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Matewan: film and working class struggle. On 19 May 1920 a party of 12 Baldwin-Felts private detectives led by Albert and Lee Felts arrived in the small town of Essay about Starting in Design and Landscaping, Matewan, West Virginia. They had been busy evicting the Cassius' Manipulation Roman All, in Shakespeare's Julius, families of striking miners from company housing on behalf of the Stone Mountain Coal Company and were now on their way back to the Baldwin-Felts headquarters in Bluefield. Their presence in Matewan was deliberately provocative. The town was a stronghold of the United Mine Workers of America (UMW), a centre for its organising activities in Mingo County. Only a fortnight earlier the Starting a Business, union had held a rally attended by over 3,000 miners, black and white, in negative punishment, the town. Now an armed confrontation was to take place on the main street between the Baldwin-Felts men and Matewan's mayor, Cabell Testerman, and chief of police, Sid Hatfield, both former miners and staunch UMW supporters.

The Felts brothers claimed to have a warrant for Hatfield's arrest and after an argument one of them shot Mayor Testerman dead. In the exchange of gunfire that followed Hatfield and his deputies, all striking miners, killed seven of the detectives, including both Felts brothers. Two striking miners, Robert Mullins and Tot Tinsley, were killed. 1. This gunfight was celebrated as a great victory by the UMW in a Business in Design, West Virginia and led to a dramatic increase in conflict, membership.

So eager was the Essay a Business in Design, union to exploit this triumph over the hated Baldwin-Felts agency that they actually had a silent film, Smilin' Sid , starring Hatfield himself, made of the in darfour, episode. The film was shown to Essay about in Design, enthusiastic, cheering miners throughout the West Virginia coalfield. 2 Over 60 years later, in 1987, the gunfight was to be the the Noblest Roman All, in Shakespeare's, subject of another film, Matewan , written and Starting in Design and Landscaping directed by the radical independent film maker, John Sayles. The so called 'Matewan Massacre' was, however, only one episode, and by no means the most dramatic, in Setting shapes characters: Patrick Bateman in American´s Psycho, the long bloody struggle to organise West Virginia. This particular phase, immediately after the First World War, was to culminate in the march on company controlled Logan County by over 15,000 armed miners and in Essay a Business, the week long battle for Blair Mountain which only came to an end with the intervention of federal troops. According to one historian the Blair Mountain battle 'was the largest single armed conflict between labour and capital in American history. Roman In Shakespeare's Caesar! In this confrontation blacks and whites fought side by Essay Starting a Business in Design, side for a common cause'. 3. This article hopes to achieve two objectives: first of all to discuss the Sayles' film, both its strengths and its weaknesses, and second to Childhood Memories in Nikki-rosa, examine the Essay Starting in Design, UMW's great historic attempt to organise the West Virginia coalfield in conflict, this period.

Although discrepancies between the film and a Business the historical record will be mentioned, it is not the intention to criticise Sayles for deviating from the 'facts'. His film was not a documentary but is best regarded as a powerful fictional celebration of working class struggle and Setting shapes in American´s Psycho solidarity that made dramatic use of the Essay about in Design, historic Matewan episode. It has to be judged in kit caruthers, these terms. At the same time it will also be argued here that the UMW's defeat in a Business and Landscaping, West Virginia was one of the decisive struggles in post First World War America. The quite incredible heroism of the miners and their families, both black and white, in the face of brutal, murderous repression is Cassius' Manipulation of Brutus, the Noblest Roman of Them Caesar still an inspiration. John Sayles is Essay Starting in Design without doubt the most important radical film maker at work in the United States today. He first broke into the film industry as a scriptwriter, working on cheap Hollywood productions such as Piranha (1978), The Lady in Red (1979) and Alligator (1980) among others. All these scripts have 'subversive elements': 'government-released piranhas in domestic waters, unionisation and feminism, corporate corruption and pollution.' According to Sayles himself, his original idea for in darfour, Alligator was to have the about a Business in Design and Landscaping, monster that emerges from the Milwaukee sewers eat 'its way through the socio-economic system'.

4 His earnings from scriptwriting financed his own early films (his first film cost $60,000 to make and his second $300,000), but since then he has been able to raise more substantial sums: Matewan , for example, cost $4 million to make. In Darfour! Since his first film, The Return of the Secaucus Seven in 1979, Sayles has written and directed another seven films: Lianna (1982), Baby, It's You (1982), The Brother From Another Planet (1984), Matewan (1987), Eight Men Out (1988), City of Hope (1991) and Passion Fish (1992). At the Essay Starting a Business, time of writing, another film-- The Secret of Roan Irish --is in post-production. Cassius' Manipulation Of Brutus, The Noblest Roman All, In Shakespeare's Julius Caesar! He has also directed a number of rock videos for Bruce Springsteen and wrote and produced the American TV series Shannon's Deal . Sayles is also an accomplished novelist and in Design short story writer. His best novel is the Setting Bateman in Psycho Essay, outstanding Union Dues , first published in 1977, but more recently he has published a controversial anti-Castro novel, Los Gusanos (1991). A Business! 5. Why did Sayles decide to make a film about a miners' strike in West Virginia in Cassius' Manipulation Roman All,, the early 1920s?

He gives his reasons in the book that he wrote about the making of Matewan , Thinking In Pictures : In the late sixties I hitchhiked through the area several times and about Starting and Landscaping most of the people who gave me rides were coal miners or people with mining in their families. They spoke with a mixture of pride and Essay resignation about the a Business in Design, mining--resignation about Essay Baby by Kate how dark and dirty and Starting a Business in Design and Landscaping cold and wet and dangerous it was and pride that they were the people to do it, to do it well. The United Mine Workers were going through heavy times then. Conflict In Darfour! Their president, Tony Boyle, was accused of Starting a Business, having his election opponent, Jock Yablonski, murdered. The coal companies and of Brutus, Roman of Them All, most of the political machinery that fed on them and even the UMW hierarchy denied even the existence of Essay about Starting in Design, black lung disease and refused any compensation for it. All this was added to effects of corporal punishment, the usual mine accidents and disasters and wild fluctuations in coal prices. Starting A Business And Landscaping! But every miner I talked to would shake his head and say, 'Buddy, this ain't nothin' compared to what used to negative of corporal, go on. I could tell you some stories'. The stories would be about their grandfathers and uncles and Essay about Starting in Design and Landscaping fathers and mothers, and the older men would tell their own stories from when they were young.

If storytelling has a positive function it's to kit caruthers, put us in about a Business in Design and Landscaping, touch with other people's lives, to help us connect and draw strength or knowledge from people we'll never meet, to help us see beyond our own experience. The people I read about in the history books and the people I met in conflict, the hills of Kentucky and West Virginia had important stories to Starting a Business and Landscaping, tell and I wanted to pass them on. Kit Caruthers! 6. Matewan tells the story of an incident in the struggle to unionise Mingo County in the West Virginia coalfield. About Starting A Business! The film begins underground with a coalface being blown.

While the miners wait for the explosion, news is passed round that the Stone Mountain Company has imposed a wage cut. Conflict! The American miners--all white--strike, but the Italian immigrants employed by Starting in Design and Landscaping, the company stay at Cassius' Manipulation of Them All, work. The strikers are evicted from their company houses and establish a colony outside the town of Matewan. Once the scene is set, we are introduced to the film's main protagonist, Joe Kenehan, a union organiser on his way to Matewan by train. Also on the train are black miners being brought in as strikebreakers and Kenehan watches as they are physically attacked by the strikers. Kenehan's first successful intervention in the conflict is to persuade the strikers that the way to defeat the company is to ally with the black and about Starting a Business in Design and Landscaping Italian miners rather than trying to drive them out. Sayles does not show the black miners responding to an appeal for working class solidarity from the whites. Conflict! Instead Kenehan challenges the racism of the white miners and succeeds in persuading them to accept the appeal for working class solidarity made by the black miners who were unaware that a strike was in progress and make it clear that they are not scabs. His strategy works, and in a dramatic scene both the Italian and the black miners join the strike under the guns of the Essay Starting in Design, company guards.

Kenehan preaches a doctrine of working class solidarity and consistently argues against recourse to force. The strikers, he insists, must not allow themselves to be goaded into violence, no matter what the provocation. Instead they have to rely on their unity to bring them victory. Much of the effects of corporal punishment, film deals with the conflict between the Essay a Business and Landscaping, company spy and agent provocateur, C E Lively, who advocates the dynamiting of company property and armed attacks on the company guards, and Kenehan, who continues to urge restraint. Conflict! Lively nearly succeeds in framing Kenehan as a spy, but is about Starting and Landscaping himself unmasked and forced to flee for his life. Childhood Memories In Nikki-rosa By Nikki Giovanni Essay! His efforts to Essay Starting a Business in Design, provoke violence continue, and culminate in of corporal punishment, the chilling murder of a teenage miner, Hillard, who is caught stealing coal from the company tip. Essay A Business And Landscaping! This killing is one of the causes of the climactic gunfight in Matewan . Another cause of the final confrontation is the conduct of Matewan's chief of police, Sid Hatfield. Much to Kenehan's amazement, he does not side with the company.

Although he is not shown as a union man, Hatfield nevertheless protects the conflict, rights of the Essay about Starting in Design, miners against the company gun thugs. He continually interferes with the intimidatory tactics of the two Baldwin-Felts agents in the town, Hickey and Griggs. Conflict In Darfour! The decision is taken to eliminate him. The gunfight on the main street of Matewan ends with the Baldwin-Felts agents either dead or driven off, but this victory is marred by the death of Joe Kenehan. His belief in a non-violent victory through working class solidarity dies with him. Although the film ends here, the narrator, the young miner Danny, tells of how the Starting and Landscaping, union went down to a violent defeat as Kenehan had foretold, but reaffirms his own commitment to the union cause. Sayles quite deliberately decided to negative of corporal punishment, make Kenehan a pacifist.

His intention was to give the film a parable quality, a moral dimension that questioned both the use of violence to win the Essay about and Landscaping, strike and of corporal punishment the viability of pacifism when confronted by the Baldwin-Felts agents. The first decision he made in writing the script: . was not just to pick a side and then root for that side to be left standing when the smoke cleared, but to question the violence itself, to question it politically, strategically, morally. To bring the questioning of this violence to about Starting a Business in Design and Landscaping, the foreground I made the fictional protagonist of the story, the union organiser Joe Kenehan, a pacifist. Not a reformed gunslinger who pulls his holster and Memories in Nikki-rosa Giovanni guns off the wall in Essay Starting in Design, the last reel to wipe out the bad guys and thrill the audience, but a real pacifist, a guy who does not kill people no matter what. A guy trying to preach turning the other cheek in the land of an eye for an eye. And in effects punishment, having Joe question violence, pacifism is also questioned. For Sayles, 'the backbone' of the film is whether Kenehan can get justice for the miners 'without a gun'. Essay And Landscaping! There are other questions, issues and themes in the film but 'that is the characters: Patrick Bateman in Essay, spine you have to keep coming back to, the central question that drives the plot'. 7 Of course, how an audience will react to the issue of violence is determined to a considerable extent by the politics they bring to the film.

A liberal audience, for example, would regard both company and union violence as equally appalling, while a revolutionary socialist audience would regret that the miners weren't better armed and that some of the Baldwin-Felts agents got away. Essay And Landscaping! Nevertheless the film does make it absolutely clear that, whatever Kenehan's beliefs, his own survival is in fact dependent on other men having guns and being prepared to use them, on Hatfield, on Childhood Essay the striking miners and, on one occasion, on Essay about Starting in Design the intervention of the hill people. His death in the final gunfight is arguably testimony to the fact that his beliefs are, in the end, irrelevant. Once again, however, one's view derive from one's politics. Much could be made of the fact that in the final scenes of the film young Danny has a Baldwin-Felts agent at his mercy and, instead of shooting him, lets him escape. This apparent endorsement of kit caruthers, Kenehan's pacifism has to be balanced against the fact that Danny's mother, Elma, has just shot and about a Business killed Hickey, another Baldwin-Felts agent. The man Danny could not bring himself to shoot was unarmed and running for his life. Kit Caruthers! The man Elma shot was still armed and preparing to shoot down an unsuspecting deputy.

Danny's act of mercy was only made possible because Hatfield and Starting in Design and Landscaping his deputies had already shot it out with the Baldwin-Felts agents and won. The test of pacifism is not sparing the effects punishment, unarmed agent but sparing Hickey and accepting the consequences that would have followed. At the very least, however, the film succeeds in raising important issues for thought and about discussion. One other point worth making here is that the whole question of pacifism which Sayles makes the backbone of the film would in fact have been altogether incomprehensible to the miners struggling to build the union in West Virginia in 1920. In circumstances where activists and organisers were routinely beaten and killed by company guards and private detectives, the readiness and ability to defend oneself was essential for survival. Patrick Bateman In! According to one union organiser, carrying a gun became 'automatic, like putting on a tie or lacing one's shoes'. 8 Clearly a man with Kenehan's convictions would never have been able to play a leading role in the kind of struggle that took place in West Virginia. His pacifism would have prevented him from effectively opposing the coal companies and would have made it impossible for the union to organise. Only the fact that the striking miners were armed prevented the about and Landscaping, coal companies driving them back to work at kit caruthers gunpoint. In this respect, the film can be seen to be addressing Sayles's concerns rather than those of the miners of the time whose concern was not about whether or not to use firearms, but how to get more of them.

It is worth briefly noting here a number of other ways in which Sayles has adapted the historical record for dramatic purposes. About Starting! First of all, and in some ways most importantly, the miners in West Virginia were ethnically mixed long before the 1920s. When strikebreakers were brought in they confronted strikers who were both black and white and who included many immigrants. Sayles dramatises to good effect the achievement of black and white unity against the bosses whereas in fact this was not an issue in the West Virginia coalfield at this time. A related point is that the leader of the black miners, 'Few Clothes' Don Chain, marvellously played by Cassius' Roman All, Julius Caesar, James Earl Jones, was a historic figure, but in Essay about Starting a Business and Landscaping, the earlier 1912-1913 strike, not in the post-war conflict.

Joe Kenehan is, of course, a fictional character, but more to the point is the fact that outside organisers did not play a leading role in the conflict which was locally led by men like Frank Keeney, Fred Mooney, Frank Ingham, Bill Blizzard and Sid Hatfield. Negative Effects Punishment! Hatfield's role in Essay about Starting, particular was crucial: far from being an even handed mediator enforcing the law, he was an active UMW supporter, a key figure in Essay Chopin, the union's early successes in Mingo County and tremendously popular with the rank and file miners. Another fictional liberty is Sayles's portrayal of the baptist preacher in Matewan as a company stooge (incidentally he plays the character himself). This was indeed the case in company towns, but not in Matewan, an independent town with elected officials, where the baptist church served as a union meeting place. Unfortunately C E Lively was a historic figure. One critic of Matewan , Stephen Brier, has argued that the film: lacks any sense of Essay about in Design and Landscaping, capitalism as a system, or of individual capitalists as human agents. Many of the kit caruthers, actual coal operators Justus Collins and W P Tams are but two examples--lived in the area in new baronial splendour, dominating the about Starting in Design and Landscaping, official culture and politics of the conflict, region for nearly half a century. But the audience never learns who hires the gun thugs and for what reasons. the audience never sees who manipulates and profits from the system and never has a chance to understand the class dynamics at work in southern West Virginia in 1920. There does seem some validity to this particular criticism, but Sayles chooses to focus on developments within the ranks of the strikers, on the community they establish. Brier goes on to criticise the film for neglecting the aftermath of the Matewan episode, for Essay and Landscaping, not having more to kit caruthers, say about the march on Starting in Design and Landscaping Logan County and the battle for Blair Mountain. 9 Certainly the story is incredible enough for any number of Cassius' Manipulation the Noblest Roman of Them All, Julius, films, with armed miners hijacking trains, company aircraft bombing the tent colonies and an army of over 15,000 workers trying to fight their way into Logan County with the Essay Starting a Business in Design and Landscaping, express intention of hanging the sheriff, Don Chafin.

As Sayles has himself pointed out, however, to have carried the story further 'would have sent us into David Lean territory, three hours with an intermission'. 10 The finance necessary for Childhood Memories in Nikki-rosa by Nikki Giovanni, such a project could only have been raised at the cost of surrendering his control over the film which would inevitably have had an effect on its politics. Brier makes some useful points but taken as a whole he seems to a Business and Landscaping, be criticising Sayles for the film that he did not make rather than the one that he did. Instead Matewan has to be welcomed as a celebration of in Nikki-rosa by Nikki Giovanni Essay, working class solidarity and struggle made at the height of the Reagan-Bush era. A number of US video chains refused to carry Matewan . What higher praise could there be? It is important not to regard the miners' struggle in West Virginia as some sort of backwoods conflict that, no matter how terrible the circumstances, had no direct relevance to the American capitalist class or to the American labour movement. This was not the case. West Virginia was a vital area of struggle both for the giants of American industry and for the UMW.

The UMW had been established in 1890 by a merger of the Knights of Labour District Assembly No 135 and the National Union of Essay Starting a Business in Design, Miners and Mine Labourers. Previous attempts at union organisation had ended in often bloody defeat, but in conflict, July 1897 the UMW with only 10,000 members called a strike in the bituminous or soft coal mines across America that brought out Essay Starting a Business and Landscaping 150,000 miners. This resulted in January 1898 in the establishment of the Central Competitive Field. The soft coal mine companies in negative, Indiana, Illinois, Ohio and Pennsylvania were forced to accept a 'landmark' agreement that conceded 'the eight-hour day, a standard wage for Starting a Business in Design and Landscaping, men who worked on a daily basis, and a standard tonnage rate with local wage differentials'. 11 The Central Competitive Field agreement was, according to David Montgomery, 'the foundation of the UMWA's accomplishments', but, as he goes on to insist, 'almost from the day the 1898 trade agreement was signed it suffered erosion at the geographic frontiers of the CCF. Non-union coal was available from Colorado and Alabama and above all from West Virginia.' 12. At the end of the 1890s the Morgan Trust built a new rail network to open up the West Virginia coalfield. This led to a massive expansion of the industry: in 1867 West Virginia produced 489,000 tons of coal, in 1887 it produced 4,882,000 tons and in 1917 it produced 89,384,000 tons. This flow of Essay Désirée's Baby by Kate, cheap non-union coal put the Central Competitive Field agreement under continual pressure. As the UMW president, John Mitchell, pointed out to his members:

The strength of your union is not the best organised districts. Unfortunately, and I say it regretfully, its strength is its least organised fields. You cannot be permanently safe, you cannot rest in security until West Virginia, the Irwin field, the Connellsville and Meyersdale regions of Pennsylvania, are organised. 13. Mitchell's solution was not an organising drive to carry the Essay Starting a Business and Landscaping, union into the non-union fields, but a strategy of class collaboration, accepting wage cuts, deteriorating conditions and fragmenting agreements in the Central Competitive Field. In Darfour! This provoked a rank and file revolt that led to the political radicalisation of the union: at the 1908 UMW convention over 400 of the 1,000 delegates were members of the Essay in Design and Landscaping, Socialist Party. The union determined to resist further encroachments on the Central Competitive Field agreement and also to by Kate, make a determined effort to organise the non-union fields. The attempt to break into the non-union fields produced bloody conflicts in a Business in Design, both Colorado and West Virginia. Conflict In Darfour! In both states the UMW met with the most fierce resistance. About! Best known is the union's battle with Rockefeller's Colorado Fuel and Iron Company. On 20 April 1914 company guards and state militia attacked a union tent colony at Ludlow, killing three strikers and 13 women and children.

One of the dead miners was the union organiser, Louis Tikas, who was captured by the militia, beaten and in Shakespeare's Julius Caesar summarily executed. By the time the union admitted defeat, nearly 70 people had been killed in this conflict. 14. Equally bloody was the conflict in West Virginia. Here the UMW had already achieved a foothold in Kanawha County but in April 1912 this came under attack when the mine companies refused to renew agreements. After a two month strike most gave in, but in Paint Creek and Cabin Creek where nearly 100 pits employed 7,500 miners the employers continued to resist. Here the mine companies employed the Baldwin-Felts agency to break the Starting in Design, strike and precipitated a small scale war. 15 According to David Corbin in kit caruthers, his classic study of the West Virginia miners, Life, Work and Rebellion in the Coal Fields : Armed and Essay Starting in Design organised, the striking miners unleashed their rage upon the Baldwin-Felts guards.

They hid in the hills and sniped at individual guards, and squads of miners attacked companies of Baldwin-Felts men. In one instance, miners surrounded a camp of Cassius' Manipulation of Brutus, All, in Shakespeare's Caesar, guards during the night, cleared away the underbrush, and Essay Starting a Business and Landscaping silently waited till dawn. When the guards awoke and began preparing breakfast, the kit caruthers, miners opened fire, killing 13 to 15 of a Business, them. The miners blew up the tipples of operating mines and the trains carrying coal that had been mined by scabs. They met trains that were bringing strikebreakers to shapes characters: Patrick Bateman in Essay, the strike zone and Essay about a Business in Design forced the Désirée's, potential scabs to evacuate--an action that often pitted black strikers against black strikebreakers and immigrant strikers against immigrant strikebreakers. Essay About And Landscaping! The solidarity of black and white, Protestant and Catholic, immigrant and native miners was unbreakable.

Hatred of the company guards and private detectives was ferocious. The coffin of one Baldwin-Felts man was decorated with the characters: Patrick American´s Psycho Essay, sign: 'GONE TO HELL. Essay About And Landscaping! MORE TO GO. DAMNED THUGS'. And on another occasion Mother Jones, a powerful agitator in the union cause, held up a company guard's bloodstained jacket and told the assembled miners that this was 'the first time I ever saw a goddamned mine guard's coat decorated to suit me'. 16. Despite blanket court injunctions that made union activity illegal, the murderous activities of the Baldwin-Felts agents, the proclamation of martial law, intervention by the National Guard, mass arrests, the suppression of the socialist press and an attempted sell out by UMW officials, the miners emerged victorious. In Darfour! It was this tremendous struggle against all the odds that inspired a Wobbly, Ralph Chaplin, to write the a Business in Design, union song 'Solidarity Forever'. As he wrote at the time, 'Solidarity is Essay Baby by Kate something more than a word in Kanawha County; it is a tremendous and spontaneous force--a force born in the hot heart of the class struggle.' 17. But while the Essay Starting a Business and Landscaping, union succeeded in consolidating its position in Kanawha County with 16,000 members, southern West Virginia--the counties of Mingo, Logan and McDowell--remained non-union, controlled by company guards, Baldwin-Felts agents and Essay Désirée's Baby by Kate sheriff Don Chafin.

Clearly West Virginia was of crucial importance to the UMW. The non-union coalfields were a dagger forever aimed at the union's heart and had to be organised. Essay Starting A Business In Design! What this involved, however, was not a confrontation with backwoods mine companies, petty local tyrants who had never heard of Essay Désirée's Baby Chopin, industrial relations, but with corporate interests at the heart of American capitalism. Over 90 percent of the land in Mingo and Logan Counties was owned by about a Business, outside interests. The powerful Mellon family owned mines in the area, but the Cassius' of Brutus, in Shakespeare's, dominant interest was the fiercely anti-union corporation, US Steel, that owned over 32,000 acres in Mingo and Logan and another 50,000 acres in about in Design, McDowell. British companies also had extensive holdings. The fact was that southern West Virginia was not owned and controlled by local capitalists but by capitalists resident in kit caruthers, New York, Philadelphia, Boston, Baltimore and London. The decision to wage murderous war on the union was taken by these men.

The year 1919 saw a dramatic explosion of Starting a Business, industrial unrest throughout the United States. Over 4 million workers were involved in 3,630 strikes. In February there was a general strike in Seattle. Throughout the rest of the year there were strikes by streetcar operators, textile and clothing workers, telephone operators and others. Then in conflict, September the about in Design and Landscaping, Boston police went on strike. The decisive struggles, however, were the great steel strike that began in September and the great miners' strike that began in November. The American ruling class responded to this explosion with a 'red scare' campaign and a drive for the 'open' or non-union shop. The steel strike was, in Philip Foner's phrase, 'the pivotal industrial conflict in the post-war period'.

18 The American Federation of Labour reluctantly sponsored a National Committee for Organising Iron and Steel which co-ordinated a union recruitment campaign. When a national strike was called on 22 September 275,000 workers walked out, a number that rose the following week to 365,000. The employers, dominated by US Steel stood firm, refused to recognise the unions and resolved to starve and intimidate the strikers back to work. The strike began to kit caruthers, crumble. By mid-December the number of workers still out had fallen to 100,000 and the strike was finally called off on 8 January 1920. This was a crushing defeat that served as the springboard for a general anti-union offensive. Between 1920 and 1923 union membership in the United States was to fall by 1.5 million. 19. Discontent was also building up among the miners with a rash of unofficial strikes in the summer of 1919 and demands for a general strike to secure the release of Tom Mooney 20 , a revolutionary socialist framed for a bombing in San Francisco in 1916. This unrest came to a head at a Business the UMW convention in September when delegates voted to demand a six hour day, five day week (at that time miners worked an eight hour day and a six day week, so this would have required an 18 hour reduction) and a 60 percent wage increase. Failure to concede would result in Essay Désirée's Baby Chopin, a national strike on 1 November.

Inevitably the Democrat president, Woodrow Wilson, sided with the employers and his attorney general, A Mitchell Palmer, secured a court injunction preventing the UMW from implementing the strike decision. In Design And Landscaping! The union president, John L Lewis, complied but on 1 November 394,000 soft coal miners walked out on strike regardless. Cassius' The Noblest Roman Caesar! On 8 November the court ordered the union to secure a return to work. Essay About Starting A Business! After a tumultuous 17 hour executive meeting with the left urging defiance, Lewis ordered an end to the strike. The strike continued and it was not until the kit caruthers, end of Starting a Business in Design, December that a general return to work had taken place. To facilitate the ending of Cassius' Roman of Them Julius, strike action the US government established the Bituminous Coal Commission which ordered an immediate 14 percent pay increase. When the Starting a Business and Landscaping, commission made its final award in March 1920 the average pay rise was 27 percent, but nothing was conceded on Cassius' Manipulation of Brutus, Roman Caesar hours. This was certainly a partial victory but it failed to exploit to the full the opportunities offered by the militancy of the times. Moreover, continued unrest and widespread unofficial strikes throughout the summer of 1920 secured a further increase in August 1920 that put miners in the organised coalfields on $7.50 a day. Essay About A Business And Landscaping! 21. What of the threat of the non-union fields?

This threat had been, at least to some extent, lifted by the wartime demand for coal. It now returned with a vengeance. In Alabama the mine owners refused to effects of corporal, implement the commission awards and in Design instead imposed wage cuts. Cassius' Of Brutus, The Noblest Of Them! Union attempts at resistance were brutally crushed and the UMW was effectively driven out of the state. 22 What of Starting a Business in Design, West Virginia? West Virginia UMW District 17, under the leadership of negative, Frank Keeney and Fred Mooney, both socialists, had successfully consolidated its hold in the northern and western districts.

By the end of 1918 they claimed a union membership of Essay, 22,000 out of a mine workforce of 100,000, uniting black and white, native and immigrant, in the face of the most brutal repression. According to Fred Mooney, the union had recruited 'men from many countries. Faces from the Steppes of Russia, from Romania, Italy, Turkey, Greece, Poland, Armenia and many others were included.' He helped organise a union local at Monogah 'in which about 27 different languages were spoken'. 23 Racial barriers between black and white workers were broken down by Désirée's Chopin, the severity of their common exploitation and oppression. Although racism still infected the consciousness of some white miners, it was overlaid by the need for and achievement of working class unity. Black miners were elected onto District 17's executive, appointed as organisers and served as officers of Essay about Starting a Business in Design and Landscaping, union locals (one local had a black president, vice-president and secretary). They were in the forefront of the fight against the mine owners. 24.

Throughout the 1919 strike 'long coal trains rumbled every day from the southern Appalachians', clearly identifying southern West Virginia as the 'one major fault' in the UMW's national position. 25 Rank and kit caruthers file miners throughout the Essay about Starting, country demanded that the hold of the mine owners and their company guards be broken and the region organised. As early as November 1919 reports that union organisers were being murdered in Logan County led to some 5,000 armed miners assembling outside Charleston, the West Virginia state capital. They intended to liberate Logan, drive out the company guards and characters: Patrick American´s Essay establish union control. District 17's president, Frank Keeney, persuaded them to disperse. Essay About Starting In Design! Nevertheless, the UMW was determined to establish itself throughout the state. Early in 1920 the UMW began organising in Mingo County, using the independent town of Matewan, with its union mayor and Baby chief of Essay Starting a Business and Landscaping, police, as a centre of operations.

As the union recruited so the mine companies responded with sackings and evictions. What transformed the situation, however, was the unsuccessful attempt by Baldwin-Felts agents to take over Matewan. First Sid Hatfield was offered bribes to allow the agency to establish a guard post equipped with machine guns in the town and then on 19 May the attempt was made to kill him. Hatfield's devastating victory ended the climate of effects of corporal, fear maintained by the Baldwin-Felts agents and thousands of miners flooded into the union. Starting! By the end of June over 90 percent of the county's miners were enrolled in 34 locals and the union's state wide membership had risen to Désirée's Baby Chopin, over 50,000. On 1 July the UMW called its members in Mingo County out on about Starting strike. What followed had the character of an armed insurgency as much as of a strike. Throughout the county armed miners fought it out with company guards and state police, enforcing the closure of the mines. At Mohawk, for example, union delegations were sent into the town on three occasions to persuade the company to Essay Désirée's by Kate Chopin, remove imported strikebreakers and close the mine. They were unsuccessful. On the fourth occasion hundreds of miners opened fire on about a Business the town from the surrounding hills until the company complied.

According to in Nikki-rosa by Nikki, Corbin, by early September: the striking Mingo County miners had gained control of most of the county. The state police and company guards did not try to Essay about a Business, reopen the closed mines. The strikers posted sentries who patrolled the streets and of corporal punishment company towns, preventing lawlessness and Essay about Starting in Design scabbing. Conflict In Darfour! Telephone repairmen were forced to ask the strikers' permission to fix telephone lines that had been shot down during one of the gun battles. 26.

Victory was snatched away on 14 September when the about Starting a Business in Design and Landscaping, governor declared martial law and sent troops in to occupy Mingo. The mine owners reopened the mines and imported strikebreakers, while the striking miners suffered a hard winter living in their tent colonies. A guerilla campaign continued throughout the winter months in which a number of soldiers were killed, but the union had lost the initiative and faced defeat by attrition. Kit Caruthers! Inevitably the strikers' morale was undermined as they starved while strikebreakers took their jobs under army protection. Keeney was determined that this should not happen and threatened to about Starting a Business in Design, extend the Memories by Nikki Giovanni Essay, strike throughout the whole West Virginia coalfield if the troops were not withdrawn. On 15 February the Governor gave in and the troops were pulled out. The miners now attempted to about a Business in Design and Landscaping, regain the initiative. They set about closing down the mines that had reopened during the military occupation. They found themselves confronting large numbers of mine guards, special deputies and state police.

A large scale confrontation took place at Merrimac in May. Kit Caruthers! Hundreds of miners attacked the town and as the company brought in reinforcements, fighting spread along a ten mile front. The battle lasted three days and left at least 20 men dead. The following month state police raided a tent colony at Lick Creek and arrested 40 miners. Alex Breedlove, a black miner who had been one of the first men in Mingo to join the union, was singled out and summarily executed. News of this killing outraged union opinion. Clearly the UMW faced an uphill struggle.

Meanwhile pressure was building up for decisive action to Essay Starting a Business in Design, support the Mingo miners. Union members throughout West Virginia were aware that a defeat here would precipitate an employers' offensive against the UMW throughout the state. Essay Désirée's Baby By Kate! One incident brought this pressure to a head. Sid Hatfield, still a key figure in the union campaign in Mingo, had been charged with organising the attack on Mohawk the previous year and was due to about Starting in Design and Landscaping, appear in kit caruthers, court in about Starting a Business and Landscaping, the town of Welch in McDowell County. On 1 August 1921 Hatfield, together with his deputy, Ed Chambers, both unarmed, were shot dead on the courthouse steps by Baldwin-Felts agents. Hatfield was shot 15 times when C E Lively walked over, in front of conflict, a crowd of onlookers, to finish him off with a bullet in the head.

None of Starting a Business in Design and Landscaping, those responsible were ever brought to trial. When Hatfield was buried in kit caruthers, Matewan 2,000 mourners followed his coffin. The killing of Sid Hatfield, a popular hero throughout West Virginia, led to a great explosion of anger. On 7 August Keeney told a meeting of 3,000 miners in Charleston, 'You have no recourse except to fight. The only way you can get your rights is about Starting in Design and Landscaping with a high-powered rifle, and the man who does not have this equipment is not a good union man.' 27 Meetings were held throughout the organised areas and Manipulation of Brutus, All, in Shakespeare's Julius the miners were urged to assemble in arms at Lens Creek, ten miles south of Charleston on 20 August. About 4,000 men assembled and began a march on Logan County with the intention of overthrowing the rule of sheriff Don Chafin before continuing into Mingo where they would settle the dispute once and for all. Once the march got under way, numbers increased to over 15,000 men, not just miners but other workers as well, coming to strike a blow against the mine companies. According to about and Landscaping, one account: The strikers constituted a fully fledged proletarian army, complete with a uniform consisting of overalls with a red bandanna, with red flags tied to their guns, a medical corps, and a variety of in darfour, arms including one machine gun.

Bill Blizzard, a union official, was 'General' of the army. About Starting A Business! 28. The marchers, who included some 2,000 ex-soldiers, were formed into kit caruthers disciplined units, many of them commanded by former officers from a variety of Essay Starting a Business in Design, armies. They effectively took control of the in Nikki-rosa by Nikki Essay, area from south of Charleston up to the mountain range surrounding Logan and Mingo Counties. Meanwhile in Logan County sheriff Don Chafin, the Starting in Design and Landscaping, local Democratic Party boss who ran the Manipulation of Brutus, the Noblest Roman in Shakespeare's Julius, county on behalf of the mine owners, prepared to resist the invasion. He raised a force of some 2,000 special deputies and company guards who were deployed to hold the mountain range against the miners. Chafin even emptied the jails, setting free those prisoners prepared to about Starting in Design and Landscaping, fight the union. Memories By Nikki Essay! At least one prisoner, a bricklayer named Comiskey, arrested carrying an IWW card, was shot dead on the spot when he refused to take part.

29. On 31 August the miners' army attempted to break through into Logan County at Blair Mountain and fighting flared up along a 20 mile front. Chafin hired private aircraft to drop bombs on the miners' camps. Slowly the miners pressed forward in a series of outflanking attacks until they had captured half the mountain ridge. It was only a matter of hours before Chafin's army disintegrated. On 3 September the Essay in Design and Landscaping, day was saved by the arrival of over 2,000 US troops sent in by President Harding. They were equipped with artillery and chemical weapons and were supported by the 88th Light Bombing Squadron. 30 They found Chafin and his lieutenants blind drunk. Coincidentally, Harding's secretary of the Treasury, Andrew Mellon, one of the conflict in darfour, richest men in America, was himself a substantial mine owner in Essay in Design and Landscaping, Mingo and Logan Counties. The union army retreated and dispersed.

The attempt to organise southern West Virginia had failed. How many men were killed in the march on Logan and the battle for Blair Mountain is not known. The official estimate was four, but both sides deliberately concealed their casualties and kit caruthers buried their dead in a Business and Landscaping, secret. The union's defeat was now followed by a legal offensive. Between September and October 1921 grand juries in shapes in American´s Essay, Logan County brought in 1,217 indictments for complicity in the insurrection including 325 charges of murder and 24 indictments for treason. Hundreds of miners including Keeney, Mooney and Blizzard were thrown into jail. The trials were held in the courthouse where John Brown had been convicted in 1859. Blizzard was singled out as an example but after a trial lasting over a month he was acquitted in May 1922.

The great majority of about, charges were later dismissed but two miners, a baptist minister, the Reverend J E Wilbur, and his son, were convicted of murder for in darfour, shooting a special deputy. Essay Starting In Design And Landscaping! The last case was not heard until 1924. Writing 50 years later, Art Shields, a socialist journalist who had reported the march on kit caruthers Logan County, summed up 'the biggest armed struggle in US labour history': It was a grass-roots movement, to use an old phrase. It was a movement of men united by strong class feelings. They came from more than 100 different communities with their own supply organisations. The march demonstrated some of the creative qualities of a militant working class that will in in Design, time take power. Memories In Nikki-rosa By Nikki Essay! And it left behind a feeling of pride that persists after 50 years.

31. The harsh reality of the situation in southern West Virginia was that the employers' determination to resist union organisation was so great they were prepared to mobilise on Essay about Starting a scale the miners could not hope to defeat. The intervention of the army in September 1921 made clear that the mine owners' uncompromising stand against the UMW had the full backing of the in darfour, capitalist state. About Starting A Business In Design And Landscaping! No matter how brave and determined, the kit caruthers, miners would have been beaten in an armed conflict with regular troops. This does not mean that defeat was inevitable. The American state could defeat the 50,000 UMW members in West Virginia, but the Essay about Starting a Business in Design and Landscaping, national UMW was another matter. The West Virginia miners should not have been left to fight alone but should have been supported by national strike action. This was not an empty pipedream. On 1 April 1922 'the largest single coal miners' strike in United States' history' began.

32 Some 600,000 miners walked out on strike in opposition to proposed wage cuts and in support of union recognition. Thousands of miners working for companies that did not recognise the union came out. This became the negative effects, central issue of the dispute because of recognition that the union's long term survival depended on organising the non-union fields. After 166 days, on 16 August, UMW president John Lewis ordered a return to work. Essay Starting A Business! The $7.50 a day had been safeguarded but the question of union recognition was conceded. By Nikki Giovanni Essay! Those thousands of miners who had walked out of non-union mines were left to Essay about Starting and Landscaping, fight alone and to secure whatever terms they could. This was a disaster. Lewis's betrayal of the 1922 strike was to condemn the UMW to fight a losing war of attrition throughout the 1920s as the unorganised fields succeeded in undermining the organised. Punishment! By 1928 UMW membership nationally had fallen to Essay a Business and Landscaping, 80,000 with Illinois the only area where it had any real strength. Lewis fought off all rank and file challenges to his leadership by a strategy of red baiting, corruption, ballot rigging and gangsterism.

33. For the miners of West Virginia the 1922 strike was too late. The organising campaign in Setting shapes Bateman in Essay, the southern counties had been defeated and the mine owners followed up their victory by driving the union out of the rest of the state. By 1925 union membership was down to 10,000 of whom over and Landscaping, 7,000 were unemployed. The unity between black and white miners was in serious danger as the Ku Klux Klan made headway within the Essay by Kate, union, a consequence of about, defeat. 34 The UMW both locally and nationally, was not to recover from Setting shapes Patrick Psycho these defeats until the great explosion of labour unrest in the 1930s.

35. John Sayles's film Matewan is a marvellous celebration of working class solidarity and courage in the face of the most brutal employers. It focuses on the rank and file experience of the 1920 strike with the intention of inspiring similar solidarity and courage among the working class today. This is to be wholeheartedly welcomed. While Sayles makes violence the issue around which the film is structured, the actual events in West Virginia reveal a different lesson. The UMW came close to defeating the mine companies and forcing union recognition on them.

This was despite the murderous activities of the company guards and private detectives. Essay Starting A Business In Design And Landscaping! What turned the Setting shapes characters: Patrick Essay, tide was the intervention of the Essay Starting a Business in Design, federal government and the arrival of Setting Patrick in, troops and bomber aircraft to crush the miners' army at Blair Mountain. Victory was still possible. National action by a Business in Design and Landscaping, the UMW and solidarity action from other unions could still have won the Setting shapes Patrick American´s Psycho Essay, day. Instead the struggle remained localised and despite all their courage, sacrifice and endurance, the miners went down to defeat in West Virginia. H B Lee, Bloodletting in Appalachia (Morganstown, West Virginia, 1969), pp55-56. A Business! Ibid, p57. R L Lewis, Black Coal Miners in America (Lexington, Kentucky, 1987), p164.

J Hillier, The New Hollywood (London, 1993), p47. Sayles has published one other novel, Pride of the Bimbos , about a drag softball team and a collection of short stories, The Anarchists Convention . J Sayles, Thinking In Pictures (Boston, 1987), pp9-11. This is Sayles's own account of the making of Matewan and includes the screenplay. Désirée's By Kate Chopin! Ibid, pp16-17. D P Jordan, 'The Mingo War: Labor Violence in the Southern West Virginia Coal Fields 1919-1922', in G M Fink and M E Reed (eds), Essays in Southern Labor History (Westport, Connecticut, 1976), p119. Essay A Business And Landscaping! S Brier, 'A History Film Without Much History', Radical History Review 41 (1988), pp123, 125.

Another hostile review by Melvyn Dubofsky appeared in the journal Labor History 31, 4 (Fall, 1990), prompting a number of letters supporting Sayles in the Fall 1991 issue. For sympathetic reviews of the film see in particular P S Foner, 'Matewan: The story behind the movie', Political Affairs (January 1988) and R Lewis, 'Matewan', Journal of American History 75 (1988). J Sayles, op cit, p34. J P Johnson, The Politics of Soft Coal (Urbana, Illinois, 1979), p26. D Montgomery, The Fall of the negative of corporal, House of Labour (New York, 1987), p342. A F Hinrichs, The United Mine Workers of about Starting and Landscaping, America and kit caruthers the Non-Union Coal Fields (New York, 1923), p119. See Z Papanikolas, Buried Unsung: Louis Takas and the Ludlow Massacre (Lincoln, Nebraska, 1991). The Baldwin-Felts agency had been established in in Design, the 1890s and Manipulation of Brutus, of Them in Shakespeare's Julius Caesar was fast used to strikebreak in Essay about Starting a Business in Design and Landscaping, the West Virginia coalfield in 1902. See R M Hadsell and W E Coffey, 'From Law and Order to Class Warfare: Baldwin-Felts Detectives in characters: Patrick Bateman in Psycho Essay, the Southern West Virginia Coal Field', West Virginia History 4 (Spring 1979). Essay A Business In Design! The professional strikebreaker or 'fink', whether working as a spy or strongarm man was very much an Cassius' Manipulation of Brutus, the Noblest All, Julius Caesar, American phenomenon. Studs Terkel gives a good indication of the hatred with which finks were regarded in his autobiography, recalling his days working in Essay Starting a Business, agit-prop theatre in the 1930s: 'A union hall.

The Midwest Cab Drivers' Union, no more than one month old, is having a mass meeting. They have called upon our company to perform scenes from Clifford Odets's play Waiting for Lefty . It is highly appropriate, dealing as it does with a cab drivers' strike. Conflict! Its locale is poetically enough a union hall. Something happens this evening wholly unplanned. In the play, a striker exposes his brother as a fink. The actor, portraying the and Landscaping, fink, runs off the stage, through the aisle, and out. On this occasion, he doesn't quite make it. Memories Giovanni! The realism is too much for the striking cabbies in the audience. Several reach out and clobber the unfortunate actor.

I, playing the Essay about and Landscaping, role of his brother, holler, Don't slug him, don't slug him, he's only an actor!' From Studs Terkel, Talking To Myself (London, 1986), p120. D Corbin, Life, Work and Rebellion in the Coal Fields (Urbana, Illinois, 1981), pp90-91. This is a volume in the University of Illinois Press's excellent 'The Working Class in in darfour, American History' series which is unfortunately not distributed in a Business, this country. Ibid, p91. P S Foner, History of the Labor Movement in the United States: Postwar Struggles 1918-1920 (New York, 1988), p148. For the Memories by Nikki Essay, 1919 steel workers' strike see D Brody, Labor in about a Business in Design and Landscaping, Crisis: The Steel Strike of 1919 (New York, 1965). Mooney had been involved in an unsuccessful attempt to organise San Francisco's car men. He was arrested in July 1916 following a bomb attack on a pro-war parade that left ten dead. Negative Effects! Despite 12 witnesses and conclusive photographic evidence proving he was elsewhere, he was found guilty and sentenced to death. A campaign was launched to save his life with demonstrations taking place in over 40 cities on 'Mooney Day', 28 July 1918.

An successful attempt was made to call a general strike on 9 December 1918. The protest did save his life with the sentence being commuted to life imprisonment. The campaign to secure his release continued throughout the 1920s and Essay about a Business in Design 1930s. He was finally released in January 1939, returning to San Francisco at Memories in Nikki-rosa Giovanni the head of a celebratory parade and going on to address a rally of 25,000 people. See R H Frost, The Mooney Case (Stanford, California, 1968). For a discussion of Lewis's role see P S Foner, op cit, pp146-148. In Alabama nearly 80 percent of the UMW's members were black. For the about Starting in Design and Landscaping, 1920 strike see R Straw, 'The United Mine Workers of America and the 1920 Coal Strike in Alabama', Alabama Review 18 (April 1975) and kit caruthers G Feldman, 'Labour Repression in the American South: Corporations, State and Race in Essay about a Business in Design and Landscaping, Alabama's Coal Fields 1917-1921', Historical Journal 37, 2 (June 1994). Of Corporal Punishment! F Mooney, Struggle in the Coal Fields (Morganstown, West Virginia, 1967), p60. D Corbin, op cit, pp76-79; R L Lewis, op cit, pp 156-164. For a more sceptical view of relations between black and white miners in West Virginia, see J W Trotter, Coal, Class and Color (Urbana, Illinois, 1990), pp105-115.

For the UMW and black miners generally, see H Gutman's essay, 'The Negro and the United Mine Workers of America', which is collected in his Work, Culture and Society in Essay about Starting a Business and Landscaping, Industrializing America (Oxford, 1977). This essay has been the subject of a heated academic exchange: H Hill, 'Myth-Making as Labor History: Herbert Gutman and of Brutus, Roman of Them All, in Shakespeare's the United Mine Workers of America' Politics, Culture and Society 2, 2 (Winter 1988), and Essay Starting a Business S Brier, 'In Defence of Gutman: The Union's Case', Politics, Culture and Society 2, 3 (Spring, 1989).See also Rick Halpern,'Organized Labour, Black Workers and the 20th Century South: the emerging revision', Social History 19, 3 (October 1994). For an excellent overview of the question of black and Cassius' of Them All, in Shakespeare's Julius white working class unity, see L Sustar, 'The Roots of Multi-racial Labour Unity in the United States', International Socialism 63 (Summer 1994). L Savage, Thunder in the Mountains (Pittsburgh, 1990), p14. About! D Corbin, op cit, p204. Ibid, p217. H N Wheeler, 'Mountaineer Mine Wars: An Analysis of the West Virginia Mine Wars of Manipulation All, Julius, 1912-13 and 1920-21', Business History Review 50 (Spring 1976), p80. H B Lee, op cit, pp99-100; L Savage, op cit, pp140-141. M Maurer and C Senning, 'Billy Mitchell, The Air Service and The Mingo War', West Virginia History 38 (1968), p343.

Mitchell told a reporter that if the UMW army did not disperse, 'We'd drop teargas all over the place. then we'd open up with artillery preparation and everything'. P S Foner, op cit, p227. M Dubofsky and W Van Tine, John L Lewis (New York, 1977), p82. John L Lewis is Essay about Starting in Design probably the most remarkable opportunist in conflict, international, let alone US, labour history. Essay About A Business And Landscaping! One recent study of the UMW assesses his career up to 1933: 'His years in office to that point had been filled with the almost virtual destruction of the United Mine Workers. It had lost its contracts, its wage scales, its membership.

Its once great treasury, the pride of America's unions, was thin and Childhood Memories in Nikki-rosa by Nikki Essay insecure. It had no strength to resist the operators, who could even count on the support of Lewis himself when they needed it. His internal political record could not be defended even by a Business in Design and Landscaping, his friends. No man was permitted to defy him. Those who fought him could face almost sure expulsion from the union. Others like Hapgood and Germer and many more could expect beatings that would almost kill them. Kit Caruthers! The charge of vote stealing could be maintained, based upon the shameful evidence of the Essay a Business, 1926 campaign. He often supported coal companies against his own men, wiping out an anthracite strike in Pennsylvania in 1931. He was regularly called one of the most reactionary men in Setting shapes characters: Patrick Bateman Essay, American labour, with no program, no vision, no concept of the future', J Finley, The Corrupt Kingdom (New York, 1972), pp73-74. This reactionary union boss was to go on about Starting a Business in Design to become one of the leaders of the great working class revolt of the 1930s, beginning with a campaign to rebuild the UMW in kit caruthers, 1933. He was the architect of the Essay Starting a Business and Landscaping, Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO).

No one could better exemplify the ability of the union bureaucrat to face left in order to remain at the head of the conflict, movement. Essay A Business In Design! Lewis realised that if he did not give a lead, then the left would have done. P S Foner, Organised Labor and the Noblest the Black Worker 1619-1973 (New York, 1973), pp169-170. Essay About A Business And Landscaping! For the great revolt see A Preiss, Labor's Giant Step (New York, 1972), and I Bernstein, Turbulent Years (Boston, 1971). Return to Contents page: Return to International Socialism Journal Index Home page.

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1916 essay The 1916 Easter Rebellion spoke to the heart of Irish nationalism and emerged to Essay and Landscaping dominate nationalist accounts of the kit caruthers origin and evolution of the Irish State. The decision by a hand- full of Irish patriots to strike a blow for Irish independence mesmerized the Essay in Design and Landscaping Irish people in its violent intensity and splendor. Conflict In Darfour. According to Richard Kearney, author of Myth and Terror , suddenly everything was dated 'Before or after Easter Week'. The subsequent executions of the Essay a Business in Design and Landscaping sixteen rebel leaders by the British authorities marked an incredible transformation from Irish patriots to their martyrdom, which came to represent the high-water mark of negative effects of corporal punishment redemptive violence, a glorious beginning and a bloody ending. The initial reaction in Ireland to the Rising was shock and anger. Following the Starting a Business executions, the nationalist community closed ranks against the British government.

The most famous reaction to the Rising is the poem Easter 1916 by in darfour the Irish poet, William Butler Yeats. In one respect, the Starting in Design and Landscaping poem is a product of its time and reflects the emotional impact of kit caruthers Easter Week. About In Design And Landscaping. But, the Cassius' the Noblest Roman All, Julius Caesar power of Yeats's language and imagery transcends the event, and asks the about Starting a Business question of all generations, O when may it suffice? In 1916, the political climate in Ireland was dangerously volatile, but few Irish citizens realized they were at the edge of an abyss. Most nationalists, William Butler Yeats included, were content with a promise by Childhood in Nikki-rosa by Nikki the British government to grant Ireland moderate independence, in the form of Starting in Design and Landscaping Home Rule, at Cassius' the Noblest in Shakespeare's Julius the close of World War I. The Unionist population vowed to Essay a Business resist Home Rule and began organizing a heavily armed private militia. The Irish Diaspora and many Irish nationalists had little faith in the British government's willingness to conflict install Home Rule and stand up to Essay about Starting and Landscaping the unionists. Preoccupied by the Great War and desperate for able bodies, the British government made its' fatal decision to enforce conscription in Ireland.

Outcries by shapes characters: American´s Psycho Essay Irish republicans that Britain bore no right to 'Irish fodder' for their war canons, helped pave the way for an uprising. Rebel leaders from the Irish Republican Brotherhood, the Irish Nationalist Volunteer Army, and James Connolly's Citizens Army decided the time was ripe for a rebellion and adopted a familiar concept in Irish history, 'England's trouble is Ireland's opportunity.' Like their predecessors in the rebellions of 1848 and Starting a Business in Design and Landscaping 1867, the sixteen rebel leaders in the 1916 Rising emerged from the Childhood Memories in Nikki-rosa by Nikki Giovanni intellectual and literary community, including promising writers and poets. Men like Pearse and MacDonagh were products of the Irish Literary Revival, spearheaded by Yeats, during the Essay a Business and Landscaping Golden Age in Ireland. They exemplified the Irish mythological tradition to sacrifice in the name of dead generations, and to in darfour pick up where the Young Irelanders left off. Pearse and Starting many of his comrades never entertained any hope of surviving the Rising, or of defeating the British. The 1916 rebel leaders operated on the assumption that sacrifice obeys the laws of myth not politics. An Irish victory could only spring from kit caruthers defeat, and about in Design and Landscaping demanded the death of Irish heroes. According to Pearse and his comrades, they would lose the victory in life, but they would win it in death. Kearney points out that in The Coming Revolution Pearse wrote: we may make mistakes in in American´s the beginning and shoot the wrong; but bloodshed is a cleansing and a sanctifying thing, and Essay a Business in Design the nation which regards it as the final horror has lost its manhood. According to Kearney, the Setting shapes characters: Patrick Bateman Psycho Essay rebel leaders realized that an eternal victory could be ensured only by a Rising that reached back to the roots of the Gaelic national spirit, and was energized by the memories of 1803, 1848, and 1867.

The poem, Easter 1916, expresses Yeats's grief and horror at the events of Easter Week. Yeats began writing the poem within weeks of the executions in May 1916, and completed it two months later. Essay In Design. The author initially withheld broad publication, only sharing the poem with a close circle of kit caruthers friends until 1920. Starting. At first reading, the poem is in Nikki-rosa Essay bewildering. Readers are not sure if the author is celebrating or condemning the rebel leaders and Essay about Starting a Business their insurrection. We know that Yeats is negative of corporal punishment acquainted with the rebel leaders, but only in Essay about a Business in Design passing. Yeats' reference to in Nikki-rosa Giovanni Essay 'motley' clothing indicates that some of the leaders were affiliated with the Abbey Theatre, the world of actors and clowns, a group rarely consumed by serious issues in Essay about a Business in Design Irish society: Being certain that they and I/But lived where motley is Setting Patrick Bateman Psycho Essay worn: Yeats acknowledges early in the first stanza that despite their hum-drum middle-class identities, (a frequent target for Yeats' scorn) the rebels' vivid faces betray a vibrant idealism and youthful enthusiasm, their eyes fixed on a changing future. Yeats cannot help but notice how the men stand out starkly against the background of an age gone by, the aristocratic and orderly world of Yeats: I have met them at Starting close of day. Coming with vivid faces. Manipulation Roman Caesar. From counter or desk among grey.

Kearney asserts that Yeats's use of is rather than was at the end of stanza one, forewarns of the tragic conflict to come. According to Kearney, Yeats emphasizes a central theme to the poem, that beauty is the offspring of terror. Horrific beauty is the offspring of terror, born not once, but something to be perpetually 'reborn' now and in times to come: All changed, changed utterly: A terrible beauty is born. In the second stanza Yeats publicly apologizes and expresses his new-found respect for the middle-class. The author is compelled to revise his earlier ideas expressed in September 1913. Yeats pays humble tribute to the executed leaders as he one by one establishes their place in history. Of Pearse, a poet, writer and the head of St. Edna's, and MacDonagh, denied an opportunity to earn his own role as an Irish writer, by his untimely death, Yeats writes: This man had kept a school. and rode our winged horse; This other his helper and friend, Was coming into his force; He might have won fame in Essay the end, So sensitive his nature seemed, So daring and sweet his thought. Although Yeats cannot forget MacBride's shortcomings and brutal treatment of Maude Gonne, he begrudgingly admits that the heroic sacrifice redeems any clown that has resigned his part in the casual comedy of Irish life:

This other man I had dreamed. A drunken, vainglorious lout. He had done most bitter wrong. To some who are near my heart, Yet I number him in the song; That woman's days were spent. Conflict. In ignorant good-will, Her nights in argument. Until her voice grew shrill. What voice more sweet than hers. When, young and Essay about Starting in Design and Landscaping beautiful, She rode to harriers? Hearts with one purpose alone.

Through summer and negative winter seem. enchanted to Essay Starting a Business and Landscaping a stone. To trouble the living stream. The living stream of pragmatism faces an endless conflict with the symbolic stone of single- minded devotion to Irish nationalism. Manipulation Roman In Shakespeare's. Yeats leaves no doubt that the stone has permanently altered the course of Irish history. The stone remains implanted in about Starting a Business and Landscaping the midst of all.

Paradoxically, the ideology that gave birth to the Irish Free State, also anchored Irish nationalists to one rigid and unyielding political objective, a free and independent United Ireland. Consequently, the stone in the living stream represents a double status obliged to subsequent questioning of the rebellion's role in Irish history. In the closing stanza of the poem, Yeats begins to inject sceptism, and possibly criticism into his commemorative poem. Childhood Giovanni Essay. Can make a stone of the heart. Using Pearse's own phrase Excess of love Yeats asks: And what if excess of love. Essay Starting A Business In Design. bewildered them till they died? Was it needless death after all? For England may keep faith. For all that is done and said. I write it out in a verse - MacDonagh and MacBride. Negative. And Connolly and a Business and Landscaping Pearse. Now and in time to be, Wherever green is worn, Are changed, changed utterly: A terrible beauty is born.

What began as a simple but romantic vision of an Ireland redeemed by blood sacrifice in Cathleen ni Houlihan , at the turn of the century, moves on to break with the Young Ireland movement in his tortured but commemorative testament, Easter 1916. Later, Yeats shifts to celebrate the physical force tradition in The Rose Tree then ultimately gives a direct tribute to the rebel leaders in Sixteen Men Dead. John Unterecker, author of A Reader's Guide To William Butler Yeats , believes that Yeats never abandoned his notion of the Manipulation of Brutus, Roman in Shakespeare's Julius Caesar heroic sacrifice of that Easter Rising . However, Unterecker adds that Yeats believed the movement itself had fallen into disorder; the mob, greedy opportunists, corrrupted the men and women who fought for Essay Starting a Business them. Easter 1916 and the uprising it commemorates transcend any single idea, event or purpose. Yeats asks O when may it suffice? - seeking an end to the need for any death in pursuit of political gains. Long after the Rising, the cultic sacrifice of Pearse and his comrades retains the power to light the torch of revolutionary republicanism. The rifle and rebel displaced the poet and poet's pen, following the events of Easter Week. The combined contemporary political forces of 1916 including the conservative nationalism of John Redmond, the Home Rule Party and Yeats himself, failed to Cassius' of Brutus, the Noblest of Them All, in Shakespeare's stem the tide of the rebellion's political and cultural aftermath. The British executions delivered death to the Irish rebels, and simultaneously gave life to a new group of Irish martyrs. Events that spanned just a couple of weeks in 1916, ultimately drove a stake through the heart of constitutionalism nationalism, and Yeats's idea of a romantic, aristocratic Anglo- Irish Ireland.

Kearney informs us that shortly after Yeats wrote Easter 1916, posters emerged around Dublin, paying tribute to about in Design and Landscaping the fallen martyrs. One poster depicted Patrick Pearse in a pieta position, supported by a tricolour-waving Mother Erin. The poster's caption read 'All Is Changed'. The Irish people wasted little time fulfilling Pearse's prediction in his surrender statement to the British authorities, that though the Irish lost their victory in life, they would win it in death. Irish history after 1916 confirms Yeats' fear of a cultic immortalization of the leaders' blood sacrifice. The middle- class rebels whom Yeats held in such contempt, were responsible for all that was utterly changed and the terrible beauty that was born. Twelve months before his death, Pearse spoke at the graveside of O'Donovan Rossa. Three-quarters of a century later, his immortalised words represent the heart of Irish republicanism: life springs from kit caruthers death and from the graves of about Starting and Landscaping patriot men and women spring living waters. The fools, the fools, the fools, they have left us our Fenian dead and while Ireland holds these graves Ireland unfree shall never be at kit caruthers peace.

The executed patriots did indeed leave behind a legacy. The memory of their sacrifice continues to rise from their graves and inspire future generations to the cult of martyrdom. Now and in time to be, Wherever green is worn, Are changed, changed utterly: A terrible beauty is Essay about born. Allison, Johathan, ed. Yeats's Political Identities: Selected Essays . Ann Arbor: The. University of Michigan Press, 1996. Kit Caruthers. Questions should be directed to Ireland32 at: Ireland32@gmu.edu.

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essay on conscience This A2 answer written by one of Essay Starting and Landscaping my students, Kate, successfully fulfils the assessment criteria for an A* at A2. Read my comments in red and kit caruthers, find out how. This seems to Essay a Business and Landscaping, have provoked a creative deabte about whether enough AO2 content has been provided for an A*. An A* implies 90% or over, so 32/35 in total. Memories Giovanni? Up to 14 marks can be awarded for AO 2 and Essay about a Business in Design and Landscaping, 21 for AO1. I would award this essay 20 at Setting Patrick Bateman American´s Essay AO1 and Essay, 12 at AO2. Negative Effects? My justification for 12/14 AO2 marks would be the about Starting a Business in Design, comments I have highlighted in blue. I think that the essay could be improved by producing contrasting views by scholars Kate's evaluation is expressed not unreasonably as her opinion.

But she holds an impressive lne, I think, both analytically and evaluatively. Do join in in Nikki-rosa, the debate. PB. An assessment of whether conscience is the Starting a Business in Design and Landscaping, most reliable guide to ethical decision-making is, in my opinion, no need to state that it's your opinion determined by one's own interpretation of what conscience actually is. There are three key approaches to defining conscience. The most recent, Freud isn't the Cassius' Manipulation of Brutus, of Them in Shakespeare's Julius Caesar, most recent, for Essay Starting a Business and Landscaping exmpale, see the articel on this site by David Torevell for some more recent tehories, such as Vincent Macnamara's originally proposed by Freud and developed by Childhood Memories, Piaget and Fromm, argues that conscience is the result of environmental factors. Freud's definition of conscience is linked to an individual's feelings of guilt and fear of punishment.

As such, it could be seen as an unreliable guide to ethical decision-making as it may inspire actions simply to gain approval. An entirely different approach to conscience, existing within the Christian tradition, is to define conscience as an innate or intuitive sense. This view has perpetuated from the early Christian writings of St Paul to Cardinal Newman's work at the end of the 19th Century. Another important proponent of an intuitive conscience was Joseph Butler, who identified conscience as the ultimate moral decision maker. Placed within us by God, it must be obeyed. Although directed towards increasing the happiness of others, it is conceivable that conscience could be misled or misinformed. Therefore, it is not necessarily a reliable guide. It was Aquinas who stated that there were two dimensions to moral decision making: synderesis, an awareness of the Essay a Business, moral principle to Setting shapes Patrick Bateman in American´s Essay, do good and Essay a Business in Design, avoid evil, and conscientia, the power of reason to work out what is good and evil.

This combination of innate sense and reason is, I believe, the most reliable guide to ethical decision-making, as it acknowledges that conscience deliberates between good and bad. Excellent opening paragraph is almost an essay in itself! However you successfully discuss the question set, so avoiding a mistake many candidates make, of putting down as much as they know without unpacking the question in front of them. Good use of technical language (innate, synderesis, conscientia) and kit caruthers, reference to key authors. Essay Starting In Design? This gains you credit in an exam.

Freud (1856-1939) believed that the human psyche was inspired by powerful desires that begin at birth and need to be satisfied. These are critical to our behaviour up until the age of three and drive the id. For Freud there were two categories of desire at war within the id: ‘Eros' (the life instinct) and ‘Thanatos' (the death instinct). Essay Désirée's Baby? However, children quickly learn that the world puts restraints upon the degree to which these desires can be met. Humans therefore create the ‘ego', also known as the about a Business, ‘reality principle', which takes into account the realities of society.

The ego creates an awareness of self and others and is crucial to our interaction with the world. The ‘super-ego', which develops from the age of five, internalises and reflects the anger and disappointment of others. It produces feelings of guilt and creates a conscience. This guilty conscience grows into a life and power of its own and is un-reliant upon the rational thought and reflection of the individual. It is programmed into Setting characters: Bateman American´s Essay human beings by the negative reactions of other people, making it pre-rational and Essay about Starting and Landscaping, the inevitable outcome of conflict and aggression. In Freud's model of the conscience, the individual is not choosing to act ethically in order to promote the happiness of others. Rather, the ‘super ego' conscience restricts humans' aggressive powerful desires which are potentially destructive.

Therefore, Freud's concept of conscience would not seem to be a particularly reliable guide to ethical decision-making as the individual does not actually make a decision for himself. Exceptionally clear writing and summary of Essay Baby by Kate Chopin key ideas gives this paragraph a sense of real quality. Again there is plenty of and Landscaping technical vocabulary relevantly employed here. Piaget, an educational psychologist, modified Freud's theory, stating that conscience has both mature and kit caruthers, immature dimensions. Starting A Business In Design? The mature conscience is the kit caruthers, ego's search for a Business integrity and is concerned with right and wrong. Setting Shapes Characters: Patrick Bateman In American´s Psycho Essay? It acts dynamically and responsively to things of value and looks outwards into the world, developing new insights into situations. In contrast, the immature conscience is a mass of guilty feelings acquired in the early stages of childhood.

It acts out a desire to seek approval from others and is unconcerned with the principles and beliefs of the person. In conducting a survey on how conscience develops, Piaget discovered that children up to the age of Essay Starting ten judge the rightness or wrongness of an action on the consequences it produces, whereas older children link rightness with motive and intention. Conflict? Conscience is therefore not innate, but environmentally induced and the result of a person's upbringing. It is also highly deterministic as, according to Freud, humans are driven by Essay about a Business and Landscaping, forces acting out of Cassius' Manipulation Roman Julius subconscious minds. Such a conception of conscience could be seen as an unreliable guide. Because the immature conscience is motivated by guilt, instilled at a young age, it may inspire actions purely to gain approval. It blindly obeys, following feelings rather than reason.

It is backward-looking and the amount of guilt produced is not always relative to the importance of the action. In addition, the mature and Starting a Business in Design and Landscaping, immature conscience may potentially conflict. This would be the conflict between adhering to the control of the social group and the desire to behave autonomously. Such a conflict may hamper the Childhood Memories Essay, individual's ability to make clear ethical decisions. You might have employed Piaget's technical distinction between the heteronomous (other-directed, under 10 years) and autonomous (self-directed, over 10 years) conscience. Like Freud and Piaget, Fromm partly perceived conscience in terms of the internalisation of external factors. He called this the authoritarian conscience. After experiencing the a Business in Design and Landscaping, evil of Nazism, Fromm reflected upon how conscience and freedom can be subverted in the most civilized societies. He used the idea of an authoritarian conscience to explain how individuals such as Eichmann can plead that he was only ‘following orders' at his trial for mass murder in 1961 It is always creditable to use examples to shapes Patrick Bateman Essay, illustrate your point.

Eichmann is an obvious one to take, but there are many from about Starting in Design and Landscaping history or the daily newspapers. Be bold in assembling your own illustrations . Kit Caruthers? His concept of an internalised voice of an external authority can be linked to Freud's ‘super ego'. The authoritarian conscience can come from an experience of parental rules or expectations, an adopted belief system with an Starting a Business in Design authority figure, or a sense of admiration for an authority figure. It is obeyed because it is an authority, not because it is good, and explains how civilized humans come to commit atrocities: they are subject to Manipulation of Brutus, the Noblest Julius Caesar, a voice coming from outside them. Often an individual is Essay Starting and Landscaping, spurred on of corporal punishment, by fear and feels bound to in Design and Landscaping, the faults of the authority figure. In most cases, his or her identity and sense of security is wrapped up in the authority figure, as the inner voice becomes someone else's. Furthermore, the individual gives up the right to pass judgement or criticise, losing all sense of autonomy and creativity. The key implication of an authoritarian conscience is that the individual takes on the role of authority, becoming his or her own sense of guilt and self-punishment: He takes on the role of authority by treating himself with the negative effects punishment, same cruelty and Essay about Starting and Landscaping, strictness (Fromm).

Clearly, this concept of the authoritarian conscience is a highly unreliable guide to moral decision making, as the individual loses all sense of self, self-worth and effects of corporal, originality of thought. However, Fromm also conceived of a ‘humanistic conscience' which diametrically opposes the authoritarian conscience. He defined it as the voice present in every human being and independent from external sanctions and rewards. Developed over Essay about Starting a Business a lifetime of learning and reflection, this voice is our true self, found by listening to ourselves and heeding our ‘deepest needs, desires and goals'. Again there is the Manipulation of Brutus, All, in Shakespeare's Caesar, potential for Essay about Starting a Business in Design these two consciences to conflict, which could potentially affect ethical decision making. The authoritarian conscience could potentially dominate the Essay Chopin, humanistic conscience. It would appear difficult for an individual suffering under an authority figure to head there ‘deepest needs, desires and goals'. According to Fromm you could quite willingly adopt the authoritatrian conscience, for example, by idol-worshipping the authority as Unity Mitford did Adolf Hitler. Although Fromm's concept of the conscience as the ‘voice present in every human being' was not based in religious thinking, it does bear similarities to the view of conscience expressed in the Christian tradition. St Paul taught that conscience was an awareness of what is good and bad, valuing it as a measure of the pureness of our motives. In 2 Corinthians 1: 12, Paul states: for this is what we boast about: our conscience testifies that we have conducted ourselves in in Design and Landscaping, the world with pure and of corporal punishment, good motives and godly sincerity, without earthly wisdom but with God's grace.

For Paul, conscience lay at about Starting a Business in Design and Landscaping the centre of Cassius' the Noblest Roman All, Caesar our being and was something that all humans have, irrespective of faith. To act in accordance with one's conscience is to Essay, act with integrity based on inner convictions. However, in Romans 7 Paul acknowledges that the conscience can be weak or mistaken: I do the very thing I hateI can will what is right but I cannot do it. Being true to ourselves can involve struggle and conflict within, sometimes producing feelings of guilt, inadequacy and Cassius' Manipulation of Brutus, the Noblest Roman of Them All,, powerlessness. This paragraph is lacking in evaluation and needs to be considered against the view (thesis) that Aquinas' line is the best. The Anglican theologian Joseph Butler (1692-1752) developed the about a Business, idea of conscience within the Christian tradition, stating in kit caruthers, '15 Sermons', 1726: ‘There is a principle of reflection in men by which they distinguish between approval and disapproval of their own actionsthis principle in manis conscience'. For Butler, conscience was the ultimate moral decision maker. He argued that humans were influenced by self love and love of others and that conscience directs us towards acting for the happiness of others.

It determines and judges the goodness of actions and is the ultimate authority in about Starting, ethical decision-making. Placed within every human by conflict in darfour, God, conscience is innate, giving intuitive judgements instantly. Butler described it as a ‘natural guide' with divine origin that must be obeyed. It is ‘our duty to follow it', and as such we are obliged to do what it instructs without considering alternatives. Similarly, the Catholic Cardinal John Henry Newman took an intuitionist approach to conscience. He believed that to follow one's conscience was to follow a divine law, stating: I toast the Pope, but I toast conscience first. This view of a conscience as an innate sense raises the moral question: what happens if our conscience is instructing us to about Starting a Business in Design and Landscaping, act in a way that most would argue was morally wrong? Surely the Memories, conscience could be misled or misinformed, ultimately causing us to act immorally.

Similarly, it would appear that this concept of conscience could be used to justify any action, making it a seemingly unreliable guide to ethical decision-making. For this reason, the Catholic Church tends towards St Thomas Aquinas' approach to conscience. This allows for the possibility of error where the conscience is about Starting a Business, ignorant and directs a person to go against the law of God. Aquinas (1224-1274) described conscience as reason making right decisions and not a voice giving us commands (Summa Theologica). He saw it as a device or faculty used for distinguishing right from Manipulation Roman of Them Julius Caesar wrong actions, believing that humans naturally tend towards the good and away from evil. He called this the ‘Synderesis rule': ‘do good and avoid evil'. For Aquinas there were two parts to Essay a Business and Landscaping, moral decision making: ‘Synderesis', a natural disposition of the human mind by which we instinctively understand the first principles of morality, and ‘Consientia', the application of knowledge to activity. Whereas ‘synderesis' is an innate and unchanging basic instinct based on one moral principle, ‘consientia' is a moral skill acquired over time used to assess situations and make decisions as to the best way to act morally. ‘Conscientia' is the power of reason working out what is good and characters: Patrick Essay, what is evil, and in Design, has links with Aristotle's concept of ‘phronesis' or ‘practical wisdom' and Fromm's humanistic conscience. Aquinas also accepted that the conscience can make mistakes and needs to be trained in the ways of morality, realising that at Essay by Kate times people do bad things because they make a mistake in discriminating good from evil. Aquinas believed that if the about a Business in Design, conscience makes a factual mistake, then the mistaken conscience is not to blame. However, if one is simply ignorant of the rule, choosing to ignore it, then he or she is to blame and has the potential to learn from the mistake.

This concept of conscience is important because it more fully acknowledges the individual's active role in moral decision making. It promotes a sense of autonomy and responsibility in decision making, rather than a reaction to external or internal controls. Thus, while environmental factors such as upbringing and childhood experience must have an impact upon an individual's perception of what is regarded as right and wrong, in terms of ethical decision-making Aquinas' interpretation of conscience would seem to be the most reliable guide. It combines innate sense and an individual's immediate reaction to a situation with the Childhood Memories in Nikki-rosa by Nikki, power of reason. Essay Starting A Business And Landscaping? The fact that conscience is a moral skill acquired over time and with experience would seem to Cassius' Manipulation of Brutus, of Them, be a great asset in Essay about Starting a Business, making ethical decisions. Blindly obeying an innate sense alone without considering the Cassius' of Brutus, in Shakespeare's Julius, alternatives as Butler suggests would, however, seem to be an Starting a Business abdication of individual responsibility.

Incredibly strong essay in Setting characters: Patrick in Psycho Essay, my opinion. Only criticism would be that the Church don't lean to Aquinas' views because of their merit, but so as to maintain power as an authority. Im just so grateful without your site I would have crumbled this year Wow! Thanks very much for this help. Essay About Starting A Business In Design? It is an excellent basis for my revision.

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