua enters the new function, before the function gets its arguments. The return hook: is bird book, called when the interpreter returns from of Steven, a function. Qualitative And Inductive Approach Essay! The hook is called just before Lua leaves the function. You have no access to the values to be returned by the function.

The line hook: is called when the interpreter is about to start the execution of a new line of code, or when it jumps back in The Inspirations, the code (even to the same line). (This event only happens while Lua is and Inductive Essay, executing a Lua function.) The count hook: is called after the of Steven Essay interpreter executes every count instructions. (This event only happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.) A hook is disabled by setting mask to zero. Sets the value of a local variable of a given activation record. Parameters ar and n are as in Experiment Reaction of Different Metals When, lua_getlocal (see lua_getlocal ). lua_setlocal assigns the value at The Inspirations of Steven Essay, the top of the stack to the variable and returns its name. It also pops the value from the stack. Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is greater than the number of active local variables. Sets the value of a closure's upvalue. It assigns the value at the top of the stack to the upvalue and the makeover, returns its name. It also pops the Spielberg value from the stack.

Parameters funcindex and n are as in patriarchal, the lua_getupvalue (see lua_getupvalue ). Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is greater than the number of upvalues. The auxiliary library provides several convenient functions to interface C with Lua. While the basic API provides the primitive functions for all interactions between C and Lua, the auxiliary library provides higher-level functions for some common tasks. All functions from the of Steven Spielberg Essay auxiliary library are defined in header file lauxlib.h and have a prefix luaL_ . All functions in Reaction of Different Metals to Acid, the auxiliary library are built on top of the The Inspirations Essay basic API, and so they provide nothing that cannot be done with this API. Several functions in the auxiliary library are used to check C function arguments. Their names are always luaL_check* or luaL_opt* . All of these functions throw an error if the check is not satisfied. Because the error message is formatted for arguments (e.g., bad argument #1 ), you should not use these functions for other stack values. Here we list all functions and types from the bird book auxiliary library in alphabetical order. Adds the character c to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ).

Adds the string pointed to by s with length l to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The Inspirations Spielberg! The string may contain embedded zeros. Adds to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ) a string of length n previously copied to the makeover centre, the buffer area (see luaL_prepbuffer ). Adds the zero-terminated string pointed to by s to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string may not contain embedded zeros. Adds the value at the top of the stack to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Pops the value. This is the only function on string buffers that can (and must) be called with an The Inspirations of Steven Spielberg extra element on the stack, which is the value to be added to the buffer. Checks whether cond is true. Of Three Frederick William Lloyd Garrison And John! If not, raises an error with the following message, where func is retrieved from the call stack: Raises an error with the following message, where func is retrieved from the call stack:

This function never returns, but it is an idiom to use it in C functions as return luaL_argerror( args ) . Type for a string buffer . A string buffer allows C code to build Lua strings piecemeal. Its pattern of use is The Inspirations of Steven Spielberg Essay, as follows: First you declare a variable b of type luaL_Buffer . Then you initialize it with a call luaL_buffinit(L, b) . Then you add string pieces to the buffer calling any of the luaL_add* functions. You finish by calling luaL_pushresult(b) . Book! This call leaves the final string on The Inspirations Essay, the top of the stack. During its normal operation, a string buffer uses a variable number of stack slots. So, while using a buffer, you cannot assume that you know where the Chemistry Reaction of Different Metals Exposed top of the stack is. Of Steven Spielberg Essay! You can use the Qualitative Approach stack between successive calls to buffer operations as long as that use is balanced; that is, when you call a buffer operation, the stack is at the same level it was immediately after the previous buffer operation. Essay! (The only exception to this rule is Qualitative and Inductive, luaL_addvalue .) After calling luaL_pushresult the stack is back to its level when the buffer was initialized, plus the Essay final string on of Different When, its top. Initializes a buffer B . This function does not allocate any space; the buffer must be declared as a variable (see luaL_Buffer ). Calls a metamethod. If the object at The Inspirations Essay, index obj has a metatable and this metatable has a field e , this function calls this field and passes the object as its only argument. In this case this function returns 1 and pushes onto the stack the value returned by the call.

If there is no metatable or no metamethod, this function returns 0 (without pushing any value on The Work of Three Douglass, Lloyd Brown, the stack). Checks whether the function has an argument of any type (including nil ) at position narg . Checks whether the of Steven function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to an int . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to Qualitative Approach, a lua_Integer . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to a long . Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and The Inspirations of Steven Spielberg, returns this string; if l is The Work Major Frederick William Lloyd, not NULL fills *l with the string's length. This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and caveats of that function apply here. Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number. Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and searches for of Steven Spielberg this string in the array lst (which must be NULL-terminated). Returns the index in bird, the array where the string was found. Raises an The Inspirations of Steven error if the argument is not a string or if the string cannot be found. If def is not NULL , the function uses def as a default value when there is no argument narg or if this argument is nil . This is on the Reaction When to Acid, a useful function for mapping strings to C enums. (The usual convention in Lua libraries is to use strings instead of numbers to select options.) Grows the of Steven Spielberg stack size to top + sz elements, raising an error if the stack cannot grow to that size. Chemistry Reaction Metals Exposed To Acid! msg is an Spielberg additional text to go into the error message. Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and returns this string.

This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and caveats of that function apply here. Checks whether the function argument narg has type t . See lua_type for the encoding of types for t . Checks whether the function argument narg is a userdata of the type tname (see luaL_newmetatable ). Loads and runs the given file. It is defined as the following macro: It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in case of errors. Loads and runs the Experiment on the Exposed given string. It is The Inspirations Spielberg, defined as the following macro: It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in case of errors. Raises an error. The error message format is given by fmt plus any extra arguments, following the same rules of Lloyd Garrison Brown, lua_pushfstring . It also adds at the beginning of the message the file name and the line number where the error occurred, if this information is The Inspirations Spielberg Essay, available.

This function never returns, but it is an idiom to use it in C functions as return luaL_error( args ) . Pushes onto the stack the field e from the metatable of the object at index obj . If the object does not have a metatable, or if the metatable does not have this field, returns 0 and pushes nothing. Pushes onto the stack the metatable associated with name tname in the registry (see luaL_newmetatable ). Creates a copy of string s by replacing any occurrence of the string p with the string r . Pushes the resulting string on the stack and The Work Frederick Lloyd and John Brown, returns it. Loads a buffer as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in The Inspirations of Steven Essay, the buffer pointed to Qualitative Essay, by buff with size sz . This function returns the same results as lua_load . name is the chunk name, used for debug information and error messages. Loads a file as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to The Inspirations of Steven Spielberg, load the chunk in the file named filename . If filename is NULL , then it loads from the standard input.

The first line in the file is Treatments, ignored if it starts with a # . This function returns the of Steven Essay same results as lua_load , but it has an patriarchal societies extra error code LUA_ERRFILE if it cannot open/read the file. As lua_load , this function only loads the Essay chunk; it does not run it. Loads a string as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the zero-terminated string s . This function returns the same results as lua_load . Also as lua_load , this function only loads the Experiment on the of Different Exposed to Acid chunk; it does not run it. If the The Inspirations Spielberg Essay registry already has the key tname , returns 0. Otherwise, creates a new table to centre, be used as a metatable for userdata, adds it to the registry with key tname , and returns 1. In both cases pushes onto the stack the final value associated with tname in the registry. Creates a new Lua state. It calls lua_newstate with an allocator based on the standard C realloc function and then sets a panic function (see lua_atpanic ) that prints an error message to the standard error output in The Inspirations of Steven Essay, case of fatal errors. Returns the new state, or NULL if there is a memory allocation error.

Opens all standard Lua libraries into the given state. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to an int . If this argument is bird, absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to The Inspirations of Steven Spielberg, a lua_Integer . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is and Inductive Approach Essay, a number, returns this number cast to a long . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is a string, returns this string. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an The Inspirations Spielberg error. If l is not NULL , fills the position *l with the results's length. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is a string, returns this string.

If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Patriarchal! Otherwise, raises an The Inspirations of Steven Essay error. Returns an address to a space of size LUAL_BUFFERSIZE where you can copy a string to be added to buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). After copying the string into this space you must call luaL_addsize with the Essay size of the string to actually add it to the buffer. Finishes the use of buffer B leaving the final string on the top of the stack. Creates and The Inspirations of Steven Spielberg Essay, returns a reference , in the table at index t , for the object at the top of the Qualitative Approach stack (and pops the object). A reference is a unique integer key. As long as you do not manually add integer keys into table t , luaL_ref ensures the uniqueness of the key it returns. You can retrieve an object referred by reference r by calling lua_rawgeti(L, t, r) . Function luaL_unref frees a reference and its associated object. If the object at the top of the stack is nil , luaL_ref returns the constant LUA_REFNIL . The constant LUA_NOREF is guaranteed to be different from any reference returned by luaL_ref . Type for arrays of functions to be registered by luaL_register . name is the function name and func is a pointer to the function.

Any array of luaL_Reg must end with an sentinel entry in which both name and of Steven Spielberg, func are NULL . Opens a library. When called with libname equal to NULL , it simply registers all functions in the makeover, the list l (see luaL_Reg ) into the table on the top of the stack. When called with a non-null libname , luaL_register creates a new table t , sets it as the value of the The Inspirations Spielberg global variable libname , sets it as the value of package.loaded[libname] , and registers on The Work of Three Frederick Douglass, William Garrison, it all functions in the list l . If there is a table in package.loaded[libname] or in variable libname , reuses this table instead of creating a new one. In any case the function leaves the table on the top of the stack. Returns the name of the type of the The Inspirations value at the given index. Generates an error with a message like the following: where location is produced by luaL_where , func is the name of the current function, and rt is the type name of the actual argument. Releases reference ref from the the makeover table at index t (see luaL_ref ). The entry is removed from the table, so that the of Steven referred object can be collected. The reference ref is also freed to be used again.

Pushes onto the stack a string identifying the current position of the control at level lvl in the call stack. Typically this string has the following format: Level 0 is the running function, level 1 is the function that called the running function, etc. This function is used to build a prefix for error messages. The standard Lua libraries provide useful functions that are implemented directly through the C API. Some of these functions provide essential services to the language (e.g., type and The Work of Three Major Abolitionists: Lloyd Garrison and John Brown, getmetatable ); others provide access to outside services (e.g., I/O); and others could be implemented in Lua itself, but are quite useful or have critical performance requirements that deserve an implementation in C (e.g., table.sort ). All libraries are implemented through the official C API and are provided as separate C modules. Currently, Lua has the following standard libraries: basic library, which includes the coroutine sub-library; package library; string manipulation; table manipulation; mathematical functions (sin, log, etc.); input and The Inspirations Spielberg, output; operating system facilities; debug facilities. Except for the basic and package libraries, each library provides all its functions as fields of a global table or as methods of its objects.

To have access to these libraries, the C host program should call the luaL_openlibs function, which opens all standard libraries. Alternatively, it can open them individually by calling luaopen_base (for the centre basic library), luaopen_package (for the package library), luaopen_string (for the string library), luaopen_table (for the table library), luaopen_math (for the The Inspirations of Steven Spielberg mathematical library), luaopen_io (for the I/O library), luaopen_os (for the Operating System library), and The Work of Three Major Frederick Douglass, William Garrison Brown, luaopen_debug (for the debug library). These functions are declared in lualib.h and should not be called directly: you must call them like any other Lua C function, e.g., by using lua_call . The basic library provides some core functions to of Steven Spielberg Essay, Lua. If you do not include this library in your application, you should check carefully whether you need to provide implementations for some of its facilities. This function is a generic interface to the garbage collector. It performs different functions according to Chemistry Experiment on the Reaction Exposed, its first argument, opt : collect: performs a full garbage-collection cycle. This is the default option. stop: stops the garbage collector. The Inspirations Of Steven! restart: restarts the garbage collector. count: returns the total memory in use by Lua (in Kbytes). step: performs a garbage-collection step.

The step size is controlled by arg (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. If you want to control the step size you must experimentally tune the value of arg . Returns true if the step finished a collection cycle. setpause: sets arg as the new value for the pause of the collector (see §2.10). Returns the previous value for pause . setstepmul: sets arg as the new value for the step multiplier of the centre collector (see §2.10). Spielberg! Returns the previous value for step . Usually, error adds some information about the centre error position at the beginning of the message. The level argument specifies how to get the error position. With level 1 (the default), the error position is where the The Inspirations of Steven Essay error function was called. Level 2 points the error to on the Reaction, where the function that called error was called; and so on. Passing a level 0 avoids the addition of error position information to the message. If object does not have a metatable, returns nil . The Inspirations Spielberg! Otherwise, if the patriarchal societies object's metatable has a __metatable field, returns the associated value. Otherwise, returns the metatable of the The Inspirations given object. Returns three values: an Chemistry on the of Different Metals When iterator function, the table t , and The Inspirations of Steven, 0, so that the construction.

will iterate over the makeover, the pairs ( 1,t[1] ), ( 2,t[2] ), ···, up to the first integer key absent from the table. Loads a chunk using function func to get its pieces. Each call to func must return a string that concatenates with previous results. A return of an empty string, nil , or no value signals the end of the chunk. If there are no errors, returns the compiled chunk as a function; otherwise, returns nil plus the error message. The environment of the returned function is the global environment. chunkname is used as the chunk name for error messages and debug information. When absent, it defaults to =(load) . Similar to of Steven, load , but gets the chunk from file filename or from the standard input, if no file name is Treatments Essay, given. Similar to load , but gets the The Inspirations chunk from the given string.

To load and run a given string, use the idiom. When absent, chunkname defaults to the given string. Allows a program to traverse all fields of a table. Its first argument is a table and its second argument is an index in this table. next returns the next index of the table and Acme, its associated value. When called with nil as its second argument, next returns an initial index and The Inspirations Spielberg, its associated value. Of Three Abolitionists: Frederick William Lloyd! When called with the The Inspirations of Steven Spielberg last index, or with nil in an empty table, next returns nil . The Painted Bird! If the second argument is absent, then it is interpreted as nil . In particular, you can use next(t) to check whether a table is empty. The order in which the indices are enumerated is not specified, even for numeric indices . Of Steven Spielberg! (To traverse a table in numeric order, use a numerical for or the ipairs function.) The behavior of next is undefined if, during the traversal, you assign any value to a non-existent field in the table. You may however modify existing fields. In particular, you may clear existing fields.

Returns three values: the next function, the table t , and the makeover, nil , so that the construction. will iterate over all keyvalue pairs of table t . See function next for Essay the caveats of modifying the table during its traversal. Calls function f with the given arguments in protected mode . Treatments! This means that any error inside f is not propagated; instead, pcall catches the error and returns a status code. Its first result is the status code (a boolean), which is true if the call succeeds without errors. In such case, pcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result. In case of any error, pcall returns false plus the error message. This function returns table . If index is a number, returns all arguments after argument number index . Otherwise, index must be the string # , and select returns the total number of extra arguments it received. Sets the environment to be used by the given function. f can be a Lua function or a number that specifies the function at that stack level: Level 1 is the Spielberg Essay function calling setfenv . setfenv returns the given function. As a special case, when f is 0 setfenv changes the environment of the running thread.

In this case, setfenv returns no values. Sets the metatable for of Different Metals When the given table. (You cannot change the of Steven Essay metatable of other types from Lua, only from C.) If metatable is nil , removes the metatable of the given table. If the Acme Essay original metatable has a __metatable field, raises an error. This function returns table . An optional argument specifies the of Steven Essay base to interpret the the makeover numeral. The base may be any integer between 2 and 36, inclusive. In bases above 10, the letter ' A ' (in either upper or lower case) represents 10, ' B ' represents 11, and so forth, with ' Z ' representing 35.

In base 10 (the default), the number can have a decimal part, as well as an optional exponent part (see §2.1). In other bases, only unsigned integers are accepted. If the metatable of e has a __tostring field, then tostring calls the corresponding value with e as argument, and uses the result of the call as its result. except that the above code can be written only for a fixed number of elements. By default, i is 1 and j is the The Inspirations length of the list, as defined by Experiment on the Reaction of Different to Acid, the length operator (see §2.5.5).

This function is similar to pcall , except that you can set a new error handler. xpcall calls function f in protected mode, using err as the error handler. Any error inside f is not propagated; instead, xpcall catches the error, calls the Essay err function with the original error object, and returns a status code. Its first result is the status code (a boolean), which is true if the call succeeds without errors. In this case, xpcall also returns all results from the Acme Treatments Essay call, after this first result. Of Steven Essay! In case of any error, xpcall returns false plus the result from err . The operations related to coroutines comprise a sub-library of the the makeover centre basic library and come inside the table coroutine . See §2.11 for a general description of The Inspirations, coroutines. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function. Returns this new coroutine, an object with type thread . Starts or continues the execution of coroutine co . The first time you resume a coroutine, it starts running its body. The values val1 , ··· are passed as the arguments to the body function. If the coroutine has yielded, resume restarts it; the the makeover centre values val1 , ··· are passed as the The Inspirations Spielberg Essay results from the yield. If the coroutine runs without any errors, resume returns true plus any values passed to yield (if the coroutine yields) or any values returned by the body function (if the coroutine terminates).

If there is any error, resume returns false plus the error message. Returns the running coroutine, or nil when called by the main thread. Returns the status of coroutine co , as a string: running , if the coroutine is running (that is, it called status ); suspended , if the coroutine is suspended in a call to yield , or if it has not started running yet; normal if the coroutine is active but not running (that is, it has resumed another coroutine); and dead if the coroutine has finished its body function, or if it has stopped with an of Three Frederick Douglass, William Lloyd error. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function. Returns a function that resumes the The Inspirations of Steven Spielberg coroutine each time it is called. Any arguments passed to the function behave as the extra arguments to centre, resume . Returns the The Inspirations same values returned by resume , except the first boolean. In case of error, propagates the error. Suspends the execution of the The Work Abolitionists: Frederick Lloyd Garrison and John Brown calling coroutine.

The coroutine cannot be running a C function, a metamethod, or an iterator. Any arguments to yield are passed as extra results to resume . The package library provides basic facilities for loading and building modules in of Steven Spielberg, Lua. Abolitionists: Douglass, William Garrison And John Brown! It exports two of its functions directly in The Inspirations of Steven Essay, the global environment: require and module . Patriarchal! Everything else is exported in a table package . Creates a module. If there is The Inspirations Essay, a table in package.loaded[name] , this table is the module. Treatments Essay! Otherwise, if there is of Steven, a global table t with the given name, this table is the module. Otherwise creates a new table t and Major Douglass, William Brown, sets it as the value of the global name and the value of The Inspirations of Steven Spielberg Essay, package.loaded[name] . This function also initializes t._NAME with the given name, t._M with the module ( t itself), and t._PACKAGE with the package name (the full module name minus last component; see below). Finally, module sets t as the new environment of the current function and the new value of package.loaded[name] , so that require returns t . If name is a compound name (that is, one with components separated by dots), module creates (or reuses, if they already exist) tables for each component. For instance, if name is a.b.c , then module stores the module table in field c of field b of global a . This function can receive optional options after the module name, where each option is a function to be applied over the module.

Loads the given module. Essay! The function starts by looking into the package.loaded table to The Inspirations Essay, determine whether modname is already loaded. The Makeover Centre! If it is, then require returns the value stored at package.loaded[modname] . Otherwise, it tries to find a loader for the module. To find a loader, require is guided by the package.loaders array. By changing this array, we can change how require looks for Spielberg a module. The following explanation is Acme Treatments, based on the default configuration for Spielberg package.loaders . First require queries package.preload[modname] . If it has a value, this value (which should be a function) is the loader. Qualitative Approach! Otherwise require searches for a Lua loader using the path stored in The Inspirations Spielberg Essay, package.path . If that also fails, it searches for the painted a C loader using the of Steven Spielberg Essay path stored in package.cpath . If that also fails, it tries an Qualitative and Inductive Approach all-in-one loader (see package.loaders ). Once a loader is found, require calls the loader with a single argument, modname . If the loader returns any value, require assigns the returned value to package.loaded[modname] . If the loader returns no value and has not assigned any value to Essay, package.loaded[modname] , then require assigns true to this entry. In any case, require returns the final value of package.loaded[modname] . If there is any error loading or running the module, or if it cannot find any loader for the module, then require signals an error. The path used by require to search for a C loader.

Lua initializes the C path package.cpath in the same way it initializes the Lua path package.path , using the environment variable LUA_CPATH or a default path defined in Qualitative Essay, luaconf.h . A table used by require to control which modules are already loaded. When you require a module modname and package.loaded[modname] is not false, require simply returns the value stored there. A table used by require to control how to load modules. Each entry in Spielberg Essay, this table is a searcher function . When looking for a module, require calls each of these searchers in ascending order, with the module name (the argument given to require ) as its sole parameter. The function can return another function (the module loader ) or a string explaining why it did not find that module (or nil if it has nothing to say). Lua initializes this table with four functions. The first searcher simply looks for a loader in the package.preload table.

The second searcher looks for a loader as a Lua library, using the path stored at the makeover centre, package.path . A path is a sequence of templates separated by The Inspirations Essay, semicolons. Chemistry Experiment Of Different Metals To Acid! For each template, the searcher will change each interrogation mark in the template by filename , which is the module name with each dot replaced by a directory separator (such as / in Unix); then it will try to open the resulting file name. So, for instance, if the Lua path is the The Inspirations Spielberg string. the search for a Lua file for Qualitative and Inductive module foo will try to open the files ./foo.lua , ./foo.lc , and /usr/local/foo/init.lua , in that order. The third searcher looks for a loader as a C library, using the The Inspirations Spielberg path given by the variable package.cpath . For instance, if the C path is the string. the searcher for module foo will try to open the files ./foo.so , ./foo.dll , and /usr/local/foo/init.so , in that order. Once it finds a C library, this searcher first uses a dynamic link facility to link the application with the library. Then it tries to find a C function inside the library to be used as the Abolitionists: Frederick Douglass, William and John loader. The name of this C function is the string luaopen_ concatenated with a copy of the The Inspirations module name where each dot is replaced by an underscore. Douglass, Lloyd Garrison And John Brown! Moreover, if the module name has a hyphen, its prefix up to (and including) the first hyphen is removed.

For instance, if the module name is of Steven Spielberg, a.v1-b.c , the function name will be luaopen_b_c . The fourth searcher tries an all-in-one loader . It searches the C path for a library for the root name of the given module. For instance, when requiring a.b.c , it will search for a C library for a . If found, it looks into societies, it for an open function for of Steven Spielberg Essay the submodule; in our example, that would be luaopen_a_b_c . With this facility, a package can pack several C submodules into one single library, with each submodule keeping its original open function. Dynamically links the host program with the C library libname . And Inductive Approach Essay! Inside this library, looks for Spielberg a function funcname and returns this function as a C function. (So, funcname must follow the protocol (see lua_CFunction )). This is a low-level function. It completely bypasses the of Three Douglass, William Lloyd Garrison and John Brown package and module system. Unlike require , it does not perform any path searching and does not automatically adds extensions. libname must be the Essay complete file name of the C library, including if necessary a path and extension. funcname must be the exact name exported by the C library (which may depend on the C compiler and linker used).

This function is not supported by Chemistry to Acid, ANSI C. As such, it is only available on The Inspirations of Steven Essay, some platforms (Windows, Linux, Mac OS X, Solaris, BSD, plus other Unix systems that support the dlfcn standard). The path used by of Three Major Abolitionists: Lloyd and John, require to search for a Lua loader. At start-up, Lua initializes this variable with the of Steven value of the environment variable LUA_PATH or with a default path defined in luaconf.h , if the environment variable is not defined. Any ;; in the value of the environment variable is replaced by the default path. A table to bird book, store loaders for specific modules (see require ). Sets a metatable for module with its __index field referring to the global environment, so that this module inherits values from the global environment. The Inspirations Of Steven Essay! To be used as an option to function module . This library provides generic functions for the makeover centre string manipulation, such as finding and Spielberg, extracting substrings, and Major Abolitionists: Frederick Garrison and John, pattern matching. When indexing a string in Lua, the The Inspirations of Steven first character is at position 1 (not at 0, as in C).

Indices are allowed to be negative and are interpreted as indexing backwards, from the end of the Acme string. Thus, the last character is at position -1, and so on. The string library provides all its functions inside the table string . It also sets a metatable for strings where the __index field points to the string table. Therefore, you can use the string functions in object-oriented style. For instance, string.byte(s, i) can be written as s:byte(i) . The string library assumes one-byte character encodings. Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms.

Returns a string containing a binary representation of the given function, so that a later loadstring on this string returns a copy of the function. Spielberg Essay! function must be a Lua function without upvalues. string.find (s, pattern [, init [, plain]]) If the pattern has captures, then in a successful match the captured values are also returned, after the two indices. will produce the string: The options c , d , E , e , f , g , G , i , o , u , X , and the painted bird book, x all expect a number as argument, whereas q and s expect a string. This function does not accept string values containing embedded zeros, except as arguments to the q option. As an example, the Spielberg following loop. will iterate over all the words from societies, string s , printing one per line.

The next example collects all pairs key=value from the of Steven Spielberg given string into a table: For this function, a ' ^ ' at the start of a pattern does not work as an anchor, as this would prevent the iteration. If repl is a string, then its value is used for replacement. Centre! The character % works as an escape character: any sequence in repl of the form % n , with n between 1 and The Inspirations of Steven, 9, stands for the value of the n -th captured substring (see below). The sequence %0 stands for the whole match. Centre! The sequence %% stands for a single % . If repl is The Inspirations Spielberg Essay, a table, then the Acme Treatments Essay table is The Inspirations of Steven Spielberg Essay, queried for every match, using the first capture as the key; if the pattern specifies no captures, then the whole match is used as the key. If repl is a function, then this function is called every time a match occurs, with all captured substrings passed as arguments, in order; if the pattern specifies no captures, then the whole match is passed as a sole argument. If the value returned by the table query or by the function call is a string or a number, then it is used as the The Work of Three Major Abolitionists: Frederick William Lloyd replacement string; otherwise, if it is false or nil , then there is no replacement (that is, the original match is kept in of Steven Spielberg, the string). Here are some examples:

A character class is used to represent a set of centre, characters. The Inspirations Spielberg Essay! The following combinations are allowed in the makeover centre, describing a character class: x : (where x is not one of the magic characters ^$()%.[]*+-? ) represents the The Inspirations of Steven Essay character x itself. . : (a dot) represents all characters. %a : represents all letters. %c : represents all control characters. %d : represents all digits. %l : represents all lowercase letters. %p : represents all punctuation characters. %s : represents all space characters. %u : represents all uppercase letters. %w : represents all alphanumeric characters. %x : represents all hexadecimal digits. %z : represents the character with representation 0. % x : (where x is any non-alphanumeric character) represents the character x . Qualitative And Inductive Approach Essay! This is the standard way to escape the magic characters. Of Steven Spielberg! Any punctuation character (even the the makeover non magic) can be preceded by The Inspirations Essay, a ' % ' when used to The Work Abolitionists: Douglass, Garrison and John Brown, represent itself in The Inspirations of Steven, a pattern. [ set ] : represents the class which is the the makeover union of of Steven Essay, all characters in set . A range of characters can be specified by separating the end characters of the range with a ' - '. All classes % x described above can also be used as components in set . Essay! All other characters in set represent themselves. For example, [%w_] (or [_%w] ) represents all alphanumeric characters plus the The Inspirations underscore, [0-7] represents the bird book octal digits, and [0-7%l%-] represents the octal digits plus the lowercase letters plus the ' - ' character. The interaction between ranges and classes is not defined.

Therefore, patterns like [%a-z] or [a-%%] have no meaning. [^ set ] : represents the The Inspirations complement of set , where set is interpreted as above. For all classes represented by Chemistry Reaction of Different When to Acid, single letters ( %a , %c , etc.), the corresponding uppercase letter represents the Spielberg Essay complement of the Frederick Douglass, William Lloyd Garrison class. For instance, %S represents all non-space characters. The definitions of The Inspirations Spielberg Essay, letter, space, and other character groups depend on the current locale. In particular, the class [a-z] may not be equivalent to bird book, %l . A pattern item can be a single character class, which matches any single character in the class; a single character class followed by ' * ', which matches 0 or more repetitions of The Inspirations, characters in the class. These repetition items will always match the Approach Essay longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' + ', which matches 1 or more repetitions of The Inspirations of Steven Spielberg, characters in the class. These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' - ', which also matches 0 or more repetitions of Treatments, characters in the class. Of Steven! Unlike ' * ', these repetition items will always match the shortest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' ? ', which matches 0 or 1 occurrence of Qualitative and Inductive Essay, a character in of Steven Essay, the class; % n , for n between 1 and 9; such item matches a substring equal to the n -th captured string (see below); %b xy , where x and y are two distinct characters; such item matches strings that start with x , end with y , and where the x and y are balanced . This means that, if one reads the string from left to right, counting +1 for an x and -1 for a y , the ending y is the first y where the count reaches 0. For instance, the item %b() matches expressions with balanced parentheses. A pattern is a sequence of pattern items.

A ' ^ ' at the beginning of The Work of Three Douglass,, a pattern anchors the match at the beginning of the subject string. The Inspirations Of Steven! A ' $ ' at the end of a pattern anchors the match at the end of the subject string. At other positions, ' ^ ' and ' $ ' have no special meaning and represent themselves. A pattern can contain sub-patterns enclosed in parentheses; they describe captures . When a match succeeds, the the makeover centre substrings of the subject string that match captures are stored ( captured ) for future use. Captures are numbered according to their left parentheses. For instance, in the pattern (a*(.)%w(%s*)) , the part of the string matching a*(.)%w(%s*) is stored as the first capture (and therefore has number 1); the character matching . Essay! is captured with number 2, and the part matching %s* has number 3.

As a special case, the empty capture () captures the Chemistry Metals When current string position (a number). For instance, if we apply the pattern ()aa() on the string flaaap , there will be two captures: 3 and 5. A pattern cannot contain embedded zeros. Use %z instead. This library provides generic functions for table manipulation. It provides all its functions inside the table table . Most functions in the table library assume that the Essay table represents an array or a list. Abolitionists: Frederick Douglass, And John! For these functions, when we talk about the length of a table we mean the result of the Spielberg length operator. Inserts element value at position pos in table , shifting up other elements to open space, if necessary.

The default value for pos is n+1 , where n is the length of the Chemistry Reaction Metals to Acid table (see §2.5.5), so that a call table.insert(t,x) inserts x at the end of Spielberg Essay, table t . Returns the largest positive numerical index of the centre given table, or zero if the Essay table has no positive numerical indices. (To do its job this function does a linear traversal of the patriarchal whole table.) Removes from table the of Steven Essay element at position pos , shifting down other elements to close the space, if necessary. Returns the value of the removed element. The default value for pos is n , where n is the length of the table, so that a call table.remove(t) removes the last element of table t . The sort algorithm is not stable; that is, elements considered equal by the given order may have their relative positions changed by patriarchal societies, the sort. This library is an interface to the standard C math library. It provides all its functions inside the table math . Returns the absolute value of x . Returns the arc cosine of x (in radians).

Returns the arc sine of x (in radians). Returns the arc tangent of x (in radians). Returns the arc tangent of y/x (in radians), but uses the signs of both parameters to find the quadrant of the Spielberg Essay result. (It also handles correctly the case of Essay, x being zero.) Returns the smallest integer larger than or equal to x . Returns the cosine of x (assumed to Essay, be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic cosine of x . Returns the angle x (given in radians) in degrees. Returns the value e x . Returns the largest integer smaller than or equal to x . Returns the remainder of the division of x by y that rounds the quotient towards zero. Returns m and e such that x = m2 e , e is an integer and the absolute value of m is in the range [0.5, 1) (or zero when x is zero). The value HUGE_VAL , a value larger than or equal to any other numerical value. Returns m2 e ( e should be an integer). Returns the natural logarithm of x . Returns the base-10 logarithm of x . Returns the maximum value among its arguments. Returns the minimum value among its arguments.

Returns two numbers, the integral part of x and the fractional part of x . Returns x y . (You can also use the expression x^y to compute this value.) Returns the The Work Abolitionists: Frederick William Lloyd Garrison and John Brown angle x (given in The Inspirations of Steven Spielberg Essay, degrees) in radians. This function is an interface to the simple pseudo-random generator function rand provided by the makeover, ANSI C. The Inspirations Of Steven Essay! (No guarantees can be given for its statistical properties.) When called without arguments, returns a uniform pseudo-random real number in the range [0,1) . When called with an integer number m , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [1, m] . When called with two integer numbers m and n , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [m, n] . Sets x as the seed for the pseudo-random generator: equal seeds produce equal sequences of numbers. Returns the sine of x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic sine of patriarchal, x . Returns the square root of x . Of Steven Essay! (You can also use the expression x^0.5 to compute this value.) Returns the tangent of x (assumed to be in radians).

Returns the hyperbolic tangent of x . The I/O library provides two different styles for file manipulation. The first one uses implicit file descriptors; that is, there are operations to set a default input file and a default output file, and Chemistry on the Metals When Exposed, all input/output operations are over these default files. The second style uses explicit file descriptors. When using implicit file descriptors, all operations are supplied by table io . The Inspirations Of Steven! When using explicit file descriptors, the operation io.open returns a file descriptor and then all operations are supplied as methods of the file descriptor. The table io also provides three predefined file descriptors with their usual meanings from C: io.stdin , io.stdout , and io.stderr . The I/O library never closes these files. Unless otherwise stated, all I/O functions return nil on The Work of Three Major Frederick William Lloyd Brown, failure (plus an The Inspirations Essay error message as a second result and Treatments Essay, a system-dependent error code as a third result) and some value different from nil on success.

Equivalent to file:close() . Without a file , closes the default output file. Equivalent to The Inspirations of Steven Spielberg, file:flush over the default output file. When called with a file name, it opens the patriarchal societies named file (in text mode), and sets its handle as the default input file. When called with a file handle, it simply sets this file handle as the of Steven Spielberg default input file. When called without parameters, it returns the Chemistry Reaction of Different Metals Exposed current default input file. In case of errors this function raises the error, instead of returning an error code. Opens the Spielberg given file name in read mode and returns an iterator function that, each time it is called, returns a new line from the Experiment on the of Different Metals When file. Therefore, the construction. will iterate over all lines of the file.

When the iterator function detects the end of file, it returns nil (to finish the loop) and The Inspirations, automatically closes the file. The call io.lines() (with no file name) is equivalent to io.input():lines() ; that is, it iterates over the lines of the default input file. Book! In this case it does not close the file when the loop ends. This function opens a file, in the mode specified in the string mode . It returns a new file handle, or, in The Inspirations Spielberg, case of errors, nil plus an error message. The mode string can be any of the Reaction of Different Metals When following: r: read mode (the default); w: write mode; a: append mode; r+: update mode, all previous data is preserved; w+: update mode, all previous data is erased; a+: append update mode, previous data is preserved, writing is only allowed at the end of The Inspirations Spielberg, file. The mode string can also have a ' b ' at the end, which is needed in some systems to open the file in binary mode. This string is exactly what is used in the standard C function fopen . Similar to io.input , but operates over the makeover, the default output file.

Starts program prog in The Inspirations Spielberg, a separated process and returns a file handle that you can use to read data from this program (if mode is r , the default) or to write data to this program (if mode is w ). This function is the painted, system dependent and is not available on Essay, all platforms. Equivalent to io.input():read . Returns a handle for of Three Abolitionists: Douglass, William Lloyd Garrison a temporary file. This file is The Inspirations of Steven Spielberg Essay, opened in update mode and it is automatically removed when the Chemistry Reaction Metals to Acid program ends. Checks whether obj is a valid file handle. Returns the string file if obj is an open file handle, closed file if obj is a closed file handle, or nil if obj is not a file handle. Equivalent to io.output():write . Closes file . The Inspirations Of Steven Spielberg! Note that files are automatically closed when their handles are garbage collected, but that takes an unpredictable amount of time to happen. Saves any written data to file . Returns an iterator function that, each time it is called, returns a new line from the file. Therefore, the construction. will iterate over all lines of the file. (Unlike io.lines , this function does not close the file when the loop ends.) Reads the file file , according to the given formats, which specify what to read.

For each format, the function returns a string (or a number) with the characters read, or nil if it cannot read data with the specified format. When called without formats, it uses a default format that reads the entire next line (see below). The available formats are *n: reads a number; this is the only format that returns a number instead of a string. *a: reads the whole file, starting at the current position. William And John! On end of file, it returns the empty string. *l: reads the next line (skipping the end of The Inspirations of Steven, line), returning nil on end of file. This is the The Work of Three Major Frederick Douglass, William Lloyd Garrison and John Brown default format. number : reads a string with up to this number of characters, returning nil on end of file. If number is zero, it reads nothing and returns an empty string, or nil on end of file. Sets and of Steven Spielberg, gets the file position, measured from the beginning of the file, to centre, the position given by offset plus a base specified by the string whence , as follows: set: base is position 0 (beginning of the file); cur: base is current position; end: base is The Inspirations of Steven Spielberg, end of file; In case of success, function seek returns the final file position, measured in centre, bytes from the beginning of the The Inspirations Spielberg Essay file. If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the the painted bird error.

The default value for whence is cur , and for offset is 0. Therefore, the call file:seek() returns the current file position, without changing it; the of Steven Spielberg Essay call file:seek(set) sets the position to the beginning of the file (and returns 0); and the call file:seek(end) sets the position to the end of the file, and the makeover centre, returns its size. Sets the buffering mode for Spielberg an output file. There are three available modes: no: no buffering; the result of any output operation appears immediately. full: full buffering; output operation is performed only book, when the buffer is full (or when you explicitly flush the file (see io.flush )). line: line buffering; output is buffered until a newline is output or there is any input from some special files (such as a terminal device). For the last two cases, size specifies the size of the buffer, in bytes. The default is an appropriate size. Writes the value of each of of Steven Spielberg, its arguments to the file . The arguments must be strings or numbers. To write other values, use tostring or string.format before write . This library is of Three Abolitionists: Douglass, William and John, implemented through table os . Returns an approximation of the amount in The Inspirations Spielberg Essay, seconds of CPU time used by the program. Returns a string or a table containing date and time, formatted according to the given string format . If the time argument is present, this is the time to be formatted (see the the makeover os.time function for a description of Essay, this value).

Otherwise, date formats the current time. If format starts with ' ! ', then the date is formatted in Coordinated Universal Time. After this optional character, if format is the The Work of Three Frederick Lloyd string *t , then date returns a table with the following fields: year (four digits), month (1--12), day (1--31), hour (0--23), min (0--59), sec (0--61), wday (weekday, Sunday is 1), yday (day of the year), and isdst (daylight saving flag, a boolean). If format is not *t , then date returns the date as a string, formatted according to the same rules as the C function strftime . When called without arguments, date returns a reasonable date and The Inspirations Spielberg, time representation that depends on the host system and on the makeover, the current locale (that is, os.date() is of Steven Essay, equivalent to os.date(%c) ). Returns the Qualitative and Inductive number of seconds from time t1 to time t2 . In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this value is exactly t2 - t1 . This function is equivalent to the C function system . Spielberg Essay! It passes command to the makeover centre, be executed by an operating system shell. It returns a status code, which is system-dependent. If command is absent, then it returns nonzero if a shell is available and Essay, zero otherwise. Calls the C function exit , with an optional code , to terminate the host program. Experiment Reaction Of Different Exposed To Acid! The default value for Essay code is the success code. Returns the value of the Treatments Essay process environment variable varname , or nil if the The Inspirations of Steven Spielberg variable is centre, not defined.

Deletes the The Inspirations of Steven file or directory with the given name. Directories must be empty to Qualitative and Inductive Approach, be removed. If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. Renames file or directory named oldname to newname . If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. Sets the The Inspirations of Steven Essay current locale of the program. locale is a string specifying a locale; category is an optional string describing which category to change: all , collate , ctype , monetary , numeric , or time ; the default category is all . The function returns the name of the new locale, or nil if the request cannot be honored. If locale is the Acme Essay empty string, the current locale is set to an implementation-defined native locale. The Inspirations Of Steven Essay! If locale is the string C , the current locale is Approach Essay, set to the standard C locale. When called with nil as the first argument, this function only of Steven Spielberg, returns the name of the Acme Essay current locale for the given category. Returns the current time when called without arguments, or a time representing the The Inspirations Spielberg Essay date and time specified by the given table.

This table must have fields year , month , and day , and may have fields hour , min , sec , and isdst (for a description of these fields, see the The Work Major William Lloyd Garrison Brown os.date function). The returned value is a number, whose meaning depends on your system. In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this number counts the number of seconds since some given start time (the epoch). In other systems, the meaning is not specified, and the number returned by of Steven, time can be used only as an argument to date and difftime . Returns a string with a file name that can be used for and Inductive Approach Essay a temporary file. The file must be explicitly opened before its use and explicitly removed when no longer needed. On some systems (POSIX), this function also creates a file with that name, to avoid security risks. Spielberg Essay! (Someone else might create the file with wrong permissions in the time between getting the The Work of Three Major Abolitionists: Douglass, William Lloyd Garrison and John Brown name and creating the file.) You still have to Spielberg Essay, open the file to use it and to remove it (even if you do not use it).

When possible, you may prefer to use io.tmpfile , which automatically removes the file when the program ends. This library provides the functionality of the debug interface to Lua programs. You should exert care when using this library. The functions provided here should be used exclusively for debugging and similar tasks, such as profiling. Please resist the temptation to Chemistry on the Reaction When to Acid, use them as a usual programming tool: they can be very slow.

Moreover, several of these functions violate some assumptions about Lua code (e.g., that variables local to a function cannot be accessed from outside or that userdata metatables cannot be changed by Lua code) and therefore can compromise otherwise secure code. All functions in this library are provided inside the debug table. All functions that operate over a thread have an optional first argument which is the thread to operate over. The default is always the current thread. Enters an interactive mode with the user, running each string that the user enters. The Inspirations Essay! Using simple commands and other debug facilities, the of Three Major Abolitionists: Lloyd and John user can inspect global and Spielberg, local variables, change their values, evaluate expressions, and so on. A line containing only the word cont finishes this function, so that the caller continues its execution. Note that commands for debug.debug are not lexically nested within any function, and so have no direct access to local variables. Returns the current hook settings of the thread, as three values: the current hook function, the current hook mask, and the current hook count (as set by the debug.sethook function).

debug.getinfo ([thread,] function [, what]) Returns a table with information about a function. You can give the The Work Major Douglass, Lloyd function directly, or you can give a number as the of Steven Essay value of The Work Abolitionists: Frederick Lloyd Brown, function , which means the function running at level function of the call stack of the given thread: level 0 is the of Steven Spielberg Essay current function ( getinfo itself); level 1 is the function that called getinfo ; and so on. If function is a number larger than the the makeover centre number of active functions, then getinfo returns nil . The returned table can contain all the fields returned by lua_getinfo , with the string what describing which fields to fill in. The default for of Steven what is to get all information available, except the table of Acme Treatments, valid lines.

If present, the The Inspirations Essay option ' f ' adds a field named func with the function itself. Centre! If present, the option ' L ' adds a field named activelines with the table of valid lines. For instance, the expression debug.getinfo(1,n).name returns a table with a name for The Inspirations the current function, if a reasonable name can be found, and the expression debug.getinfo(print) returns a table with all available information about the print function. This function returns the name and the value of the local variable with index local of the function at level level of the stack. (The first parameter or local variable has index 1, and so on, until the Essay last active local variable.) The function returns nil if there is no local variable with the given index, and raises an of Steven Essay error when called with a level out of range. (You can call debug.getinfo to check whether the the painted bird book level is The Inspirations of Steven Essay, valid.) Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and C function locals). Returns the metatable of the given object or nil if it does not have a metatable. Returns the registry table (see §3.5).

This function returns the name and the value of the upvalue with index up of the function func . The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the given index. Sets the environment of the on the Reaction of Different Metals When Exposed to Acid given object to the given table . Returns object . debug.sethook ([thread,] hook, mask [, count]) Sets the given function as a hook. The string mask and the number count describe when the hook will be called. The string mask may have the following characters, with the The Inspirations given meaning: c : the hook is called every time Lua calls a function; r : the hook is called every time Lua returns from a function; l : the hook is called every time Lua enters a new line of code. With a count different from Approach Essay, zero, the The Inspirations of Steven hook is called after every count instructions. When called without arguments, debug.sethook turns off the Major Abolitionists: Lloyd hook.

When the hook is called, its first parameter is a string describing the event that has triggered its call: call , return (or tail return , when simulating a return from a tail call), line , and The Inspirations of Steven Spielberg, count . For line events, the centre hook also gets the new line number as its second parameter. Of Steven Spielberg! Inside a hook, you can call getinfo with level 2 to get more information about the running function (level 0 is the getinfo function, and level 1 is the hook function), unless the event is tail return . In this case, Lua is only simulating the return, and Experiment on the of Different Exposed to Acid, a call to getinfo will return invalid data. debug.setlocal ([thread,] level, local, value) This function assigns the value value to the local variable with index local of the function at level level of the stack. The function returns nil if there is no local variable with the The Inspirations of Steven given index, and raises an error when called with a level out of Chemistry Experiment of Different Metals Exposed, range. (You can call getinfo to The Inspirations of Steven Essay, check whether the level is valid.) Otherwise, it returns the name of the local variable. Sets the metatable for the given object to the given table (which can be nil ). This function assigns the value value to the upvalue with index up of the function func . The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the given index. Otherwise, it returns the name of the upvalue. debug.traceback ([thread,] [message [, level]]) Returns a string with a traceback of the of Different Metals When call stack. An optional message string is appended at the beginning of the traceback.

An optional level number tells at which level to start the The Inspirations of Steven Essay traceback (default is 1, the of Three Major Douglass, William Lloyd Garrison function calling traceback ). Although Lua has been designed as an extension language, to be embedded in a host C program, it is also frequently used as a stand-alone language. An interpreter for Lua as a stand-alone language, called simply lua , is provided with the The Inspirations Essay standard distribution. The stand-alone interpreter includes all standard libraries, including the debug library. Its usage is:

The options are: -e stat : executes string stat ; -l mod : requires mod ; -i : enters interactive mode after running script ; -v : prints version information; -- : stops handling options; - : executes stdin as a file and stops handling options. After handling its options, lua runs the Major Frederick William and John given script , passing to it the of Steven Spielberg Essay given args as string arguments. When called without arguments, lua behaves as lua -v -i when the standard input ( stdin ) is a terminal, and patriarchal, as lua - otherwise. Before running any argument, the interpreter checks for The Inspirations of Steven Essay an environment variable LUA_INIT . If its format is @ filename , then lua executes the file. Chemistry Reaction Exposed! Otherwise, lua executes the Spielberg string itself. All options are handled in order, except -i . For instance, an invocation like. will first set a to 1, then print the value of a (which is ' 1 '), and finally run the file script.lua with no arguments. (Here $ is the shell prompt. Your prompt may be different.)

Before starting to run the script, lua collects all arguments in the painted book, the command line in a global table called arg . The Inspirations Spielberg! The script name is stored at index 0, the first argument after the script name goes to Qualitative Essay, index 1, and so on. Any arguments before the script name (that is, the interpreter name plus the options) go to negative indices. For instance, in the call. the interpreter first runs the file a.lua , then creates a table. and finally runs the file b.lua . The script is called with arg[1] , arg[2] , ··· as arguments; it can also access these arguments with the vararg expression ' . '. In interactive mode, if you write an incomplete statement, the interpreter waits for its completion by issuing a different prompt. If the global variable _PROMPT contains a string, then its value is used as the prompt. Similarly, if the global variable _PROMPT2 contains a string, its value is used as the The Inspirations of Steven Spielberg Essay secondary prompt (issued during incomplete statements). Therefore, both prompts can be changed directly on the command line or in any Lua programs by assigning to _PROMPT . See the next example: (The outer pair of quotes is for Experiment on the Reaction of Different to Acid the shell, the inner pair is for Lua.) Note the use of -i to The Inspirations Essay, enter interactive mode; otherwise, the program would just end silently right after the assignment to _PROMPT . To allow the use of Lua as a script interpreter in Chemistry Reaction of Different Exposed, Unix systems, the of Steven Spielberg stand-alone interpreter skips the first line of a chunk if it starts with # . Acme Treatments Essay! Therefore, Lua scripts can be made into executable programs by using chmod +x and the #! form, as in.

(Of course, the location of the Lua interpreter may be different in your machine. Essay! If lua is in your PATH , then. is a more portable solution.) 7 Incompatibilities with the Previous Version. Here we list the incompatibilities that you may find when moving a program from Lua 5.0 to societies, Lua 5.1. You can avoid most of the incompatibilities compiling Lua with appropriate options (see file luaconf.h ). However, all these compatibility options will be removed in the next version of Lua. The vararg system changed from the pseudo-argument arg with a table with the extra arguments to the vararg expression. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_VARARG in The Inspirations Essay, luaconf.h .) There was a subtle change in the scope of the implicit variables of the for Treatments statement and for of Steven Spielberg the repeat statement.

The long string/long comment syntax ( [[ string ]] ) does not allow nesting. Patriarchal Societies! You can use the new syntax ( [=[ string ]=] ) in these cases. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LSTR in luaconf.h .) Function string.gfind was renamed string.gmatch . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GFIND in luaconf.h .) When string.gsub is called with a function as its third argument, whenever this function returns nil or false the replacement string is the whole match, instead of the empty string. Function table.setn was deprecated. Function table.getn corresponds to the new length operator ( # ); use the operator instead of the function. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GETN in Spielberg Essay, luaconf.h .) Function loadlib was renamed package.loadlib . Centre! (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LOADLIB in luaconf.h .) Function math.mod was renamed math.fmod . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_MOD in luaconf.h .) Functions table.foreach and table.foreachi are deprecated. The Inspirations Essay! You can use a for loop with pairs or ipairs instead. There were substantial changes in function require due to the new module system.

However, the new behavior is mostly compatible with the old, but require gets the path from package.path instead of from societies, LUA_PATH . Function collectgarbage has different arguments. Function gcinfo is deprecated; use collectgarbage(count) instead. The luaopen_* functions (to open libraries) cannot be called directly, like a regular C function. Spielberg! They must be called through Lua, like a Lua function. Function lua_open was replaced by The Work Abolitionists: Douglass, William Lloyd, lua_newstate to allow the user to set a memory-allocation function.

You can use luaL_newstate from the The Inspirations of Steven Essay standard library to create a state with a standard allocation function (based on realloc ). Functions luaL_getn and luaL_setn (from the auxiliary library) are deprecated. Use lua_objlen instead of luaL_getn and bird, nothing instead of luaL_setn . Function luaL_openlib was replaced by luaL_register . Function luaL_checkudata now throws an error when the given value is not a userdata of the of Steven expected type. (In Lua 5.0 it returned NULL .) Here is the complete syntax of Lua in extended BNF. (It does not describe operator precedences.)

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Amerikanischer Lebenslauf: Deutsche Form oder Resume? Fur den Lebenslauf - dem zentralen Element jeder Bewerbung - gibt es unterschiedliche Namen und Spezifikationen: Tabellarischer Lebenslauf , Amerikanischer Lebenslauf , Curriculum Vitae oder Resume (um nur einige zu nennen). The Inspirations Of Steven Essay. Das kann schon mal verwirrend sein. Reaction Of Different Metals. Erst recht, da mit dem Amerikanischen Lebenslauf zweierlei gemeint sein kann: ein Resume fur eine Bewerbung in den USA oder Kanada - oder eine besondere Form des deutschen Lebenslaufs. Spielberg. Wir differenzieren das mal - und haben Tipps und Gratis-Muster fur beide Varianten. The Makeover. Tabellarischer Lebenslauf und Amerikanischer Lebenslauf. Leider werden die Begriffe haufig synonym oder zumindest in The Inspirations, einem Atemzug verwendet, was zu Irritationen fuhren kann: In Deutschland ist der amerikanische Lebenslauf eine Variante des tabellarischen Lebenslaufs . The Painted. Der kann namlich auf zwei Arten aufgebaut werden: Chronologisch: Beginnend mit der Schulausbildung bis zum aktuellen Job. The Inspirations Of Steven Spielberg Essay. Amerikanisch: Oder eben achronologisch - also genau umgekehrt: beginnend mit der aktuellen Position zuerst. The Painted. Diese Variante ist heute Standard.

Spricht man also in Spielberg Essay, Deutschland beziehungsweise bei den Bewerbungsunterlagen auf Deutsch von einem amerikanischen Lebenslauf , so ist in the makeover centre, der Regel ein tabellarischer Lebenslauf gemeint, der mit der aktuell ausgeubten Position beginnt. Der Vorteil hierbei ist: Die aktuelle Tatigkeit fallt dem Leser sofort ins Auge. The Inspirations. Das ist gerade bei Jobwechslern mit vielen Jahren Berufserfahrung sinnvoll, da die aktuelle Position oft auf den neuen Job hinfuhrt und womoglich dafur sogar qualifiziert. Qualitative Essay. Fur Hochschulabsolventen oder Arbeitslose ist diese Variante dagegen weniger geeignet: Im ersten Fall gibt es noch keine Berufserfahrungen, im zweiten tritt so die aktuelle Arbeitslosigkeit prominent in den Vordergrund. The Inspirations Of Steven Spielberg. Taktisch unklug. Essay. Fur beide Falle empfiehlt sich daher der chronologische Lebenslauf. Zwei kostenlose Vorlagen fur die amerikanische Variante finden Sie zum Beispiel gleich hier: Tabellarischer Lebenslauf im modernen Design. Spielberg Essay. Lebenslauf auf Englisch: Tipps fur das amerikanische Resume. Jetzt kommen wir zur zweiten Form des amerikanischen Lebenslaufs: Das sogenannte amerikanische Resume ist eher ein Exzerpt Ihrer bisherigen beruflichen Laufbahn und damit viel kompakter als ein ausfuhrlicher deutscher Lebenslauf. Acme Treatments Essay. Auch hier wird der Lebenslauf nicht chronologisch aufgebaut, sondern beginnt mit der aktuellen Position zuerst.

Das Resume konzentriert sich dabei allerdings auf die Hohepunkte des beruflichen Werdegangs, ebenso auf die wichtigsten Positionen, Erfahrungen und Erfolge, die zu der avisierten Stelle perfekt passen. Spielberg Essay. Nicht mehr. Essay. Der Umfang des Resumes geht deshalb auch nie uber eine DIN-A4-Seite hinaus (siehe Grafik): Weitere wichtige Unterschiede und Merkmale des amerikanischen Lebenslaufs sind: Keine Fotos. Es ist eher unublich dem Lebenslauf ein Bewerbungsfoto beizufugen. Es wird davon abgesehen, um Chancengleichheit zu garantieren.

Keine Angaben zum Alter, Geschlecht, Familienstand oder zur Religion. Of Steven Spielberg Essay. Auch darauf wird verzichtet, um eine mogliche Diskriminierung zu verhindern. Referenzen sollten angegeben werden. Acme Treatments Essay. Im Resume sollten Sie mindestens zwei Referenzen nennen. Referenzen spielen bei der Bewerbung in The Inspirations of Steven, den USA eine wichtige Rolle und werden so gut wie immer verlangt. And Inductive Approach Essay. Ihre Referenzen sollten starke Fursprecher fur Sie sein, die aussagekraftig Ihre Eignung belegen konnen. The Inspirations Of Steven Spielberg Essay. Sie sollten vollstandige Angaben zum Referenzgeber machen, damit dieser auch kontaktiert werden kann.

Wer als Referenzgeber in the makeover, Frage kommt, erfahren Sie hier. The Inspirations Of Steven Spielberg Essay. Der Lebenslauf wird nicht unterschrieben. Auch das ist ein wichtiger Unterschied zu Deutschland: Das Resume wird weder mit einem Datum versehen noch unterschrieben. Essay. Lebenslauf auf Englisch: Der Aufbau. Of Steven. Der amerikanische Lebenslauf wird mit den bereits genannten Begriffen Resume oder Personal Resume uberschrieben, kann aber auch direkt mit den Personal Details beginnen, was dem knappen Platz geschuldet ist. The Makeover. Aufbau und Struktur des amerikanischen Lebenslaufs folgen anschlie?end diesem Muster: Name, Adresse, Telefonnummer und E-Mail-Adresse, mehr mussen Sie ganz oben und bei diesen Punkt nicht angeben.

Achten Sie bitte darauf, Ihren Namen in The Inspirations of Steven Spielberg Essay, der ersten Zeile und die restlichen Daten darunter einzutragen und alle Umlaute auszuschreiben. Dieser Punkt ist nicht zwingend notwendig, kommt jedoch gut an. Of Three Abolitionists: Frederick Douglass, Lloyd Garrison Brown. Hier beschreiben Sie sich und Ihre Personlichkeit in The Inspirations of Steven Spielberg, zwei bis drei knappen Satzen. The Makeover Centre. Schreiben Sie auf keinen Fall einen Roman. Of Steven Spielberg Essay. Sie haben insgesamt schlie?lich nur eine Seite Platz. Patriarchal. Hier formulieren Sie klar und eindeutig, welchen Job und welche Stelle Sie im Unternehmen anstreben. Da dieser Part dem Karriereziel dient, sollten Sie auch Ihre Motivation herausarbeiten.

Im Deutschen hei?t dieser Punkt Beruflicher Werdegang . Spielberg Essay. Hier geben Sie alle Stationen Ihres Arbeitslebens in of Three Frederick William Lloyd Garrison and John Brown, umgekehrt chronologischer Reihenfolge an. Of Steven Spielberg Essay. Firmenname, Standort, Zeitraum der Anstellung und die genau Position im Unternehmen sollten Sie hier auf jeden Fall erwahnen. Patriarchal. Auf Erfolge sollten Sie ebenfalls kurz (!) hinweisen. Hier folgt Ihr Bildungsweg, ebenfalls in The Inspirations Essay, anti-chronologischer Reihenfolge. Fort- und Weiterbildungen ( Advanced Training ) sollten hier separat - bitte mit der jeweiligen Qualifikation - ebenfalls genannt werden. Frederick Douglass, And John. Dieser Punkt umfasst in The Inspirations of Steven Essay, der Regel Ihre Sprachkenntnisse oder Ihre Fahigkeiten im IT-Bereich. Wenn Sie uber weitere Fahigkeiten und Qualifikationen verfugen, die fur den Job wichtig sind, konnen Sie diese hier ebenfalls eintragen. Wie der deutsche Lebenslauf enthalt auch der amerikanische Lebenslauf einen Hauch Privates: Erwahnen Sie hier aber nur die Interessen, Ehrenamter und Hobbys, die zumindest ansatzweise fur den Job relevant sein konnten und idealerweise Ihre Teamfahigkeit oder Fuhrungsqualitaten herausstreichen. Patriarchal. Sie merken schon: Das alles zusammen kann den Rahmen einer DIN-A4-Seite schnell sprengen.

Deshalb ist die wichtigste Regel fur den amerikanischen Lebenslauf : Reduce to The Inspirations Spielberg, the max - auswahlen, aussortieren, kurzen. Centre. Nur das Wesentlichste hat hier Platz, der Rest fliegt gnadenlos raus. Und: Das Resume wird zwingend und gezielt (also jedes Mal individuell) auf die jeweilige Position zugeschnitten. Of Steven Spielberg Essay. Massenschreiben und kopierte Resumes sind tabu . On The Of Different When. Der Personaler muss das Gefuhl haben, dass der amerikanische Lebenslauf extra fur diesen Job erstellt wurde und sich der Bewerber mit der Stelle auseinandergesetzt hat. Sprache im Resume: Die wichtigsten Begriffe.

Durch seine kompakte Form wirkt das Resume zwangslaufig etwas plakativ und holzschnittartig. The Inspirations Spielberg. Fur ausschweifende Formulierungen und schmuckende Satze ist einfach kein Platz. Essay. Stattdessen werden Sie sich in Essay, den einzelnen Punkten auf Schlagworter und markante Formulierungen konzentrieren mussen. Abolitionists: Frederick Douglass, William Lloyd Brown. Gut so: Denn das wirkt zugleich selbstbewusst, zeugt von Enthusiasmus und Macher-Qualitaten - und genau das suchen amerikanische Personalentscheider auch. Blo? nicht betteln oder bescheiden bleiben. The Inspirations Of Steven. Bei der Jobsuche in Acme, den USA gilt: klotzen, nicht kleckern. The Inspirations Spielberg. Anschreiben - Cover Letter Bewerbung - Job Application Lebenslauf - Resume/Curriculum Vitae Personendaten - Personal Details Karriereziel - Career Objective Personliches Profil - Personal Profile Werdegang - Professional/Work Experience Akademische Bildung - Academic Education Fachausbildung - Professional Training Hobbys/Ehrenamt - Activities/Engagement Referenzen - References Arbeitgeber - Employer Arbeitnehmer - Employee Unternehmen - Company Beschaftigungszeit - Period of Employment. Patriarchal. Naturlich sind auch Rechtschreib- oder Grammitikfehler bei US-Personalern nicht gern gesehen. The Inspirations Of Steven. Wer sich bei seinem Englisch nicht sattelfest fuhlt, sollte daher lieber noch einmal einen Muttersprachler Kontrolle lesen und sein Resume gegebenenfalls korrigieren lassen. And Inductive Essay. Musterbeispiel fur einen Lebenslauf auf Englisch.

Das Muster eines englischen CV konnen Sie sich hier gerne als Orientierungshilfe und als Word-Vorlage kostenlos herunterladen . Spielberg. Dazu einfach auf die Abbildung klicken. Patriarchal Societies. Mehr Ratgeber zur Bewerbung im englischen Ausland: Lesen Sie hier noch mehr Bewerbungstipps Dossiers: Das Beste von uns per Spielberg Essay, Mail - jeden Samstag. Jetzt den Gratis-Newsletter abonnieren: Jochen Mai ist Grunder, Chefredakteur und Geschaftsfuhrer von Karrierebibel.de; Karrierefragen.de und Karrieresprung.de. Patriarchal Societies. Er berat heute Unternehmen bei den Themen Content Strategie, Blog-Aufbau und coacht Redaktionsteams. The Inspirations Spielberg Essay. Uberdies doziert er an Essay der TH Koln uber Social Media Marketing und ist ein gefragter Keynote-Speaker. Zuvor arbeitete der Bestseller-Autor lange Jahre als Social Media Manager, Journalist und Ressortleiter bei der WirtschaftsWoche. Andere Besucher lesen gerade diese Artikel: NETIQUETTE: Hausordnung und Hinweis fur Kommentare. The Inspirations. Bitte haben Sie Verstandnis dafur, dass wir per the makeover centre, Kommentarfunktion keine Einzelfallberatung und auch keine arbeitsrechtliche Beratung leisten konnen. Of Steven Spielberg. Kommentare sollen Artikel (um eigene Erfahrungen) erganzen, (durch eigenes Wissen) erweitern oder korrigieren. Chemistry Experiment On The When To Acid. Fur personliche Fragen nutzen Sie bitte unsere kostenlose Ratgeber-Community Karrierefragen.de . The Inspirations Of Steven. Kommentare, die lediglich Beratungsanfragen darstellen, werden nicht freigeschaltet. Book. Generell begru?en wir inspirierende und konstruktive Diskussionen auf Karrierebibel.de.

Wer kritisiert, darf deshalb naturlich genauso kritisiert werden. The Inspirations Spielberg Essay. Ubertriebene Eigenwerbung (insbesondere plumpe Links und Hinweise auf die eigene Seite), Grobheiten, destruktives Gemecker und Rechthaberei sind dagegen nicht willkommen. Wer nur Norgeln, Andeutungen machen und sein Wissen (wie es womoglich besser geht) fur sich behalten will, ist hier falsch. Acme. Unsere Moderatoren prufen Kommentare entsprechend und loschen diese gegebenenfalls. Of Steven Spielberg. Wer wiederholt gegen diese Regeln versto?t, wird dauerhaft gesperrt. The Makeover. Kurz: Wir mochten durch die Kommentare mehr praktisches Wissen, mehr personliche Erfahrungen, mehr Orientierung und nutzliche Tipps fur alle sammeln - nicht mehr Fragen, Desinformationen oder Blabla. The Inspirations. Unsere Leser sehen das ubrigens genauso .

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Free Information Technology essays. Data Warehouse (DW) is one of the solutions for decision-making process in a business organization. But it only stores data for managerial purpose and The Inspirations of Steven Spielberg Essay, it has no intelligent mechanism for decision making. Centre! This raises the The Inspirations Essay, issue of knowledge storage in Acme Treatments Essay, organization for high capability decision support. The enterprise-wide information delivery systems provided in a DW can be leveraged and extended to The Inspirations of Steven Spielberg create a Knowledge Warehouse (KW). Framework of KW is introduced, which is enhanced form of data warehouse to provide a platform/ infrastructure to capture, refine and store consistent and adequate knowledge along with data to improve decision making in an organization [18]. The primary goal of a KW is to provide decision-maker with an intelligent analysis platform that enhances all phases of the knowledge management process.

KW architecture will not only facilitate the book, capturing and coding of knowledge but also enhance the Spielberg, retrieval and of Different When to Acid, sharing of knowledge across the The Inspirations of Steven Spielberg Essay, organization [5]. Enterprises today rely on a set of automated tools for the makeover, knowledge discovery to gain business insight and intelligence. Many branches of knowledge discovery tools were developed to help todays competitive business markets thrive in the age of information. Main tools for getting information from these vast amounts are automated mining tools. Data Mining (DM) is The Inspirations of Steven Spielberg Essay, defined as the automated process of analyzing large databases, usually data warehouses or internet, to discover new information, hidden patterns, behaviors, hidden traits, and to predict future trends and. forecast possible opportunities. For DM, it uses data stored in data warehouses for analysis. DM directly affects decision-making. [6], where Decision Support Systems (DSS) increasingly become more critical to the daily operation of patriarchal, organizations [19].

Successfully supporting managerial decision-making is critically dependent upon the availability of integrated, high quality information organized and presented in of Steven Spielberg, a timely and easily understood manner [12]. Societies! Corporate DM faces the challenge of systematic knowledge discovery in The Inspirations Essay, large data streams to support managerial decision making, because the Acme Treatments Essay, application of each DM algorithm requires the presence of data in a mathematically feasible format which achieved through Data Pre-Processing (DPP). The Inspirations Spielberg Essay! Therefore the phase of DPP represents a complex prerequisite for DM in the process of Knowledge Discovery in Databases (KDD) aiming to maximize the predictive accuracy of DM [20]. This chapter gives overview of the data mining and knowledge warehouse and patriarchal, has focused a variety of techniques, approaches and different areas of the research which are helpful in data mining and Essay, knowledge discovery applications. 2.2 Distinction among Data ,Information, and Knowledge.

There are three important technical terms in the information technology worlds which are data, information, and knowledge. So in this section, it is important to distinct between these terms by clarifying the meaning of them: In general, data is a value of an observable, measurable or calculable attributes. Experiment On The Reaction Of Different When To Acid! Data consists of the The Inspirations Spielberg, measurement and computerization of daily life. Data can be considered as atoms of knowledge. Data refers to what we attempt to Qualitative and Inductive Approach Essay gather or measure such as size, age, and amount. The Inspirations! Data provides very little explanation about the subject.

In the centre, context of computer systems, we define a data item as the smallest unit of The Inspirations Spielberg Essay, named data, consisting of any number of societies, bits or bytes [10, 21]. It refers to the organized and stored data that can be used for answering a specific question. Information is the aggregation and subsequent reduction of data [21]. When data is The Inspirations of Steven, processed (collected , stored , grouped , analyzed , and interpreted) it becomes information , in another means information is data extracted , filtered , or formatted in Essay, some way such as averages , trends , and percentages [10]. Data by itself has little purpose and meaning but information is data that has meaning and purpose. The Inspirations Of Steven! It really relates to the process of making our data have direct meaning to our business. For example, when we summarize customer sales amounts, and subtract the expenses for serving that customer, we attain profitability numbers. If we do this for each customer and compare them, we can see what customers are most profitable. In this way, we turn data into information [22].

It can refer to the information in Qualitative Essay, use. Knowledge is generated when information is of Steven, combined with context and and Inductive Approach Essay, experience. Knowledge can be thought of Spielberg, as the set of rules and the painted book, relationships that enable values to be added and got skilled performance. The Inspirations Of Steven Spielberg! Knowledge may consist of the work procedures and processes, precedents, details, and conceptual relationships between topics and domains. Knowledge is represented in the form of the makeover, rules.

Knowledge is higher level aggregation and interpretation of information [10,21]. Knowledge is more than an accumulation of facts. It is The Inspirations of Steven Spielberg Essay, also the of Three Frederick Douglass, Lloyd and John Brown, rules and procedures needed to make decisions [1]. Knowledge is a subset of information that has been extracted, filtered or formatted in a very special way. The Inspirations Of Steven Spielberg Essay! More specifically, the information we call knowledge is The Work of Three Major Abolitionists: Frederick William Lloyd, information that has been subjected to and passed tests of validation or has been validated by common experiences [21]. Scientific knowledge is a type of knowledge and it is defined as the information validated by the rules and tests applied to hypotheses and The Inspirations Essay, theories by some scientific community.

It is Acme Treatments, a type of knowledge that depends on The Inspirations of Steven Spielberg, the validation rules and tests of the organization that improve organizational performance [10]. 2.3 Data Pre-Processing (DPP) Data Pre-Processing (DPP) is also known as (data preparation). William Garrison And John! It comprises those techniques concerned with analyzing raw data so as to yield quality data. It mainly includes data collection and integration, data transformation, data cleaning, data reduction, and data discretization [23]. DPP is an important step in the data mining process, because if there is much irrelevant and redundant information or noisy and unreliable data, then knowledge discovery during the analysis and training phase will be. more difficult [24]. DPP is considered as a data mining technique that involves transforming raw data into The Inspirations of Steven Spielberg Essay, an understandable format. Real-world data is often incomplete, inconsistent, and/or lacking in certain behaviors or trends, and centre, is likely to contain many errors.

DPP is a proven method of resolving such issues. It prepares raw data for further processing like data mining. It is used in database-driven applications such as customer relationship management and rule-based applications like neural networks [25]. DPP tasks are distinguished in data reduction, aiming at decreasing the size of the dataset by means of instance selection and/or feature selection, and data projection, altering the representation of the The Inspirations Spielberg, data, e.g. mapping continuous variables to categories or encoding nominal attributes [20]. 2.3.1 Importance of Data Pre-processing (Preparation) for Knowledge Discovery. Over the years, there has been significant advancement in data-mining techniques. Chemistry When Exposed! This advancement has not been matched with similar progress in data pre-processing (preparation).

Therefore, there is now a strong need for new techniques and The Inspirations of Steven Spielberg Essay, automated tools to be designed that can significantly assist us in preparing quality data. Data pre-processing can be more time consuming than data mining, and can present equal, if not more, challenges than data mining [23]. High-performance mining systems require quality data, because quality data yields high-quality patterns. Patriarchal! In order to investigate quality data, it is Spielberg, important to apply data pre-processing. Data pre-processing importance can be included in the following three tasks [23, 15]: 1- Data pre-processing (preparation) generates a dataset smaller than the original one, which can significantly improve the efficiency of data mining. This task includes: ? Selecting relevant data: attribute selection (filtering and wrapper methods), removing anomalies, or eliminating duplicate records. ? Reducing data: sampling or instance selection. 2- Data pre-processing (preparation) generates quality data, which leads to quality patterns (knowledge). For example, we can: ? Recover incomplete data: filling the values missed, or reducing ambiguity. ? Purify data: correcting errors, or removing outliers (unusual or exceptional values).

? Resolve data conflicts: using domain knowledge or expert decision to settle discrepancy. 3- Data pre-processing is used because real-world data may be incomplete, noisy, duplicated and inconsistent, which can disguise useful patterns. Experiment On The When Exposed! This is due to Spielberg Essay the following reasons [23, 13]: ? Incomplete data because of lacking attribute values, lacking certain attributes of interest, or containing only aggregate data. ? Noisy data because of containing errors or outliers. ? Inconsistent data because of containing discrepancies in codes or names. ? Duplicated data because of containing duplicated records (transactions) or attributes with similar names or contents. 2.3.2 Categorizing of Data Pre-Processing Techniques. The techniques that clean and prepare data for processing and mining to gain high quality and accurate knowledge can be categorized into Treatments, the following [14, 8]: Data Cleaning: Data is cleansed through processes such as filling in missing values, smoothing the noisy data, or resolving the inconsistencies in The Inspirations Spielberg Essay, the data [15], which we will explain and apply in chapter three, as shown in figure (2-1). Data Integration: it includes the integrating of several databases and files into one unified file or database as we apply in chapter three.

Data with different representations is patriarchal, put together and conflicts within the data are resolved, as shown in figure (2-1). Data Transformation: Data is normalized, aggregated and generalized. Data Reduction: This step aims to present a reduced representation of The Inspirations, data in a data warehouse which we will study and Qualitative and Inductive Essay, apply in The Inspirations of Steven Essay, chapter three. In many cases, the amount of data is centre, too huge, therefore it is necessary to reduce the utilized data without losing any of its predicting accuracy and of Steven Spielberg Essay, describing ability [26], as shown in Acme, figure (2-1). Data Discretization: Involves the reduction of a number of values of a continuous attribute by dividing the Spielberg, range of attribute intervals. 2.4 Data Cleaning (DC) and Knowledge Warehouse (KW) Data cleaning (DC) tools have the important role in improving the data quality (DQ). There are various data cleaning tools, and these tools functionalities can be classified into the following Declarative data cleaning, and rules based approach for DC (RBDC). Here we explain the RBDC approach.

The RBDC approach uses Business Rules (BR) that are constraints on data contained in business policies into a formal form in order to allow computerization, while the and Inductive Approach, BR is considered a specific part of all domain knowledge (DK). The main challenge in The Inspirations of Steven Spielberg Essay, DK is knowledge discovery, which is usually manually made by human experts (interviews or. questionnaires) or collected from books and references. The Work Of Three Abolitionists: Lloyd Garrison! The first step in the RBDC approach is the collection of knowledge from which the rules are derived, the collected and The Inspirations Essay, organized knowledge is translated to rules [27]. Knowledge like data are collected or issued (derived) from Essay, different sources which may be incomplete, inconsistent, and heterogeneous; therefore, there is a need in managing the quality of knowledge and rules to ensure high data cleaning (DC) quality [27]. The rule base system (RBS) which uses the The Inspirations of Steven, RBDC approach can be an agent of change to improve the data quality.

The objective of RBDC system is to improve the functional capability of a data quality management by embedding it with knowledge of the painted, problem area [27]. The RBDC systems have many advantages which are [27]: 1. Quality improvement. 2. Practical knowledge made applicable: Systems can assist experts in Spielberg, decision making even if they have that knowledge to hand; this improves the the makeover centre, accuracy and timeliness of the decision made. 3. Infallible and complete.

4. Consistency: Results produced by a knowledge system are consistent throughout its operational lifespan. 5. Updating knowledge. 2.5 Knowledge Management (KM) Knowledge Management (KM) is the gathering, retaining and of Steven Spielberg Essay, disseminating of intellectual capital (i.e. Major Frederick Douglass, And John! data, information, and knowledge) to generate a competitive advantage in the market [22]. KM is Essay, a common function in the painted, organizations since it can create, store, retrieve, transfer and reuse knowledge.

Nowadays, knowledge becomes the key resource for its economic strength and it is the Essay, main factor for. organizations to gain competitive advantages. In addition, KM in organizations is achieved as a result of having sufficient factors such as learning organization, knowledge sharing intention, team activity, top management commitment, collaboration and The Work of Three Major Abolitionists: Douglass, William Lloyd and John Brown, quality of knowledge [4]. KM is the practice of adding actionable value to information by capturing tacit knowledge and converting it to explicit knowledge; by filtering, storing, retrieving and disseminating explicit knowledge; and by creating and The Inspirations of Steven Essay, testing new knowledge [19]. Knowledge Management can benefit a corporation in a number of ways, including [22]: Leverage lessons learned to lower expenses. Share information to generate new ideas and increase revenues or decrease expenses. Improve the corporations ability to adapt to societies change and Essay, opportunities in the market. Foster innovation through the sharing of past solutions and collective ideas. There are two types of knowledge: explicit knowledge and tacit (implicit) knowledge:

1. Explicit Knowledge: is the knowledge that can be expressed formally and the makeover, can be easily communicated or spread throughout an organization. Explicit knowledge is categorized into Spielberg, strings of symbols (e.g., words, numbers, and formulas), physical objects (e.g., equipment, documents, and models), rules, routines, or standard operating procedures [5]. 2. Implicit (Tacit) Knowledge: is the knowledge that is uncategorized and difficult to spread. The Makeover Centre! Tacit knowledge is learned through extended periods of experiencing and doing a task. Despite being uncategorized, implicit knowledge can be and is regularly taught and shared [5]. Implicit knowledge includes the beliefs, perspectives, and mental models. It consists of subjective expertise, insights and Spielberg, intuitions that a person develops from having been immersed in an activity or profession for an extended period of time [19]. Implicit knowledge and explicit knowledge are complementary entities. Through four interaction and conversion processes between implicit and explicit knowledge, four modes of new organizational knowledge created.

These processes are (Socialization, Articulation (Externalization), Combination, and Internalization) as shown in figure (2-2) [5]. 1- Socialization (Tacit to Qualitative Essay Tacit Knowledge Sharing): It is the process of Spielberg, sharing a particular form of implicit knowledge with the other forms of implicit knowledge such as experiences, technical skills, and mental models. For example, the manufacturer cannot learn a craft alone but with the assistance of the makeover centre, his master by observing, imitating and Essay, practicing this represent mode of and Inductive, sharing tacit knowledge in the business world [19]. 2- Articulation (tacit to explicit knowledge conversion): It is also called Externalization. It is the The Inspirations, process of converting tacit knowledge to explicit knowledge. It includes specifying the purpose of the decision; for example the number and locations of warehouses must be known and understood to specify supply costs in Treatments, a new marketing area. And also specifying articulating parameters, objective functions, relationships, etc Articulation may also include knowledge extraction in expert systems [19].

DSS can enhance converting the Essay, implicit to explicit knowledge through specifying the mathematical models. In the centre, process of model building, the tacit knowledge is required to explicitly specify the objective of the model, the decision variables, the relative importance of the decision variables and. knowledge also explicitly specifies the model constraints in of Steven Spielberg, terms of the decision variables [5]. This process is done through such exchange mechanisms as conversation and reflection knowledge [4]. 3- Combination (Explicit to New Knowledge Conversion): It is also called Integration. Acme! It is the Spielberg, process of combining several types of explicit knowledge into Qualitative, new patterns and new relations [5]. This mode of knowledge conversion involves the use of The Inspirations Essay, social processes to combine different bodies of explicit knowledge held by individuals, where individuals exchange and combine knowledge through an exchange mechanisms such as meetings and telephone conversations [4]. 4- Internalization (Explicit to Tacit Knowledge Conversion): It is also called understanding, and it is the process of testing and validating the new relationships in the proper context, thereby converting them into new tacit knowledge [5].

This process bears some similarity to societies the traditional notion of learning and will be referred to here as internalization [4]. 2.6 Knowledge Base Management System (KBMS) The concept of Knowledge Base Management System (KBMS) is Spielberg, analogues of Data Base Management System (DBMS) and the concept of Knowledge Warehouse (KW) is analogues of Data Warehouse (DW). The primary component of the KW architecture is a KBMS that integrates the knowledge base, model base, and analysis tasks. It is implemented in an object-oriented environment. It is not only to Treatments manage data, but also all of the objects, object models, process models, case models, object interaction models, and dynamic models used to The Inspirations Spielberg Essay process the knowledge and to patriarchal interpret it to produce the knowledge base [5]. 2.7 Data Base Management System (DBMS) in of Steven Spielberg, Contrast with Knowledge Base Management System (KBMS): There are many different definitions of Data Base Management System (DBMS), where according to Patrick ONeill, it is defined as a program product for keeping computerized records about an enterprise., and according to Rumbaugh, Blaha, Premerlani, Eddy, and Lorensen, it is defined as a computer program for patriarchal, managing a permanent, self-descriptive repository of data., Combining various aspects of these definitions, it is a computer program for The Inspirations of Steven Spielberg, managing data repository or Data Base (DB). A specific DBMS programming application is Experiment on the Reaction When to Acid, produced by using a DBMS_template such as (oracle, DB2, etc.) to create, maintain, and enhance it which will be a concrete product of using a particular template or tool for producing an actual database management application [10]. In moving to Knowledge Base Management System (KBMS), it is Spielberg, defined as a computer application for managing (creating, enhancing, and maintaining) the Artificial Knowledge Base (AKB) which is Knowledge Base (KB) itself. Just like DBMS which is a computer application for.

managing a DB. Experiment Of Different When! KBMS is both the of Steven Spielberg, Artificial Knowledge Management System (AKMS) and knowledge warehousing system, and unlike DBMS there are no analogues tools to DBMS templates available for developing AKMSs. Since KBMS is the AKMS, then the the makeover centre, standard the The Inspirations of Steven, AKMS Company is developing for AKMS is also considered the KBMS standard and any software tools developed on the basis of the standard will be KBMS tools as well as AKMS tools [10]. 2.8 The Knowledge Management Process Model. The process model associated with knowledge management consists of the following well-defined activities that are explained below in detail and the painted book, are represented in figure (2-3) [28]: 1- Knowledge Acquisition.

During knowledge acquisition, the Knowledge Engineering captures knowledge from domain experts through interviews, case histories, and other techniques. This knowledge can be represented as rules and The Inspirations Spielberg Essay, heuristics for. expert systems. This activity helps to ensure the quality of the data and patriarchal, information used by knowledge workers [28]. 2- Knowledge Refinement. This activity assists in the refinement of data and information into knowledge. During knowledge refinement the information contained in multiple repositories under multiple heterogeneous is The Inspirations, classified and indexed, and metadata is created in terms of domain concepts, relationships and events. In addition, the domain context and domain usage constraints are specified. Data mining and data analysis techniques can be applied to discover patterns in the data, to detect outliers [28].

3- Knowledge Storage and Retrieval. This activity allows the efficient storage and retrieval of metadata and knowledge. The refined data, metadata and knowledge are indexed and societies, stored for fast retrieval using multiple criteria, for example, by concept, by keyword, by author, by event type, and by location. Additional summary knowledge may be also added. Access controls and Essay, security policies should be put in the makeover, place to protect the knowledge base and the intellectual property it contains [28]. 4- Knowledge Distribution.

Knowledge can be distributed in many ways, as for example, a corporate knowledge portal. Electronic messaging may also be used to of Steven distribute knowledge in the form of attachments of documents, presentations, etc. Another approach is to have active subscription services whereby agents inform users of the makeover centre, relevant information in Essay, e-mail messages with hyperlinks to knowledge in the repository [28]. 5- Knowledge Presentation. The knowledge portal may handle knowledge presentation, and the interface may be tailored to and Inductive Approach Essay the needs and of Steven Essay, preferences of each individual user. The portal should support user collaboration so as to combine tacit knowledge with explicit knowledge for problem solving [28]. 2.9 Knowledge Component. Knowledge Component (KC) is a description of a mental structure or process that a learner uses, alone or in combination with other knowledge components to accomplish steps in a task or a problem.

A KC is a generalization of the painted bird, everyday terms like concept, principle, fact, or skill, and The Inspirations Essay, cognitive science terms like schemas, production rule, misconception, or facet (appearance). KC is either explicit or implicit, when we say a student has a knowledge component, it might mean the student can describe it in the painted, words (e.g., Vertical angles are congruent) or it might simply mean that the The Inspirations of Steven, student behaves as described by the knowledge component, this is called explicit knowledge component, like a fact or principle. On the other hand when we say that the student has the knowledge component If angle A and B are vertical angles and angle A is X degrees, then angle B is X degrees means the student will behave in agreement with it although they might not be able to state the rule, this is called implicit knowledge component, like a skill. A KC relates features to a response where both the features and responses can be either external, in the world, like cues in the painted bird book, a stimulus and a motor response or internal, in the mind, like inferred features and The Inspirations of Steven Spielberg, a new goal. KCs are correct or in correct, they are correct when all of the features are relevant to making the response and patriarchal, none of them are irrelevant. They are incorrect when they include irrelative features for example, in geometry, the The Inspirations of Steven Spielberg, knowledge component if angles look equal, then conclude they are equal is incorrect because it includes an irrelevant feature. angles look equal and is missing a relevant feature like the angles are at the base of an of Three Major Frederick Lloyd and John, isosceles triangle [29]. 2.9.1 Types of Spielberg Essay, knowledge Components [29] 1- Domain knowledge.

Facts, concepts, principles, rules, procedures, strategies. 2- Prerequisite knowledge. Feature encoding knowledge. 3- Integrative knowledge. Schemas or procedures that connect other KCs.

4- Meta cognitive knowledge. About knowledge, controlling use or acquisition of knowledge. 5- Beliefs interests. What one likes, believes. 2.9.2 Knowledge Object: Almost all subject matter content can be represented as entities (things), actions (procedures that can be performed by a student on, to, or with entities or their parts, processes (events that occur often as a result of some action), and patriarchal, properties (qualitative or quantitative descriptors for entities, actions, or processes). The knowledge that required to learn about entities, actions, or processes can be represented by a collection of knowledge components which we call a knowledge object. A knowledge object is a framework consisting of containers for different kinds of specific information (the knowledge components). Each knowledge component is a container for a specific kind of information about the The Inspirations of Steven Spielberg Essay, subject matter being taught. This knowledge framework is the same for wide variety of different topics within a subject matter or for book, knowledge in Spielberg, different subject matter.

domains. Knowledge objects include knowledge components that are: (a) name, describes, or illustrate some entity; (b) name, describe, or illustrate the parts of an entity; (c) identify properties of an entity, part, action, or process; (d) identify actions associated with the Acme Treatments Essay, entity; (e) identify processes that modify the entity; and (f) identify kinds of entities, actions, or processes. Table (2-1) identifies each of these knowledge components [30]. Process trigger Process: Condition (value of property) Consequence (property value changed)

Process trigger Kind: Definition (list of property value) 2.10 Knowledge Quality. There are many definitions of quality, such as fitness for use, fitness for The Inspirations, purpose as defined by ISO (2000), and conformance to requirements as defined by Crosby (1979). The international definition of a Knowledge quality is the quality of design and quality of the process; it is perception of the value of the suppliers work output as defined by Deming (1940). Acme Essay! Knowledge quality is the The Inspirations Spielberg, important factor for knowledge management process because knowledge quality can be useful such as solving problem, decision support in work and innovation knowledge. Major Frederick Douglass, Lloyd Garrison And John Brown! Knowledge management performance can measure by knowledge quality [4].

There are eight critical dimensions or categories of quality that can serve as a framework for strategic analysis which are proposed by Garvin (1987) [4]: 1- Performance: refers to a products primary operating characteristics. 2- Features: are usually the secondary aspects of Spielberg, performance, those characteristics that supplement their basic functioning. 3- Reliability: this dimension reflects the probability of a product failing within a specified time period. 4- Conformance: is the degree to which a products design and operating characteristics meet established standards. 5- Durability: a measure of Chemistry Experiment of Different Metals to Acid, product life, durability has both economic and technical dimensions. 6- Serviceability: is the speed, courtesy, competence, and ease of Essay, repair. Societies! Consumers are concerned not only about a product breaking down but also about the time before service is restored, the timeliness with which service appointments are kept, the nature of dealings with service personnel, and the frequency with which service calls or repairs fail to correct outstanding problems. 7- Aesthetics: is a subjective dimension of quality.

It demonstrates how a product looks, feels, sounds, tastes, or smells. It is a matter of personal judgment and a reflection of individual preference. On this dimension of quality it may be difficult to please everyone. 8- Perceived (recognized) quality: consumers do not always have complete information about a products or services attributes; indirect measures may be their only basis for comparing brands. A products durability for example can seldom be observed directly; it must be concluded from various touchable and The Inspirations of Steven Spielberg, untouchable aspects of the product. 2.11 Knowledge Warehouse. Knowledge Warehouse (KW) can be thought of as an information repository. It consists of knowledge components (KCs) that are defined as the patriarchal, smallest level in The Inspirations of Steven Spielberg, which knowledge can be decomposed.

KCs are cataloged and stored in the knowledge warehouse for on the Reaction of Different Exposed to Acid, reuse by reporting, documentation, execution the knowledge or query and reassembling which are accomplished and organized by instructional designers or technical writers. The idea of KW is The Inspirations Spielberg, similar to that of Data Warehouse (DW). Like DW, the KW also provides answers for ad-hoc queries, and the knowledge in the makeover centre, the knowledge warehouse can reside in several physical places, and it may be viewed as subject oriented, integrated, time-variant, and supportive of managements decision making processes. But unlike DW, it is a combination of volatile and of Steven, nonvolatile objects and Reaction of Different Metals Exposed to Acid, components, and, of course, it stores not only data, but also information and knowledge [10, 21]. A KW is the component of an enterprises knowledge management system. It is the technology to organize and store knowledge. It also has logical structures like computer programs and databases to store knowledge that are analogous to the system of tables that implement data storage in the DW [1]. The primary goal of KW is to provide the knowledge worker with an intelligent analysis platform that enhances all phases of the knowledge management process [5, 19].

The KW can also evolve over time by enhancing the The Inspirations of Steven Essay, knowledge it contains [5]. It provides the infrastructure needed to capture, cleanse, store, organize, leverage, and disseminate not only data and information but also knowledge [18]. 2.12 Knowledge Discovery Process. Knowledge discovery in databases (KDD) is a rapidly growing field, whose development is driven by strong research interests as well as urgent practical, social, and economical needs. The term KDD is used to denote the on the of Different Exposed to Acid, overall process of turning low-level data into high-level knowledge. A simple definition of KDD is as follows: Knowledge discovery in of Steven Spielberg Essay, databases is the nontrivial process of identifying valid, novel, potentially useful, and ultimately understandable patterns in data [31]. Knowledge Discovery has also been defined as the non-trivial extraction of Experiment on the When Exposed to Acid, implicit, previously unknown and potentially useful information from data. It is a process of which data mining plays an important role to extract knowledge from huge database or data warehouse [32].

Data mining is the The Inspirations Essay, core part of the KDD process as shown in the figure (2-4). Figure (2-4): The typical knowledge discovery process [32] The KDD process may consist of the following steps: 1) data integration, 2) data selection and data pre-processing as it has been explained in (section 2.3); 3) data mining as it will be explained in (section 2.13); 4) interpretation assimilation. Data comes in, possibly from many sources. The Makeover! It.

is integrated and placed in some common data stores. Part of the The Inspirations Spielberg, data in the data stores is then selected and pre-processed into a standard format. This prepared data is then passed to a data mining algorithm which produces an output in book, the form of rules or some other kind of patterns. These are then interpreted to The Inspirations Essay give new and potentially useful knowledge. Although the data mining algorithms are central to knowledge discovery, they are not the the makeover centre, whole story. The pre-processing of the data and the interpretation of the results are both of great importance [32]. 2.13 Data Mining Technique. Data mining (DM) is The Inspirations of Steven Spielberg Essay, one of the important techniques that are used to discover required knowledge for intended enterprise. Data mining derives its name from the the painted, similarities between searching for valuable information in a large database and mining rocks for The Inspirations Essay, a vein of valuable ore.

Since mining for gold in Experiment Reaction When, rocks is usually called gold mining and not rock mining, thus by The Inspirations of Steven Spielberg, analogy, data mining should have been called knowledge mining instead [33]. Data mining is the Approach Essay, knowledge discovery process by analyzing the large volumes of data from various perspectives and summarizing it into useful information [17]. Data mining is the process of discovering interesting knowledge, such as patterns, associations, changes, anomalies, models, and significant structures from large amount of data stored in databases, data warehouse, or other information repositories [31, 34]. The goal of data mining is to allow a corporation to improve its marketing, sales, and customer support operations through a better understanding of its customers. Data mining, transforms data into actionable results [7].Other similar terms referring to data mining are: data dredging, knowledge extraction and pattern discovery [33].

In order to apply data. mining technique, there are several processes must be performed which are shown in figure (2-5) [12]. 2.13.1 Data Mining Tasks [34] Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Information Technology essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on Spielberg Essay, hand, waiting to Essay help you.

Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to The Inspirations of Steven your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Information Technology work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Information Technology essay was submitted to us by a student in and Inductive, order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows:

Essay UK, Data Warehouse for decision making . The Inspirations Essay! Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/essays/information-technology/data-warehouse-decision-making/ [03-10-17]. If you are the original author of this content and the makeover, no longer wish to have it published on our website then please click on the link below to request removal: 10-05-17 - Image processing 09-05-17 - Integration of of Steven Spielberg Essay, Cloud and Abolitionists:, Internet of Things 03-05-17 - Mobile ad-hoc network 02-05-17 - Technology used in hospitality industry 01-05-17 - The Personal Software ProcessSM (PSPSM) 21-04-17 - Software quality 20-04-17 - Data Warehouse for decision making 19-04-17 - Enhancing food security via a web based system 17-04-17 - Frame relay technology 15-04-17 - Competition and Innovation: A Comparative Study of Telecommunications and Insurance (WIP) We offer professional custom essay writing, dissertation writing and coursework writing service. Our work is high quality, plagiarism-free and delivered on time. Essay UK is a trading name of Student Academic Services Limited , a company registered in England and Wales under Company Number 08866484 .

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Free Resume Guide 2017 with Amazing Tips and Examples. Searching for a new job is one of the The Inspirations hardest things you’ll have to do in your career and it’s no easier this year. It is also the most important. That’s why we decided to bird create our Free Resume Guide 2017 with tips, examples and The Inspirations of Steven Spielberg Essay all the centre information you need to of Steven create the perfect resume or CV. The right job is one of three things that contribute most to your happiness in life. Which is why you need to the makeover do it right. Besides you, your resume is your most important tool in of Steven Spielberg a job search. It is your first impression with employers. It is the difference between an interview for your dream job or the recycle bin. A great resume makes searching for Qualitative and Inductive Approach, a job easy, while an ineffective resume will leave you with nothing to show from hundreds of applications.

Applying to a job without a good resume guide is a waste of of Steven Spielberg Essay time and can add months (or even years) to your job search, leaving you frustrated and demotivated. Major Abolitionists: Frederick Douglass, Garrison And John Brown! The following is a guide to creating a stand-out resume that gets you hired. Let’s start with the The Inspirations of Steven Spielberg basics. A resume is The Work Major Abolitionists: Brown your professional highlight reel - presented in an easily understood and standardized format. Your resume needs to solve a problem for employers (which is why theyre hiring). It is your most important tool to landing an interview, and of Steven Essay ultimately a job. There are three standard resume layout types. Chronological: Focuses on work experience in reverse chronological order. Functional: Focuses on skills and experience, and not chronological work history. The Work Of Three William And John Brown! Used by people with gaps in employment or are changing careers. The Inspirations! Combination: Enables you to highlight the Reaction of Different Metals When skills and The Inspirations of Steven Spielberg experiences that are relevant, while still showing work history in the format that employers prefer.

Which type of resume layout is best depends on Treatments Essay, the situation. Of Steven Spielberg! For each job application, choose the layout that best represents you in the context of the The Work Major Abolitionists: Garrison job you’re applying for. Long gone are the days when recruiters and employers sit in uninterrupted silence and carefully read multi-page resumes from cover to The Inspirations cover. And Inductive Essay! Nowadays, interruptions and distractions are the norm, and The Inspirations Spielberg recruiters' time is increasingly crunched. 90% of large corporations use Applicant Tracking Software that to manage their recruiting process, which means you need to get through an and Inductive Essay, automatic screen before your resume is even seen by an employer. Spielberg! If you make it past that step, studies have shown that recruiters spend 6 seconds on Qualitative Approach Essay, average reviewing a resume. Studies show that recruiters spend on average 6 seconds looking at a resume. They need to quickly pull out of Steven, key facts, and make a split second decision that could decide your future. We think there are two key resume guidelines you need to keep in bird mind when building your resume. Does your resume pass the 6-second test? Once it does, you still need to Spielberg Essay hold their attention to make it to Frederick Douglass, Lloyd the next steps.

Your resume needs to be sharply focused, compelling, and Spielberg Essay entirely relevant. What is an applicant tracking system? An applicant tracking system (ATS), is centre software that organizations use to manage their recruitment process. Vendors include Taleo, The Resumator, Smart Recruiters, and many more. Most applicant tracking software uses a process called resume parsing, which extracts your resume data into a format readable by of Steven, the software.

Resume parsing pulls your contact information, work history, and The Work of Three Lloyd Brown skills from the resume. When a recruiter is searching within their applicant tracking system for a candidate, those that best fit the keywords of the job description will show up first in the search results based on the parsed resume data. This is why thinking about of Steven Essay, these guidelines is important in optimizing your resume for each application. If you’re unsure about your career objective or haven’t quite settled on Acme Treatments, a goal, you’ll find that writing a powerful and Essay effective resume is extremely difficult. Remember, your resume must present just the The Work of Three Frederick Douglass, and John right mix of meaningful information relevant to Spielberg Essay your goal. Without a goal, you don’t know what information to include, what skills or successes to Treatments Essay highlight, and what details to omit. You’re forced to The Inspirations of Steven Essay include everything, and the end result is usually a resume that does not capture interest because it’s not focused.

Have a clear goal before writing your resume. Patriarchal! Employers want to know what you want to do ; it’s not their job to figure that out. Take the time to define a goal (or multiple goals) before writing your resume. See our How to Spielberg Essay get a better Job for more exercises and resources for deciding what you want from your career. Once have a clear goal for your resume, move on to the next step. In the context of your resume, “who you are” usually refers to a job title.

Are you a Software Engineer? Corporate Finance Executive? Customer Service Representative? Be sure to include this critical information right up front, as a headline or in centre the first sentence of your introduction. Your goal is to immediately communicate to employers the essential information that creates the context for everything else they will read in of Steven your resume. For example, if you define yourself as a “Sales Professional,” employers will be looking for key qualifications such as sales results, communication skills, relationship-building abilities, territory management experience, and so forth.

If you define yourself as an “Accountant,” they’ll be looking for something entirely different accounting and finance experience, knowledge of patriarchal accounting software, attention to detail, and strong analytical skills. By defining yourself up front, you establish expectations and help readers better appreciate and absorb the information that follows. Paint the picture of an ideal candidate. Study the job description and decipher what problems the employer wants solved. Employers dont care about you. They care about solving their problems. The Inspirations Of Steven Spielberg Essay! This is the patriarchal only reason why they are posting a job. Get into The Inspirations Spielberg Essay, their heads, and try to understand their pain. Why are they posting this job?

Who is the ideal candidate for the job? Which skills does the ideal applicant have? Write down a brief description of the ideal applicant in the third person, all the way down to what theyre wearing. This will help you decide how to represent yourself when creating your resume. Having defined your “ideal self,” consider what information you can place “front and center” on your resume to Chemistry on the of Different When Exposed support your claim. What credentials, qualifications, experiences, knowledge, and The Inspirations of Steven Spielberg accomplishments do you possess that will prove you are, in fact, an the makeover centre, effective Marketing Management Professional? Your goal is to create a “snapshot,” a capsule portrait that conveys the most essential information to your readers.

In essence, you want to quickly portray that you are an Spielberg Essay, ideal candidate for the types of jobs you are pursuing. In your job search, you will need to create a distinct resume for each job application . This enables you do do the following: Tailor each resume to suit the job description Optimize your resume keywords for applicant tracking systems Choose a distinct style to suit the the painted book company. To make this easy, start by building a Master Resume to work from. This will be an ever-evolving resume that contains all your work history, accomplishments, and of Steven skills that you can tailor for Major Abolitionists: Frederick Brown, each application. Let’s start building a Master Resume.

The following section will outline the key components of of Steven a resume, and provide examples, tips and best practices for writing these components. Your resume should first include the most important information - Your name! Your name should be the largest text on the page. The header also includes basic contact details and links to other relevant online profiles. For a European CV, the header will also include a professional profile picture. Do not include a picture for a traditional North American application. Approach! For a web based North American resume, a picture is acceptable. An objective statement is no longer acceptable on your resume summary or resume introduction.

Employers know your objective is to get the The Inspirations of Steven Spielberg Essay job. Instead, you have two options. Write a summary or introduction that highlights your most valuable accomplishments and skills. Do not include a summary or introduction. The introduction goes after the header information, and should serve the following purposes: Highlights your the most valuable aspects of your resume Draws the reader in, and encourages them to read more.

Bad example: Experienced professional seeking employment in the financial services sector. Good example: Experienced financial planner who has consistently generated above market returns for clients. Thrives in the makeover a team-oriented and high pressure environment. Bad example: Passionate marketing manager and Spielberg creative problem solver who loves to work with great people. Good example: Results-driven marketing professional with over 10 years experience working with blue-chip clients including Nestle, Google, and Intel. Remember, the introduction is Treatments not a necessary element. If you’re going to Spielberg Essay use it, do so wisely.

No introduction is better than a poor one. The most valuable section of your resume is the Qualitative and Inductive Approach work experience section. It is The Inspirations Spielberg Essay usually the most important factor in getting a job. Highly relevant experience in a field is the first thing employers look for. Centre! Even for entry level jobs employers want to Spielberg see relevant experience. Most commonly, work experience is displayed in reverse chronological order, with your most recent job first. If you do have a highly relevant position, there is no rule against re-ordering your work history to put the most relevant job first. Each work history entry should include: Employer Name Dates of Employment Job Titles Job Descriptions Accomplishments.

The most crucial aspect of your career history is to write accomplishments, not history. Your job title and regular duties don’t matter - what matters is your most impressive achievements in bird those positions. Ensure your accomplishments are compelling. Accomplishments are best written in of Steven Spielberg bullet-point format, underneath each job title held. Resume Example Accomplishment Statements. Bad example: Promoted to senior account manager with full responsibility for the companys #1 client.

Good example: Promoted to the painted senior account manager to manage #1 client, growing the of Steven business from Qualitative, $3 million to $6 million in 2 years. Bad example: Completed all projects under time and under budget. Good example: Averaged 7% under budget while completing 100% of projects on schedule, 65% ahead of schedule. Bad example: Managed a portfolio for blue-chip clients that generated high returns. Good example: Responsible for $5 million in assets for high net worth clients that generated a return of over 12% in 2013. Good example: Increased referral rates by Essay, 15% and Acme maintained a customer satisfaction rate of over 95%. Writing effective Resume Accomplishment Statements. The following section is a series of questions designed to help you quantify your performance in a position to write better accomplishment statements.

Spend an hour answering these questions in The Inspirations of Steven Spielberg relation to each job you’ve held. This will give you “ammunition” to work with when writing your resume. Questions to quantify performance. Did you make money for the company? Did you increase market share? Did you improve your ranking in comparison to other departments, branches, or competitors? Did you suggest any ways to cut costs in your team, department, unit, branch, or company? Did you regularly meet all your deadlines?

Did you improve the efficiency of your job, team, or department? How did your performance compare to on the When Exposed prior years? How did you rank against the competition? How did you rank against industry averages? What were your performance goals? Did you meet them? Exceed them? How did you contribute to the bottom line? Questions to reveal success factors: What are you most proud of?

What did supervisors compliment you for? What do your performance evaluations say? What are you known for? What do you do that others can’t or don’t do? What would “fall apart” or “slide downhill” if you weren’t at your job for a week? What do you have “bragging rights” about?

Where you the first, best or most effective in any particular function or organization? Questions to create strong introductory statements. What is the The Inspirations of Steven most important thing I accomplished in that job? What was I initially hired to do? Did I do it? What major challenge was I presented with? Or what major challenge did my company or industry face, and how did I surmount that challenge? What happened to Acme my company or department as a result of my effort in that job? These are helpful verbs to The Inspirations Essay use when writing your accomplishment statements. Centre! Always start your accomplishments with a verb. The majority of your resume writing time should be spent writing compelling accomplishment statements.

Pro tips for writing accomplishments. Focus on performance and results. Use specific examples with real numbers. The Inspirations Of Steven Spielberg! Use Power words (not passive ones). The education section contains some or all of the following: Name of School Degree Earned Major Course(s) of Study Academic Distinctions Extracurricular and Leadership Activities Training and Certification Additional Professional Development.

Keys for the education section: The more senior your career, the fewer education details to the painted book include. Of Steven Essay! For younger professionals, add in patriarchal distinguishing information such as achievements or leadership roles. Dont let your education shadow your experience, and The Inspirations Spielberg never inflate your credentials. You should have a listing of your skills on your resume, that includes your level of Reaction of Different When Exposed to Acid competency of each skill. Skills are extremely important to match with the job description - its what employers are looking to hire. Extras are additional facts and information that don’t fit into one of the previous categories but might be important to include, such as:

Professional Affiliations and Industry Leadership Presentations and Publications Language Proficiencies Technical Competencies Community Activities and Leadership Positions Personal Interests. As you are gathering the material for your resume, organize it into these rough groups; but keep in mind that you don’t have to follow a strict formula! You can create new sections, add in unusual information, or come up with creative ways to present your qualifications. The Inspirations Essay! The purpose of the The Work of Three Frederick Douglass, and John resume is to tell your story and describe your capabilities in The Inspirations Spielberg the way that is most beneficial to bird you and meaningful to employers. The number one question to ask: How is your resume solving an employer’s problem? Which resume design should you use?

It depends. Use your judgement to of Steven Spielberg Essay decide which resume design best suits the job you’re applying for. For a creative job, a more creative resume is recommended. For an accounting job? Use a more classic design. Once you’ve written the right content, pick a design that best shows off your unique capabilities and fits the position you’re seeking.

Having multiple version of your resume is essential for a successful job search. Here are the versions you should have: A online resume (web based). A master resume with lots of detail. A custom resume for Qualitative and Inductive Essay, each job application. How long should my resume be? The standard North American Resume is 1-2 pages in length. A more detailed academic CV can be much longer. However, don’t try to cram your resume into a shorter version just because of conventions. The Inspirations Spielberg Essay! A well-laid out, efficient resume will perform better than a crammed 1 page resume. Do I need a picture on my resume?

In North America, no. In fact, having a picture on Essay, your resume could limit your chances of landing an interview. For a web based resume, a picture is The Inspirations of Steven fine. However if you’re applying in a traditional way, create a version of your resume that does not include a picture. Do I need an and Inductive Approach, objective on The Inspirations Spielberg Essay, my resume?

No! Your objective is to get the job. Employers know that! Replace the objective with a summary of your skills and experience. Should I include references? No. As a general rule, including references (or “references available upon request” is redundant. Keep your limited space for Treatments, selling yourself. What format should I submit my application in? PDF is your best option for The Inspirations Spielberg Essay, submitting a resume to Treatments an employer or an ATS.

You won’t risk losing formatting from a Word Document, and Essay it gives you the most control. Should I customize my resume for each application? Yes. Studies show that tailoring your resume for a specific position is much more effective than sending a generic application. It takes extra time, but is worth the effort. Do you have resume guides for specific applications.

For example a resume guide for teachers, it, architects, students, nursing, freshers, internships, designers, engineering, tour guide or no experience? *No. However, we do have an Essay, amazing resume samples directory with resume samples for every occupation or situation. Check it out here. Step by step, section by section, you’ve built your resume. Congratulations!

Now it’s time to The Inspirations of Steven Essay get that dream job. We’ve got just the guide for you. Looking for Qualitative Approach, an easy way to create a multiple targeted resumes and track the The Inspirations Essay results? We’d love for you to give VisualCV a try. Make your next career move with confidence.

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